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December 9, 2016
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February 23, 2001
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January 24, 1977
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fV `i ~ sb i~+`17 ichardsolra ~ x~ec~ed '?`~'" fl?S.'~~r~01 On Law ?f the Sea~Treaty By KATHLEEN TELTSCH 9peclal to The Ne~V Yark Times UNITED NATIONS, N.Y., Jan. 24-Elli- ot L. Richardson; who has held four Cabi- net positions in Republican. .administra- tions, :has been c~hJAos~een by PresidentgC~arpt~- ~~~~~eR~+i6n~~~~~h~l~l:C~A i Conference. The selection of Mr. Richardson, .ac- nnrrlinn to nffirial White T~Lrtn eP ennrr,Pc wiil be announced imminently. Learson, a former chairman of the board .The appointment is certain to be seen of International BusinessMachines.- rEf~?q~~g merican delega- ~~r~~dthit~iStr~t~~f1'~ 7O gTo~ one ~~ine"~mat~er of ilis~pute last Law of the Sea negotiations that -are to year when the second-ranking member, produce a comprehensive international John Norton Moore, resigned and later treaty covering all uses of the oceans- charged the Ford Administration with shipping sand navigation, fishing and min- giving inadequate attention to the treaty. ing of seabed minerals. As early as last fall it was known that the newly elected Derrlocratic Administra- tion had begun an in-depth review of American policies that had brought th?e United .States into a Hardening ?conflict with less-,developed countries on the issue of sharin seabed resources. /03/1~an~t~B~0697 0004001 0 01-1 It also ?had been expected that there wpuld be a changC in `the' negotiating taam }'Flat 'haR IY.PPTI haarlPri by T Vinr.Pnt A rov P Rel~ pp ~~~~~1~4-R~~ At U.N. Spa Conference Sr~ecia] to The Wushis,~~ton Post UNITED NATIONS; .May 7 -.Intensive U.S. lobbying in Third World capitals and arm-twisting` by American dele~ates:in U.N. corridors won major victories in the U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea that ended here 1;oday. Overcoming objections of 'T'hird World nations, the [lnited States won agree- inert for a fifth session of t:he conference in New Yorke du]?iug August -and Septem- ~bcr _ ?' ':Cl~ie United States also won a.major-victory in the revision of. sea law treaty ar= tides dealing with the ex- ploitation of nodules on the beep seabed which contains an estimated. $3 trillion worth of `nickel, copper,' co- halt and manganese: The U,S: lobbied for a suminer session because it is ]finder pressure by Congress and the mineral interests` to resolve the many other out- standing issues in revision of the tr.~aty. Tlie mineral interests want to speed the declaration of a 2U0-mile fishing limit off ~ the U.S. coasts, now set for next March, so deep sea mining can begin .while American technology-still has a lead. `Che ne~v treaty text, which is still informal and will be discussed further at the summer session-, guaran- tees American corporations access to the deep sea min- eral wealth, and a fair share of the profits. It says that the international authority to be set up to regulate deep- sea reining shah grant con- cessi~nls to corporations, as well as entering into ,joint ventuyes to mine the miner- als itself. This was among .many American proposals, set fortll~by Secretary of State: Tlenry A. Kissinger in an April 8 speech, that were in- corparated virtually .intact into the revised text. The "group of 7T-com- posed of over l00 Tliird World nations-decided- this morning. to withhold .its ap- proval of this portion of.'the revised- text. Many of its ,members feel that.. the. new version favors corporate in- terests without providing as- surances that substantial revenue "would accrue- 'to poorer nations. l;ecause of their"fears of being railroad into~a quick and .unfavorable treaty,.. a number of the more radical Third World countries sought to postpone the_ncxt coilferenc,a session until next January. Another ? interesE group that felt' outmahr;uvereri by the text revisions was the olio made up of the 51 coun- tries that are landlocked or have limited coastal zones. They protested the not. dominate Law of -the; Sea .policy'. at ahe expense of other :;U.S: ;iriteres'ts. No; Professor Knight's "appalling" U.S. "concessions" on deep :seabed; mining would not `injure U.5. interests. ` .and had ,the approval of .responsible.: representatives of the U.5. daep sea- ]bed mining. companies, who are ecru= ` " ing as active advisers to the U.S. ,delegation to the; L.O.S. Conference. 'No, the U.S. has not acquiesced 7n - production. and price controls for deep seabed minerals: No, it is not clear that U.S.. granting of_.leases'.for deep- seabed `m~nin$ an specific sites -1,00Q milts ; from oua~ PAY Warner On the contrary, Ambassador Lear- son's able U;S. delegation should can- tinue to press for a comprehensive and widely. accepted Law of the` Sea treaty. Ii ?thls can be achieved; peace- ' ofyan assumed U;S: ?"right" to conduct of ocean resources, and- protection of. oceanographic research' an, other, ocean environment, are'hetter served; states' continental she+lve"s ?'vrithowt as' well "as ocher vital U.S. interests.. their consent. And an important step. toward world Nor doss Professor Knight's pro- order will have been taken. pospecd policy of backing these and SAMUEL R. LEVERINf, Approve~'r?~r`~`~ "mi hts'dx~~~~1~'~ :~IA~Fi~R~3h2~t0~~~F~p19QA~4001 commend itself as the preferred way- .Advisory Committee 'to the U.S. Law to further U.S.- interests. of -the Sea delegation. , 0001-1 J Approved For Release 2001/03/17 :CIA-RDP82S00697R000400130001-1 7'HE N;;'W YORK. TIME'S, SATURDAY, MAY ~, 1976 I jl I.I.N. TaI~~ ~e~ing a , .Ace?~?d ~'I~se it>~ .~"iff~re~ccs U~~es~I~~d By KATHLEEN TELTSCH meeting the coalition members' i demands. Tate also cteplorecl s?kl''t"Th?`E"'Y?rkt?im~, '. what he described as the grow- UNI'TED NATIONS, N.Y., ing trend among coastal coon- ~jE6Y YQR,K TIbIES May 7-Fight weeks of ne- dries to extend their national $ 41AY X976 gotiations for, a treaty covering jurisdictions. the -uses of the oceans and U. S. Pushing for Accord mining of deep seabed minerals President Ford recently closed today with ample signed into law legislation ex- evidence that basic disputes( tending United States fisheries +remained unsettled. Representatives of 147 coun- tries participating in the United, Nations Law of the Sea Con-~ ference agreed today to hold is seven-wee'k session in New York beginning Aug. 2, in a }urtsdtctlon to 200 miles as of next March 1. Chile, Ecuador and Peru, among others, have long maintained such offshore limits. The United States, in an ef- fort to prod the conference toward agreement, has also 'further effort to complete work Ij explore and mina the seabed ~ begun in 1973, l unless a treaty agreement is The pact the conferees havel~~reached soon. - been working on wo-old cover~i The warning was given last shipping, fisheries, scientific re-i month by Secretary of Stag search, pollutiatt and sharing? Henry A. I{issinger when h~. ~of the resources of the seabed. i offered a series. of new pro-~ 'The clash of interests that posals and announced that he would lead the American dele- (has marked the current closed, i gatior. to the next negotiating eight-week session eras re- round. fleeted again's meet-~ It was unclear today k~aw the current, largely inconclusive tog' ~ ~ session would affect the cam- Alen Beesley of Canada said ~ ; paign of .American prix-zt? ;the major unresolved issue was ~+ interests that are serkinn the deadlock between 'the 100 coastal countries, on the one side, and on the other a coali- tion of nations that are }and- locked or have inadequate Federal legislation in Congr.~ss to issue sea-mining licenses before a treaty is completed. Revised texts of a draft ,treaty wece produced today, coasts. The .coalition membersi ~ tentative documents, a basi,> are demanding guaranteed ac-1'for future negotiatiors. cess to the sea and a share in i Conference participants-were offshore resources and- fish- reluctant to offer irrmediate arias. appraisals of the complex, ~IGO- Mr. Beesley said the impasse article text. Hav.-ever, the must be given priority atten-i Lnited States and other teY:^- tion at the next negotiating!jnologically advanced countries ioound. ,were expected to see si;;nifi? 1 Karl Wolf of Austria, a~ cant gains in provisions cwer- spokesman for the coalition, ing an international authority protested in -a, statement that I ;that is to negotiate r+ining of 'no noticeable progress" had' seabed minerals. been made at this session in idEiY YORK TIb'IES 10 blay 1916 j~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ I:~iJ~ BY 17 COUNTRIES kmnesty Unit Lists 67 Whc~ '13isappczreti' nr Al?eTailed for Pali#ical Reasons I By BERPIARD ~YEII4RAU8 F, eels] t~o Thn Neva York :Imes LONDON, May 9--1i list of G7 ,journalists ~.vha havt~ bcctt do-~ tame : ~~,r political reasorv or have "di::.tnpcared" in I7 cnztn- irlrs was?issued today by Am- nasty: International, a BritSsh- based human rights organiza- tion. The list, one of the mast comprehensive sa far to deal with imprisoned journalists, in- cludes men and women who stave allegedly been subjected to torture or "d^?rading treat- mrnt." 1 he countries named arc Bangl.~ucsh, Brar~.l, Chile, Cuha, India, Inc!onesia, South I{orea, the Phitin*tin^s, 5in^a- jtorc, South Africa, Taiwan, Tanzania, 7 hai(and, Turkcv, the Soviet Union, Uruguay and 1'u- goslavia. Officials of Amnesty Intcrna- `ional said ih;tt pubicration of the list had been timed to coin- Bide with fhr aprnin~ io;-~or- rn"N f7f th>r ..'.111t ljracr;ll 9~~- ':71- b!y of lhc: lntcrnat.a~lli I'rr,ss institute in i"'hila:teip: ia. The ~ss~e~ ~n ?c~ara. ~ar~l~~ The fourth session of the Third Conference en the Law of .the Sea, which ended inconclusively yesterday, was the latest in a series of .attempts by the United Nations to frame new rules for activities thmuf;hout the world's oceans and to spur interrationat maritime coop- eration that lsegan almost three decades ago. PARTICIPANTS-All members of the United Nations and I2 countries outside the wor'.d organizatiot7, 156 nations together,- were invited, and 147 actively partici- pated in the session, which began vlarch 15. ISSUES--~'Vegotiations behind closed doors and dehate in a few public meetin; s centered or, the proposed exten- sion of the territorial sea from three miles to 12 miles; a crew concept of an exclusive economic zone beyond the territorial sea to a 200-mile limit from the shoreline; passage throug}t straits a.nd mining of the deep ocean floor. Other issues included international regulations for fisheries, measures to curb ocean pollution and the claims of land- locked countries sod nations with short coastlines to be accorded special consideration. kiI5TORY--The efforts to write new } maritime law started in the 1940's.:lfter almost 10 Fears ~f preparatory work by the United Nations' International Law Commission, two world conferences were convened in I95>3 and I950. The first parley produced new rules dealing with the territorial sea, fishiri~ and other problems; the second conference failed to adopt any major proposals. The ihird conferenre opened at United Nations head- quarters in December 1973, devoted mainly to procedure. Two more sessions on substantive issues were held in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1974, and Ili Geneva in 1975. -The United States has been p,essi,g for agreement on a new international sea-law treaty within this year. Today,-the conference adopted a proprsal to hold another sessian in Neer York, Aug. 2 to Sept. 17. if the conference, during the surmer sessian or in ar. additional sessian some time next year, reaches cc. - sensus on a draft. treaty, the document will be signed by participating government represents*.ives at a meeting in Caracas. institute includes publishers, editors and news~tper execu- tives. 'There are almost certainly more journalists detained in the world and ~qualfr certainly more countries thafarp holding journalsts in custody," said Amnesty, a group i?tat was es- tablished in ]9SI 4o work far the release of ;tersans impris- orcd for political or religious reasons. It now has chapters in 33 countries. flntissions Explained The organizatiag said: `?'1`he fact that a countrpora particu- lar journalist is xaL included vttly means that say such cases nave oat yet been Laken up by nr tome to alt+nrttan of Ant- r+esty Intcrr,:ttion:.l" Almost al! the ~oucnallsts "are detained in violation of. Article IR of the United Natins Universal Dec!aratior: of H;t-? man Ri>;!-ts. ~h~!:ich asserts Lr:e right of ever}?one to 'receive and impart information through any media' as an integral part. of the ri,:i;t to freedom of cx-~ pression," it asserted- "A1any of the jrtarnalists are! held without charge or trial.] Some ha?;e ticen subjected ta} 'torture or to cruet, inhumaa or degrading treatment or putt.i ishmrnt,' in ~ iofatinn of Ar- ticlr 3 of the dre!arar~Yn." { Amresiv said that t!1Moskva< og >Leningrad< og sidste ~r of dot ferste russiske hangarskib, >KiavMinskKiav< indgA i fl5den i ~r og >Minsk< sandsyniigvis i 1978. Sely om >Kiav< er udstyret mad et skriit flyvedsek, har -man hidtil ikke set den forsy- net mad katapulter og dot gear, der er nedvendigt for lnnding pA dskket mad al- mindelige flyvemaskiner. Men bide den og >Minsk< vii kunne anvendes til maskiner, der starter lodret eller pd kort startbane, og her rider 5ovjet over et egnet fly, Yak-36, som allerede har gennemfert start- og landingsforsog til ass p~ et of helikopter-skibene. Den russiske fl>lde har fun- det god anvendelse for den .store styrke of bombemaski- ner, som er ved at olive forael- dede. De anvendes til rekog? noscering for fl~den. >Cra>,v- lingen< mad en operationsra- dius elf sm& 6.500 km og >+Bjernen< mad mere end dot dobbeite, er de fly, der oftest ass kredsende over NATO ma- nevrer ogvestlige sefartsruter. De vestlige fl~der har derimod p8taget sig udgiften ved at bygge specielkonstruerede re- kognosceringsmaskiner uden at; have opn+~et noggin.,aasvne-,~ va;rdig gevinst i form of sterre effektivitet. St~? ildlu'aft - rings plods Admiral Gorsjkov har be? nyttet den store indflydelse, han har haft under sine 20 &r som fl~dens ~averste Ieder, til at presae p~ for at fig en mere of-. balanceret flilde -mad storre vaegt p& luftrekognoscering, marinefly, der kan laude p~ havet, og amfibie-langangsfar- tejer. Sovjets fl&de har iT.000 quarters that the delay rafleots Fard proposed to replace the Soviet concern shout the ward "d@tente," had failed .to Americas election campaign bring its authors anyttcing but rather than technical considers- 'failures like the defea Haf ~t1ie Lions. One well-placed Soviet .aggressors in Indochina. source thou ht that Moscow Pravda, the Communist Party g newspaper, also recently criti- naight have given up on a new cited the election-time "fashion feeling of faultfinding" against relaxa? arms accord this year , that it could net 'be completed tion of tensions, but it can- ~. No Brezhnev 1?eadilna daring Lila heat of am Atnerl- tended that respansibie Ameri Carr election. can politicians still uncFerstoad ~ while the Kremlin was not that better East-West pelations .expected to respond to the new- But another Soviett source headed off the_threat of nuclear hest American arms-limitation felt that the Kremlin did not ~vaT. Other articles, whale proposal during the Soviet Com- yet view the election campaign freely in tone, have stressed- monist Party Congress, it was as a major obstacle to a new cantihuing American public thought that Sob-ict military arms agreement, which it can- support for ddtente, specialists might be working on eiders to be in -the interest of Conferencs~ Poste a reply that Mascaw could of- both nations, fez after the Congress, which j Though it may be acorried,' ended more than two weelc~a ;: Question of IJBtente the Kremlin has net e~rressed Aga One Soviet source Point>~d ~- related theory here fs that Public anger aver Washcngtan's but that Mr. Brezhnev had the Russiank might be holding postponement last week of made a new strategic-arms; back out of pique over l;rotving joint conferences on energy, agreement the first goal of his criticism in the United States; housing and .commerce I+ecause nA~v .,peace program ? of file d~iente relationsirip. Sutj of Soviet invoivernent fn An-, But a ranking Lvestern dipla- aunts American diplomats andj Bola. Snot noted that bin. Brezhnev's Soviet insiders discounted this It is foolish to thletk we leclrre at the Can~ress to "clo hecause They felt Moscow at- would withdraw suppca't for e e> to Cnrnplete tin our friends in Angola lust to ta.chcci a hih priority to con- hold mectinAs that art of aSi preparation of anew Sovir~t-, eluding the .agreement outlined much benefit to you," one Sa- U.S. agreement o limiting; a~~rl~ by 1t,; f4rezhnrv and Pr sid_nt reducing strategic armanierit:,," Ford near 'Lladivostok 16 viet source said. Itt feet, ~t00) tvas not linked to any dcadlir,c?, months z; ea. ir;lividual and group exr~.inges> and that this b~lhilti stcr~ping up 1Ls crlti- between the two countri?~s have mare fle~iltiiity. Pave 14Tosco~v ci ;,n of thy: 4Jr?iiteri 5tab~s re- bz"n scheduled far the seat of *,nil7assarlor Irohrynin is in ear flits y . , eenti+, ~ibe Soviet rc~s has +nrtro reportedly conveyed nto~~ ~ p Soviet .and Americana neg;o- hfnsco`,v, by one account be- t:ncrally soft-pc?+i E.led it4 die- ?c:~.tise of flu, but an .American 'than a month ago #hroug;h .l1ItA-~ ap rav:il of the tGil~;iie~ liar? orgy iiators have -been meeisssg+daily .bassador Anatol F. Boor nini p ~ regiment c~tinin~ diplomat said thtrt a n.k;w l~ro- y f d.6tentc Shat 13resxtz.nt 1t).a1 has ,,, to seek sit ary ~ .al ruaid be iv+*n to r. ,fi21 Washfnglkon. An Amertc3ni t.akcn r"n r~'.rt-nt ,rx~.r..licq 1`tn r"~ limitation of nut.,e~ to t h~t;in,er thrau,?h ilt~7 3,ov.,.~? 'diplomat a:tid that a rr~p?ly ^,vss iureig~t ait