Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 10, 2001
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
February 17, 1950
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2.pdf524.01 KB
'-V I FORM NO. 51.'61 MAY 1949 Approved For Release 2001/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 25X1A CLASSIFICATION SECRET/;QNTROL - U.S. OFFICIALS ONLY CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT NO. INFORMATION REPORT CD NO. PLACE ACQUIRED DATE OF I Aa=Rm Yugoslavia DATE DISTR. 17 Feb. 1950 Transmittal of Document Relative .o the NO. OF PAGES 1 Macedonian Question in Yugoslavia NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. Forwarded herewith for your information and retention is one document containing an account of the Aaceonian. question in Yugoslavia. CLASSIFICATION SECRETkCONv' `ROL - U.S. OFFICIALS ONLY DISTRIBUTION Approved F k aW %+/422/04 u bf -4683%O4ffFgOM605tbbW4i - point f or all Governmentsof old Yugoslavia, has become more so for the Governmen' of "Marshal" Tito. It rnas become the first worry of the Communist Government. The differences on the Yiacedonian :uestion between the Soviet Union and Marshal Tito have once again proved the nationalistic ideas of the Marshal. The Soviet Union wished to create a "Macedonian republic" from the Yugoslav Macedonia (today the People's Republic of xacedo- noa), the PIh1N Macedonia (today in Bulgaria) and from the Greek Macedonia. This Republic was supposed to form a part of Bulgaria. Thus the Soviet Union wished to strengthen the Bulgarian Communist Party which did not seize the power itself or fought for it much, but was carried into office by the Soviet armed forces. Its influence on the lulgarian masses is weak, much weaker than the influence of the Yugoslav Communist Party on the Yugoslav masses. Its power is based exclusively on force. by getting Jiavedonia, the Bulgarian Communist party would gain prestige in the people and consolidate its power. krom an international point of view, i.e. from the point of view of the world proletariate, it does not matter whether Macedonia will be within Bulgaria or Yugoslavia. It was to be apportioned to where the Party interests were stronger (Tomorrow, wnen the prestige of the Italian Communist Party will have to be strengthened, aoscow will demand to return Trieste to Italy. Note from 99). This rumour took root in Macedonia since the li' rp SJe4Aor Release 2001/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 3EGRE1 -- Approved For Release 2001/1'2/04: IA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 The : acedonian + ommunists accepted the rumour and made it their own. All people, respective"-' mfta sts, with different ideas have been eliminated from the leading positions.. The Macedonians do not show their attitude. They are quiet, waiting for the proper moment to realise their idea. They are afraid of Belgrade, because the central Committees of the Yugoslav CP has other views. It believes tat the Macedonian Republic should remain within Yugoslavia. Comm;uiists with views other than this are traito: to the Party. The Macedonian Republic was nationalised immediately after the liberation, first of all. Bank Institutes, the industry, the shops, the craft changed from private ownership into national ownership. The nationalisation of the villages was started at once with the creation of land cooperatives - of kokhoses. The transition period progressed slowlier in other Republics. In Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia it has not been closed yet for the individual economy branches. The new authorities confiscated the property of all Serbs who left Macedonia during the war, respectively the bulgarian occupation, and escaped to Serbia. Not only were they deprived of their property, but even forbidden to return to their houses. No decree was passed, they simp-y got no certificate of residence. Such is the case of the UALIC brothers, known merchants of SKOPLJB who are dacedonians and own an estate in Macedonia, or that of Milorad RT ;TIC, former General of the Yugoslav Army. be settled at bnOPLJt; after the first world war and built four houses: two for his daughters, for each the son and himself one Approved For Release 2001/12/04: CIA-RDP83j0V&VFjJQ 001- 1% L[ Approved For Release 2001/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 all grown up, with many children. They live at Belgrade now and are not allowed to return to olU:'LJB. Another case is that of Ing. #dihajlo KRSTIC. He inherited, prior to World War II, the known hotel "Bellevue" at OHRID (by the lake) from his parents. He was sentenced by the OriRIL Court to one year's loss of natiohal honour and confiscation of the hotel. his parents were really from bITOLJ, while he wasx born at belgrade. Consequently, if anybody, the court at Belgrade was responsible for the case. Meanwhile, the court at Belgrade gave absolutely no consideration to the question. KRSTIC did not know about the sentence and, consequently, was unable to appeal in time. Such attitude of the new authorities toward people who are oriented to Belgrade, can be understood only if it is known that the Macedonian Communists on power are - pro-Bulgarian. The authorities are suspicious of and dislike to permit the return of people who, for justified fear of Bulgarian reprisals in 1941, left Macedonia. Things were not different with Bane ANDttBJEV, member of the Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party and Minister of the Central Government. He was not appointed secretary of the Macedonian Communist Party because he was considered pro-Belgrade. Although himself a Communist, he was considered by ;iac edonian Communists as pro-Serbian (the author of the letter is a school fellow of Bane ANDREJEV whose name In prewar Yugoslavia was ANllM:Ji;VIC. He and the author studied at the Belgrade technical faculty. Note from 99). After the publication of the Resolution, Bane ANLHEJBV took the Soviet view on the Macedonian question. Since this became publicly known in Belgrade, Approved For Release 2001/12/04: CIA-RDPB". tii~U01-2 Approved For Release 0 M/ft : tA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 r ! , Bane ANDREJEV was compelled to deny this news in the daily Press and declare himself against the resolution, as well as give a declaration of loyalty to Tito. However, his statement is not trusted much. The hesolution was accepted with joy by the Communist authorities in Macedonia. The Macedonian Parliament (ivarodno Sobranje) was ready to prozclaim the cession of the People's Republic of Macedonia from Yugoslavia and its incorporation into Bulgaria. The Communist authorities in Macedonia believed that the time has come for the realisation of their idea and desire. Events proved that it was too early. Marshal Tito and his Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party were still going strong. The episode was concluded by the dismissal of a few Ministers of the Macedonian Government, a regular trial at SKOPLJE, the dismissal of all suspected Communists. Some of them escaped to Bulgaria, among them Communist MRs from the Macedonian Parliament. Others, who publicly approved the resolution, were arrested. The separatist idea, though not realised, is nursed secretly by ruling Macedonian Communists. At a favourable moment it will appear again (such are the statements of Ing.HARALAiMiOVIC, employed in a factory near SKOPLJE; of Metodije -8WD4oVI('.',, graduat- ed lawyer, department head of the Executive People's Committee of SKOPLJE. Both are Macedonians and reliable men). The Belgrade Macedonians (some 30,000 men) who worked and longed for a n4acedonian Staten for years, did not go the newly created Macedonia. P'or them she remained alien and unfamiliar. They are afraid of her. Their emiggree Co ception or Mac 8ioivad For le se 2001/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R0043Q0550001-was f 2 erent. 1. typical example of the WWAWCAL rA , f-_ Approved For Relea , 2601/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 Belgrade Macedonians to the Macedonian question is Onufrije KOSTIC, buffet owner and proprietor of STALJ 1N(1HAUbtiA ULIUA. Having emigrated to the USA, he returned to Yugoslavia long before the war, brought plenty of dollars and bought a block of houses from the cafeteria UINIC toward the workers' Home (Radnicki Dom). He lived here with two brothers, many children, relatives and other family members. he operated a buffet in one of his shops. His buffet was the centre of Macedonians. Whoever came from Macedonia, he passed through Uncle Onufrije's buffet. All who longed for a Macedonian State came to see Uncle Omifrije. Uncle Onufrije had many troubles because of his Macedonia - he suffered much. The old Yugoslavia interned him at a camp in tiiLECt;. his friend Dr.ivan JIBAh was interned with him. r'inally the Communists realised the dream of uncle Unufrije, they created the Macedonian ttepublic. Yet, Uncle Onufrije did not go to Macedonia, though he suffered much for her. The Macedonians again met at uncle Onufrije's buffet. The new authorities did not allow it. The Communists again arrested uncle Unufrije. He was sentenced to 8 months of forced labour., but his friend i)r.ivan h1BAtt?, eresident of the Presidium of the Yugoslav cepublic, did not forget him. His sentence was commuted into a fine. The authorities disliked the buffet, however, which was the centre of Macedonians. The buffet was closed down. Mill, Macedonians passing through Bel- grade, call upon uncle Unufrije to hear when this state would take an end. They created the Macedonian language. All family names were altered. books are printed in Macedonian, which the Macedonians Approved For Release 2001/12/04 E: 5004300550001-2 Approved For Release 2/17/04, ti CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 do not understand. :Lany.Uommunists oppose the new language. Ueda MINDEhOVjC, secretary general of the Yugoslav writers League (Udru- zenje Knjizevnika Jugosiavije), was resolutely against the Macedo- nian language as director of the publishing organisation of Serbia, "PhOSvJJ2h", and refused to print books in Macedonian. Meanwhile the idea prevailed that a dacedonian language had to be created and it is being created now (Aacedonians speak a language which posses- ses more ancient blav words than the Serbian. It is a transition between the Serbian and Bulgarian languages, but more related to the Bulgarian. This language was never written in books, since the Macedonian intelligentsia studied eitner in Bulgaria or Yugo- slavia. Tney learned theoerbo-Croat language and made it their literary language. After world Year I, the Serbian writer of Macedo- nian origine, Uligorije 3OZOVIC, wrote a few works in Macedonian wriic.h he', as a writer, crested uimself. . The ~-Ylacedonian language of today is created by decrees of the Communist regime. Note from 99). J, :Macedonian opera was founded. Joca bhktULJ, iormerly director of the Belgrade Opera, was called to organise the new institution. lne ilacedonra b inister of Pnlightenment demanded tnat all operas be sung; in aacedunian. in vain ohrWLJ argumented the difficulty and unnecessary efforts linked with such underta4ing. He argued that because of cadres and other Operas in the country it is far better that they are sung in aerbo-.roat. let, "~avalleria ?nusticana?r was sung; in ,dacedonian. 'A ?LULJ, in the end, refused to fight about with the new language, inspite of the hign salary which he was offered, and r?eturtcc to Belgrade. however, the Ustashi former martial b&nu leader, Lovro Colonel, and T ,CIC, PA VBLIt;1 s ,4 -1 A9ed For,_ Release- 20011/12/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 ~ r o he Ztiurtt r peru, adopted the lace o. - j ilL age wita a [83-00415R004300550001-2 7 "great zeal". lie is now tree ::~jnu-uctor of the ~,ia_cedoniarl Opera.. Lie went to Macedonia strai ,nt from the Prison. Tito thought that by creating the -Macedonian language he would win the Aaceuonian people, above all the weak aceuonian intelligentsia wiio were Mostly educated in Bulgaria and thought pro-Bulgarian. in the begin:zyng it appeared that ne was fully successful, and that the r eojle l s nepublic of Macedonia is his most faithful republic. such was the situation as long as the Macedonian intelligentsia, exploiting the rights awarded by i'ito, thought that, they were drifting away from the Lderbians, from Belgrade. It was the trend toward independence. dditn. tide Cominforn j'esolution, however, the same Macedonian Communist intelligentsia believed that the time has come to snow their true colour and manage the following step - incorporate ?Macedonia into Bulgaria. As far as tnis, the efforts of the Yugoslav Communist Party with regard to Macedonia, failed. The Communist attempt to create a "Macedonian republic" proved a, failure. They created a hepublic without republicans, a soci&.ist -epublic, without socialists. They created a Communist authority without politically educated Communists. They created a language which nobody understands. lney created a State, alien to the citizens in it. The citizens are afraid of their :state, trey ,hate it. Only the name is reality, the rest is deceit. The Iaceaonlans therefore did not greet the new nepublic. They withdrewnd wait. They t,-,ink that the present situation is only a transition period. There are no republicans in Macedonia. The time was too short to form them. The people in Macedonia were divided into Approved For Release 2001/12/04: j,. !0 300550001-2 Approved For Release 2001/1.2/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 pro-Serbian and pro-Bulgarian. 6ometaing more than 30 years have passed since the country was Liberated from the Turks. The traces of slavery are still cle--riy visible. the hepublic is something new for the people. There are even less Socialists. These can be formed from a democratic atmosphere, in a future Macedonian Republic. There are no really educated Communists. The dacedonian Communist authority is pro-Bulgarian. it is far more nationalistic than Communist - proletarian. It tends toward Sofia. It is suspicious of whatever comes from Belgrade. Such authority is no Communist authority, the ruling people are no Comae-fists. They pretend to be Communist. The Macedonian rep-ublic is the most unstable Tito's .Republic. Tier Communists are pro-Lulgarian. Their view of the Macedonian question is pro-rkussian. Their cultural links with Sofia are stronger than tr1oLe withi Belgrade. The Macedonian Parliament Is in a revolutionary mood. The first forceful quake will separate Macedonia from. tie remaining republics. The :Macedonian citizens. are suspicious of the Communist regime. They do not lice it. lne activities of the Government have no appeal to them. They are foreign and unintelligible. They wish to get rid of the rulers at a favourable moment. They do not trust the Soviet Union, either. They expect nothi;ig from it. The 4acedonian citi4ens wish to get rid of any authority, any dictatorship, first of all 94` the Communist. Tney want to create Approved For Releas0;*"P83-00415ROO4300550001-2 0 an Approved For Re ase 2601/12/64 CIA-RDP83-00415R004300550001-2 a Macedonian hepublic from the present People's xepublic of Macedonia, the PIhIN Macedonia in bulgaria, and from the Greek Macedonia. This Macedonian 1epublic would join a great Balkan r'ederation. While the wear; stratum of intellectuals are largely linked with Bulgaria and the soviet Uniori, the iaceaonian people, the ordinary citizens, are linked with America. Through decennia they were emigrating to America. Many houses in Macedonian villages were built with money brought from America. These are the visible marks of American power. Today the Macedonians whisper among themselves tnat a~merica wants to create such a Macedonian Republic. Of course, the appeal of the rumour is strong. DP83 .Approved For Release 2001/12/9 1