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August 22, 1950
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Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~t~`r~ MAY I~a x?61 CLASSIFICATION CONFIDENTIAL/CO'i~iTROL .i5 OFFICIALS OjTT? ~ '"" COUNTRY USSR/Satellites SUBJECT PLACE ACQUIRED DATE CF ~~I~ Iv;.~i~ 1LIGENCE ~,~GENCY REPORT R,~1`TiON REFaRT' ublicatigns Concerning the USSR and it.s Satel]_ites THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNI7E0 STATES WITNiN THE MEANING OF THE ESPIONAGE ACT SO U. S. C.. 31 AND 32. AS AM EN DE O. ITS TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION OF ITS CONTENTS IN ANY MANNER 70 AN UNAUTHOR12E0 PERSON IS PRO? NIBITEO BY LAW. REPRODUCTION Of THIS iORM IS PRO M BITEO. I. Miscellaneous Items on the USSR and Sa ~es J. 1~?otes on the Observance of human Rights in Czechoslovakia K, Notes on t he Observance of Human Rights in the USSR CD N0. DATE DISTR. 22 Aug, 1g~0 N0. OF PAGES 1 50X1-HUM N0. OF ENCLS. 11 (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NC3 THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION '~~Darumerrlr ~tates`~ n~~ ~ arsr?~zn H. Miscellaneous Items on the iiSOR an G. I~?iscel ~_aneous Items on the USSR a D. Control ~~f :?.'orkers in Countries E. Daily Life in a Commun._st State F. Soviet Tlabor Discipline Attachments: ~. Essence of Soviet Foreign olicy B. Gormnunist Conquest of the 3altic C. Christ:~.~=nity in the Soviet Union STATE ARMY NAVY AIR CLASSIFICATION CONFIDENTIAL/CONTROL US OFFICIALS ONLY NSRB ~ ~~ ~ ell ~ 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005 600050002-2 Declassified ~+ cnv~ ~ ~~ inn in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ' """' II. Cox_u:~ents on the Dr4 f t Dcc:lar^ t;ion ef' I-iurZ~.n ua~;ht.:~, article "a~' Usta.c~.e.. ~p - "~"" Z . Introduction, B~ c~tgroun~ _ ~. Arr~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1'irticle. 1 ~ {Nattzr~al equality) ,l,,xticle 2 article i. ~rticlo ~.. 2~ ~~ xl31 pYOau~ by (Discrir.~in~tcry practicc~~:~~a~~~?nceAgeaa4 (I,a.fe, libort;~, and securitsr) (Servitude) .~. Taxistence: of sl.avor,y (Cl~,usc I) B. Condition, (Clause II) C . Evidence f turn victa.r:~s D. i~viclonco :fro;:z Soviet sources ~. Forcccl Dabour ~.n the: E~ste.rn. zone of l~rticle 5. (R~:co~nition bcf'orc the law) ~-. .article C. (Lqua19_ty before, the 7.~v1) ,rtiole 1. (l~.rba_-trar~ arrest and detention) Para~;r~.phs '!-7 arrest g-11 Para~;rapti~~ >-10 Detention ~1 Con.tax~ued overle4~' ~ ~~e~-t,.) ~ e.~ ~ ~,,~ ws cam. ~~ ~~f.s w. ~'~+a: G.: a S ~, ~. ~---5 ~-7 7w8 Gexr~an~r g Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~' ~ ~~ 7 ~~~~ ~~~. C~~~ ~ R~ ~. ~~~~~ 31 1oCU~a b? 'ih~+- l~al~Ia e11~~""~ A~~ pages 1`~rtzcle ?3. (~~a:i.r. hearint; by itlpa.rtial ?tri1x~na1} ,~yrticle 1'.rticl~ 1~.rt1Ca_C. l~.rticle:, l~,rt iclc, lLrtir.,le .~1rt iclc ~"~rticlC ~`articlc; Proc~w-.ton of innoc~;ncc} No retrospective legislation} ?i 3 73 ((lnreasonnblc~ intcri'orence} 13-'11-x. '11 . (I~'rcec~o7r: oi' r~io?vea.ient and resiclenee} '~ ~ . '~ ~ . 1 F; . (ls.=>;yrlur.. .~'r0~.! "~",GrSeCU~1,~:kOn} (DcZ,r iv~tion r~,' no.tionality} (1:~ura.;^, r~.uc:. the i'arail;r} ,.,. ( t~'~ :~i;'~C~;_t O:~' O'~1n1Qn anC~. i;iY.`,,~rG'SS:LOn} 14 ~~ ~ -16 ~~ sce below 20. (Social socurity ~.nd right;} Cl~.use.~ T ~: II A Right o:I' ovork} 1B Cl~usc III - lradc unions} 1819 _P.tix?ticlc 22. (Social ,",cx?vices} lsrticle 23. (Ec~zcation} + lirticle 21~., (RiL;ht to 1 cif' the. ti~rorka.ng olass coincide ti,r5.th those of the sf'orerlost or anise:cl. cl,etachs_.ent of that class t . Thcrofarc, in the U~ S, S.R, , frcedora of spec;ah, prc:~s, ~~sc~cr^.b7.y and c1cr~.cn vt;ration are guarantcacl only when. they confori.t with tha interest~~ of the Cc?:~:.uni st 1:'rzrty. Zn fact, Soviet citizens axe free only to sl>e{tk, print ~^~nc:~ dcr_tonstrnte their a;reemcnt with the pronouncerients ~u~d actian~, of the Car_~r.uni~t I'^rty, i.c, of the Palitbureau, ire., of the State. It >houl~l. bo paa_ntc,d eta-t-here: in parenthesis tkia.t Soviet propaganda, bath ir~tcr.nrxl and e:xternal., makes "teat-play of what it describes as sUalshevik . cr~.t:+.c:i_sm c~nd self-criticisms . That this has nothing in carrnnon ~ri.th. -the real si;;nificancc of criticism is app~~.rent from tha inclusion of the ~~reliminar,y ep~.the?t. In practice i?t consists of encouraging rank-anc~.file x~~.rarnbers of the Cor~rnuna_st :~'a.rty or carne: ath,er suublic or State organisations to er~>res.:; d:issatisf'action Frith tkLe ~eray in ~;thich tta.e orders of the Soviet leader;~ are being carried out ~ As a result of such 'criticisms heads kv~.vc; af'ten. been lcnozrm to fall fraut minor burc~~ucrati a shoulders. The system, is not ~xrithout its u;~c, to thca Sovic;t lcacl.er:.:, a,:~ tt-rerclay any discontent bretifing up as a .r~;cult of inefi"ics.ent or rnistakc,n planning, frarn above can. be most effectively diverted to break over subordinate heads. TkZe;rc has never been any c*xamplc of rank.-anc~ fi1.c, critioi~;m of the ~risCior~l of plans and orders emanating from ~tkie soviet leaders ~ such a thing is indeed untha_nlLable in the uoviet Union, 3. The final paranraph of Article, X25 indicates the enact methods vnc~rcby these amenities ~3.re ensured. Pres:acs, stocks of papas, pulal:ia buildings, the s`trects, cornxnunications facilitio~s Znc?. other material. rct~ua.citc;s are 'placed at the c~.isposa.l of the 'crorlcing peaplc and tha-i r orga nisations s . This means that they ~~re p1acE;~d. at thra dispos~~l of organisations of vrarlcing people -they are: certainly not placed at the disposal of individual working per cans, ~,, Zt is useful to contrast this dr~crea ti~ra.th the a,dnLirtistrative regulations (precise rcfcr~,nao unfortunately not ava~.lable at present 't~rt~.:ich deal wa..th the ri~~,k~t to acciuirc: any form of hsnd-duplicating, machine;. Here a licence must be abtaa_nc:d fxon~ the local police authorities and it must be issued in the naanc of the; hc~~d of the, sa--called "Secret Departrncnt" { i, e. the department resparisiblU f'or security to the. iti`linistor of Security) of the undertaking or organisation app2ying~ far the licence, or in the name: of the organisation if thex~e iti~ no "Sc:crct Departmen'L?" . T~acencas are not issued 'to individuals. Thf; 1.}a:chiru mus~L? bra registerac:l ti~ritkL the State Publishing and Ccnsortihip Dopar.tzricnt, ~I'hc. l:i.cence mast ~bc proauccd c^ah, time before replace- . r_lents, aace:ssories ar. materials far trt~ machine can be purchased. vGrything produced on the; r.7achine i~~ subject to p.rli7itinary censorship by the local brangh of the; State. Publishinc; Dc~p~~.rtxnex~t 'before ~:~t can be distribu'Ged. CONFIDENtlAL CONTROL U. S. GI'~'l~IALS OILY Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ' i Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~- ~~t~~~RL ~. S$ ~~ ~.~~ r ~ lDE~iT,q~. ? r ~ ~' I1tI~ Ilt 6u2g3IIC6 AQA21Cf 1 , Clausa T. Tlae basic description of -the Soviet electoral system is given ~n Chapter 1T7~ of the Sova.ct Constitut~..an. I~ror:~. this ~-re learn that 'The highest organ of State authority of tha U. S.S,R, is the Su7,remu Soviet of the US,S.R.' -and Yre already kno?tiv that the Cor~ununist Party is the lea~:ling core of all Sts.te organisations (Article '126) . Article: 32 cf the Constitution tolls us that 'the legislative potiaer of - tt~e U.S,S.Fc, is a~L~:rcised c:~clu;~ively by the Si~prcmc Soviet of the U.S.S.R. t; ~.rticlc 33 states that the Suprrrle Sa~raet is bicameral; consisting of ~~ Soviet of the Union and a Savie;t of rdationalitias. Article jl~. Explains that 'the Soviet a~', the Union is elected by the oit:izans of the U?S,S*R. according- to eleatoral. areas on tha basis of one deputy T"or every j00,000 of the population'; and l~rticlc 35 explains tk~.zt the Soviet of Natiorralitics is also c.].eetcd according to a proportional rcprc;sentation s.y'stari (t~rhich need not conac~rn us here) . Finally, l~rticle ~6 states: 'The Supreiic Soviet of the U,S.>,R., at~z joint sitting of bath. C11~unbers, appoints the Government af' the; U,S.S,E~, nariely the Council af' 1~Tinistars o? the Li.S,S,R,' Frorn chapter Yl of tha Sovact Ckcnstitut9.on 5rc loam th~.t all Sovi~:t deputies t~rc e;lcctad 'on the bo.sis of universal, direct and cc~ual~ suffraue by ecfual ballot' (.Garticle 13~.) ; that ~ 11 Soviet catizen:~ of 1S and over, ti~Ta.thout any sexual, racial, economic, religious or other discrir:linat ion, have the right to vote, Furthermore cash oitizcn has ono vote (lpx?t:icle 136) Cf ~;raat signifacanee as arta.cle 11'1, ~sv?hiclz states; 'The right to. nonzxn^tc candidates is secured (not to individuals but) to public arlanisatians and societies of the tiuorking people; Corru:~unist Part~r organi,?~ations, trade un:LOn.~~ cowopcrative:s, youth organisations and cultural societies,?' l~Toti~r it :~ ollalrs froi~~ the nature of the 'leading core' (~~rt:icle '126) of the 'public arganis~ t:i.ans and societies of the ~,vorlc:ing people' , ths.t they cannot in practice nar~inat< candie~~,tes in. any vray opposed to the bclic:f's and actions of tl~c Col:u~unxst 1'art,y'. We further kna~;r, from a study of the Soviet press over .>everal r.:onths preceding the elections to, for cxuocoecling G~rta.cl.os to vrhieh this, is related. 1lf~TTC ~ 21, 1. Clauses T and TT_, Sea article lf,, (Forced Labour) There is, to say the least, +;oad found{^tion ~'or the suspica.on~; that prisoners arc arrested ~~nd condemned to forced labour purely to pravida ,~x cheap labour f oroe: (ti~rhich they certainly do provide) 2. Clause TTI. The right of the Soviet citizen to join -ilrade union~~~ is guarante;ecl in hrticle 126 of the Soviet Con.statut:i.on, tivlrich lasts these organisations among pcrr~latted public or~;anisatians, but Soviet Trade; Unions certainly do not proteot the intarests of the ~Rrorkar. Their. true function is revealed in an article in the Soviet Fncyelopacdia, (1910 ti?rhich point~~ out CGi~EiDENTIAL ~~`R~~. C~. S. ~~ E~~~~IS Q~`~~" Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 -- -~~. CO~F~fl~NT1Al. 0~ ~ ~~ ~~ rr~~~ t ri~l pr,.by .. that tin 'conditions of tlic Dict~torshi~y_~ cf tho Proletariats the Trade Unions fulfil the role of 'a :cllool of Cor:~runis7_z' , (Stalin hii.zse;lf in the 11th edition of hia '~uestian of L,eninisr_.s (19L?~~ pave 132, explains that the Soviet Trade Unions arc 'the gill-crnbracin ' organisation of the ti-rorking class tirhich ~,s in potiver in our country....Thc:y forn:~. the link bettiveen the advanced and the backrrarcl clerne;nt>s in the; ranks of the i~rorkin? class. t he goes on to point out that the `.1'rad~: Unions constitute one of x'ive 'levers or transz~:issian bcltss tirithout ti~rriose Zid tlrc dictatorship of the proletariat could not exist, (Tfa.c other four 'transa_ais;>ion bel~~ss rei'crred to by Stalin are: the Soviets, the Co-operative Societies, tl~e Young Corr~:~.tniti;t League, and the Cormlunist Party itself.)) ,;.~ a tranr~r:=is.~ion belt for. the Soviet dictatorship and as a school for Cor~~:~ranisi:r, the Soviet Trade Unions have little if' ~inything in coruaon tiaith the or~an:isations of tha-L- n~ti~:; ~,-rhich tirc lLnoz-r in y;Testern Europe. l~?,TICLE 22. It can be contandcd that social : crvice>> of the Soviet Union are of a lour standard (r:~ach inferior to those of t;lic U,Fi. in alrlast every respect , but thi~:~ i.s scarcely relevant to the main issue. IsRTICLE 23. 1. Clause I. No cor~uic;nt. . 2. Cruse II. Soviet citizens are not educated to be intolerant of and to hate other nations but reactionaries in those nations, though the distinction undoubtedly becor:ics blurred. ________~ 3. It is doubtful y,ticthcr Soviet children ar. o educated to a re~3pcct for func~~rsnental freedoms, brat it c~,n be nrgucd profitlessly laoth tirays. L~., ~.s rogarc~.s rc:li"iou.~, groups, ~,rticlc 12L~. of the Sovi.ct Constitution acknoti~rledges the right of all citizens to freedom of anti-rcl.igious propaganda and thus conduce;, to the :~rpread of intoleranco and hatred against religious groups, .kRT ICLE No C oirn.~.ent . i7~'1,'~E, ~ No cor~u_7cnt, 1,RTICLE 26 ditto. 11RTICLE 2~: The cor~rtients on prc;cedinL 1':rticlc;s concerning; these rights, and on the right of privactr (l~.rticle 10) and arbitrary arrest (rrticle 7) provide cor~raent cn thiry ,irticle should it become a subject of debate ~v~.th reference to conditions in the U.S.S.R. l~FtTICLE 23. No cor.~rrrent, CONFIDENTIAL ~~ ~ ~~~~ u ~ s. c - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~ > w C~~iF`in~NTO~L NOTE This document contains many citations f'rc~7. the Czechoslovak press and- radio. As far as recent citations are concerned, it is requested that the source should not _ be quoted unless it is considered essential to do so., fihe .. Prague radio and the Gzeohoslovak press are a valuable source of infarmat3on on local conditions and it is v~er~ d~;sirable that no action should be taken Mich might lead ~sib9 to the imposition of a closer censorship, . :b~~0?'~t ~~~,ac~ A4~~ ~~~r~~~~~i ~~~ Cent ~ ~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 SUM ~~~~r~~, ln-~roauctiion ~~'~ A~-~ 2. The Czechoslovak Const~tut one ~~fOS~R' 3? ~C~~D~,NTIAt II. Retrospective Justico ~R III. Sacuri ty Of pers IV. Forced Labour V. Danunciatian VI. Freedom of Information VIZ. Frocdom of Assembly VTII. Rol'igious discrimination IX. Freedom of ~Zovement X. Right of personal property XI. Racial discrimination. Details of Violation of Human Rights in Czechoslovakia I. Integrity of the .Judiciary and administration of justice ~~~~~~~ i Y a.~ ~~~~ iti:ii .tt t ~L~cuic~~. tuy ~OYliT8113i 611ig~nCe ~~~ C~N~-I~i~N~lAt C(3N i R~L U. S. ~~ r~CiAIS ONLY Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~. CC~~~~r~ ~~~~~AL C`~I~TROL U. 5, Q~F~CIaLS ~'~~Y SECTION- '1 . .~...., TNTRODUCTSON Centxal~ellt~ ~`~ pgenc4 It is unnecessary- to rccapitulato the stops by yvhich the Communists seized potivcr ,in Czi~ehoslavak,~.a; they w3:11 . be . fresh ~ in the mind of everyono. :Th'o Corr~nunist teehn3.quc 'of ir~f;',:~tration into the sources of power in a liboral democracy, and cspocihlly thQ palice~ the armed forces, the municipalitic~si and ~thv trades unions, is familiar enough. It is not Corrui~unist practice to wait until. tho majority of tho eloctorat? has been persuaded to support them; indeed this' has never hap:~cncd, Powc;r is soizod as soon as the 1?arty is in a position to cxo sa sa.fcly. But thc.rc has always been an attempt to suggest that this scizur? of power roprescnts the 1r 3.11 of the pe;ople+ and to obtain the ~:ndorsemcnt of a rump of elected representatives. This hypocrisy is the tributQ v~~hich vice pays to v3.rtue~ Thus, the prc;scnt Czechoslovak rSgime, ylhich th? Communists forced an the people over the heads of the constitutionally appointc;d leaders of thQ demaQ~ratic parties, extracted a spurious rnand`tc from a terrorised .National Assembly -from ~vhich seventy d~:~puties had boon arbitrarily excluded. Ore established in power this regime, by means of rigged elections, vahere the ballot was neither free nor secret and no opposition candidates could stand, forced on t.ha people a conununist parr.atnent, ~ahich duly canfix~xnod the govrrnmentTS mandate.and subscquen.tly unanimously elected the leader of ~L-he Communist Party Prosid?nt off' the Republic. The. seal vaas set on the Communist seizure of powc;r by the passin?; of the neuv , canstitution,.which the legally elected President Bones ha.d refused to sign. A Corr~nunist Prime. ~-. ~~~',~~~~~~~ /Mini suer . ~' . ~~ ~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Minister, therefore, a Communist cabinet and a . communist Assembly conspired to turn a communist conception of government into Czechoslovak law and write it on the Statute banks. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 a CaNF~~,~ ~-~~~ CeIItLal 111611tq'.~CQ ngeu+v7 law., dons .not daCroc~ othorvrisor "Tha .1ativ"~, nawh?r4 fixad :nor. def fined, is being cont3.nually addad toy. so .that each no~v poeo of legislation mak?s 'yvidox tha ~.aopholes yvhich th? constituticin has ~1oft~r 5? "Pars oval frocdom" we are told in S+octign, 2 "is guaranteed. It rr~ay bo rdstrictcd or "yvithhe~.d. only .on the basis of law' "?: ' But- thQ~c~ is no ~.ayv to ir~d~.caty vJhox~. a citizen may expoet to find his personal. i'rcoc7.om-restricted or withheld. The Ass?mbly ,hs.s subsequently passed. a 1?~tiv legalising ;slaw labru~-:'_ and Qvery citizen may vJCll w~ondor yvhat limit thorQ will- be to laws passed in tho futuro v~h~.ch may restrict his freedom. ~(seo Soction 3, item 1V "Forced labour`s ). 6.~ In Soctian 3 it states, "no one shall be grosc~cuted except in casos permitted under the law _._ ,., and. then only by a court or authorit~r c_ omgot?nt? by~law~'! Thorc~ i~ nothing to indicato when th?se . casks are permitted or,~ more important, vrhAt:author$ty othor than a court can p~osQCUto. Sec also Section 3,~ item 1xI "S?curity of porson? ) 7. It is the samQ with other civic rights which should be inv3.olable,~ The in9iolability of.thQ: domicil? is guaranteed, but it-may 'k;a rosti~ieted 'r on the basi,~ s of law" . No-~ono.'s promises may be. `..', . searched " axce~t~in casQS perm~.tted and?r tho low".~ A search may bQ carriod out only on tho strength of a tivritten circumstantiated warrant granted by a ~udgQ ? :z . t authority. Thoro is no clue . as to -what this competent authority may ba? -But it makes little difference as it is stated furtkier~~ on that "~a s?:arch can ba carried out. otherwise if thQ j.avr. so ~dirQCts." ~~~4~N~S6Ar: , ~a. CONTRQL U. S. ?0'~F6CIALS ~r~r~a~ u. s. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18: CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 In short all thes? rights may be r?stricted "b~ ~ w", and the Nation Assembly ms.y well-pass riotroactivo legislation ltest~icting -these rights ens has indeed alr?ac~y ~on? so. .. 9, Special clauses'have boon incorporated into th~i Dons ti tution to a11ow still Qore scope to the secret police. According to thQSa, '~$tatements and Acts that constitutQ a threat to the indopandanco,ontirety and unity of the state, constitution, republican form of government and the Poopl?+s Democratic ?rdor are punishable according to the lava" ~ Fina7.ly in Section 3$, vac learn that all the rights and liberties concedQd in.th? Constitution may bo restricted "~vhen ?vents occur ~~ ~ "~t~a't threAton in increased measure the indopendencei ... onti'roty arid~ unity of the .state, etc. (sae abov? ~; Tt is not laid dawn who is to determine ~vhen such Quonts have occurred, but it seams evident that they are likely to occur Orly frequently in th? present state of tension batvaQen the Czechoslovak rulers and the people. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18: CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~~~ ~ ~~~T~a~ u. ~. or~~~s~~s ~r~? .. ' ~~~. .. ~~~IFIDEN~ 8EC ~ION~ ~ C ~ ~ ~~ ~atral ~ ~Q~uce Aqe~ ,, Dotails oi' Vio1L~:t~.ori o:t~~IumS~x~. R~. r s , ~incc tie ommunist. a~~~~. ,,,in ~~ebrui. r ~~4 The Tnto~rit~ of the Juaic_i~ry Tho Communists were not slow in se~i.ng to it that. all those .elements on tho C~~ech conch v~ho were: likely to dispanso justice in tho 'cold-fashioned" way wc;ro purged. The Pres~dcnt of the Surpeme Court of Justicr~ has boc:n disrnissc~d and replaced by a nominee of the rSgim?. k~-, judges and 2 state Z~rosocutors have boon removed fx~c>m the -same courts ~16 judges .have been ramovod from the Gentral Court of Justice in Prague, including the President a~1d Vico-President. The Court . of O1,e~o~ucs in MUravi~ has ~e:~r~ r~urgad of its President, Vice-President and e i~;ht judges.., Thc~sQ are only soma of tho va,ctl.ms oi' the Cominunast ~urgc of ~ustico~- 2,, The Cantr~~l Action Cor,~r~litti;c. ~~~hich cLissolved the 'Union of Czech laL~ycrs va ill nat ,alto ~a a Dwyer to practica unless. he is "relis.ble" and yritGzholds its permits from many roputablc lawyers, inclucl.ing any rho wera so .rush as to dcfGnd co11~:~l~aratars or black marketcQrs~ 3? Dr.. Prok.op Drtina, the: Minister of ~astice~. vaho was polit3.aal. ,tadvis?r to Presidorzt ~senas during ~iis yoars: in England and-who championed. justice so haroical~.,y .against Corrnnunist abusos w~~s removed. from his post during the. coup. d~ e.tat and replaced by the uzii~rinciplcd Con~nuni~st fanatic Ce1~icka.. The latter- hugs declared that the mission of judges :: is to? be a support of the people ~ s dc~ialocratic o.e~n3.nistratior~: ana to apply the l~.ws in the spirit of that adnxtnistration f t~N~lDE(~T1AL ~ ~ ~~~~,~5 ~~,~~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 acUnin3.strstian. Dr. Drtno- is no'~a in hc~;~ital tiJith sevcro head injuries resultin~; rolz yYhat is rt;l~orted to have been an `attom;~~t to comr,~it suicido. 4x Provision of an inde;?enc~c~nt judiciary was o. feature. of tho'' old Constitution, Suction 9g. ol" uahich stated that judgos .~ shoul%;. bo indel~ci~.deiit in't,he exorciso of.thc;ir conscic~ncc and bound only by 1at~r, to abide by Vlhich they ;pledged thoi;~salvcs on o~.th. On the: other hrin~~, ~:irtiela XT of .the new canstittition, section 143, roc1uires judges to take an oath that .they ~~i11Y'abide 'ay the latirs and orders and intorl~rc3t thorn in th? light o~ the ,Constitution and of tho ;~rinciplos of tho Peoplo's Democratic 4ru.cr etc," 5. i'hc Na~~J Constitution, ?rovidcs far lay judges y~hose votes arc oc~ual yJith thas? o-r' j~rofessianal judges. Lay judgos, according to ,Section 142, are a1~;;~ointed by the National Gommi-tt.oos, vrhich deans, in offcct, by the"fiction Commlttces'; 1n tho caso o~' the revived xctuibu~cion Dccrc~a and i'c~ople~ s Courts the -~cnch is to consist of a ;?rofess,ional judge and 2 or ~- lay judges. ~,s the: votes of thu lay judges o.re dvci~ivc, the likolihooc~ of a fair trial is remote. 6. Th? Old. Constitution csto.l~lished an inde;~cndcnt Constitutional Court, incluc;.ing at least ttivo Suprcamc Court judgos which could decl~rc a law ~d if it was cans~.dvred . to conflict with the constitution. Section 6~ :of the nctia constitution allocates to the ~raesidiu~1.. of .the Platioiio.l ' ,~~ssembly tho tasl~ of- int~rl~rctinr~; .thE laws i~l the c~vont of a ccisputo and o:i deciding tijhcther o. lativ is at variance with the constitution. Thus, unclcr tnu nc~J constit~ition 'chc judge:s~ so far from elccitlin~; thQ ve~lic.ity .of dccroos, have to swoar to obey them. 7. r Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Centxal In elltig once Ageaay . Throe ~udgos ..who. wore cpncornod in ..the trial of Cai~'~lD~NTIAL3 .~ the accomp~,iaes of General Jano~+~sek tivera dismiss?d because. sentences imposed by them yrcre considered too light. ,8. ,Justice has been made still more. summary by the p assing of two drastic moasuros,~ a, LAw 33 providing for. ,the ro-opining of cases .which have come up or should have come up before the x~otitr .defunct. Peoples Courts * This is allowed vrherc the case should n.ot have beaxz stopped or whore the sentonc? was too .low or was never pronounced. This permits the . , Communists to ro-try ~r~d ~.ncres.se the santdnces of all those vrhom they ,specially wish to penalise. It is an effective mdasurc of intimidation, An example of 1;hQ flagrant injustice of this measure ~is th? casQ of Kaschtovsky. Ho was sentenced by a pr?-February F?oples Court to 5. years imprisonment on, charges of having denounced Czechs to the G?xmans, At the former.trial witness?s stated. that he had been aci;ivo in the underground movamQnt, hence the.comparatively light sentence. fit the ro-trial no vritnasses could. b:o found to ropQat-.this statement and Kaschtovsky was therefore ro--sentenced to 1ifQ imprisonment. , The . now law .for, the defence of ,the Poople~ independence of thc~ constitutional unity of th? re ublic wil p 1 be treated as High Treason, as will - _ also the folloti~ring crimes: the secession of .parts. of the territory of the republic; attempts to overthrew -the T'c;oplo's Democratic system or the Dcmaeracy. Icy this law attempts to destroy economic or soci~.l order of the , r~epuYa,lic: alliance zov urana.tu:ti r.~ines from the Las tern zone of Ger~_,any, have in so~:le cases chosen to serve with the Israeli units rather than taork in the rainos. l~erodroraes at ~atcc, Hr~~.dec Yralov? and Brno are arlong those used to send arras and in so~_~c eases fuel to Palestine. 17/B (3 ) (5) le siatic li ffairs N~HRU ai;YS COT;~,ZUNI;~TS OVL~;PL; ~~D Th~ITt fi~;NDS The change in Cor~rlunist policy in ~';sia after the war and the possible reasons vahich led the Coi.naunist Partie;:~ to o~,rorplay their hands ~acru discussed by the P~irne Iviinistar cf India, Pandit Nchx`u at a press conference on '12th Ncvfll;rbcr . Pandit Nehru rc;called that there had been a ~~larked ckiange: in Carar:iunist policy tirhen support fur nationali:~t g~overnr;~e;nts forr7e;d in .~isiar~,;countries ~~as replaced by an opposition which inspired atte~:rpts to uproot these govc;rni.~cnts. The progra~.rr_ie of the national goverrrracnts in Burr:ra and Indonesia ~-rer~; advanced socialist pragrar_n_1cs, pointed out the Prir.~c i~,'inister. Ncvorthel.oss the- Cor.~r~unists there rebelled a~~:r~inst thcr:~; they isolated thc;~-r~elvcs, in othar words, from the national ~~rovor.~cnts y~h_i.ch ~vcrc still the rlost povrcrful in those countries:? This preiaaturu action on the part of the Coia~_tunists had only t~vo possible explanations: "either the Co;araunist leadership in those countries Uras very irirraturc and had no rc;alisation or appreciation of conditions in the country, or they acted under orders fror_~ so;.ic other place t~hich ignored thc~so conditions far sortie reason of their a~vn". "P~rhaps it was both", added Pandit Nehru? 17/B (5) a ~~~~~`~~ ~ ~~,L ~C~~TR~L U. ~. ~~ ~ i~lAlS Q~L`~ C~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 _ _e l wrnf!tYT?.1 777 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~~~n~~~Or~ c.a~al In ~Il,iq-^xica ~a4~~1,r1 cc ^.r~. ~ ~ r r~i~~+~ ~r~lL t R:i~VOLT RLPOR'~D IN KO]~!;' S SOVI:~;T ZONl; 1~t least 6,000 rebels arc reported to have been killed by the ~~oviet- trained North Korean People's ~,r~.ry after a t~cak, unor;anised and unsuccess- ful revolt against Coi.~r.~unist dorlination had, broken out in eight cities of the Soviet-occupied zone, according to Chung:lcin~~ radio on ~3th Noveriber. Hunger, poverty, cold and oppression in the Soviet area are in=:.itrr all av~;ilablo f;.dstu~'f;:; in thc:.t?rindotas and R r l! A ~.l ~~1 ~v ~ ~~ C Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~Q~r~'~V~ M~ ~e ~! ~ ~~~ ~~ CONFlDENTi~I ~~1.1,- rlht! lndt rt?Ll prOCille3 by Central Ia elliq once Agency at the xequest of the ;~ovict occupying power, shop-vJindo~.~s have to be -lit up after closing hours to give an appc~ ranee of life and. ^.nii~atian only 3.7=, of the population in the ruestern sectors have roistered fur food and f uol in the aoviet sectors, despite the induce:r:iont a:ffordcd by the prol.~isc of extra. rations; thir-~ ~acans that the nui_~~oor of .those vaho have registered iri the ~aviet sector is '100,000 lower than that of those ~vho voted for the Coi.liaunists in the 191,.6 elections. 17/~ (9) e ROI7i'.~usNTl'3 ~:%i~V.ul~u CULTiJt~'sL LINK -.Z~i~I r'R~,NCE The Con~aaunist policy of rofusin? free access to the: o~{t~ide world was carried stc,~;e further in I-tountania vuhen the hot~~iani~.~n Gov~:rnr:~ent on 21st Novel.~ber ddnounccd their Cultural ~',~rce~~ient Y~ith I+'rance signed on Tlarch 31st 1935. Propaganda and t~~itation. The French Institute is to be closed forthwith (cf. 6/B (9) a)~ 17/B {9) f aOUT.; T TI'v's WING ,aCHLI'.~ b~~, ILC The acadc;i~y of Soci1 p ~~tY~ ~ e]ligsace F,Qena9 ti~OVIL T `.t'I~R~;A T TU A U~`IrRIA' ,~ :tZ~~, IL TR'~AT~;POR Recent aoviet instructions to the ~~ ustrian Federal I-~ailways to surrender 5t~0 engines and. 5,575 goods and passenger trucks as Soviet tivar booty, have been denounced, reports the Vienrk~ press, by the Socialist ldinister of Power, Hr. I~,iigsch as contrary to the ITag~uc Convention,, since no booty could properly be dc-~~anded fror,~ Austria ~rvhich had never boon in. a state of war with the U.,~.a,,:%, 1';cco.rding to the; ~~ocs.alist newspaptir ''Arboiter-Zeitung"9 the fulfilment of th4 Soviet dcm~znd. would r,iean the restriction of railc~ay traffic to an emergency standard in the ;soviet zone, for a.t would entail a depletion of rolling-stock of some 1~.0 to 50 per cent. H:r. ;agr.~eistor, i:iinister of Food pointed out that the transport of food supplies yaould be endar~;ered while the 12in.ister of `:Cransport, Hr. Uebeleis stated that the; surrender of this rol.ling- stvck tivould mean the; collapse o:' ~~ uG;trian goods traffic. Under the 19.6 Contro~. A~rcor~zcnt the ~;oviet ~ler:;ent undertook, in conjunction with the other throe Or.cupyir~; Povaers, to promote the economic recovery of Austria, '~ 7~'~ (11 ~ a RUS'aIAN~; "CFN;~OR" I3liIiLIN T~Il}~PIIONa~ DII;EC 1~'OkY Post offices in the Soviet scctar of berlin v~~ere instructed on 22nd Novet~iber by the Soviet sector police to stop the distribution of the new Berlin telephone directory to subscribers, according to the German nevrs agency report. The official rca:on given by the; Soviet sector police was that the new directory did not give the police departmen~i~s su'ficiently clearly in its pr-went form. In fac? the office of Dr. Johannes ;~turaci is quoted as the Berlin Police I3eadquarters and not that of Hr. Paul :~arkgraf, whom the hussians il7.eg'ally appointed as head of the; Berlin police force. C~>~~r1~3FNTid1 ~ ~~~~~~Q~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 i7Nali:GN ~A UTY ibis maf ri~1 prr~cure ~ ~~ Ceatral Ia ellig~nae Agenay The cxcaptionally violent anti ~rlerican tone of a Russian film "The Russian ~uestiori", tivhich has been shatnrn racently in Prague, has apparently succeeded in embarrassing sorio of the C zach film critics. These critics tivcra tal~en to task in the Cor.~i.lunist Party newspapers ''Rude Pravo", "lvorba?t and "~,~lada Fronta" . !`~pparcn.tl~ their fault vans to I~ay mare attention to the techna.cal and artistic vaiite of the film than to t~ahat "119.1.ada I'ronta" described as its "beautiful ide:alogy". 17,~~ (11 } c T2'1RXI~T. FII~T~t~ T:CP The F'apoff cig;~re.tte, ~.iade in the "people's otivn" tabacca industry in the aoviet -Zane of Gex:~any, is accused by a recent correspondent of -the Potsdar.7 netivspapQr "i1IaQx~kischc Vollestimme" of "sabotaging praduction and and?rniining the Tvvo Year Plan" . ?tI faint8d at ~rrork?' the tivriter said, "and rly throat burned for a long time aftor smoltir~; one: of those rationed cigarettes" . 1 ~/B ('11 } d Press The follovaing articles riay be found to contain points of intcrast:- (a} Titc~'s standing in Croatia, 1~y ~~lcxander Fd~:rth T,Tanche;ster Guardian: issue: of 25th 1`rovcniber, 1948? (b} ~:lr. i.Tolotav's Intervia~v vaith Gerr:~ans lianehcste?r Guardian,: issue: of 26th Navei.~ber, 191+8. Index PART A ~- Noted British Scientist Resigns from IVloscova Academy Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~i15 (S AN FIYI~?~roer Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 HUM G~HRI~d~dO~tL~bI~-Y4~YT E SOVIET UNION THE ANTI-RELIGIOUS STATE AND THE CHURCHES Zhis mat ri31 procuse3 by Summary Central In ells-9 ,nce Agenap Under the Tsarist regime there was freedom of religious worship. The Orthodox Church in particular had freedom of propaganda also, and was the established church supported by the State. Under the Communist regime the Orthodox Church is supported only because the Soviet State is not strong enough to compel everyane to be atheist and because toleration of the Orthodox Church is useful for the prosecution of Communist policy abroad. The Communist Party, which controls all activities in the Soviet Union, is openly and militantly atheist. The Young Communist League is also brought up to be militantlly atheist. The Soviet Constitution entitles Soviet citizens to freedom of religious rite; but there is no freedom to propagate religion. Freedom on the other hand is granted by the Soviet Constitution to propagate anti-religious views and theories. Entry into any career in the Soviet Union and progress in that career depends on either the support of the Communist Party or membership of it. Since the Party is atheist in principle, no~ member of any religious faith can progress in his career. UNDER the Tsars the Established Church in Russia was the Russian Orthodox Church, which was supported by the State, both morally and materially. Only members of the Orthodox Church enjoyed the right of religious propaganda. All other recognised religions enjoyed varying degrees of rights and privileges, in accordance with a fixed "hierarchy of religions." This hierarchy was headed by the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Armenian Churches. Somewhat less favoured was Islam, and at the bottom of the hierarchy came Judaism. Adherents of all these religions were permitted to worship freely, but they were not given the right of religious propaganda and a certain amount of discrimination was shown against them. In practice Lutherans were on an equal footing with Orthodox Russians; Roman Catholics were handicapped, particularly in the former Polish COlVFlpENT1~4~. provinces; and Jews were practically debarrad -from administrative positions, professional careers open to them were restricted, and they were forbidden to live outside the "Pale of Settlement." In this connexion, however, it should be borne in mind that in Tsarist Russia official discrimination against Jews was on purely religious and never " racial " grounds. Towards Religion in general the State attitude was not merely favourable but protective. Religious education was obligatory in all schools, and the State recognised only religious marriage and divorce. Anti-religious propaganda was forbidden. "Non-confessionalism " was not recognised as a status. It is true that the State protection of the Orthodox Church against any spiritual competi- tion led to certain weaknesses within the Church. The Church took no part in social activity, C4NjR0~ U. S. OEEIUALS O~Ly Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 crammg given in s~emi~nar~s was often of poor quality, although some ` seminaries `provided education of a high sta'IIdaid, and priests assigned to rural parishes were often men of inferior intelligence and morals. On the other hand it should be noted that the Tsarist State was not excessively generous in its material support of the Church. The Church obtained most of its income from the voluntary contributions of its adherents. To sum up, the Orthodox Church enjoyed the protection of the Tsarist State, for which it paid the price of a certain ,degree of subordination. This subordination weakened the position of the Church when- the latent antagonism between State and "Intelligentsia " developed. Religion as such became identified with the temporal power and the more subversive elements of the " Intelligentsia " became atheist. However, the ordinary individual, of whatever faith, was in general encouraged to practise his religion. Nevertheless, in the ear3y years of the twentieth century a liberal tendency showed itself in the Orthodox Church. A decree of 17th April, 1905, repealed statutes forbidding apostasy, and legalised the position of a large number of hitherto illegal heretical sects. Many clergymen realised the necessity of liberating the Church from its subordination to the State. The February Revolution and Church Reform With the overthrow of Tsarism in February 1917, and the establishment of the Provisional Government under Kerensky, the Orthodox Church entered on a period of greater spiritual freedom. A law granting full religious liberty and giving for the first time legal recognition to " non-confessionalism " or atheism was passed on 10th July, 1917. .The Holy Synod. was abolished in June 1917, and a Ministry of Confessions set 'up. At the same time plans were made for calling a Church Council, the first to be held since the abolition of 'the Patriarchate. In a session held. in October 1917, the Council decided to restore the Patriarchate. Archbishop Titchon, Metropolitan of Moscow, was chosen as Patriarch. However, this decision was taken after the Communist coup d'~tat, so that this and other reforms had to be carried. out, not in the democratic conditions obtaining under the Provisional Government, but under the Communist Dictatorship and in the teeth of the Communist persecution of religion. The Basic Communist Attitude to Religion The doctrine of Communism, or Marxism- Leninism, is much more than a political theory. It is an all-embracing philosophy of life and includes a metaphysical., system, a sociology, a practical revolutionary methodology, and a socio-political ideal: The basis of the Marxist metaphysic is materialism: matter and its motion .are all that exists; consciousness is the product of, and therefore secondary to, matter. Marxist sociology explains social processes on a basis of purely economic conditions and relations, which, in the pre-Socialist era at any rate, are established and altered mechanically, that is, independently of human volition! It is these economic phenomena which form the basis of society, and are reflected in the human brain in "spiritual " forms such as morals, religion, and "ideology." Hence, as the economic basis of society changes, in accordance with certain mechanical laws, thought processes (including Religion) change with rt. Engels expressed this concept in his "Anti-Duehring " in the following words " All religion is nothing but the fantastic reflection in the minds of men, of those external forms which dominate their everyday existence, a reflection in which the earthly forces assume the form of supernatural forces." Similarly, Marx himself, in " Das Kapital," says: " The omnipotence of God is nothing but the fantastic reflection of the impotence of men before nature and of the economic relations created by themselves." From this it was a small logical step to the concept of Religion as one of the instruments of oppression in capitalist society, which is expressed in Marx's famous slogan: "Religion is the opium of the people." Lenin expresses this Marxist tenet in the following words " Being born of dull suppression . . religion teaches those who toil in poverty to be resigned and patient in this world, and consoles them with the hope of reward in heaven." " The oppression of humanity by religion is but the product and reflex of economic oppression within society." In reply to the suggestions made before the (Communist accession to power by certain 'Communists as to the possibility of adapting Religion to Communist teachings, Lenin said: " There can be no good Religion, or perhaps better Religion is still more dangerous than bad Religion." Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Immediately after the October Revolution there were two schools of thought among Communists concerning the position of Religion in the new state: A logical extension of the Marxist doctrine of the role of Religion as an instrument of oppressing classes in Capitalist society; with the overthrow of the Capitalist regime Religion would. fade from the minds of the liberated people. Therefore an open attack, on the Church was unnecessary. All that was required was the separation of Church from State and the undermining of the Church's material existence. (ii) The view that the victory of Communism was not yet complete. The bourgeoisie, not yet annihilated, would exploit the political ignorance of the proletariat, and to assist that exploitation would resort to Religion. Therefore, it was desirable to destroy Religion as quickly as possible. In the Constitutional Committee which elaborated the First Soviet Constitution the first, or more moderate, of these views, at first prevailed.. Therefore the Committee wrote into its draft the formula "Religion is the private affair of the citizen." This formula, however, was rejected by Lenin, who ordered that it be replaced by a clause guaranteeing "freedom of religious and anti-religious propaganda." This became Article 13 of the R.S.F.S.R. Constitution of 10th July, 1.918. This clause, liberal in appearance, was in actual fact a declaration of war on Religion, as " religious propaganda " was to be undertaken by a weakened Church, deprived of age-old. privileges, where~is "anti-religious propaganda " was pursued. with all the vigour of the new state. The course of the Communist war on Religion in Russia may be best sub-divided into three periods of persecution, leading up to the present New Religious Policy. The First Period of Persecution The first period of persecution lasted from November 1.917 to February 1922, and.. was characterised by the following three features: (i) The Church was deprived of material means and of legal existence. A decree of 23rd January, 1918, on the separation of Church and State and of Church and School, ordered. that all Church-owned. property be seized by the Government (iii) without compensation. Local soviets were empowered to allow members of " religious organisations " to retain as much of their. property as was absolutely essential to them : church buildings, chalices, vestments, &c: Thus divine service was permitted to continue, but in conditions of extreme hardship: ln. addition, Churches were prevented from acquiring new property. Article 12 of the decree said: " No church or religious society has the right to own private property; such societies do not enjoy the rights of a juridical person." All Church property was therefore converted- into the property of - individuals acting as trustees of the Church-but as private property was very often confiscated, this measure afforded little protection. Furthermore, "religious organisations " were not allowed exclusive use of Church buildings, for the Commissariat of Justice (in charge of "religious affairs " until 1924) decided that- churches- might also be used for such pursuits as courses of instruction, lectures, concerts, cinema shows, political meetings and' popular dances. Finally, as the term "religious organisa- tions " did not include monasteries and convents, these were closed. down.. Priests and clerics were reduced to a. socially inferior position. Article 65 of the 1918 Constitution proclaimed that they were "servants of the bourgeoisie," and as such they were disenfranchised. As disenfranchised persons they received either no ration cards at all or cards of the very lowest category; they were not allowed to belong to trade unions and- consequentily could. find no work. in State enterprises; they had to pay higher rents for living quarters and higher income and agricultural taxes; their children. could not be educated in secondary schools and. universities. The Church's influence in various direc- tious, particularly on education, was destroyed. Article 9 of the Separation Decree (see above) prohibited religious instruction in schools. A decree of 13th June, 1.921, forbade the giving of religious instruction to groups of children under the age of 18. Thirdly, a decree of 18th December, 1917, later incorporated into the Family Code of 22nd October, 3 ~~~?C~A~.S ~~~~,~ C~NFIDENTt~II ~~~4t U. S' ~~ .~~ ~~~ ~ro~ ~ t~~ } ~~~ Ia e1lig;nce Agency Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 1918, refused legal recognition to Church marriages and divorces. During this first period the local Soviet authorities encountered unexpected resistance among the populace to these; anti-religious measures, and had to resort to violence in carrying them out. The execution, exiling and imprisonment of bishops and priests, the closing down of churches, the desecration. of religious articles, were common features of this period. Up to 1923, 28 bishops and over one thousand priests of the Orthodox Church were executed by the Communist authorities (cf. Timashev, "Religion in Soviet Russia," which is the best informed and best documented work on this subject). As an additional means of destroying the Church, the Communist Government resorted. to the construction of a schism. I:n May 1922, a number of "progressive " clerics, opposed to the Patriarch's policy, were induced to announce the creation of a sycophantic religious organisa- tion called "The Living Church," outlining plans for reforms "compared with which (its manifesto said) Luther's reform would appear as child's play." Thereupon the Patriarch was arrested, a large number of church buildings were forcibly turned over to the new schism, 84 bishops anal more than 1,000 priests were expelled' from their offices to make room for the new organisation. A joint decree of the Commissariats of Justice. and the Interior on 27th April, 1923, allowed all religious organisations to call provincial and central conventions and to elect executive' boards, but only by special permission of the governmental authorities. Permission was in fact granted only to a few religious groups which had' been suppressed by the Tsarist regime, and of course to the "Living Church." For lack of popular support the "Living Church "rapidly broke up, and was dropped by the Government in Junc 1923. Meanwhile the Patriarch had 'been in prison since May 1922. His impending trial was announced in such a way that it was clear he was threatened with execution. -Put large-scale popular protests throughout' Russia and Europe caused the Soviet Government' to capitulate, and the Patriarch was released on' 27th Junc, L923. This development represented the breakdawn of the first Communist attack on Religion. The Church had emerged from it still vigorous. The second period of persecution extended from the end of 1922 until 1929. It was marked by, the cessation of the direct attack on clergy arad believers, for which new and more efficient means of destroying Religion were substituted. The most important of these means were: (a) systematic calumny of the Church, and (b) the establishment of a body of ideas based on materialism in active opposition to religious faith. To this latter end a "non-party publishing company " calling itself "The Godless " had been set up already in February 1922. In Novem- ber of that year an anti-religious seminary was opened in Moscow. Christmas (which is celebrated in Russia in January) saw the organisation of an "anti-Christmas carnival,." described in Izvesziya of 10th January, 1923, as follows " Preliminary meetings were organised and. the following themes selected for the mock procession : the Performance of Miracles ; the Opening of Holy Shrines; the Immaculate Conception. The students of the Sverdlov University imitated the representatives of 41i~fferent re[igious." Militant Atheists League For the organisation of anti-religious work a neW and most important body was formed on 7th February, 1925-the League of Militant Atheists. From 1926 onward, this League disseminated anti-religious propaganda of the moist violent. kind. All methods were used, including music halls, playing cards, and children's primers. In its propaganda the League pursued three lines of attack. Firstly, it sought to demon- strate that Religion in all its forms had always begin the enemy of the workers; secondly, that " Science had explained everything " and left no reom for religion; and thirdly, that religious belief constituted treason to the Soviet State, for religion was incompatible with Socialism. In all cases the League's propaganda was grossly blasphemous, abounding in indecent cartoons of God, Christ, the Virgin and the Saints. Meanwhile, more direct, "administrative " methods of persecution were by no means neglected. Although church buildings had been played at the disposal of religious groups, the land on which the churches stood was taxable, and these taxes were constantly increased. Moxeover, church buildings had to be insured, and the religious groups using them had to cover the'cost of insurance. In December-1923, it was decreed that if Church buildings were destroyed by fire, the sums paid as insurance would become State property. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part - Sian(it~iyz~edL Copy Apprgo`ved( for ReleKase 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 On 16th July, 1924, the teaching of Religion in churches was forbidden, and on 1st September, religious instruction- given to groups of more than three children was prohibited. On 30th July, '1923, official holidays, which had previously coincided with Church holidays, were transferred, so that Church holidays became working days and could no longer be properly celebrated. Towards the end of the second. period. of persecution the State made great efforts to stamp out all traces of religious customs. In 1928, the sale of Easter food and Christmas trees was prohibited, and no Christmas ornaments. were allowed. in shop window displays. They were replaced by special "anti-Christmas literature." On the death of the Patriarch Tikhon in l 925, the Soviet authorities refused to allow the election of anew Patriarch, and in addition arrested successive Acting Patriarchs until., in Junc 1.927, the Metropolitan Sergius of Nizhni-Novgorod succeeded. in negotiating a compromise with the Soviet Government and en retaining his office as Acting Patriarch. Sergius' Declaration of 16th June, 1927, which turned out to be the cornerstone in the relations between the Orthodox Church and the Soviet Government, contained the following exhortation to the faithful: " We must show, not by words only, but by deeds, that loyal citizens of the U.S.S.R. are not only those who are indifferent to Orthodoxy, or those who have betrayed it, but the faithful for whom Orthodoxy, with all its dogmas and traditions .' is as dear as truth and life. We wish to be Orthodox and at the same time to recognise the Soviet Union for our civil fatherland, whose joys and successes are our joys and. successes, and whose defeats are our defeats." The Third Period of Persecution fay 1929, the failure of the second attack on Religion. had. become obvious. Therefore, tlic Soviet Government initeated a .new plan, con- sisting of three principal features. First, the direct attack was renewed, en the form of the mass closing down of churches, on the pretext that Russia was being transformed into a Socialist society, whose members could. not need churches. This attack was synchronised with the forced collectivisation of the peasantry. Throughout the country local Communists called meetings which voted over the heads of con- gregations that the churches be demolished, church bells be melted down, and certain church buildings be turned into granaries, schools and cinemas. Iri this manner 1,440 churches were closed down during 1929 alone. The mass closing down of churches was accompanied by a fierce attack on the Orthodox clergy. Some 150 bishops were arrested, and their successors, when appointed, arrested. in their turn. Most of them were sent to the notorious Solovetsky concentration camp, situated on a group of islands in the White Sea: Priests were exiled or executed in thousands; many of them had. been seized as hostages in reprisal for the murders of local Soviet officials by the incensed peasantry, who were at that time resisting collective atipn (cf. Timashev off. cit.). A decree of 27th December, ].932, brought new hardships to the Church by making the carrying of identity cards compulsory and. universal, and by prohibiting all "non-workers " from living in the large towns and. their environs. Consequently, priests could no longer live in the cities and. had to travel to and .from the countryside to their parishes. A decree of 24th September, 1929, introducing the 6-day week, made it difficult for workers to attend church on Sundays, unless Sunday hap- pened to coincide with the sixth, or rest day, of the week. After the law of 20th November, 1.932, which penalised failure to appear at work, church attendance, except on the rest day, became impossible. Second, the Soviet Government adopted a plan of what may be best described as "cultural strangulation." This was by way of a reaction to an unexpected development in Church activity. Sence the October Revolution, the Church had become a centre of cultural and. social activities. To put an eied to this state of affairs, the Government issued. a decree on 8th April, 1929, resuming the old restrictions and imposing new restrictions on religious societies, especially on their cultural and. social activities. Article 17 of this decree forbade religious societies to farm mutual aid associations or co-operatives;- to make any use of their funds apart from the offering of worship; to give material aid. to their xriembers; to organise special prayer or Bible classes or other meetings for children, adolescents and women ; to organise groups, circles or excursions; to open. playgrounds, libraries or reading rooms; and to overate sanatoria or give medical aid. This list of .forbidden activities shows how numerous the functions of the Church had become, 5 $. ~~~r~tALS O~~L C~FlDENTlAL CC~~~~.Ot U ~, Lis mat ri ,1 pracuxe.~ by CQntral Ia eIlig~nce Agenv9 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Among other things, the new decree meant that the Church was refused the right of under- taking re igious propaganda. This veto was entered into the Soviet Constitution on 22nd May, 1.929, when "liberty of religious and anti- r~ligious propaganda "was abolished, "freedom of religious worship and of anti-religious pro- paganda " being substituted therefor. Further restrictions imposed by the new decre:, were the following:- Only those members of a denomination living in one locality could form a religious association. This was a provision directed against denominations whose members were widely scattered-e.g., the Roman Catholics. (ii) A religious .association was permitted only one church building: this was a provision directed against large parishes which possessed chapels as well as a main church. (iii) Religious organisations were forbidden to organise collections; donations had to be spontaneous. Additional pressure was brought to bear through the Trade Unions.. In the autumn of 1929, the Central Committee of the Printers' Union ordered its members to refuse to print religious works. Similarly, transport workers were ordered to refuse to tr~insport articles intended for religious ceremonies, and the Union of Post and Telegraph Workers_stopped answering calls to or from members of the clergy. Thirdly, all. active members of the churches were condemned to socially inferior positions. This part of the plan. was not openly promulgated. in any law or decree, but in fact no opportunity was given to practising Christians to advance in either professional or industrial careers. Fourthly, whereas hitherto teaching in schools had been purely non-religious-i.e., free from any reference to God or Religion-it now became openly anti-religious. Textbooks appeared in schools teaching the class origin of Religion and its incompatibility with Science. The sociology of Marxism-Leninism became one of the most important subjects in the school curriculum. School excursions were organised to anti-religious: museums, and special anti-religious discussions and readings were held. Failure The third attack too proved to be a failure. A good deal of the peasantry's furious resistance to' collectivisation was due to the fact that collec- tivisation measures were often combined with, the closing down of their churches. .Realising this fact somewhat belatedly, the Soviet Govern- ment decided to separate the issues of collectivisa- tion apd de-Christianisation. Therefore, on 15th March, 1930, a decree was issued acknowledging that churches had been. closed bylocal authorities against the will of the populace, and ordering the cessation of the practice. Shortly afterwards Yaroslavsky, head of the League of Militant Atheists, published an article in the League's journal Bezbozhnik (" The Godless "), ridiculing those who organised masquerades and dancing parties to divert people-from churchgoing. Such measures are, of course, typical of the Communist leaders, who are always prepared to shift the blame for their errors on tb the shoulders of their subordinates. The Communist Retreat Thus the direct attack on Religion was perforce quietly dropped. But other forms of persecution, especially the method of cultural strangulation, persisted until 1935. Then began a period of Communist Retreat, characterised by a nwnber of minor concessions on the part of the Soviet Government. This policy of course by no means reflected a change in the basic Communist attitude towards Religion. It was part of an overall policy of concessions and adjustments to popular feelings, made necessary by the rise of Fascism in Europe, the threat of an anti-Soviet war, and the Soviet Government's deep and justifiable feeling of unpopularity at home. For these reasons such exuberances as the " anti- Easter " and "anti-Christmas " festivals were stopped, and the closing down of churches was officially condemned. By Easter 1935, the sale of traditional Easter food in the markets was once more authorized, anal later they were sold even in the State shops. At Christmas 1935, Christmas trees were again allowed-although ostensibly for New Year's celebrations. On 29th December, 1935, a decree abolished discrimination against the children of non- workers,. and. the children of the clergy were allowed to be educated. in all. schools. Finally, the new Soviet Constitution of 5th December, 1.936, abolished the disenfranchisement of priests and "non-workers "generally. The Religious Purge I'n August 1937, this retreat was quite suddenly reversed, and a fourth attack was launched on Religion. The Church's leaders were again denounced officially as the "implacable enemies Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~rrrli of social reconstruction," but the rank and file laity were not so persecuted. This attack on the Church coincided. with the climax of the Terror, directed by Yezhov, then chief of the N.K.V.:D. In November 1937, groups of Churchmen were arrested throughout the Soviet Union on charges of organising espionage and sabotage i,n the interests of Germany and Japan, and of plotting the assassination of Soviet leaders. These charges were of course very similar to those fabricated at about the same time in the trials of the Com- munist Party's Old Guard-Kamenev, Zinoviev, Bakharn, &c.-and of the leaders of the Red. Army-Tukhachevsky, &c. In this way StaGn- attempted. to assocrate the Church with the " enemies of Russia "-his Communist Party opponents-and to tuns the rising patriotism of the population against both. >/aster 1938 was marked by the announcement of wholesale arrests of religious people. Charges ranged from "espionage in the interests of certain foreign states " ~to the " settrog up of a miracle factory in Moscow.'.' At the same time purely religious activity was alsopunished as such. For .nstance,n the Leningrad area seven peasants were tried for having gathered together to read the Bible. One of them was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, another to 8 years. The Bishop of Stalingrad was tried for having explained the Holy ~Irit to children. A wholesale execution of clergy was reported from. the Crimea. (Timashev op. cit.-who refers to Soviet press items of the time). During L937, 1,100 Orthodox churches, 240 Catholic churches, 61 Protestant prayer houses and 11.0 mosques, it is calculated, were closed. (Cf. Professor Ilyin: " Rnssi:~ "-New York, 1941.) This fourth persecution ended as suddenly as it began. The change coincided with. the removal of Yezhov. Front January 1939, began a new era. in the Connnunist battle with Religion. The New Religious Policy 1/arly in 1939, the Soviet authorities declared. that anti.-religious .propaganda must be " co- ordinated with the exigencies of the class struggle." By this they-meant that anti.-religious propaganda h.ad failed, and that in future all such activity was to be subordinated. to more important political. matters. After the Soviet Union seized Eastern Poland in accordance with their agreement with Nazi Germany, a reminder was issued to the League of Militant Atheists that the anti-religious struggle was not in alt circumstances a necessity. In CON~BENIIAl. short, in 1939, the Soviet Government found. themselves compelled by their international policy to permit freedom of religious worship to their subjects. Hence Soviet agencies were ordered to stop all. attempts to "liquidate " Religion. Atheists were instructed not to o11'end the religious susceptibilities of believers. Trials of believers were stopped. Of great interest in this connexion. are Kalnin's remarks to a teachers' conference, as reported in Kornsomolskaya Pravda of 11th April, 1.939, and in the Teachers' Gazette of 13th July, 1939. Kalinin, the president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (the highest constitutional office i^ the Soviet Union), said that Marxist education should no conger be interpreted as meaning merely the teaching of Marxist doctrine. It should mean the " inculcation of love for the Socialist fatherland, friendship .honesty arid. co-operation in work, respect for the Soviet Government, and love for Stalin." He also said that it was not enough to destroy Religion, which must be replaced by something else. This speech of Kalinin was followed by mm?e concessions to the Orthodox way of life. At this time, the Soviet Government found it necessary to abandon. the 6-day working week. The ordinary - 7-day week was re-established, and Sunday again became the rest day. Behind the New Religious Policy, three excellent reasons can be discerned. The Soviet Government had come to understand. the usefuhless of Religion as the guardian of morality and discipline, and to realise that the moral disorder obtaining in the Soviet Union was disastrous to the fulfilment of their social and. technical plans. (ii) Persecution was being switched to the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic clergy were declared to be the real enemies of the Soviet Union and Communism. In fact almost all Catholic priests in -the Soviet Union have been imprisoned.. (iii) The Communist authorities realised that it was far easier to control Religion when it was under the jurisdiction of a well- organsed and. centralised. church, than to control the activities of countless local " religious organisations." Consequently the New Policy concentrated. ~n canalising religious activity in the instituted. Church. Although the New Religious Policy indicated a great change in Cominuntst tactics, rt ~~n~"'~~ >~ ~ ~, ~ ~ 1'~~~~`i.`/ ~~ ~t xi. it prt~cuxe3 bq w__.a~~l i~ a~llia?riC9 ~II~l4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 :~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 mean that the basic Communist attitude to'. Religion had altered in the slightest. Indeed, in. the summer of 1939, members of the Communist Party and of the Young Communist League were reminded that they ~,~-ould be expelled from xhos~' organisations if they performed any religious rite.' Under the New Religious Policy, anti-religious' propaganda was revised thoroughly. In future,'. the spearhead of the Communist attack was' to be aimed at "superstition," and the concept of "superstition " was to be identified with' religious belief. For example, as .Pravda af! 20th August, 1939, said: " Many still adhere to the rites and super-' stitions of the Church, continue to believe in religious doctrines, in the power of charms,', sorcery and the interpretation of dreams. The existence of such a religious ideology offers a' fruitful field for the activity of the enemies of'. the people, especially among the peasantry."', Antireligiozruk, No. 4 of 1939, remarked: " In the U.S.S.R. there is complete freedom of religion. But we demand that the Soviet State '~ conduct anti-religious propaganda . by ideological methods, through speeches, the press, the school, the theatre, the clubs and the'' wireless." On 27th February, 1940, the Commissariat of Education, issued instructions for the improve- ment of anti-religious work in schools. Special', anti-religious circles were organised for parents. Further, writing on the subject of the "religious problem " in the newly annexed Baltic States, Yaroslavsky said in Bezl~ozhnick, No. 4 of 1940: " As 22 years have been insufficient to l liquidate the Church in the U.S.S.R., we.shall' have many dill'iculties in extirpating the'., remnants of religious prejudices in the Baltic countries. One of the reasons is that many ; people consider anti-religious propaganda no' longer necessary. This opinion is false. Anti-' religious propaganda is one of the essential' aspects of Communist propaganda and must' be carried out 6y a special organisation." In a lecture given on tOth October, 1940, Yaroslavsky's second-in-command, Oleshchuk (now in the Communist Party's Section. for Agitation and Propaganda) said that it was' incorrect to ascribe progressive tendencies to' Christianity as such, that it had played a pro- ~~ gressive role only in certain epochs, and that any' attempt to find a compromise between. Christianity end Communism was counter-revolutionary: Under the New Religious Policy, religious propaganda continued to be illegal. In 1940, no religious press was permitted, no reprints of the Bible had been made since 1927. No-one was permitted to preach religion at open meetings, and religious instruction might be given only by parents to their children. After the Soviet invasion of Eastern Poland, Mikhailov, head of the Young Communist League, said that both the Soviet and the Nazi States were opposed to Christian ideology, and their chief mutual enemy was the Roman Catholic Church. Hence the two Governments should exchange information and act together in this field. The Soviet-German War and the Orthodox Church On the outbreak of war between Germany and the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Russian Orthodox Church, under Acting Patriarch Sergius, rallied. to the support of the Soviet State. On 21st August, 1.941., Moscow radio surprisingly called upon "all God-loving inhabitants of the occupied countries " to rise in defence of their religious freedom. It went on to charge the German Government with "menacing the very existence of Christianity and seeking the over- throw of Christ the King, to instal instead the philosophy of Alfred Rosenberg." One ~ month later, the two periodicals of the League of Militant Atheists, Bezbozhnik and antireligioznik, closed down, officially in order to conserve paper, but actually for other and obvious reasons. Furthermore, in 1941, the Moscow war-time curfew was lifted for the benefit of those attending Easter midnight services. But nevertheless, in March 194], in the Baltic States a number of religious associations had been dissolved. as "inimical to the State " and their members arrested. Churches had been closed down in large numbers, and monasteries destroyed. The second great turning-point in the history of the relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Soviet State occurred in 1942, when a book was published in Moscow, entitled. " The Truth About Religion i.n Russia." This unprecedented publication was well printed and copiously illustrated, and contained contributions from the highest dignitaries of the Russian. Church. (lt is fiirthermore believed that the book was printed on the presses of the League of Militant Atheists!) In November 1.942, the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the Communist Revolution, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 . ^?r1 - 1 ~ .~ ~~^ st ^ t h A\ ii t,l Declassified in{ Ppia~yrtp - San_i_tiz_ ed Copy Approve~dlfor Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Acting Patriarch Sergius sent cordial con- gratulations to Stalin, whom he addressed as "the God-given leader of the military and cultural forces of the nation." The improvement of the Church's position reached a still higher level on 5th September, 1943, when Izvestiya announced that "Stalin received the- Acting Patriarch Sergius, Metro- politan Alexis of Leningrad and Metropolitan Nicholas of Kiev. During the reception, Metro- politan Sergius informed. Stalin that leading circles of the Orthodox Church intended. to hold a Council of bishops in the very near future and elect a Patriarch. The head of the Government, expressed 'his sympathy with the decision and said that the Government would not hinder this in any way." As a result of this conversation, Sergius was officia ly installed as Patriarch of Moscow and. All Russi:l, on 12th September, 1943. On this date too, appeared the first number of the official publication of the newly restored Patriarchate, the " Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate." It is perfectly obvious that the Russian. Church was .given official recognition in 1943 for three reasons: (a) the effect of the outside world, in particular the Orthodox Balkans, but also the Western Democracies; and (b) in expectation of services to be rendered, both during and. after the war; to the Communist Party and the Soviet State by the Patriarchate; and (c) to counter Hitler's policy of posing as the champion of Orthodoxy in occupied territory. For its own part, the Church had obviously to purchase its right to a legal. existence at the price of political subservience to the Soviet State, with whose aims it would have to compromise as far as possible without abandoning basic Christian principles and while remaining aware that the ultimate aim of the Soviet State involved. the destruction of Religion. Thus the history of the Russian Church since the Soviet restoration of the Patriarchate is one of covert warfare with the State :power, of enforced compromise and. careful advance. During the Soviet-German war the Soviet State enjoyed the assistance of the Orthodox Church in the following directions :- (i) By prayers for victory the Church. sustained and strengthened popular morale. (ii) The Church collected money for direct help to the war effort. E.g., the Church collected over eight million roubles for a " Dmitri Donskoy " tank column, and millions of roubles for aircraft and relief of war wounded and orphans. (iii) The Patriarch used the authority of the Church to prohibit collaboration with the Germans in the occupied provinces. On many occasions he solemnly condemned bishops and priests who expressed. admira- tion for the Germans. (iv) The Patriarch helped to encourage resistance to the Germans in Orthodox countries outside the Soviet Union., principally in Yugoslavia. In addition to ~ these services, the Patriarch displayed a great willingness to support the Soviet Government in its frequent quarrels with its Western Allies. For example, in 1943, shortly 'before he became official Patriarch, Sergius gave public support to Soviet demands that a Second Front be opened. in France immediately. Finally, Patriarch Alexis, like his predecessor Sergius, has been very helpful to the Soviet Government in its fight against Roman Catholicism. In April 1945, for example, he published a special article in the Journal of tdtc Moscow Patriarchate directed against the Vatican. In October 1943, the Soviet Government set up a Council for the Russian Orthodox Church, subordinate to the Council of People's Com- missars. Headed by G. I:. I~at?pov, and consisting of five. members, the Council provided a link between the Patriarchate anal the Govermnent for the settlement of Church matters when Govern- ment decisions were involved. The Council has representatives in every Soviet republic and region, who arc appointed and. fuianced 'by -the local Soviet, but who act under the direction of Karpov. The advantages received. by the Orthodox Church in return for services rendered to the Soviet Government during the war may be summarised as Follows :- (i) The Church was formally recognised and given permission to elect a Patriarch. (ii) The newly-formed Patriarchate acquired a formal residence-the late German Embassy in Moscow. (iii) The training of priests was restored. In December :1.943, Patriarch Sergius announced. the opening of a theological academy in Moscow and the beginning of special courses for training priests in the dioceses. (iv) The printing of certain religious material has become possible. In practice, however, it is exceedingly difficult for the Patriarchate to publish books of any description. r-,,~:3 ~ ~ ~~~~ROL U. S. C~ ~l~IA~S ~~~t~ ~t~r.~E~UEN~'~~~. 9his mat ri31 procure i bq Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 (v) A few churches were re-opened in Moscow. In Summer 1942, there were 26 churches open. By Christmas 1943, there were about 50. This, for a population of some six millions, of whom one-third are said to be believers, is very little. (vi) Anti-religious museums were closed down for the most part and the publication of openly anti-religious literature stopped. On 15th May, 1944, the death of Patriarch Sergius was reported. The Metropolitan Alexis of Leningrad, on being appointed Acting Patriarch in exp:,ctation of his election, addressed a warm personal letter to Stalin, whom he described as "the wise leader placed by the Lord over our great nation," and shortly after his election he was allowed to publish in Izvestiya an exhortation to the faithful to attend confession and communion. At Sergius' funeral, the Soviet Government was represented by a high Soviet official. Further concessions to the Orthodox Church were made during 1944. In August of that year, the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church announced that "priests may go to their parishioners and engage in proselytizing work. either in church or outside." In September, the Council stated that "Parents may religiously educate children themselves ... or send them to the homes of priests for such education: Children of different families may also gather in groups to .receive religious instruction." In October a similar statement was made regarding the religious education. of children of other denominations. But it was emphasised 'that religious instruction could not be given inside a church, synagogue or mosque. ' At the end of 1946, according to data given by Karpov, Head of the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church (cf. paragraph 69 above), the Orthodox Church had a Patriarch, 3 Arch- bishops and 67 Bishops, i.e., almost as many diocesans as before the October Revolution. There were 22,000 Churches in operation. Also there were 89 monasteries and convents, but almost all of these were in territory newly acquired by the Soviet Union. Throughout the Soviet Union there were 12 Church seminaries. In addition there was a theological academy at Leningrad, and further such academies were to be opened at Moscow and Kiev. Post-War Developments During the Soviet-German war, the New Religious Policy was a marked success. So much so that many outside observers have made the mistake of exaggerating superficial resem- blances between the new situation and that prevailing before the Revolution. But the opposing philosophies of Church and State remained. unadulterated. The State did not ' abandon. Marxist materialism and its intention ' of destroying Religion, and the Church obviously could not abandon its spiritual beliefs. Conflicts were therefore latent. These conflicts started to arise when the Soviet authorities announced their intention, ' early in 1946, of pushing ahead with the con- struation of Communism. This was followed by a large-scale campaign for ideological rededication and re-education, involving a thorough purge of " remnants of bourgeois ideology " and "alien ideological influences." In the summer of 1947, 'the official organisation for mass conditioning known as "The All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Know- '. ledge " was launched, together with an immense campaign for the inculcation and inflation of " Soviet Patriotism." Behind these "educational" campaigns can be seen the modern Soviet method of substituting psychological for physical per- : suasion: This of course does not involve the '; suspen~on of physical coercion-rather are its limitations recognised, and due importance given to the role of psychological methods. So far the new campaign has not developed sufficiently to produce ahead-on conflict with ' the Church, but there have been symptoms that such a conflict is probably imminent. Thus, the party youth periodical Young Bolshc vik, No. 6 of 1947, published a letter to the editor from a Young Communist, complaining of the visit of a priest who had ' attempted to convert him, and requesting official enlightenment on the religious question. l n reply, Young Bolshevik published an article ' which pointed out that "the guiding force ~, of the Soviet people is the Communist Party, which builds its activity on scientific foundations, and implants in people a wholesome outlook, incompatible with any superstition." The article went on to explain the existence of religious convictions in the minds of members of SovieC society by the fact that Soviet society had not yet succeeded in ridding itself of the "birthmarks of Capitalism." "Only as it ,gradually develops from Socialism to Communism will it outlive the relics of the past." As "Stalin had written in his "Anarchy or Socialism " . .. `~ mental and moral development are preceded by the development of the material side, the development of external conditions; Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~CONFtUtN i ~JNTROL U. S. 0~ ~~~1~LS O~~L~' ? external conditions, the material side, change paganda against all religious prejudices, because first, and then the mind, the ideal side." it stands for science, and religious prejudices Arguing from this quotation from Authority, are opposed to science, since any religion the article went on to explain that Religion is contrary to science." in the Soviet Union was a relic of the past, and survived in some people's .minds by the The quotation from Stalin continued:- power of tradition.. Further, like other relics of the. past, religious beliefs could, in certain "There are cases in which some members conditions, revive. Conditions favourable to of the Party occasionally hinder the thorough such a revival were "the hardships of life," development of anti-religious propaganda. If which induced the weak-spirited to seek "illusory such members of the Party are expelled, .this consolations." Hence only the strengthening is very good., since there is no room in the and development _ of Socialism, the concomitant ranks of our Party for such `Communists '." cultural growth of the people and their "education in the Communist spirit " would free them from This article then went on to point out that religious convictions. the Young Communist League Charter, required Thus, continued the Young Bolshevik article, Young Communists to conduct anti-religious scientific and educational propaganda was propaganda. Obviously such propaganda could an important means of overcoming religious be carried out only by young people free of survivals. Such propaganda should provide religious prejudice. " A young man cannot be a a materialistic explanation of nature and society. Young Communist unless he is Free of religious ? convictions." The Young Communist League was to explain This article also complained of the article patiently " to young people the superiority of in Young Bolshevik (see above), on the grounds scientific outlook over religious faith. Religion that it contained " no orientation towards was impossible for Young Communists, as it an offensive ideological struggle against religious encouraged passivity, and through its belief survivals." in an after life, it disarmed the will-power. In short, "Young Communist organisations The latest of this series of pronouncements must allow their members no deviations from on the official Communist attitude to Religion the thesis of the Communist Party on questions at the present day is to be found in an article of Religion." Nevertheless, it should be borne in Young Bolshevik for December 1947, entitled in mind that "religious prejudices will be over- the Young Communist Attitude to Religion." come only by long and patient work." " It This is an article vehemently condemning Young would be a mistake to persecute a believer Bolshevik's own previous statements on this for his prejudices-they are not his fault, but subject (see above), and contains the following `his misfortune. He must be helped to free highly significant passages:- himself of them by patient scientific and (i) ?? The preaching of a tolerant attitude educational work. towards religious convictions ideologically In June 1947, the Young Communist League's disarms Young Communists and prevents magazine .Young Communist Worke`?, pointed their being a forward detachment of out that anti-religious propaganda formed an youth, and conducting ideological and integral part of Communist education. Soviet educational work among the masses of youth had to acquire a materialistic philosophy young people." and a scientific understanding of nature and (ii) "With the triumph of Socialism in our social life. Hence Young Communists must country, the social roots of Religion have not only be convinced athiests and opposed been eliminated, but religious convictions to all superstitions, but must actively combat exist in the form of survivals from the the spread of superstitions and prejudices among youth." past in the consciousness of the backward On 18th` October, 1947, the newspaper Young and, as a rule, insufficiently educated Communist Pravda found it necessar to den and cultural people. Although these y y survivals are withering away, they will the possibility of any reconciliation between not disappear of themselves. For within Religion and Communism. To prove its point the- country, the church workers are it quoted Stalin to the following effect:- trying to increase their religious influence " The Party cannot be neutral regarding on the backward part of our peo le in religion, and it conducts anti-reli ious ro- p ' g p particular on the politically immature . 11 ',his mat ri;l prxure3 by central zn enig~nce Age~ay S ?~~~~~ co~Fi~ENt~~t ?~~~~~~~. ~~~~~RO~ U? s. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 among youth, taking advantage of every weakness in the training work of the Young Communist League and other social and cultural organisations." (iii) "The movement of our society forward to Communism demands a constant increase in the Socialist awareness of Soviet people, and demands an intensified struggle against all survivals of bourgeois ideology and morals, including religious prejudices and superstitions." From the above quotations from recent official Soviet publications it appears obvious that alarge-scale struggle is in progress for the minds of Soviet youth between the Communist organs of mass conditioning on the one hand, and the recently strengthened Orthodox Church. The Soviet Constitution is so framed as to give the advantage of position to the Communist Party, in that it provides that "freedom of religious worship and freedom of anti-religious propaganda is recognised for all citizens," thus giving the Church the right to exist, but not to propagate itself. As for the Orthodox Church, it must obviously proceed very cautiously, lest it give the Soviet Government cause for renewing anti-religious persecution and abolishing its recently won rights. Morever, since the setting up of the " Cominform " in the autumn of 1947, the Church has clearly had to exercise redoubled caution. That the Patriarchate has this principle constantly in mind can be seen from the way in which it consistently supports the foreign policy of the Soviet Government, assisting in Soviet attacks on the Catholic Church and the Western Democracies. For example, in an article in the Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate for November 1947, the following passage occurs, in the language of the "Cominform " " The international scene is growing clearer and clearer-the outlines of two camps, of Labour and Capital., are .plainly visible. Is there any need to ask in which camp the Russian Orthodox Church will remain ? With all her inner truth, she is on the side of those for whom labour is a matter of honour and of heroism, on the side of ..oppressed in their strivings to free themselves from enslavement by capital." As final proof that the Soviet New Religious Policy is sheerly opportunistic, and brought about by the obstinacy of Christian Russia, it is sufficient to glance at the fate of Roman Catholics in the Soviet Union. In 1939, there were some ..half-million Raman Catholics in the Soviet Union. In 1945, as a result of Soviet. annexations, this number had increased to 7 or 8 millions. But Soviet Catholics are without communication with the Holy See; -the few Catholic clergy who remain at liberty- can be counted on the fingers. On 18th March, 1946, the Catholic Uniat Church, with Sees at Lvov, Przemysl and Stanislav, was forcibly separated from Rome and annexed to the Moscow Patriarchate. In 1945, there were 10 Catholic seminaries;- of which two now remain. Finally, 1th Octo'bc;r, ''rnust be vigilant in order to strike at all the oncr.~ie;~ of the ~vo c1;.-iri~ class?' . In their decisions, they iiiust not rely solely on legal pravisiorts, they l;iust take into account the personality of the: o~'f'endur, his riotive ~~rid the; c~tent to :~hich the offcn~~acc affects ... the achi?vu,-_ionts c.f the l~~orkir:;g class ...Jue'?cs r.~ust understa~id the la~'r fro?~ the P;~ar_x_is~~; point; of vieta. `T'hey i_~ust realise that it is inpossiblo not to r~~i'lcet clans difforenec;~ in the: application of the lavv"> In fact as the: ne~:aspapcr. "Univorsul" acl~rroti~rled~;ed on 6th October, "the las:~a for the suppression o' c+conor.~ic sabotaF~e and illicit speculation is at present a ~;~eapon of the ~,~rorking people against capitalist elcr_~cnts". Illustrations of hour the judges have ceased to apply the la ~r "in a fori,ial 4ray", in order to apply it in the "interests of the ,aorl~ing class", svc;re given by i'~~. .slc~;.andru Vc:~i-tinovici, chief' public prosecutor of ~~ou?zania, in an article published by "acantcia"' of 16th Octobr:r. ~ young peasant, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~~ elli ~nae AgenaY ti~ccording to i.. Voitinovici, s,ras tried on a charge of ste~~~~'~~ro sheep before the era of people's judges. ~?;ftor he had adr:7ittcd the theft, confirt;7ed ' by ~ ,s~itncss, the accused liras legally, but undernocratical.ly, submits T,., Vo~tinovici, sentenced.i Vhen his' appeal Baas hoard by a people;'s judge, hc: caas acquitted on the grounds that the plaintiff cans a "ltulal{", ovming mono than 150 head of sheep and caishing to retain the defendant as his shepherd. 15/~ ~ 7) d a0V:1~,T. DE~;Da aPr~t~K ,~ltt~I`1CrI'jF~ 'I.'fLiN 's(jRDS .~ 1'r The Claire to '~olcrance Dis rgvuc~ "Broad creative discussions on debatable questions- of M;cic;nce and art have become a duly practice in ;;evict cultural life": (~~loxander b~aclcev at the 'Troclaw G~ongre:ss of Intollactuals, August, X948) The follocaing ~7ovict scientists have; been disrni;~Ncd from their posts 3.h ~,ovict i~cadornies and univvrsitic~s for holding; "raactiorkary, idealistic" vicyas in biology, according to annaunccments made in the :~ovi.ct press during the last tcao months. Professor :~.?':. CTcrshenzon: dismissed frok~l the professorship of Eiology at ~.~iiev University. i;~r. L.A. Orbeli, dismissed from his post as secretary of the section of ,biological sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the U..:~.:3.R. ltir. I.~`:Z. I'olyal~ov: disi~iissed from his posts as departr~lental 'head of the Institute of Ss:lection and Genetics and as professor of biology at Kharkov University. P:ir. Polyukov opposed :2iT. Lysenko during the recent debatm on l,iichurin genetics, but recanted after the latter had announced that the Central Committee of the ;soviet Comrzunist Party endorsed his vieras. i!1r. D.K. Tretyakov: dismissed Eton hi's`post as president of the biology section of the Ul~rainian Academy of aci?nces and frorz his post as dixc,ctor of the Institute of Zoology. . :~:Zr. Zavadovski was forced to discontinue his yaorlc in the Institute of Experi~,lental biology of the Academy of ;~cicnces of the Kazakh ~~oviet Socialist FZepublic. 15/~ (7~ e ~/ ~16a~s~1"- ~.w. _ '+ti~r ~ a ~~V~ ~ 4. J. ~rlr" '~~~~ i~`'k ~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~. ~ i ~ .; R ~oNFI~~~ ~~~ ~ , ~ ~~~~ ~. ' :SOVIET ~2LGIS'~t~I~ THOS C1it~ca;N FbP~ D~;POlt'l~'~TION~k~ mat ri~1 prccurai by Central In elli,q,nce Agenay Hove the :~acrot Police ~3Ctid in Estonia ? i;trikers, industrialists, policer:~En; nan~col.n.aissioi~.cd officers mystics, diplor~iats and prostitutes, as e-roll ~~,:~ proi7inent raerlbers of anti- Coi.zr_~uniut Parties and xelativr~s of ~ovict citizen; vvha have escaped abroad all figured an the Russi~.~n sacrot police registary used as the basis for the mass dcportation.s from x~stonia in June 1.94.'1. This inforr_Z~~,tion, corzpilcd frorz docui,.,ents loft behind by the N.~.E:.V.D.9 is taken froii a coirlprehensive report on "aoviet Ucportations in ~~tonia", subr~iittsd by ,cxilad political 1~-:adcrs, including Dr. l,. Rei, forr_zor ~'resiacnt of the Republic, to thy: hVTlth International Red Cross Conf'cr::;rrcc at ;atockholm earlier this year. X511 "anti-Soviet" c1c~.~Unts tiJCro to bo r:cgistcred f'or later arr.ost or deportation to Russia a,ccording~ to the N.}~..V.D. i:ianua.l "Opcratian register'". Peopla .corning under this heading were divided .into no fvvrcr then ?_9 categories and included all tho.so who had occupied prorlinent positions :i.n the civil .and public :services of ind.epende;nt Estonia, worlicrs who had gone on ,strii;.c during tho ~o'viet occupation, peasants who were hostile to collectivisation, public prosecutors, ~.iagistrates and lawyers t-~ha opposcsd the revolution and all public prosecutors engaged in political cases ~:~s ir:roll as "Trotskyites", ar~arch:ists and social;.xevalutionarics". }?aoplc who served in the diplomatic service, permanent representatives of foreign co~_n.lercial furls and r~:latives of those convicted under the ,,avid rcgi?~u or t~vho hr:d carr:LCd on anti-,:soviet propa~ gander abroad, active .ienlbcrs of Zionist organisations, prison l~crsonnel, restaurant owners, and officers of the regular ar?ay wire all ~.~entionad an tha.S 1ZS t. The secret police, to~cthcr '.~tith rae;t.~bar:, of the Colar~~unist P~~,rty, dr'et-r up further lists of those to be deported irz~:.ediately and 19 railvaay echelons taNFID~~T~~ ~~. ~ ~ ~~ ~. U. ,~. ~~ ~ ~~.IA9.S 0~~. . Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 CONFIDENTIAL ~~~,~~~ ~y, ~, ~ ~ ~,~~ -B7- ',+his mad rill pr~curel by Central tn.elligeace Agenap nacre told to prepare for the deportation of 11,102 people on th? night of June 14th. Novosibirsk, Velcanskaya and Starobielslc were three of the initial destinations quoted on the "bills of lading" for this hu>oro to the point' shipncnts of ;;evict and satcllitc ra~^t::;ri^1.s. Hy the e;nd of ;~uptc:r~ibery the lbanian Cora~~unist 1-'arty, purifiad by 'the flar:ias cngendc:red by the: Cot_linfornz spark, s,a~s ready to reshuffle the Cabinet. This they c:~ic1 on Oeto'oer 2nd, removing the deviators and other "undesirablos9? vaho !eau oxp~scd thet:isUlves Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 Declassified in Part_ -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/04/18 :CIA-RDP83-004158005600050002-2 ~to an a:f' the: usual charg~as of error, p~rticul^rly Titois;:. Un Oc~a~~~ 2~1~~t"~~-~ a cor:~;_iuniquo attributed etll the victories clair_icd by the ~~lbaniari peol~lc to the heroic Rod l,rray and the help of the: Uo.:~.C.r~= It :~dt:~itted that =;lbania had Banc wrong by coring under Yugasley to ttze Levant Mates. ~~lthaugh their names i,~ust be caithheld in tho interest of thou security, they have given the folloti~~ina accaunt of life in Leninakan this ~!.utu~~.~n. Each rr;patriat;ed fa~.~ily had t~~ be cor..t~;nt 5;rit11 =~rzo avora~,c-sized rood in a ana-storied house of stono or c~..~ent - the nor;_1a1 ,:calo of ac~:o~ii_zod~.tion. The tiaalls nacre not plastered anu. the roof, ;acre i~_.L~rovised. Na schools ~.aore pravidcd for the r~:patriatos apart fxo~~l one sriall roar. fbr the vcxy y~uxzg children. Fro~_1 ten to fifte;cn roubles a d