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August 12, 1975
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~i iir>r,v 8/12/75 Approved For Release # Kissinger Offers a 'Plan tc Let Poor Nations Benefit Through a Joint Body By LESLEY OELSNER Sueclal to The New York Times MONTREAL, Aug. 11-Secre. tary of State Kissinger today offered the developing nations a compromise United States po- sition on deep-sea mining in an effort to remove a major obsta- cle in negotiations over a new law of the sea. The proposal was one of sev- eral conciliatory gestures to other nations, mostly to devel- oping or so-called third world nations, in a speech at the meeting here of the American gar Association. The compromise would per- rhit mining of the deep seabeds both by indvidual nations and their companies and by a new, international organization that: would mine primarily for the benefit of developing nations,; with assistance from the more': developed. The developing na- tions have said that only. the: projected new organization; should be permitted to extract the 'mineral resources that lie beneath the seabeds; the United States, until now, has said that SDch mining should be done by the individual nations and their citizens. 'Mr. Kissinger said that the United States would press for final action on. this and other issues when the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea resumes in New York next year. He called the conference "one of the most comprehen- sive and critical negotiations in history" and warned: "The, breakdown of the current ne-' gotiation, a failure to reach a legal consensus, will lead to un- restrained military and com- mercial rivalry and mounting political turmoil." Review of U.S. Policies The other 'conciliatory, ges- tures in his speech-a review of United States priorities and policies in international law- 1 included the -following: cThe United States is pre- pared to "make a major effort" in drawing up "an agreed state- ment of basic principles" to guide the actions of multina- tional companies, and invites' "the participation of all inter- ested parties." IlThe Administration opposes unilateral .action,- in the form of bills pending before Congress, to establish fz 200-mile fishing zone off United .States coasts. It will make some "interim" ar- rangements with other coun- tries, IYIr. Kissinger said, but it favors a,?olutipn worked out at the Law of the Sea Conference. f tecognizing ' that there should be "full consultation! 'an)ong the nations directly con- cerned" with certain American spice activities, the United States "stands ready to engage in a 'cooper'ative search for agreed international ground rules for these activities." Specifically, Secretary Kis- singer mentioned "earth-sensing satelites" that are used to gath- er environmental information and broadcasting' satellites by wljich nations may some day be able to relay broadcasts di- re~tly into other countries. ,,Curb on Terrorism Urged Speaking in the huge Place des Arts hall here before thou- sands of judges, lawyers and members of their families, Mr. Kissinger reiterated his call for new restraints by the United Nations to combat terrorism, such as sanctions against na- tigns that harbor aircraft hi- jackers and terrorists. Earlier prpposals on this subject have not had much effect because theY have been viewed primar- ily as anti-Arab, yr. Kissinger also described United States goals .for reform of the law of war, particularly "greater protection" for civili- ans and for prisoners of war, the missing in action and the wounded, and "application of international standards of hu- mane conduct in civil wars." Though Mr. Kissinger's pro osal on, deep-sea mining re )resented, a. compromise, the 7{Iited States was offering a plan that still gives it what it. wants: the right of its com- panies to mine the seas. The law of the Sea Confer- ence, which opened in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1974, and con- tinued in Geneva this year, had it$ origin in a United States mandate in 1970. It involves many aspects of regulating the oceans, from ecology to ques- tions of territorial waters. Two, especially controversial aspects have been deep-sea mining and fishing rights. `Common Heritage of Man' The 1970 resolution specified that the resources in the deep seas were the "common herit- age of mankind." According to Richard T. Scully of the State Department office dealing with the sea law negotiations, all sides contemplated the forma- tion of some kind of interna- tional organization to assume responsibility. " However, the developing na- tions have conended that the phrase used in the United Na- ?tions resolution meant that such at organization should do the mining for the benefit of the various nations. The United States contended that "common heritage" referred to the bene- fits of the seas, that all peopls h uld have access to seabed in ,ing and that thejrganiza- Approved For Release t>/1~/$2 g500697R000400100001 minis ra rye or a standards and to funnel funds m companies' profits to the ,10N SEABED MINN Approv I W23JJWI R. F .j QdfflfZ 400100001- It's anyone guess whether the 144 well as ,coondlutammininJ mining operations on governments participating in the long- its own, using the profits and its royal- running, peripatetic United Nations ties to aid development of poor coun- Law of the Sea Conference. will even- tries. Mr., Kissinger made it clear, tually lash together a global treaty re- however, that the United States would gulating the use and exploitation of the demand that industrialized nations have seas acceptable to the world at large. a strong voice inmining policy and that But a draft charter was produced at the private and state corporations be guar- Conference's last session, held this year anteed a principal part in exploiting in Geneva. It remains to be seen wheth- ocean mineral resources. er Secretary of State Kissinger has de- Moreover, he said, the compromise vised a formula that will assure the would be acceptable, to the Ford Ad- Conference's success. ' ministration only as an element in an A major impediment-though not the overall treaty fixing the territorial-wa- only one-to an' international-sea-law ters limit at 12 miles and establishing agreement is the insistence of Third a 200-mile "economic zone" in which World countries upon creation of an in- coastal states would control fishing, and ternational seabed authority empow- mineral resources, but freedom of navi- ered to determine who should mine the gation would be vouchsafed. oceans' riches and where. Washington Mr. Kissinger was undoubtedly cor- has been among the most adamant ob- rect when he warned that "unres- jectors to any such scheme. trained military and commercial rivalry But Mr. Kissinger suggested a com- and mounting political turmoil" would promise of the issue in his address to be the price of failure to achieve a the American Bar Association meeting "legal consensus" on the seas. The sea in Montreal. He urged that a world or- overflows with wealth and powerful in- ganization be set. up to allot mining dustrial entities are itching to get at it. ~Ap PcB l 3f~ n~~ ~ : ~ f~i_}i t f" ;"60 -4 areas outside national jurisdictions, as r wou a oo 's o reuse. Approved For Release 2002/03/22 : CIA-RDP82SO0697R000400100001-4 State Hospitals .n Connecticut Face Protest by Doctors HARTFORD, Aug., 26 (AP)- actors, including psychiatrists, t four state mental hospitals Mn cutting back their work ,eek today, refusing to work ore than 35 hours and giving riority to medical rather than ministrative duties. The action followed rejection the physicians yesterday of $4.500 annual raise. - Fifty-two psychiatrists and other doctors at the four in- itutions. are demanding raises $8,000 to $10,000 annually. Mental Health. Commissioner nest shepherd said 47 resi- nt psychiatrists who were ill in training were not af- cted by the Job action be- use their training required nger hours. If the job action continues. or a period of time, it's going be difficult for 35 hours a eek to meet necessary medi- tl coverage," Commissioner rrepherd said. "After a period time people would have to ay longer. Treatment will ave to be limited or dropped." Gov. Ella T. Grasso said at news conference today that our concern is that the work oes on" al; the hospitals. She said $4,500 a year seems to be a pretty good ,gure" and the administration 'fight implement 'it even if the, actors did not agree. If that happens, doctors will-I 'rg to work 45 hours a week could get the raise. Those hold- ag to 35 hours, the standard 'ork week for state employes could not. Commissioner Shepherd said l actors worked an average of! 5 hours a week in mental in-I titutions but many spend ul a 70 hours on the job. Strong Quake in Chile SANTIAGO, Chile, Aug. 26 JPI) - A strong earthquake took northern Chile and authern Peru late yesterday, to police reported today.. No juries or damage were re- i .News Summary and Index WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 27, 1975 The Major Events of the Day, International The United States seems destined to emergefror negotiations for an Egyptian- Israeli accord as the major outside power in the Middle East and deeply involved in the affairs of the area, in the view' of Arab, Israeli and American officials. Some of Sec- retary of State Kissinger's aides are wonder- ing if the, United States may not be getting too involved. Most officials feel the process has been started and will be difficulty to stop. [Page 1, Columns 2-3.1 Secretary of State Kissinger is expected to take a more conciliatory stand toward de- mands from the developing nations for a greater share of the world's wealth when he addresses the United Nations General Assem- bly at a special session next v/eek.'The draft of his speech is said to include concrete proposals .for a world food reserve system, more credits and lowered. tariffs to promote industrialization, aid to increase farm output, financing of trade deficits and new interna- tional facilities to guide such activities. [1:1.] Talks at Victoria Falls between Rhodesia's white-minority Government and black na. tionalist leaders broke down with each side blaming the other. The latest attempt to negotiate a step toward majority rule failed despite major efforts by Prime Minister John Vorster of South Africa and President Kenneth D. Kaunda of Zambia to keep the two --- ,. TR:.+:..fn.. -_ n Smith would he w Africa the A Mat] The `lie m ..i -ur r'^;oi1 ::cone ;napac merce U"IrYll year Pre rrrSic over the longshoremen's boycott agains grain shipments. to the Soviet Union. As M Meany left the White House he said th unions had received additional informatio but that the situation had not changed. Di,, cussions, he said, would continue:-[1:1.1 . The obstetrics and gynecology advisor committee of the Food and Drug, Adminir tration has recommended that women ow 40 be urged.to discontinue using birth cot trol, pills because for that age group the ris of death from heart attack is four times great as for nonusers. An F.D.A. bulleti mailed to physicians recommended the shi to alternate birth control methods on tl basis of two British studies. [1:2-3.1 The Postal Rate Commission has overrulE the recommendation of an administrath law judge that. first-class rates be lowerec Instead, it opened the way to raise lette rates to 13 cents from 10 cents, according.t informed Administration sources. [1:6-7.1 Metropolitan 'Governor Carey moved to set, up a_stal board of overseers for the city's fiscal affair and to appropriate $1-billion of state fun( to help the city avert default. The boas would receive the entire $7-billion to $ billion in revenues to the city from tax and state and Federal aid that it now, ge directly, and would insure that revenues Approved For Release 2002/03/22 : CIA-RDP82SO0697R000400100001-4 + ..c 7,- The 200 Mile Limit, ApproSFed FderRodeaft2M2/ i/ QSCflgo(QF 2fiQO ! QQQ4QQi1QQQ 1 Committee recently .approved a bill tober. that will prohibit fishing by foreign '--Adm. James Holloway, Chief of . fleets within 200 miles of the coasts Naval Operations, testified that the of the U.S., and approval by the full proposed bill'might result in U.S. Senate is expected shortly: ? One warships and possibly merchant measure of its popularity can be ships being denied -access to the seen in the 2-to-1 margin by which Mediterranean and other important the House passed a similar bill last waterways. month. Congress is unimpressed with There is the usual mixture of po- assurances that the Law of the Sea litical expediency and economic ad- Conference is almost certain soon to vantage behind the congressional include a 200-mile economic. zone enthusiasm; some arguments are treaty with the kinds of protection it o,'a a par with those warnings a few wants. And, proponents of the bills years ago that foreign "sweat ' are probably right that such a shops" were destroying the Ameri- treaty is more a hope than a cer- can textile industry. And there is an tainty. But the most reasonable and element of national muscle. flexing effective safeguards, in our view, in inferences that we should pass can be assured through bilateral the bill and leave it to the Coast agreements between interested na- Guard, or Navy if need be, to deal tions. The State Department ig- with any foreign fleets foolish nored the problem. of fish depletion enough to transgress. for much too long, but current bilat- Congressmen who favor the bill eral agreements with Russia, Japan generally seem convinced that it is and other nations seem adequate to necessary for protecting the U.S. protect principal fish stocks. If not, fishing industry and for preventing they should be renegotiated so that the depletion of dwindling fish they do provide adequate protec. stocks. Nevertheless, there are bet- tion. ter ways to accomplish these desir- Legal. scholars are agreed that able ends. tl such unilateral action being planned The State Department, which is by Congress would violate interna- lobbying against the extension, is tional law. And since international .concerned by the fact that 15 na- law has taken such a 'drubbing in tions already have claimed a 200- recent years, we don't wonder that mile limit. For the U.S. to do so, it Congress does not feel any overrid- feels, would invite a stampede of ing urge to genuflect before it. Yet other nations to follow suit. And it it is important for the U.S. to avoid could lead some to claim not, just being a party to any such violations, fishing rights but sovereignty far in part as an example to those who out into the oceans. Mexico, for ex- do mock it, but more importantly in ApM'ikSi~'~t ~0 0 ~ f5 ~a`flef* I eCl -gale 0 ions.