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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE OI~ILY JPRS L/ 10685 26~ July 1982 U SS R ~e ort p _ POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 26/82) FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST IN~ORMATIQN SERVICE ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and boeks, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; ttiose from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the ir.for- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses ~were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parqnthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with tlle source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI.ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 F'OR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY JPRS L/10685 26 July 1982 USSR RE~ORT , POLITICAL AND SOCIOLO~ICAL AFFA;RS . (FOUO 26182) CONTENTS INTERNATIOK.AI. ~ Soviet Participation in Athena UNESCO Meeting on Racism Des~ribe3 (~ditorial Report) 1 Soviet Ethnographere Vieit Alaska ~Editorial Report) 1 NATIONAL Greater Role for Socioiogieta in Propaganda Work Seen� (Rh. N. Mondzhyan Interview; SLOVO LERTORA, Jun 82) 2 Interdiaciplinary Research on Soviet Working Claee Reported (S. R. Sokolov; VOPROSY ISTORYI` May 82) 5 Rulichenko Book's Advocacy of 'Flowering'~of Nationalities Praised (A. Abdullaqev; R01~41t1NI3T AZERBAYDZHANA, Feb 82) 11 Ethnic Dimenaion of Religion Streased in New Book - (E. V. Glushkova; OBSACAESTVENNYYE NAUItI V SSSR: SERIYA I, PROBLEMY NAUCHNOGO RO1~II~ITNIZMA, May-Jun 82) 14 Republic Newspapers Muet Fight Local Nationalism (I. L. Vartanov; OBSAC~3TVENNYYS NAUKI V SSSR: S~BRIYA I, PROBLEMY NAUCHIdOGO ~tOMM[JNIZMA, Y~tay-Jun 82 ) . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Publishing, Other Activities of 'Znaniye' Society (SLOVO LEKTORA~ Jun 82) 17 New Slide Series for USSR Jubilee Anncunced _ (G. Nagaqeva; SLOVO LERTORA~ Jun 82) 18 Formation of Public Opinion Studied bq Sociologq Inetitute ~Editorial Report) 20 - a - [III - USSR - 35 FOUO, F(1R nFFJ~'T~i, i1SF (1M,V . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGI~JNAL Improved Living Conditions in Uzbek Countryaide Deecribed ' (A. N. Vinogradov; OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI V SSSR; SERIYA I, PROBI.EMY NAUCHNOGO RO1rIIYIlTNIZMA, May-Jun 82) 21 Changing Family Size Patterne in Tajikistan ~Editorial Report) 26 - -b- FOR OFFICIAL USE GNI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY INTERNATIONAL SOVIET PARTICIPATION IN ATHENS UNFSCO MEETING ON RACISM DESCRIBED [Editorial Report] Moscow SOVLTSKAYA ETNOGRAFIYA in Russian No 3, May-June 1982, carries on pp 157-159 a 2000-word report titled "'The Athens Appeal' (Anthropologists Against Itacism)" by I. M. Zolotareva. The author reports on the participation of Soviet scholare at the UNESCO colloquim on racism held in Athens in March-April 1981. They ~oined in the appeal written by the confer- eace calling on all peoples to struggle againat racism in all its forma. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka",,"Sovetskaya etnografiya", 1982 SOVIET ETHNOGRAPHERS VISIT AL~SKA [Editorial Report] Moscow SOVETSRAYA ETNOGRAFIYA in Russian No 3, May-June 1982, carries on pp 113-119 a 5600-word article titled "The Visit o� Soviet Ethnographers to the U.S." by I.S. Gurvich and R. G. Lyapunova. The article reports on the visit of Soviet ethnographers to Alaska in September 1981 and provides details on their current research on the Alaskan a~origine population. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Sovetslcgya etnograf iya", 1982 CSO: 1800/871 1' FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NATI OIdAL GREATER ROLE FOR SOCIOLOGISTS IN,PRpPAGANDA ~IORK SEEN ~ Moscaw SLOVO LEKTORA in Russiaa No 6, Jua 82 pp 15-18 [Interview with Prof IQ1.N. Momdzhyan, chairman of the USSR Sociology Associa- tion, on sociologq's involvement in propagaada] jExcerpts] The question raiaed at the 26th CPSU Coagress con- cerning a reorgantzation of propaganda also fullq applies to the lecture process of the spread of scientific and political knawledge. This question concerns every lecturer aad every propaganda organizer. Hvwe~,ner, ia order to outline the patha of the reorganization it is obviouslq necessary to analyze the actual situations and circumstances influencing the efficacy of lecture activity in one way or the oth~=. In this connection we asked Prof IQi.N. Momdzhyan, doctor of philosophy, chairman of the USSA SocioZogy Association, leader of the CPSU Central Committee Academy of Social S~iences' Philosop~y? Department and chairman of the Scientific- Methods Council on Lectur'~ng Skill ~ttached to the A11-Union "Znaniye" Society Board, to ehare his thoughts and answer a number of questiona. . [Question] Do the society's organizations rely sufficiently on the results of sociological research to increase the qublity of the lectures? [Answer] In general, aociologica3. research is bsing conducted in maay regions. Sociologists are cited prestigiously. Although in certain cases the organ- ~ izers of propagand$ are not well dieposed taward research: the results may be other ttian expected; there are no~tmany who are willing to deprive thear- selves of the feeling of confidence that all is well and of succeas. But we should all recall I.~nin's worda: "Just what a:e these successes? Sav~e they be~n proven? Do we not have here fairy tales, boasting and dilettante pro- mi~es ('it is being tuned up," 'a plaa bas been drawn up,` 'we are activating forces,' 'we now guarantee,' 'vadoubted improvement' and other charlatan phrases of which 'we' are such maeters)7"* Our confidence should be based o,1 ~ *V.I. Lenin, Poln. sob r. soch. Complete Works], vol 37, p 90. 2 I++OR OFF7CUL U3E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY a fo~mdation of accurate, indiaputable canclueions. It is only possible to ~ udge the actual arate of affairs on the basis of scientific rrethods of - analqsie. Sociologists, of course, merely ascertain, recommeTid and provide information for tfie adoptian of decisions. Adopting the c'eci;;ions, however, is the duty of those wfio direct lecture propagaada in the ray~_m, oblast and so forth. But in auch cases, as Leontd I1'ich Brezhnev observed in his speech at the 17th USSR Trade Unians Congress, "not all...leadera dis~lay an aspira- assume their share c.f responsibtlity, so to apeak." The effectivenesa of lecture activity may be reliably gaged today by using sociological research. To take just one of the most pertinent Problems--a differentiated the audience. Procedural. recommendations here depend directly on a study of the thematic interests of the labor collectives in which the lectures are taeing presented. People's sufficientlq broad inter- est in a varietq of aubjects testifies to a wealth of :hefr intellectual re= quirements. At the same time the choice of sub~ects with regard for the re- quirements of certain social groups demands m~re serious study. No less important a problem is the construction of a lecture communiscation model. The lecturer is ob liged to take account of the audience's socio- psychological singularities in order to accomplish educational goals success- fully. In this connection it would be desirable to develop a co~unication model based on sociological and sociological-psychological research which would indicate characteristics influencing the lecturer'~j relations with the audience. Knowing these characteristics and their regularities, we can prepare with regard for them an optimum program of lecturere' instruction in propaganda skill. jQuestion] How do you evalua.te as a whole the methods and procedures of so ciological research the effectiveness of lecture propaganda? [Answer] To speak of the nature of the sociological research into lecture propaganda as a whole, in the majority of cas~es it is conducted as one-time sudience and lecturer polls. The method and procedure of the surveys amount to ascertaining the react ion of those polled to this question or the other, I concede~ that the information which is obtsined is sufficient for reveal- ing individual characteristics of the lecturing process. But the effective- ness of the research rises significantly if it is conducted in accordance with fuller programs and the method providing for periodic surveys of the basic "parameters" of propaganda influence on the audience. 7.'here is then an oppor- tunity to compare data and evaluate the efficacy of ineasures adopted Parlier. The study of lecture propaganda in accordance with fuller programs makes high- er demands on the research method. The creation emder the suspices of the All-Union "Znaniye" Society Board of a sociologq la:~oratory which would assume ~ the functions of consultant and coordinator of the sociological research con- ducted in accordance witfi assignments of republic boards of the society would be highly desirable. Furthermore, this laboratory could formulate standard methods of applied xesearch into lecture propaganda with which it would be possible to obtain information useful for various links--scientific-methods councils, reviewers and the 'VZr~aniye" Publishing House. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFRICIAL USE ONLY Now, it seems to me, it is neeessary to huild up sufficient sociological data in order to compreliead what messures are needed to strengthen the factors exerting a favorable influence on the structure and nature of the lectures and also on the audience's perception of tlieir coatent. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Znaniye", 1982 8 850 CSO: 1800/733 - 4 F'OR OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R040540080059-4 FOR ORF7CIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARQi ON SOVIET WOBKING CLASS RBPaRTED Moscow VOPRaSY ISTORII in Rusaian No 5, May 82 pp 138-141 [Article by S. K. Sokolov: "On Methods of Studyiag the Contemporary flistory of the Soviet Working Class"] [Text] In November 1981 a meeting of the problem group on studying the Soviet working clase of MGU's [Moscow.sState L'niversity's] history ~aculty with participation of editorial office repreaentatives of tlve ~ournal VOPROSY ISTORII discussed methods o~ research on the Soviet workiag class during the period of developed socialism. Instructora and associates of the MGU, some other WZ's, scientific institutions and journals, graduate students and students were present at the meeting. Main attention was devoted to a compreheasive analysis of all sides of life and activities of the Soviet society's leading class. Participating in t:ie eschange of views were hist~rians and ethnographers, sociologists and statisticians, archive workers, mathematicians and specialista ~n using electronic computers in historic~l research. A. I. Titov, deputy chief editor of the journal VOPROSY ISTORII, described the work being conducted by the ~ournal in the field of working class;hiatory. V. Z. Drobizhev, supervisor of the problem group, noted that an increasing number of hiatorians of the working class are now turning to the period of developed socialism in an att~mpt to underatand the experiences of resea"rch carried out by represeatatives of other social sciences. Hence, the range of questioas which must be discussed: hhe role and place of individual sciences in studyiag contemporary development of the working class. Its comprehensive research cannot be regarded as a mechanical combination of lcnowledge obtained by various sciences. A comprehensfve approach is, first of all, the development of unified methodological principles of research; secon9ly, mutual enriciffient of research methods and techniques; and thirdly, establishment of a common factual basis which will make ca~rying out comprehensive research of th~ working class possible. But in general the task conaista ia raising the scientific level of research toward which the scientists are being guided, f irst of all, by tile decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress. 5 FOR Oi~t+'ICIAL l~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 RUR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY Rer_ently the problem group completed its work on a collective monograph entitled "Mass Sources on the History of the Worlcing Calss During the Period of Developed Socialism." The use of these sources, which make the study of phenomena and pr~cesses from their mass side possible, V. Z. Drobizhev said, sets a great number of tasks before historians. First of all, it wi~l be necessary to develop adequate methods of their ar.alysis, which is i~possible without the use of mathematical methods and electi nic computers. Which methods and how to use thetn in research oa the history of the working class is not a simple question. Here it would be expedient to turn to experiences accumulated in applied statistical developments during analysis of sociai process dynamics. Secondly, the use of mass sources in research on the history of the working class, which involves application of mathematical methods and e?ectronic computers, required a different organization of work and is impossible without the establishment of a solid mass data base for repeated use. It is well known that work has begun on establishing a fund of machine- readable documents in our archives. This process is remarkable in itself. A historian of the Soviet society, including also of the working class, will ~ come across sources of this kind more often in the future. But perhaps there are already possibilities at present as regards the question of organizing and storing machine-readable data that crops up in the practice of a historian's research work in archives. The range of mass sources, V. Z. Drobizhev continued, includes data from mass investigations conducted by sociologists. Mass examinations are being used increasingly more often by ethnographers. Concrete social researcin is often practiced by state and public organizations. Modern computing equtpment and mathematical methods are being used on an increasingly wider scale in processing materials. Many problems, such as establishment of a data base or bank, are common for all sciences. But questions arise as to what extent all these materials, which have been collected by representatives of other sciences, can be regarded as a historic source, like the hi.story of the working class in the present instance, what are their advantages and what are the ahortcomings in this plan? A considerable place in the d~,scussion was occupied by the role and place of individual concrete sciences in the stu~y of the working class. Most speakers agreed that participation by these sciences in the solution of a , single complex problem does nut mean the loas by any of them of their - specific character in learning the patterns of developments of the Soviet working class. The purpose of ~ntegrating aciences is to give a complete picture of this process. In this connection, 0. I. Shkaratan (Ethnography Institute of the tiSSR Academy of Sciences) called for boldly removing the artif icial barriers between sciences, which appear most of all through the fault of researchers themselves. One of the most important directions of comprehensive research is the study of changes in thg working class's structure. This problem has drawn the attention of sociulogists, philosophers, historians and other social acientists for a long time. The recently held third all-union conference on changes in our society's social structure.was attended by representativea of various branches of science. The problem of studying changea in the social stru~cture, in the opinion of 0. I. Shkaratan, 6 FOR Oi~'FIC7AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 . F~OR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY ~ may be defined as a sub~ect of historic sociology and those engaged in the ' study of the Soviet working class as specialists precisely in the fizld of . this discipline. Historians.have been reconstructing the past in a plaa for _ studying mass processes as weLl as iudividual events in their particular, siagular manisfestation. But sociology t~as been assiating in forming typological images and in isolating types of socia],, political and cultural developmeat. E.V. Klopov (International Worlcers' Movement Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences) believes that research of mass phenomena and processes creates a sort of a background against which people operate. He is against the division, which still eacists.;in literature, of research into historical and statistical, historical and sociological, concrete historical and so forth. A. K. Sokolov (MGU), while agreeing with 0. I. Shk.aratan on the whole, has nevertheless noted that historical sociology does not indlude,all aspects being researched by historical sc~ence and therefore it is doubtful that historians, who tura to studying mass aspects of the wcrrking class's development, can be related to this f ield. Even in this instance the historians are engaged in analyziag the peculiarity of concrete historic manifestations of mass processes. The history of the working class remains the same even when it turns to methods of other s~iences. The speech by N. S. Poleshchuk (Ethnography Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences) on interrelation of historic and ethnographic methods of stc~dying the working class was welcomed with much iaterest. In her opinion, s~rengthening ties between sciences leads to the use of identical methods. Even though ethaography has been practiciag a method of direct observation for a long time, convergence with sociology has enabled it to rise to a level of mass interrogations--a more suitabie method for ethnographic~study of the working class. In cooperation with other institutions, the Ethnography Institute has conducted mass surveys of workers in the Urals, Krivoy Rog, Western Ukraine, the Baltic area, Central Asia, Georgia and also among national groups of workers in the Volga area. Survey programs provided for the study of contemporary family way of life, situation in production, ~rganization of leisure and so forth. Later, in close contact with sociologists, all data was processed by electronic computers. Participants in the investigations did not concern themselves with strictly historical problems but relied on existing developments, first of all, on literature devoted to changes in the working class's social structure, questions of social mobility and history of family relations. But it became ~vi~ent that in contemporary ethnic is impossible to make a decision without carresponding historic excursions. For example, the study of . everyday life is important for ethnographers as much as for sociologists and historians. It is precisely in everyday life that soci~l differences at the primary level are formed and felt more sharply. Questions related to metho~'.s of collecting and appraising the quality of materials, their processing and analyzing have occupied a primary place in the discussion. All speakers dwelt on this sub~ect in one way or another. 0. I. Shl~aratan noted that at present there is an especially pressing queation about representativeness of data from individual local investigations _ 7 t~OR OF'F[CIAL TJSL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 F'OR OFFICiAL USE ONLY and about the posaibility of obtaining a generalized picture of the wc~rking clasa's development on its basis. The regianal and national development peculiaritiea of its individual detachments are atill being insufficiently considered. A. K. Sokolov dwelt on the source atudy analysis of materials of sociological research which has a direct relation to the working class. As a rule, eociological research devoted to topical problems of aocial ~ development helps historiana in selecting subjects and provides a factual - base for their atudy. Research results as well as materials collected by sociologists are both of interest to hietorians. They make it possible to check the soundness of results and also may be used in solving tasks of strictly historic research on the basis of diviaing, procesaing and analyzing a fixed range of data. This appliea, for example, to people participating in important hietoric eventa, mass measures and so forth. But sociologicai materials are especially important in orgenizing resP~rch of a comparatively hiatoric nature. During the paet f ew years, acientific i~~stitutions have implemented large- scale reaearch programs aimed at studying the working class. Repeat tnveatigationa for the purpose of anaiyzing changes that occur are being conducted more of ten. This increasea the value of sociological research ae a hietorical source. The queation has come up on how to s~ore sociological reaearch materials. So far there are no centers where they could be concentrated and be accessible to the broad ecientific audience. It is well known that materials of sociological seaearch ar~d public opinion po11s have formed the basis of so-called machine-readable archives being established at major scientif ic reaearch centers abroad. In addition to information collected by sociologiets, other concrete social research data is supplied in a machine recorded form here. Materials, which have appeared in the process of historiana' work with maes sources and which have been prepared for electronic computer processing, are also stored here. ~A. K. Solcolov believes that eatablishment of such data centere, archives or banks would aimplify solution of many problems, including the use of such data in historical research. Some of our research centers and groupa have already accunulated enough material which is ready for electronic computer processing. For example, the problem group on studying the Soviet working clasa has materials on the 1918 profeasinnal census, the 1922 wh~te collar workers cenaus and information from personal records of workera of some industrial enterpriaes. Work is underway in procesaing materials of the etate machiaery census for 1918, the census of responaible trade union workere for 1920, biograprAes of workers-deputies and other maes sources. I. I. Danilenko (TeGANKh [Central State Archivee of the National Economy] of the USSR) described the ar~hive'e work in organizing atorage of machine- readable documents. He noted that the process of eatablishing such archives throughout the world praceeds in two directione. Accepted for atoring on the one hand are materials which exiat on machine carriera [maehinnyye noaiteli] in state institutians and on the other hand scientific research data to be processed by electronic computers. The TaGANKh's work in thia field is in the f irst direction. The main aource for repleniahing state archiveswtth machine-readable documente are the sectorial computer centere and data banke. The Main Archives Admiaistration of the USSR hae a computer 8 F'OR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY center in operation on the basis of which introduction of an automatic document informat~on and search system on the history of the Great October Socialist Rev~lution and also on architecture and urban development of Moscow and Leningrad is a1_ready being implemented. As regards the data that is being created in social sciences, I. I. Danilenko believes that sci~ntific researCh institutions, which have large computer centers, must initiate establislunents of such data banks. It is done in preclsely ~.:~is way abroad (for example, - the archives of international consortium of ac:.ial and political research , at Michigan Univetsity in the United States). V. N. Shkaratan note~3 that the data bank on socisi sciences cannot be established in a blank space. Sociologists are now attempting to establish a basis for such data banks: it is planned to publish research materials by Leningrad and Novosibirsk sociologists and some others by the next sociologist congress. Repeat investigations will be among such materials, which are especially valuable for historians. Practically all this research is connected with the working class. _ E. V. Klopov noted that it would be very useful to exchange data processing methods and experience during comprehensive study of the working class. He described how changing trends in the level of professional training and education were analyzed by comparing population census data and also how the use of more complex mathematical processing methods makes it possible to obtain additional information and trace differences among professional groups according to the 1eve1 of education. L. I. Borodkin (MGU) dwelt on the advantages derived from mathematical methods in work. These methods are simgle enough and universal and have proved themselves in research devoted to the working class. Unfortunately, _ among representatives of various sciences which are united by common tasks, there appears to be a methodical dissociation and lack of standard packets of programs for electronic computer data processing. There is a pressing question about raising the 1eve1 of technical support for research. Installation of terminal devices and other awciliary equipment in educational and scientific centers can play a great role in this scheme. The solution of purely technical tasks could have been simplified if there was a selection of standard programs and a corresponding technical base in establishing a system at the MGU's history faculty for processing data from questionnaires of delegates to soviet congresses. A. K. Sokolov believes that processing of questionnaires of delegates to soviet congresses will make it possible to trace changes in the composition of our country's highest organs of authority, participation by workers in administr.ation of the state, their social aspect, changes in certain group~ and individual destinies of people. Prospects for expanding the data bas~e, intended for studying participation of the working class in administrati~m of society and production, are practically unlimited. The methods demonstrated by E. V. Klopov are particularly efficient for processing this type of material. 9 FOR OFFlCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A good example of integrating method.s of various aciences, which was employed in studying the collective of the "Pa~izhakaya Kommuna" factory, was given - by I. S. Fanasova (MGU). In 1976 a group of sociologists from IMRD [Institute of International Workers Movement] of the USSR Academy of Sciences conducted an examination at factories and collected data on the life of workers. Historians are now using this material. As a result, changes in the composition of the production collective in a number of important parameters were compared (age changes, skill and professional training, education and cultural level of workers). The sociological data is being replenished by documents from the archives and materials from the factory newspaper KO1~AtUNAR. Content analysis has been used i~: an3lyzing the latter. For example, in studying socialist competition, the analysis of materials which was published under tne heading "Who Keeps One's Word and How," made it possibl~ to establish chat forms and extent of workers' participation in competition at the enterprises have experienced considerable changes compared with the ~ sixties. Instead of the formerly predominant individual forms of competition, competition by professionals is practiced more often. Increased specialization of production leads to increased role of production collectives (brigades, shops) in organizing and developing competition. 0. I. Shkaratan spoke about the universal character of inethods disseminated in various sciences. The cause analysis, for example, did not originate in sociology but has been widely disseminated in it. It is one of the most important trends of contemporary social science. It has not been ruled out that historians' methodical developments will also be widely disseminated in other disciplines in the future. In summing up discussion results, V. Z. Drobizhev stressed that the meeting has shown that there is a growing interest among representatives of various sciences in mutual contacts. It testifies that the outlines of a unified integrated approach by representatives of various social sciences are being marked 'in the study of contemporary working class, which will make it possible to promote development and solution of scientific problems. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda'~, "Voprosy istorii", 1982 9817 CSO: 1800/725 ~ 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL KULICHENKO BOOK'S ADVOCACY OF 'FLOWERING' OF NATIONALITIES PRAISED Baku KOI~II~iUNIST AZERBAYDZHA2iA in Russian No 2, Feb 82 pp 100-103 [Review by A. Abdullayev, candidate in philosophical sciences, docer~t of book ~ "Rastsvet i Sblizheniye Natsiy v SSSR" [The Flourishing and Coming Together of Nations in the USSR] by M. 1. Kulichenko, "Mysl'," Moscow, 1981, 444 pages] [Excerpts] Soviet social science has been fulfilling its lofty social function with honor, helping the party in stuay{~o ~T~ generalizing the new phenomena in the life of the Soviet people, in improving the scientific direction of the development of national and international processes, and also in the patrio- tic and international education of the workers and of the younger generation. M. I. Kulichenko's monograph which was published last year by the "Mysl"' Publishing House is an important contribution to this serious party and state matter. The author is a major specialist in the field of the Marxist-Leninist theory of nations and national relations. He is the suthor of numerous works on the problems of the development of national relations in the tJSSR. This mono- graph is a logical continuation and further development of these works. The author sees the chief task of his investigation in an attempt to penetrate into the essence of the processes of the flourishing and coming together of nations which are occurring under developed socialism. Its successful accom- plishment is ensured by the skillful application of Marxist-Leninist methodology, and a consistently class, party, internationalist, and creative approach by the suthor to the analysis and generalization of the complex contradictory processes of life. In writing the monograph, the author has used an .enorrnous amount of factual material which serves not as an illustration of well-known theoretical propositions, which, unfortunately, is frequently the case in the scholarly literature, but as argumentation for the theoretical propositions which are advanced, for the discovery of new facets, features, and phenomena, and for the development of practical recommendations. The author devotes much attention to his category and conceptual apparatus, and to a refinement of the content of such basic concepts for the given study as "national," "international," "the flourishing of nations," "coming together," "assimilation," "blending," and others. He favors an enrichment of the arsenal _ ~ ~11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 - FOR OFF[CdAL USE ONLY of ineans for scientific abstraction, but is against artificial terminology making and innovations which do not follow from the real needs for a further deepening of our knowledge of phenomena and, consequei~tly, lead only to confusion. (p 53) M. Kulichenko also turns to the age-old controversial issue of the characteristics of nations. The essence of his positf.on is that the author regards the nation in a system of historical?y generated and consolidated communities of people and through an elucidation of their historical place and role in social progress. The author takes ncte of an exaggeration by a number of investigators (N. D. Dzhandil'din, I. P. Tsameryan, M. S. Gzhunusov) of the role of the ethnic in the essence of a nation and supports the opinfon of Yu. V. Bromley and Yu. I. Semenov that the ethnic characteristic is only one of the parameters and, moreover, not the chief one in the essence of a nation. A nation is not an ethnic, but a social category. Not limiting himself to proving thP - primacy of the social over the ethnic, he discloses the threads of their untty. The author demonstrates the theoretical invalidity and the practical harm of both an exaggeration of the role of ethnic factors and an underestimation of their role. One of the central places in the work is occupied by a study of the methodo- logical an~ general theoretical problems of a further strengthening and develop- ment of a new social and international community--the Soviet people. A large amount of space is assigned in the monograph to the leading role of the CPSU in [he flourishing and coming together of the soc~alist nations, and to a generalization of the work experience of the party in the direction oE national and international processes. The chief inethodological principle which the author has placed at the basis of his examination of this question is the unity of theory and practice in the CPSU's activities. The development of national relations at the current stage is regarded as~a base for the en- richment of the CPSU's nationalities policy, while the party's policy is looked upon as a powerful accelerator of the flourishing and coming together of the Soviet nations and peoples. One of the important functions of the scientific direction and management of national relations is the international education of the workers whose role and importance is constantly growing under present conditions. This is connected with a large number of factors of an internal and external order and ~f a national and international character which~are thoroughly analyzed in the work. Touched upon here are such complex issues as the character of the manifestations of nationalism under developed socialism, and the reasons for their lasting so long in the absence of classes and strata whose ideology and social practice is nationalism. Of course, not all of the problems touched upon in the monograph have received a full treatment. The author's position on certain issues cannot be regarded 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500084059-4 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY as undebatable. Certain of his conclusions and propositions are in need of deepening and refineme~t. However, despite this, M. Kulichenko's monograph undoubtedly merits the close attention of specialists and will be useful to ideological workers and to a wide circle of readers interestsd in the problems of the development of national relations. COPYRIGHT: "Kommunist Azerbay~izhana", 1982 2~59 CSO: 1800/600 13 . I~OR OR[~[CIAL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500084059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL ETHNIC DIMIIdSION OF i~ELIGION STRESSED IN NEW BOOK Moscow OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI V SSSR: SERIYA I, PROBLEMY NAUCHIdOGO ROrIl~IUNIZMA in Russian No 3, May-Jun 82 (signed to press 27 Apr 82) pp 183-188 [Review by E.V. Glushkova of book "Ateisticheskoye voapitaniye trudyashchikhsya: na materialakh UDM ASSR" [Atheistic Education of the Worlcers: based on material from the Ud~rtskata ASSR] by G.I. Tronina, Izhevsk, Izdatel"stvo Udmurtiya, 1981, 135 pages] [Excerpts] In this book an attempt is made tc generalize experience from atheistic education of the workers on the basis of a acientif ic analyeis of sociolog~,cal studies of religious vestiges prevailing among part of the population of the Udmurt _ region. The first part of the book is devoted to a description of the present status of religiosity in various population groups in the Udmurt area and the specific nature of the growth of atheism. For the present-day Udmurt region "a process of pushing religiosity i.ito the background is chaYacteristic. For most of them religion is becoming an unimportant matter." (page 24) Several groups of Old Believ~ers, Old Believers without priests [bespopovtsy]. evangel;cal Christian Baptists and other sects opera~te in the Udm,irt region. Now they are loyal and call for love for their motherland and people. "Attempts by the church to adapt itself to present-day conditions do not mean that its ideology has ceased to be antiscientific, reactionary, antihusanist and incompatible with _ the interests of the building of comuunism" (page l lj . In his work with believers the atheist must take into account the apecif ic nature of their religious denomination. For evangeli~cal Baptists and f or Old Believers, dev~otion to ritual extends to the - perception of all life's processes~as God-ordained, and accordingly observance of this ritual is regarded as a unique meana of insuring "eternal bliss" in the next world and as a means of insuring success in worldly affairs. The author focuses closely on a description of the ethnographic elements of each religion practised in the Udmurt region, from Orthodox Christianity to Islam. The appearance of moderniet trends in all the religiona of the Udmurt area reflects the general crisis of the entire system of religious Weltanschauung and the attempt to adapt by any means possible to the *~ew reality. As an example of modernism _ in Islam an extract is cited in the book from a sermoa delivered in the Ka zan' mosque on 5 Nov~ember 1965: "Faithful ones! Allah willing, the day after tomor~ow, 14 FOR OFF[CIAL U~~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7 Nov~ember, will be the holiday of the Great October Socialist Revolution... which f ulf illed much of what waa f oreordaiaed in the Rpran" (page 6 5) . Or : "Let ua work ev~en better and more conscientfously, for our good work promQtes the flourishing of tne motherland, an3 that ~ons ~e are on the path of truth and are piously heediag the behests handed down by Allah." tpage 65~. The author notes that the impree~ion is frequently created in believ~era "that their mullah is almust a party member just because he has proposed that they do not come to the mosque the following Frida3 but rather work to gather in the harv~est" (page 68~. Evangelical Christian Baptists hav~e discarded the intercession of the priest between themselv~es and god. At the prayer meeting everyone siags, each person considers himself an active participant in dealings with god. An atm~sphere of ideological comminity has been established, aad this is alw~ays i~resaed on the believera. Propaganda of relfgious ideas takes place with the aid of technical means, in particular tape recordings of choirs, s~iritual hymas, sermons and lessona for children on the gospel atories. The second part of the book ie devoted to an analysis of the effectiveness of the system of atheistic education of the workers that has been set up in the republic. ` The party organi~ations of the Udmurt region give much attention to the problem of the comprehensive handling of communiat education of the workere and the organizational link between its atheistic wing and other avenu~s, primarily with the propaganda of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism. The author writes that in atheistic propaganda special consideration should be given to the fact that natioaalism aad religion are mutually supportive, which, if atheistic propaganda among small and large nations is unskillful, can produce "outbreaks" of nationalism, and, if there is ignoraace of or inadequate tactical attitudes taward national features, can result in an increase of religiosity among the population. As the author notes, cases of identif ication between national and religious traditions are encountered in practical atheistic work. COPYRIGHT: INLON AN SSSR, 1982 964 2 CSO: 1800/808 15 FOR OFF'[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL REPUBLIC ~:iWSPAPERS MUST FIGHT LOCAL NATIONALISM Mosccw? OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI V SSSR: SERIYA I, PRO;iLEMY NAUCHI~iO(~ KO1~iUNIZMA in Russian No 3, May-Jun 82 (signed to press 27 Apr 82,~ p 171 [Review by I.L. Vartanov of an article "Voprosy internatsional'�nogo vospitaniya v publitsistike" [Questions of Internationalist Educati~n in the PressJ in the book "Gorizonty publitsistiki: opyt i problemy" [Press Horizons; bcperience and Problems] an anthology compiled by V.K. Arkhipenko, edited by P.F. Alekseyev et al, Moscow, 1981, pp 188-193] [Text] Questiona of internationalist education in the press are raised~bp D. Tursunov. Socialist reality itself prompts the need for "advancing the themes of the fraternal friendship of the peoples as amang the most important in newspapera" (page 190~. This is the result of the fact that the friendship of the peoplea :s "a major factor in the vitality" of Soviet society. In the national Soviet republics it is essential to take two factors into account--the process of internationalization and the growth of national conaciousness, and, on the other hand, the distorted idea about the role and place of the national f actor in public life. While subjecting the latter to principled, consistent criti,c ism, the party publicist is obliged to educate the Sovtet person ia the spirit of "militant implacability toward an ideology and policy that is hostile to socialism... and the practical skill to evaluate all social phenomena from class poaitions" (page 193 j . COPYRIGHT: INION AN SSSR, 1982 964 2 CSO: 1800/806 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080059-4 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL PUBLISEING, OTHER ACTI'VITIES OP ~`ZNANIYE~ aOCIETY Moscow SIAnO LERTORA in Russian No 6, Jua 82 p 64 jText] The All-Union "Znaaiye"~Society will be 35 qears old in July 1982. Ia recent qears of its activity tfiere Fias been a considerable eapansion of the society's matetial-technical facilities. It is in charge of the Polytechni- cal Muse~n, the Central Lecture Buresu, the Central Polytechnical F~ibrary, the Moscow Planetarium, scientific-tecF?nical propaganda Genters iu I~bscaw, Leningrad, Kien, Penza, Yerevan, Tiraspol' and Chelyabinsk, scientific athetsm centers in Moscow, Dueilanbe, Tasiikent, Omsk and Bel'tsy, the Experi~mental- Testing Pactory of Visual Aids~ and Dem~nstration Apparatus, the "Znaniye" Publishing Iiouae and the journals NAURA I ZHIZN~ , T~ZADUNARODNAYA ZHIZN , NAURA I RELIGIYA and SLOVO LEKTORA. In additioa, 59 permanent lecture buresus and 33 planetarta operate and 8 journals in the following uaion reppblics: ZNANIYA-~1ARODU in tFie RSF~R, NAUKA T OBSHCHESTVO, CHELOVEK I MIR aad TRIBUNA LEKTORA in the Ukraintan SSR, NAUKA I ZHIZN~ in Lithuanta, NAUKA I ZHIZN' in Azerbaijan, GORIZONT in Estonia aad NAUKA I TEI~INIKA in Georgia are published within the "Zn~niqe" Society system. COPYRI(~iT: Izdatel'stv~o "Znaniye", 1982 8850 CSO: 1800/739 17 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500084059-4 FO?2 OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ NATIONAL NEW SLIDE SERIES FOR USSR JUBII.EE ANNOUNCED Moscaw SLOVO LEKTORA in Russian No 6, Jua 82 p 62 [Report by G. Nagayeva, editor of the "Plakat" Publishing Iiouse: "In a Single_: Family"] [Text] This July subscribers will recei~e the secaad issue of slides of the "Topical Questions of �CPSU Policy" series entitled "In a Single Pamilq" (author E.D. Tadevosyan, P'bscow, Plaltat, 24 sttllj~~ . The set of slides with explanatorp text is devoted to t6e 60th anniversary ~ of the formation of tfie USSR, th.e world's first unified union multinational worker-peasaat state. The first stills are devoted to V.I. Lenin, who comprehensively developed the question of nationality-state relations under the conditions of the dic- tatorship of tbe proletariat and wfio patd constant attention to specific ques- tions of the formacion oP a unified vaion multinational state. The content of a n~ber of the slides arill help the lecturer shaw haw in the courae of socialist building the CPS'U consistently provided for the accelerated progress of eacYt republic, which made it possible to surmo~t the actual inequality e~f the peoples anld ensure their emergence at the level of development of our countrq's advanced socialist nations and nationalitiea. The audiences will receive with intereat the stills with tables and diagrams on the caatinued increase in the material.and spiritual potential of the union republics and its maximum use ~or the development of the whole country - and on the fact that the USSR economy is a eingle highly developed national economic complex. The slides will help the lecturer show that interaationalization extends not only to the economy but also to tfie sociopolitical and spiritual apheres of social life. The lecturer will also find in the seriea visual material an the fact t6at the CPSU--the party of internationalists--is the guarantor of the unity, all-arouad development and rapprochement of all the USSR nations and nationalities. - 18 ~'O~ OFFiCIAL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 ' FOR OFF[CIAL U&E ONLY . The structural-logical diagrams wtll be of assistaace in the eapasition of aurh proble~s as t6e solution of the natianality question in the Soviet IInion sad tI~e internationalization of our aoc3,etp and wtll provide an idea of the ~tin character3atics of t~?e new Titatorical co~mity of people--the Soviet P~PU� COPYHIC~: I~datel'atvo "Znaniye", 198't 8850 CSO: 1800/738 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NATIONAL FORMATION OF PUBLIC OPINION STUDIED BY SOCIOLOGY INSTITUTE . [Editorial Report] Moscow NOVAYA SOVETSKAYA LITERATURA PO OBSHCHESTVENNYM NAUKAM. FILOSOFSKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 6, June 1982, carries on p 49 a 250- word description of a manuscript deposited at the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences titled "Means of Mass Information and the Formation of Public Opinion." Prepared at the Institute of Sociological Research, this collective work includes articles on methodo- logical problems in this area, the public demand for information, and the in- fluence of various typea of mass media on public opinion. COPYRIGHT: In4titute nauchnoy informatsii po obehchestvennya naukam AN SSSR,1982 CSO: 1800/862 . 20 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL IMPROVED LIVING COPIDITIONS IN UZBEK COUNTRYSIDE DESCRIBEI', Moscow OBSIiC~.STVENNYYE NAUKI V SSSR: SERIYA I, PROHLEMY tiAUCffidOGO KOI~lUNIZMA in Russian No 3, May-+Tun 82 (signed to preas 27 Apr 82) pp 114-120 [Review by A.N. Vinogradov of book "Usloviya roeta i sblizheniya urovaya zhiaii gorodskogo i ael'skogo naseleniya Uzbekistana" [Coaditions for the Rise in and the Rapprochement of Living Standards of the Urban and Rural Populations of Uzbekistan] edited by I.I. Iskanderov, Uzbek SSR A~cademy of Sciences Institute of Economics, Tashkent, Izdatel'atvo "Fan," 1981, 166 pages] [ Text] The book consiats of a foreword and five chapters. Chapter 1 is entitled "Ttie Development of Social Production--the Material Basis for the Rapprochement in the biviag Standarda of the Urban and Rural Populations." (A. Abduganiyev, N. Chumaaova) . During the period 1965-1978 the volume of the gross national product in the Uzbek SSR increased by a factor of 2.7, national income by a factor of 2.7, and f ixed productfon capital throughout the entire national economy by a factor of 3.8 (page llj. The proportion of the consumption fund in utilized national income for the UzSSR increased from 69�1 to 72.8 percent (73.7 percent for the entire USSR). Although the proportion of the accumulation fund was reduced, within it there was preferential growth rate far accumulation of nonproduction f ixed capital, which also resulted in an increase in the share of nonproduction accumulation from 3.5 percent in 1965 to 4.9 percent in 1975, About 90 percent of the consumption fund is assigned for personal conaumption. Growth rates for utilization of UzSSR national income are outstripping growth ratea for the consumption fund. Despite the alightly lower share of the consumption fund in the UzSSR compared with the USSR, its absolut~ si ae is growing at faster ~ rates. Of the total v~olume of growth in utilized national income, 75.9 percent went for conaumption, but the per capita level of consumptioa in the UzSSR remains considerably lower than the all-union average (64.3 percent in 1978). This is explained primarily by demographic factora, in particular the higher birth rate and the specific nature of the population's age structure, which are resulting in a greater familiy loading, aad also by the proportion of kolkhoz farmers among those engaged in the national, which is higher than for the USSR as a whole (pp 11-19). One prerequisite for the rise in and the rapprochement of the living standards of the urban and rural populations is the progressive shif ts in the atructure of social production. The accelerated development of the iadustrial sector of the 21 FOR OFFICiAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500480059-4 MOR OFF1C'1.4L USE ONLY national economy and the steady growtk of the state sector (in the UzSSR from 75.5 ~ percent in 1960 to 8 2 percent in 1980) is leading to a more rapid increase in national income, an increased level of employment in social prociuction and the systematic recruitment into industry of additional labor resources, especiall~~ from rural localities, and an increase in the proportion of employed persons with higher wages and in incomes in general. In the UzSSR the level of xeal incomeg for kolkhoz farmers relative to the real incomes of workers and employees calcalated per family member rose from 75 percent in 1965 to 87 percent in 1977 (pp 26-27). Chapter 2 is entitled "Creation of the Material-Technical Conditions for the Rise - in and Leve.ling of Living Standards for Urban and Rural Populations" (A. Ul'masov and I. Blinder). Development of the mater3al-technical for agri,culture is promoting improvement in the national well~eing and its rapprochement bet~aeen city and countrsyide through the growth in labor productivity and the rise in the cultural and technical level of agricultural workers. In the UzSSR an intensive process is underway to close the gap between industry and agriculture in terms of the capital-to-labor ratio and the electric power-to worker ratio, along with productivity and yield on capital. Thus, the relationship between indicators f or capital-to-labor ratio iz�industry and in agriculture changed from 3:1 in 1960 to 2.2:1 in 19 76 (page 54). In grain-growing farming the transfer to machine stages of production has been mainly completed; the eystem of machinery that has been set up covers almost all processea in cotton production, but the mechs:~ization of livestock farming still lags. Even though the electric power-to-worker raii~ in agriculture is growing more rapidly, at kolkhoaes it is almost 1.5 times lower than in sovkhozes, and about 30 times less than in industry. The authors note that such a large gap is hampering the transfer of agricultural labor to a variety of industrial labor. Virtually all kolkho~es and sovkhozes now have elec~tric power. Although the kolkhozes of the UzSSR are ahead of the sovkho ~es in terms of the degree of electric power capacities per 100 hectares of sown area, they lag in ter~ of the lev~el of the electric power-to-worker ratio. The number of inechanized cadres at rolkhozes and sovkhozes in the UzSSR grew from 125,100 in 1965 to 216,300 in 1978, while their proportion among all workers reach~c: 10.6 and 13 percent respectively. The number of specialiets with h igher and secondar�~ education engaged in agriculture in the UzSSR increased from 13,600 in 1960 to 76 ,100 in 19 77 (pp 56-57; . According to economists' calculations, comprehensive mechanization, the intenaification of agricultural production and the creation of agrarian-induatrial associations make it possible to increase the proportion of workera in industrial categories in agriculture from 16 to 55-60 percent, increase agricultural production by a factor of 2.6-2.8 (retaining for the UzSSR the role of the country's main cotton base), build up foodstuffs producti~n at preferential rates for demand within the republic and some exports to other regions of the country, and increase labor productivity by a i~ector of 2-2.5, with corresponding increases in the population's real incomea (p 58). Chapter 3 is entir?ed "Growth in Employment and Labor Productivity--the Most ' Important Factore in Increasing the Incomes of the Urban and Rural Populations" (F. Rasulev, U. Matruziyev and E. Takhtayev~. At the stage of mature soc3aliam the qualitative aspects of full employment of the ablefiodied population are moved 22 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY to the forefront; at this stage, incomea growth depends increasingly on the lev~el of labor productivity and the intensificati~on of the entire natiaaal economy rather than on increases in the number of workers. During the period 1960-1976 the number of workera ia the UzSSR national economy increased 78.9 percent with an av~erage atmual growth rate of 3.7 percent, while the cor~eesponding figures for money incomes were 319.4 and 9.4 percent respectively (page 62) . . The preferential growth in labor productivity compared to growth in wages is a general pattern in socialism, but the degree of this preferential rate is not the same at different periods or in different.regiona and republics. In regions where the living standard is relatively low, preferential growth rates �or wages may be permitted in the interests of equalization. In the UzSSR, durin~; the period 1960-1965 a 1-percent pay rise was equaled by a 1-percent improvement in labor productivity; in 1965-1970 the f igure was 1.13 percent. and in 1970-1976 it was 0.99 percent (the figures for-the whole of the USSR were 0.52 percent, 0.5 percent , and 0.61 percent reapectively~(page 66). During the period 1960-1976 in the UzSSR the average monthly wage for workers and employees increased 99.5 percent, wages f or kolkhoz farmers pex worker 213�7 percent, payments and bonusea from public consumption funds 416.2 percent, monry incomes 319.4 percent, and per capita real income by a factor of 2.13 (pagP 60j . The level of average y~riy wages for kolkhoz farmers relative to the level of average yearly wages f or industrial workers rose from 4 2.3 percent in 1960 to 79.7 percent in 1977;-at sovkho~es the corresponding f igures were 55.8 percent to 86.2 percent (page 80,. All condition~ now exist in agriculture in the UzSSR for preferential growth in labor productivity compared with wages growth. Wages at kolkhozes have already reached a level at which its further rise, given preferential growth in labor productiyity, will fully provide the necessary material conditions for reprouction of the labor force. Private subsidiary farming plays an important part in increasing employment and the incomes of the rural population, increasing gross agriculturaloutput and the country's food reserves, and in bringing the living atandards of urban and rural populations closer together. In the families of kolkhoz farmers in the UzSSR the proportion of income from private subisidary farming is more than one-third (the f igure is one-fourth for the USSR as a wholej. In the UzSSR the proportion of private subsidiary farming in agricultural output rose from 15.2 percent in 1965 to 19.5 percent in 1977� Private subsid3ary farming produces 3 7 percent of potatoes, 62 percent of fruit and berries, 47 percent of ineat, 62 percent of milk and 40 percent of eggs. In the UzSSR the main part of consumer demand f or livestock farming produce is satisf ied through private subsid3ary farming since livestock farming accounts only fc~r one-fourth of the total volume of kolkhoz and sovkhoz production (page 89). Chapter 4 is entitled "The Dev~elopment of the Material Base for the Services Sphere as a Factor in the Rapprochement Between Living Standar~s in the Urban and Rural Populations" (Z. Siradzhev, I. Vol'fson and R. Zhadiyev) . In the services aphere the role of state property (its proportion in f ixed capital rose from 50 percent in 1965 to 77 percent in 1975), and also cooperative and kolkho z property is playing 23 FOIt. OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a steadily increasing role (page 102). At the same time conditions have started to ripen for the integration of the various forms of property in this sphere. Chapter 5 is entitled "Rapprochement Between the Living Standards of the Urban grid Aural Populationa at the Present Stage" (I. Bliader, F. Rasulev, T. BarattlVsli T. Karimova, A. U1'uoasov, L. Rontsevaya, B. Babadzhanov and S. Mikhm~nov). The UzSSR remains below the average all-union lev~el in the degree of developmeat in social production (per capita voluma of national income in 1975 was 63 percent of the all-union level, net industrial output 45 pesceat; only net agri,cultural output was ali~htly higher than the all-union level), and in aocial labor p~roductivity (by 16 percent), and in living atandarda. The main rea.sons for this are: 1) the apecif ic nature of the demographic eituation~in the UzSSR; 2) the inadequate utilization of the able-bodied population; 3) the relativ~ely low level of labor productivity in agriculture, where newly created value per worker ie 5 percent less tnan for the country ae a whole; 4) inadequate dev~elopment of industry (pages 114-116) . The authora point out that under theae conditions, in the long term the rise in and equalization of the living atandarda in the urban and rural populations are inextricably linken with a subatantial increase in the growth rates for UzSSR economy on the following basis: maximum possible recruit~ent of the able bodied population into social production; optimal distribution of resourcea between the sectors of material production and the nonproduction spheres, taking into accctunt technical progresa; further development of cotton specialization in the UzSSR, along with the national economic cotton complex, which should be accompanied by the release of live labor from agriculture and its recruftment into agricul'tural sectors, eapecially industry [as published], improving labor conductivity on the basis of techaical progress. Zhe predominance of the kolkhoz peaeantry in the rural population of the UzSSR imparts apecial aignificance to the rapprochement between the two forma of socialist property during the courae of equaliziag the living atandards of the urban and rural populatione. Despite the leveling of familiy incomea, the per capita lev~el of incomea among kolkhoz farmera in the UzSSR lags by a factor of mors than 2 behind the corresponding indicator for induatrial workers; this is largely the result of the differences in tt~e age makeup of the family between urban and rural inhabitanta. In the UzSSR there are 316 persona per 100 familiea of induetr3al workers, of whi,ch 60 perceat are able bodied f~r work; the correspondiag f igures for kolkhoz farmera are 694 peraons and 42.5 percent (page 121). The numberc of peneionera is 1.6 times greater among kolkhoz farmera than among workers and employees. Given thie a ituatioa,: a 9ignif icant role in equaliziag the economic conditions of the different aocial groupe and urban and rural dwellera attachea to raiaiag the level of utilization of pub lic coneumption funds to provide for those unable to work. Giv~en the general trend toward rapprochement between the level and atructure of demand among the urban and rural populations, in the ephere of satie~ying the demande of rural dwellera many complex problems remain. According to f igures isaued in 1978 on t~hree kolkozea in the UzSSR that were the aub~ect of a sociologircal _ atudy (387 pollees) 84.65 percent were satiaifed with the mater3al eituation and ~ 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2.38 percent were dissatisfied; the figurea for ~he operatioa of the club were 19.31 perceat and 46.29 ~percent respectiv~ely, for aupplies of foodstuffe 44.7 percent amd 20.1 percent, for industrial goods 33.06 aad 30.42 percent, for housing conditiona 51.58 and 15.34, for educational facilities 32�80 and 30.95 percent . Some 82. 53 percent of pollees were conf ideat that their own plans f or life could be realized aad 1.32 perceat were uasure (page 65) . COPYRIG~ : INION AN SSSB, 1982 964 2 CSO : 1800/811 ~ 25 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY REGIONAL CHANGING FAMILY SIZE PATTERNS IN TAJIRISTAN [Editorial Report] Moscow SOVETSKAYA ETNOGRAFIYA in Rusaian No 3, May-June 1982, carries on pp 13-26 an 8,000-word article titled "The Structure of the Present- Day Urban Ta~ik Family (Material from Ura-Tyube and Isfara Citi,ea".by:L.~F. Monogarova. This article examines the forma and structure of the urban Ta~ik family in Tajikistan's oldest cities--Ura-Tyube and Iafara. Monogarova concludes that the nuclear family is now the dominant type among urban Ta~iks but that the so-called "undivided" family, the final development stage of the big patriarchal family, continuea to be important in the old quarters a~ these cities. In the modern quarters, families of the latter type are unknawn; but Monogarava stresses that both types of familiea are part of aocialiat society. The article contains a wealth of statistical data. ~ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Sovetskaya etnografiya",. 1982 CSO: 1800/869 END 26 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080059-4