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September 6, 1950
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COUNTRY Indiv 0 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006106A50-7 CLASSiFICATION O0rFTErTITIAL/C0Y7R0T4- U.. 01171CIAiS mT CENTRAL iNTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT NO. rliFOMATIlkii E POT SUBJECT Association of Scientific Workers in India 25X1C PLACE ACQUIRE 25X1A DATE OF INFO. RE 25X1A DATE DISTR 6 Sept. 1950 Na OF PAGES 1 NO. OF ENCLS. (LIMB BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. 25X1X The following scientific bulletins, published in Calcutta, have been received by the CIA Library, and are available upon request. 1, Silver jubilee, published by the Indian Chemical Socie4y. 2, Lists of Officerli Sectional Corrittees, nnd Ordinary Members in the ????//aliMM?pmffa? ?I??????M Marein?Science Congress Association. OMAN. ???*.nomarrom./ 3. Indian Journal of Physics and Proceedings of the Indian Association for the gatiya'-ion of g.elgraeft7MFRE7517,19-4787-------------------- 4. ). 6, The Indian Association for 'he Cultivation of Science, Calcutta. PII".???? lainan-Karmee, eficial organ of the Association of Scientific Workers of India, Vol. Il, No. 6, June, 1950. lawniAllon or Scientific Workers of India Memorandum on he Central Collw,e of Uriculture Government of India New Delhi, 7. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, Vol. XXVII, No, 2, February, 1950. 8. Scicnce and Culture, Vol. 15, No. 10, April, 1950. 9. Science and Culture, Vol. 15, No. 12, June, 1950. CLASSIFICATION CONFIDErTIAL COPTROL U.S, 011CIALS-Oilk? FFA:CE ...80/4 X I NAVY XT NSRBET D ISTRI StITI ON _ t Fs 1 F I Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/0g : CIA-RDP82170.4115170170 1eVeltror7 INDIAN SCIENCE CONGRESS ASS THIR1 YSEVENTH YEAR 1st February, 1949--31st January 1950. ,NOTLCS LISTS OF OFFICERS, SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. AND ORDINARY MEMBERS ? 1, PARK STREET, C4, SEPTEMBER, 1919 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP8 25X1C 25X1C Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050004-7 NOTE The List of Members is printed in Part IV of the Proceedings which will be issued after- the session by the middle of the following year. , Any inaccuracy Or omission - in the present list may kindly be reported to the General S*en'et-ary at I, Park Street, Calcutta 16. ? Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 INUIAN SCIENCE CONGRESS ASSOCIATION Approved For Keiease 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING, 1950 GENERAL IN FORMATION The Thirty-seventh Annual Meeting will be held at Poona from January 2nd to January 8th, 1950. His Excellency Sir Maharaj Singh, the Governor of Bombay has kindly agreed to be the Patron of the Meeting. Prof. P. C. Mohalanobis, F.R.S., will preside over the Meeting. The names and addresses of the Sectional Presidents are given in the following pages. LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS All enquiries about accommodation and other local arrangements should be addressed to the Local Secretaries, 37th Indian Science Congress, Univer- sity of Poona, Poona. Early intimation of the accommodation required should be sent to the Local Secretaries. MEMBERSHIP CARDS AND .LITERATURE Ordinary Membership cards have been forwarded to all Ordinary Members. A detailed provisional programme of the Thirty-seventh Meeting of the Congress will be issued to all Ordinary Members in course of December of this year, together with a copy of Part III of the Proceedings containing Abstracts of the Paper accepted for reading at the different Sections. Parts I (Official matters), II (Presidential A(ldresses) and I V (llis-, ? cussions) of the proceedings will be issued by the middle of the following year. THIRTY-ENGHT11. ANNUAL MEETING, 1951. Subscription notice will be sent out to all Ordinary Members on the register after the ist February, 1950. This will be followed, after a suitable interval, by the Ordinary Membership cards for the year 1950-51 per V:P.P. for the amount of the subscription. Payment of the subscription fee of Rs. 121- before the t5th July, 194.9 will be only effective for continuance of Ordinary Membership during the ensuing year, covering the Thirty-eighth Annual Meeting. APPLICATION FOR MEM BERS? LP Application for new Ordinary Membership should furnish the following particulars. No form is necessary. Name in full with degrees and titles. 2. Appointment, designation or profession. 3 Full address where correspondence is to be made. This should reach the office of the Association at i. Park Street. Calcutta 16,? before the 15th July, 1950. Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 INDIAN SCIENCE CONGRESS ,ASSOCIATION THIRTY-SEVENTH YEAR: Jst FEBRUARY, t949-31st January, 1950. OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION PRESIDiNT Elf ROT Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis, F.R.S. PRESIDENT Sir K Ktt12.nn, F.R.S. ? 111q1 ! V,' 1 ..'f ..s,. ciEf 04,14, SAPETARIES Dr. B, Mukerji, D.Sc., M.B., M.P.S., F.N.I. Dr. B Saniva Rao', M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.N.I.' TREASUABA Prof. K. ICT. Bagchi,'F.R:I.C., LQOAL SEdRETARIES Prof. S. V. Chandrasekhar Aiya, M.A. (Cantab), B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E., S.M.R.I.E. Prof. B. V. Bhide, M.Sc., Exgamvp. CONINITTEE, Sir K. S. Krishnan, F.R.S. .. President Prof. P. C. Mahalarrobis, F.R.S. ` -F%'residekt "Elect:" 3. 4. Dr. Dr. B. Mukerji, D.Sc., M.B., M.P.S., ... I I F,A,Ph.S., F.N.I. .., B. Sanjiva Rao, M.A.,' Ph.D., D.Sc., r 0 F.N.I. rlf TOW General Secretaries. Appgmardf FEW Releasie, a091/09/08/4?CIA-RDP6-0041-5R006100050001-7 Appfoved For Relemsgp790/SMEGIcritwipm,gpogpoom 00050001 -7 6. Dr. U. P. Basil, D.Sc., F.N.I. 7. Dr. A. K. De, B.Sc., Ph.D. .. ? ? 8. Dr. B. C. Guha, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.N.I. Dr: D. S. 'Kothari, Ph.D., m. Dr. B. C. Kundu, M.A., F.L.S., F.N.I. n. Prof, B. Narayana, - Ph.D.. - F.R.S.E. iz f ) r. Baini Prasad. O. B.F.., D.Sc., F.R. S. E., F.Z.S.. F,R.A.S.B.. RNA. 13. Prof. P. Ray. M.A., F.N.I. 1.4. Mr. B. K. Sarkar, M. I. Metal. is. Dr. A. C. Ukil, MR.. M.S.P.E., F.N.I. 16. Prof S. V. Cltandraseldtar Aiya, M.A.) (Cantab). B. S.7. A.M.I.E.F...SIvLRII 17. Prof. 11. V. Plink M.Sc., COUNCIL Elected by the General . Committee. Local Secretaries. 1-- 17(a] Members of the Executive Committee (b) Past Presidents- wr'Ordiliii7 or Honorary Member t8. Sir M Visvesvara:!.a, M.Inst.0,E., D.Sc. tn. Prof. I. L. Simonsen, D.Sc., F.I.C., F.R.S. 20. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Kt., Nobel Laureate.. 21. Sir Lewis Leigh Vermor, Kt., 0.B.E., DSc., F.G.S., A.R.S.M.. Tost.M.XL, F.R.A.S.13., 17.N f. 2.2. Prof. M. N. Sali:t. F.R.S , N.I. 23. Dr. h. H. Hutton, C.1.E., M.A., D.Sc., ,F.R.A.S.B., F.N.I. 24. Sir T. S. Venkatamman, Kt., C.f.E., D.Sc.. F.N.I. Sir Juan Chandra Ghosh, Kt., D.Sc., F.N.I. 26. Sir Ardeshir Dalai. Kt., 27. Dr. D. N. Wadia, M.A., tf.Sc.11, F.N.E. 28. Prof. S. N. Bose. M.Sc., -F.N.I. 2Q. Sir S S. Bhatnag.-tr, O.B.E., D.Sc? F RS IF Inst.P., F.I.C., F.N.L. F.S.C.I. (Hon.). 30. Prof. M. Afxal Flusain, MA., M.Sc., F.N.f. 31. Ja?vharlal Nehru, Col. Sir Ram Nath Chaitra.'Ite, Set).. F.R.A.S.B., F.N.1. Cc) Past General Secretaries who are either Ordinarv or Honorary Members Jo. Prof. 1. 1.. Simonsen, D.Sc., F.I.C.. 20. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman; Kt., Nobel Laureate. 33. Prof. S. P. ,Agfiarkar, M.A.. Ph.D., FL .S., F.N.I. 1). West. M.A. 4,0 Ap3p4-rolbeFRI-F0049, .L.,0 :F9. 7. , pir)Pt84-p0415R006100050001-7 l)r.,0\1\ Approved For Release 2001,WEIVilefkRIDP83-00415R0061000500O1-7 36. Prof. P. Parija, 0.B.E., I.E.S., F.N.I. .37. Prof. S. K. Mitra, M.B.E., D.Sc.. F.N.I. 38. PrOf.' P. C. Mitter, Ph.D., F.NI., 2. Prof. P. C. Mahalanabis, F.R.S., F.N.I. (d). Past Treasurers who are either Ordinarror Honorary. Members. x9. Prof: J. L. Simonsen, D Sc F1T C F.RS. 20. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Kt., Noble Laureate. 12. Dr. Baini Prasad, ORE., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.S.E., F:N.I. 39. 16.i Baliadur I3r. S. L Hora, F.Z.S., F.N.T. 15. Dr. J. N. Mukherjee, C.B.E., F.R.A.S.B., 'F.N.I. 13. Prof: P. Roy, M.A., F.N.I. 40-52(e) Sectional Presidents for the Session (see the following list.) ' .(f) Elected by General Committee. .53. Dr. R. C. Bose, M.A., D.Litt., F.N.I. 54. Dr. b. Chakr vtrti D Sc F.N.I. 5.5. Mr. A. M. N. Gitosh, B.Sc., A.R.C.S. 56. Prof. S. N. Mathur, M.B., B.S., Ph.D. 57. Mr'. S. N. IVInkherjee. 58. Dr. T S. Patel, M.Sc., Ph.D. 59. Dr. B.' N. Piiisad, D.Sc., Ph.D., RNA. SECTIONAL PRESIDENTS. Mathematics?Dr. Nalini Mohan Basis, D.Sc., Chairman, Department of Mathematics, Muslim University, Aligarh.. Statistics?Dr. P. V. Sukhattne, Ph.D., D.Sc., RNA. Statistical Adviser, Indian' Agricul- tural Research Institute, New Delhi. Physics?Dr. R. N. Ghosh, D.Sc., F. Acoust. Soc.,' F.N.I. Reader in Physics, Allahabad University, AllakabAd?,; _ Chemistry?Dr. J. K. Chowdhury, Ph.D., Head of the Dept. of Chemistry, Bose , ,,?14,secosh Institute, 93, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta. Geology & Geography--Mr. J. Coates, A.R.M.S., F.G.S., F.Inst.Pet., RNA., Senior O. C. (I.C.) Ltd. Burma-Shell House, Connanght Circus, New paid. , Botany?hr. Panchanan Maheswari, D.Sc., F.N.T., Professor of Botany? ,Dc/hi Univer- (,! , Zoology & Pntomology--Dr. E. C. Basu, D.Sc., Entomologist, Indian Veiterinary , J,Re?searelt Institute, _Manager, Bares/i) (India). Anthropology & Archwology?Dr. C. Von Furer Haimendorf, Dr. Phil., Adviser for ,Tribes,&,Backward Classes, Revenue Secretariat, Hyderabad (Deccan). Medical &Veterinary Sciences?Dr. M. V. Radhakrishna Rao; M.B.B.S., PhD., ,Assistant ,Director, Haffkitte Institute, Bombay :12. Agricultural Sciences?Mr, R. L. Sethi, LAS., Agricultural Commissioner, Indian ? S:ouncil of Agricultural Research, P. Block, Raisina Road, New Delhi. Physiology?Dr. Kalidas Mitra, M.B.E., MB., D.P.H., D.T.M., & H., Nutrition Adviser, -9jice of the Director General of Health Services, Central Government, New 'Delhi. Psychology & Educational Sciences?Prof. Kali Prasad, M.A., Ph.D., Prof. and Head of the Dept. of Philosophy & Education, Lucknow University, Lucknozv. Engineering. & Metallurgy?Mr. D. R. Malhotra, D.Sc., A.M.I.Chem.E., . ? A Approved %t114:41WaS8e201)1760/6g1".TIALRD1681-'00:41`5Raleit0050001-7 Approved For ReleAler2011.001,effnarAARIANZGQ05R0061 00050001 -7 SECTIONAL RECOR2ERS Mathematics?Dr. B. R. Seth, M.A., D.Sc., Dept. of Mathematics, lomi State College, Iowa, U. S. A. Statistics?Mr. K. C. Easak, B.A., Director of Economic Research, Indian Central Jute Conimittee,.4,,Rastinas,Street,,,Calcutta. , Physics-LMr. Vikram A. Sarabhai MA (Contab), Post Box 28, Ahmedabad. Chemistry?Dr. R D. Desai, D.Sc., F.N.I., E.I.I.Sc., F.A.Sc., ,D.I.C., Department, of Chemical Technology, Matunga; Bombay. Geology & Geography?Mr. N. L. Sharma, M.Sc., Officiating Professor of Geology, %Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad. Botany?Mrs. E. Gonzalves, B.A., M.Sc., LectUrer in Biology, Karnatak College, Dharwar. Zoology & Entomology?Dr. B. S. Chauhan, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.Z.S., Assistant Superin- tendent, Zoological Survey of India, Jabakusum House, 34, Chittaranian Avenue, Calcutta. Anthropology and Archaeology?Mr. Gautam Shankar Ray, M.Sc., Lecturer, Anthro- pology Department, University College of Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta. Medical & Veterinary Sciences?Dr. C. R. Das Gupta, M.B.. D.T.M., Officer-M-Charge, Haematology Department, School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta. Agricultural Sciences.?Mr. L. C. Sikka, Deputy Director of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal, Writers Buildings, Calcutta. Physiology?Dr. N. N. Das, M.Sc., M.B., Lecture?. ;n Physiology, University College of Science, 92, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta. Psychology & Educational Science.?Mr. L. J. Bhatt, Juna .111odikhana, Barodo. Engineering & Metallurgy?Mr. J. Dutt, B.A., C.1,1, A.M.I.E., Dt. Engineer, The Con- crete Association of India, MithaPur, Patna Junction. SECTIONAL CORRESPONDENTS Mathematics?Dr. S. K. Basu, M.A., Ph.D. (Lond)., Professor of Pure Mathematics, Presidency College, Calcutta. Statistics?Mr. Tarapada Chaudhury, Statistical Laboratory, Presidency College. Physics?Mr. P. C. Mukherjee, M Sc., Lecturer in Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta. Chemistry?Mr. Sudhamoy Mukherjee, M.Sc., Bengal Immunity Research Institute, 39, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. Geology & Geography?Mr. S. C. Bose, M.A., Prof. of Geography. Ashutosh College, Calcutta. Botany?Mr. A. K. Ghosh. Registrar, Bose Research Institute, 93, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta. Zoology & Entomology?Mr. J. N. Rudra, M.Sc., Prof. of Zoology, Vidyasagar College, 39, Sankar Ghosh Lane, Calcutta. Anthropology & Archaeology-,-Mr. Sa.tkari Mitra, M.A., Professor of Anthropology, Bangabasi College, Calcutta. Medical & Veterinary. Sciences?Dr. L. M. Ghosh, M.B., D.T.M., Department of Dermatology, School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta. Agricultural Sciences?Mr. T. Ghosh, M.Sc., Asst. Mycologist, Indian Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Hooghly. Physiology?Dr. D. P. Sa.clhu, L.M.F., M.Sc., Ph.D., Department ofPhYsiolo'd ot, Pgio ApproveiKoffkelestr12001 /09/06 :CIA-RDP83-00415R00610 05 1-7 List of Members 5 Approved For Release 2001/0.9/06 C1A-RDPR3 0.04c1pgg9 psycho/0,y & Lducattonat Nnence?Wr. uept.-of f4p1PA4p.01 -7 tion, University Colredi of Science, ?2,`UPPer Circular Road, Calcutta. Engineering & Metallurgy?Dr. J. NI Basu, M.I.E., M.A.E., Dr. Eng., Prof of Mecham- cal 'Engineering, College of ? Engineering & Technology. P.O. Jadabpur College, 24-Parganas. TI LOCAL SECTIONAL SECRETARIES Mathematics? Mr. G. L. Chandratreya M.A. Prof. of Mathematics, Fergusson College, Poona, 4- Statistics?Mr. V. N. Dandekar, M.A., Prof. of Statistics, Gokhale Institute of Poli- tics & Economics, Poona 4. Physics?Mr. S. Basn, M.Sc., Dy. Director General of Observatories, Poona 5. Chemistry?Dr. B. D. ?Laroia, Asst. Director (Administration), National Chemical Laboratories, Poona-3. Geology & Geography?Mr. C. B. Joshi, M.A., (Cantab), Prof. of Geography, N. Wadia College, Poona?i. Botany?Mr. V. V. Apte, M.Sc. Prof. of Botany, Fergusson College," Poona 4. Zoology & Entomology?Mr. B. G. Shirole M.Sc., Prof. of Zoology, Fergussoon College, Poona-4. 4nthropology & Archaeology?Mr. H. D. Sankalia, M.A., Ph.D.; Prof. of Ancient Indian History, Deccan College Research Institute, Poona 1. Medical & Veterinary Sciences?Dr. P. G. Gollerkeri, M.D. (Born.), Prof. of Medicine, B. J. Medical College, Poona--I. Agricultural Science?Mr. L. S. S. Kumar, M.Sc. (Loud.), Principal, College of Agriculture, Poona-5. Physiology?Mrs. R. Aiman, MB., B.S., M.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S., D.R.C.O.G., D.M.C.W., Prof. of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College, Poona i. Psychology & Educational Science?Mr. B. V. Bapat, M.Sc., B.T., Principal, Tilak College of Education, Tilak Road, Poona 2. Engineering & Metallurgy--Mr. A. Desouza, BE., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I., Struct. E. A.M.I.E., Prof. of Engineering, College of Engineering, Poona 5. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 6 Thirty-Seventh Indian Science Contiress Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. (Names marked with indicate that they were ako Recorders of the respec iVe Sections) 1. Mathematics-- Dr. N. M. Basu Convener. Dr. B. :R. Seth Recorder Dr. S. K. Basu Sectional Correspondent Prof. C. L. Chandratreya Local Sectional Secretory. Dr, C. Racine ? . Prof M. L. Misra 11 Metiiiiers. Prof. N. R. Sen Prof. A. C. Banerji *Prof. M. R. Siddiom Mr. B. M. Sen *Dr. B. N. Prasad *Dr: Ram Behari Dr. D. D. Kosambi Mr. S. Gupta Dr. S. Ghosh Dr. N. G. Shabde Prof. B. B. Sen Prof. P. N. Das Gupta 2. Statistics- Past Presidents who are' either Ordinary or Honorary .idembers. Post Recorders who are either Ordmary or I I onorary M embers. Dr. P. V. Sukhatme Convener Mr. K. C. Basak Recorder Mr. T. P. Chaudhury ? Sectional Correspondent Prof. V. N. Dandekar Local Sectional Secretary Mrs. Chameli Bose .. Mr. K. R. Nam ? ? (. .? /Jetted Members. Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis Past President of the llathematics and Statistics Section. Prof. K. B. Madhava *Dr. U. S. Nair Dr. P. K. Bose . ? Shree Sadashiv Sen Gupta .21 Past Presidents of Statistics Section. Past Recorder of the Statistics Section. 3. Physics.- - Dr. R. N. Ghost) 4 4 Convener. Mr. Vikram A. Sarabhai Recorder Mr. P. C. Mukherjee . Sectional Correspondent Mr. S. Basu Local Sectional Secretary. Mr. N. K. Saha Dr. .S. R. Khastgir Elected Meathers. Approved For Retease 2001/09//06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 "Sit of 111.6,i'ber's'? 7 ApptShvddIF 'Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Mr. T. P. Bbaskara Shastri J)T,1S. K. .Banerji . Pr of:' V. aha Dr. Dr. D. M. Bose Prof. S. N. Bose .. Prof. B. Venkatesachar Prof. S. K Mitra Past Presidents ggilw are either Ordinary or *Dr. S. Datta Honorary Members. Diwan Bahadur K. R. Ramanathan Sir K. S. Krishnan .. Prof. H. J. Bhablia *Prof. D. S. Kothari'.-: *Dr. R. C. Majun2dar Prof K. Banerjee Dr. L. A. Rarridas Dr. R. S. Krishnan .. ? ' Prof. G. R. Paranjpe ? ? Prof. H. Parameswaran ? ? t Dr. R. K. Asundi 1r Past Recorders who are either Ordinary or Dr. D. V. Gogate ? :: I Honorary Members. Dr. N. R. Tawde ? . Dr. A. K. Dutta ? ? J 4, chemistry-- Dr. I. IC. Chowdhury Convener. Dr. R. D. Desai Recorder Mr. Sudhamoy Mukberjee Sectional Correspondent Dr. 13. D. Laroia Local Sectional Secretary. Dr. R. K. Dutt Roy .. Eiected Dr. R. C. Shah . Members.. Prof. J. L. Simonsen ? ? Dr. G. J. Fowler .. Prof. 13. K. Singh .. Sir J. C. Ghosli Prof. B. B. Dey Sir S. S. Bluttnagar Prof. J. N. Muldierjee Prof. P. C. Mitter Dr. K. G. Naik Prof. P. Ray *Prof. P. Neogi Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or *Prof. P. C. Guha Honorary Members. *Dr. j. N. Ray Dr. P. B. Sarkar Dr. P. B. Ganguly *Prof. Mata Prasad *Prof. S. S. Joshi *Prof. R. C. Ray .. *Prof. K. Venkataraman Dr. B. C. Guha Dr. P. K. Bose .. Prof. B. Sanjiva Rao ? ? .) Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 8 Th;rty-Seventh Indian Science Congress Apprdired For)Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Dr. S. N. Mukheriee Dr. S. Siddiqui Post Recorders who are either Ordinary or Prof. 1. K. Chowdlatiry Honorary Members. Dr. U. P. Basti ? Dr. Dukhaharan Chakravarti . 5. Geology and Geography? Mr. J. Coates Mr. N. L Sharma Mr. S. C. Bose Prof. C. B. rosin Convener. Recorder Sectional Correspondent Local Sectional Secretor Dr. R. C. Misra Mr. A. K. Roy ? ? Elected Members. Sr E. L. Fermor Dr. D. N. Wadia Mr. P. Evans *Dr. M. S. Krishnan Dr. B Rama Rao. Dr. W. D. West *Prof. L. Rama Rao Dr. M. H, Sahni Dr. kajnath *Dr. Shihaprasad Chat terjee Dr. S. M. Tahir Rtyvi *Dr. A. S. Kalattesi *Mr N. N. Chatterjec *Dr. ( S. Pichatmith, Dr. P. K. Ghosh Di. C. Mahadeyan ht-. V. P. Sondflo hi Prof. Maneck B. Pithawalla Mr. A. -K. Banerjee. ? Prof. "a lis Ahmed . Dr. B. N. Mnkherji , Mr. E. S. Krishna A:finally Mr. T -N. Muthnswami Dr. S. C, Chatterjee 6. Botany? - Dr. Pnnchanan Mahe wari Prof. j. F. R. de Almeida Mr. A. K. atosh Prof. V. V. Apte. Dr. P. N. Nandi Dr. P. N. Bhadttri Elected Members. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members. Past Recorder who are either Ordinary or Honorer v Members. Convener. Recorder Sectional Correspondent Local Sectional Secretary. LI;st of Members 9 Appcovt.p ForAgnarkar Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Fro S. Prof. M. 0. P. Iyengar Prof. K. C. Mehta Prof. P. Parija Prof. R. H. Dastur *Dr. S. R. Bose .. *Dr. Krishnadas 13agchee *Prof. Y. Bharadwaja Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or Dr. Shri Ranjan Honorary Members. Dr. K. Biswas *Dr. G. P. Majumdar Dr. B. P. Pal Prof. A. C. Joshi Dr. K. A. Chaudhury Mr. M. S. Randhwa Prof. S. L. Ajrekar Prof. M. Sayeed-ud-Din Mr. N. K. Tiwary Dr. S. N. Das Gupta Prof. J. C. Sen-Gupta Past Recorder who are either Ordinary or Dr. T. S. Mahabale Honorary Members, r Dr. P. K. Sen Dr. B. C. Kundu Dr. S. Ramanujam Dr. It, L. Nirula 7. Zoology and Entomology ? Dr. B. C. Basu, Convener. Dr. 13. S. Chauhan, Recorder Mr. J. N. Rudra Sectional Correspondent Prof. B. G. Shirole Local 'Sectional Secretary. Dr. S. P. Roy Chowdhury Dr. S. M. Ghosh Mr. J. N. Rttdra Dr. S. N. Ghost]. Dr. B. C. Basu Prof. K. N. Bahl Dr. B. Prasad . Dr. H. R. Mehra .. *Dr. B. Sundara Raj .. Dr. S. L. Horn Prof. D. R. Bhattacharyya Prof. R. Gopala Aiyar Prof. H. K. Mookerjee Past Presidents who are,cither Ordinag or Dr. G. S. Thapar tfoW,Q4111;iibWZ Prof. B. K. Das Prof. A. Subba Rau Prof. M. Afzal Husain Rao Bahadur Y. Rantchandra R;c; Apprgieg*Figi filetaas'e 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Elected Members. 10 TVrty-Seventh Mdian Science Cow/ye...v.v._ Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-09415R006100050001-7 Vishwa Nath D. Mukhern. Dr. ft N. Ray Dr. M. A. Moghe *Prof A. F Misra Dr. M.. I? Roonwal Ur. G. K. Chakravarly Mr. Ecni Charan Mahendra Dr. J. L. Bhaduri Mr. M. M. Chakravarty Dr. P. Sen Or. K. B. Lal Dr. M. L. Bhatia Mr. D. Gangnli Dr. D. V. Bat Dr. H. D. Srivastava Past Recorders :oho are either Ordinary or honorary Members. 8. Anthropology and Archaeology-- Dr. Von Furer Haimendorf Convener. Mr. Gautam Shankar Roy Recorder Mr. Satkari Mitra Sectional Correspondent Prof. II. D. Sankalia. Local Sectional Secretary, Dr. S. K. Basu (Miss) Hilda Raj Prof. I', C. Mahatanobis Dr. j. Hutton Dr. B. S. Guba Prof. K. P. Chattoptultiyay Dr. G. S. Ghurye *Dr. D. N. Majurndar *Mr. T. C. Das .. Dr. N. P. Chakravarti *Dr. (Mrs.) Irawati Karve Mr. A. Chatterjee roi. Nirmai Kumar Bose Dr. G. M. Kurulkar Mr. D. Sen Dr. J. K. Bose Dr. N. Datta-Majmndar Dr. H. D. Sankalia Dr. P. C. Biswas Mr. M. N. Bast, .. Elected Members. Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members. Past Recorders who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members. 9. Medical and Veterinary Sciences-- Dr, M. V. Radbakrishna Rao .. Convener. Dr.C. N. Das Gupta .. Recorder Dr. L. M. Ghost) _ Sectional Correspondent ApprjOrVed ';i:n9314elegse 2001/69/06 1.-dA*Pi3s-66Mr5R006100050001-7 / t t ? ? t of Members Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 . Dr. R. N. Chaudhury ? ' . Dr. A. K. Bose .. .. i Sir R. N. Chopra, Sir S. S. Sokhey *Dr. A. C. Ukil *Dr. C. G. Pandit Elected Member Prof. K. V. Krishnan t Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or Dr. S. W. Hardikar.. HortorarY Members. Rai Bahadur K. N. Bagchi .. .. . *Prof. G. Panja .. Dr. M. B. Soparkar *Dr. Phanindranath Brahmachari ) Prof. G. Sankaran ? ? ? I Mr,' D.V. S. Reddy Dr. M. V. Radhaicrisitna Rao .. / Dr. S. K. Basu .. .. I Dr. Harendra Nath Ray j Past Reiiordt;rS Who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members... 10. Agricultural Sciences-- Mr. R. L. Sethi Convener. Mr. L. C. Sikkha Recorder Mr. T. Ghost] Sectional Correspondent Mr., L. S. S. Kumar Local ,cectional Secretary, Mr. S. C. Roy . Mr. S. P. Roy Chowdhury Sir T. S. Venkataraman Sir T. Vijayaraghavacharya Prof. M. Afzal Hussain Dr. B. Viswanath Rao Sahib T. V. Ramakrisbna Ayyar. Prof. Jai Chand Luthra Mr. K. Ramiali Rao Bahadur Y. Rainchandra Rao I Dr. D. V. Bal Prof. N. V. Joshi Rao Bahadur Y. Ramanatha Ayyar Mr. N. L. Dutt Rai Bahadur Kalidas Sawlincy Dr. R. S. Vasudeva Dr. S. V. Desai ? ? -1 Dr. A. N. Puri Dr. C. N. Acharya Dr. J. K. Basu ? - Dr. T. V. Sukhatme Dr. B. L. Cholla .. Dr. S. P. Ray Chaudhuri Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Mr. P. C. Ralieja Elected Members. Past Presidents who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members. Past Recorders who are either Ordinary or Honorary Members. ThirLV Seve/0nth , Indian- 12 Approved For Release 20-01 9/06 : CiAS-0614-nrigR006100050001-7 11. Physiology? Dr. Kalidas Mitra Convener. Dr. N. N. Das Recorder ' Dr. D. P. Sadhu Sectional Correspondent Dr. R. Vethavanatr Local Sectional Secretary. Dr. S. M. Banerjee Dr. Sachehidananda Banerjee Prof. W. Burridge IA. Col. S. L. 13liatia Sir R. N. Chopra *Prof. N. M. Basu Dr. B. B. Dikshit Rao Bahadur B. T. Krishnan Prof. B. Narayana . *Prof. S. N. Mathur *DI-. B. Mukerji Prof. P. De *I'rof. S. A. Rahman .. *Dr. Bashir Prof. B. Sarkar Mr. K. Mitra K. P. Basil Mr. B. Chatterji Prof. 1.000 people. At present there are zoo firms employing 25,000 men. Sulphuric acid.? There are now go firms, which can produce about 130,000 oris of sulphuric acid in 43 units. Of these, it are contact process units, mostly in- italled in the postwar period. The following table shows the consumption of sulphuric :Acid industry-wise :--- Cln.An i Is 44> liertiliset s 40 Metals 5 Cotton textile 5 Mineral oil 2 Leather Vitgineer ng & other industries on our units are under erection, which would give an additional capacity of another 30,000 oils. 'htperphos,Phate.?The productic-: of suDerpholaate was negligible before Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA 49 the war. At present, capacity exists for the production of 90,000 tons of superphosphate per annum and with the expansion schemes now in hand, it is expected that by the end of 1950, the production would reach the target figure of Ioo,000 tons per annum. The Government now purchases all superphosphate at a fixed price. This has helped considerably in increasing indigenous production. Ammonium sulPhale.?The Government of India decided that ammonium sulphate should be produced by the State on a large scale. A Commission was appoin- ted in 1945 to report on the possibility of manufacture of ammonium sulphate in India. As a result of the recommendations made by this Commission, it was decided to start the production of ammonium sulphate at Sindhri with a capacity of 350,000 tons per annum. This factory is nearing completion and will be one of the biggest units in the world. There are two other units producing synthetic ammonia, one at Mysore and the other at Travancore, with an aggregate capacity of 56,000 tons per annum. " The production of sulphate from the ammoniacal liquors of the coke ovens is 22,000 tons. Bichromates.?India's production capacity now is 3000 tons per annum and the domestic consumption is only loon tons. We have a large exportable surplus and considerable quantities have been exported abroad. Soda ash.?India's requirements of soda ash are about 120,000 tons per annum for her various industries. Glass industry 30,000 tons Silicates 15,000 Textiles 9,000 Paper 5,000 Chemical industry 6,000 Misc. requirements 10,000 Washing 45,000 Total 120,000 The present installed capacity is 54,000 tons. The chief difficulty in bridging this gap between production and domestic consumption is that of obtaining industrial salt at a reasonable price. The ideal location for the soda ash industry is naturally the coalfields which are situated a long way off from the Western coast, where cheap sea salt is available or from the salt-beds of Raiputana. The cost of transport is the prin- cipal limiting factor in the development of the soda ash industry. Caustic soda.?India's requirements of caustic soda are 70,000 tons per annum, of which the soap industry consumes 31,500 tons, the textile industry, 19,25o tons, the paper industry 10,500 tons and other miscellaneous industries, 8,700 tons. The present installed capacity is 13,500 tons. There are certain units which are producing their own require- ments of caustic soda and this capacity would come to another 3000 tons. At present, 3 units are under erection, which will give an additional capacity of ro,000 tons. Liquid chlorine.? India has an installed capacity of 6,400 tons for the produc- tion of liquid chlorine. This is more thitn sufficient to rrieet all internal demands, but the difficulty is transport. Long distances involved stand it the way of free transport of liquid chlorine from the factories to places of consumption. Recently, a firm has planned the production of high test hypochlorite. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 3. N. RAY Bleaching 'Powder.? India produces 5,160 tons of bleaching powder and plans for expanding the capacity are in hand. Bromides.?From the bitterns in the manufacture of salt, India has now establi- shed a capacity for the manufacture of zoo tons of bromides. The internal consump- tion has been computed to be 6o tons. There is ample scope for catering to the export market. Magnesium chloride.? Another by-product in the manufacture of salt is :nagnesium chloride. India is not only able to meet her internal demands but has been exporting magnesium chloride to various countries including L.L.K. Magnesium sulphate, alum, etc.?The demands for these chemicals are being fully met. There is also some export trade in these chemicals. Potassium chlorate.?The match industry in India has expanded phenomenally during the last few years. At present, the country's aggregate capacity for the production of matches is 40 million gross boxes. We are also having a flourishing export trade in matches. To cater to the needs of the match industry we require a produc- tion of 2,000 tons of potassium chlorate. We are now mostly able to meet all internal demands for potassium chlorate. Fine chemicals and Pharmaceuticals.?The war found India totally unprepared to meet the growing needs of the Army. The procurement of medical stores for Government hospitals and the Army was the responsibility of the Director-General (1. M. S.), who was the head of the Medical Stores Department. The Medical Stores Department functioned primarily to supply the Army with all its medical and veterinary stores such as drugs, dressings, surgical instruments, etc. In addition to supplying the needs of the Army, the Medical Stores Department also provided for the needs of most of the Provincial Government and semi-Government hospitals, certain railways, mission hospitals, municipal institutions and other local bodies. The Medical Store Depots in India were the biggest importers of drugs and other medical stores and they were also manufacturers of drugs and dressings. There were five medical store depots maintained in five large centres in India. Two medical store depots had factories attached to them where certain preparations were made. These factories were at first located at Lahore and Calcutta but later on they were shifted to Madras and Bombay ? At the outbreak of World War it was quickly realised that owing to shipping restrictions, these medical store depots would have to play a very large part in supplying to the growing needs of the Army, both at home and abroad. The organisation of the Director-General (I. M. S.) Was strengthened by the recruitment of two officers, who were placed in charge of the production of Drugs and Dressings and Surgical Instruments and Appliances respectively. The result of intensive effort to increase production of medical stores was that the value of medical stores purchased in India (exclusive of depot manufactured artides) rose from Rs. 15.8 lakhs in 1938-39 to Rs. 3.48 crores in 1942-43. Drugs and accessories needed for the Army could be roughly classified under the following headings. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA 51 (i) Galenicals (vii) Special type of glassware. (ii) Drugs of natural origin Rubber goods (iii) Vitamins and hormones (ix) Surgical dressings (iv) Synthetic drugs (x) Ligatures (v) Purified basic chemicals (xi) Vaccines and seta (vi) Laboratory stains and chemicals (xii) An ti-biotics. India's requirements of galenicals were entirely met from indigenous sources. Surgical dressings, vaccines and sera, rubber goods, laboratory stains and chemicals were produced on a large scale. Of the drugs of natural origin, Morphine, Codeine, Strychnine, Caffeine, Ephedrine, Santonin, Quinine were produced in sufficient quan- tities not only for meeting internal demands, but, in some cases, for purposes of export. India's position regarding synthetic drugs was unsatisfactory, because the basic inter- mediates were in most cases unavailable. It was, however, possible to produce synthe- tically a very large number of drugs. A number of antiseptics and disinfectants, purgatives, uric acid solvents, vaso-constrictors, vaso-dilators, antipyretics, analgesics, narcotics, general anaesthetics and local anaesthetics were successfully produced. It can be said that given the equipment and the intermediate chemicals, there is not a single synthetic drug which is beyond the ability of an Indian chemist to produce. During the war, an attempt was made to obtain intermediate chemicals. India is now able to produce 2 million gallons of benzene and I million gallons of toluene per annum at a cost which compares favourably with that prevailing in other countries. Recently, the manufacture of nitrobenzene at the Ordnance Factories has been estab- lished and it is now possible for the Indian industry to obtain about roo tons of nitro- benzene at a price of Rs. NI- per cwt. India produced very large quantities of T. N. T. during the war and, in fact, was one of the best sources of supply of this high explosive. It has not been difficult to establish the production of mono-nitrotoluenes which are now obtainable at a reasonable price. Manufacture was established for the production of i000 tons of acetone from alcohol which is also now available for industrial purposes. During the war, it was felt necessary that the production of power alcohol should be taken in hand. At present, we have a capacity for the production of 14 million gallons of power alcohol in this country. Considerable quantities of butyl and amyl alcohol are also obtainable as by-products in this industry. The Indian coal is generally carbonised at a fairly high temperature with the result that the percentage of naphtha- lene hydrocarbons is rather high in the distillate. The production of naphthalene has been developed and we have now a capacity of 2000 tons of naphthalene per annum, which is capable of further expansion at a short notice. A certain amount of phthalic acid is also produced. The production of other basic chemicals such as Aniline, Hydro- quinol, etc., has also been developed. The. development of the intermediate chemicals industry is closely bound op with the development of finished products. If this vicious circle is to be broken, then it occurs to me that it is necessary that a start should be made at the finished product end. I would not completely rule out a start being made by small units producing intermediate chemicals to feed the concerns producing finished products. It has been Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 J. N. BAN said that the day of small business is over. This is not entirely correct. In the U. S. A., it has been found that a mass production concern is not equipped to handle small order and special jobs. These can be adequately handled by a small outfit which also supplies the needs of the big manufacturers. Even in the field of automobile industry, it has been noticed that a big manufacturer buys nearly I,Ioo different items from 400 small firms. In the most specialised industry, namely, the Petroleum Industry, the five largest refining companies in the U. S. A. account for only 40% of the capacity. There are 170 small concerns who have been able to hold their own against the competition of the bigger manufacturers. Similarly 7 big chemical manufacturers depend on T20 small-size -firms for many of their requirements. Bigger size does not necessarily mean the greater efficiency. This was amply borne out during the war, when a small firm produced para- aminoacetanilide and supplied successfully all the big manufacturers of organo-arsenicals and organo-antimonials based on para-aminoacetanilide. The manufacture of certain types of fine chemical intermediates can easily be undertaken by our chemistry graduates with adequate research experience even on a very small scale. During the war, large quantities of imported commercial dyes were purified and converted into bacteriological stains. In fact, the entire demands for these laboratory stains were met from the suppli- es made by very small manufacturers. Following is a list of important drugs which cover the whole field of chemo- therapy. Items produced in India are marked with an asterisk. intiseptics and Disinfectants i. Phenol t 15. Methyl violet alol I 16. Crystal violet S 3. Resorcinol 17. A uratnine Guiacol, Gitacol carbonate, r8. Rivanol Guiacol potassium sulphate 19. Rhodamine Thymol Chinisol t,. 0-Naphthol i Brilliant Green *7. Tribromophenol t z. Malachite Green X. Iodoform Trypan Red Formaldehyde Trypan Blue *t) Hexamine Mecca, ochrome i. *II. Chloramine T *26. Cresol 12. Acriflavine Chlorinated xylenols 13. Dermatol *28. D. D. T, *;21 Protargol r. Phenolphthalein Purkatives and A Peritives Ore xi n (PhenvIdihydroquinazoline) niuretics and uric acid solvents II. Caffeine Salyrgan 2. l'iperazine Theophylline Atoph an 6. Theobromine Are produced in India ; in many cases, hi insufficient quantities From imported intermediates. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA Vaso-constrictors *r. Adrenaline 4 ? Alkaloids of Ergot : Ergotoxin, *2. Ephedrine Urgotamine, Ergometrin, 3. Benzidine Ergotinine, Tyramine. Vaso-dilators *r. Amyl nitrite *3. Nitroglycerine 2. Ethyl nitrite 4 Octyl nitrite Antipyretics and analgesics *I. Aetanilide 5. Aspirin *2. Phenacetin 6. Antipyrine 3. Benzoic acid 7. Pyramidone 4. Salicylic acid Narcotics and General Anaesthetics i. Cyclopropane *9, Chloretone *2. Ether ro. Avertine Para-aldehyde Veronal 4. Acetophenone *12. Luminal *5. Chloroform 13. Sulphonal 6 Urethane 14, Trional 7. Adaline 15. Tetronal *8. Chloral hydrate Local Anaesthetics *r. Ethyl chloride *4. Cocaine 2. Anaesthesine 5. Eucaine 3. Novocaine 6. Pentothal sodium AntiProtozol and Antibacterial Drugs *r. Atoxyl in. Neostibosan Tryparsamide Neocardyl *3. Carbarsone 12. Mercurochrome *4. Neo-salvarsan 13. Merthiolate 5 Stovarsal *14. Emetine *6, Sulpharsphenarnine is. Yatren 7. Solusalvarsan 16. Vioform 8. Mapharside 17. Sulpha drugs *9. Urea Stibamine (detailed below). Anti-malarials i. Euqinine 4. Mepacrine 2. Aristoquinine 5. Paludrine 3. Pamaquin 6. Chloroquin. * Are produced in India; in many cases, in insufficient quantities, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 53 54 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 J. N. RAY SulPhunilamide grout of Drugs (SulPha drugs) Sulphanilamide 2. Prontosil 3. Pront.sil sol 4 Proseptazine Soluseptazine o. Rhodilone [Heron 1. Penicillin Streptomycin *I. Camphor Ethyl ester of nicotinic acid (coraniines) Glycerophosphates and choline Cardiazole Cantharidine Calcium gluconate Aulinogen *3, ti-biotics Miscellaneous Drugs Albucid 6, 1)agenan n Sulphaguanidine ix. Sulphathiazole z Sulphapyridine 13 Snlphadiazine, sulphamerazine 4 PP'-Diaminodiphenylsulphone. . Chloromycetin . Aureomvcin Sulphoforrn Solganol Mandelic acid S. V. P. 36 Iodohydroxyquinoline Kurchi bismuth iodide Emetine Sante nine Are produced in India: in many cases, in insufficient quantities. c from natural ? sources. It will be seen that there is a considerable scope for developing many items of manu- facture which are at present not produced in India DeveloPment Plans in hand We have been considering the question of production of Penicillin and other anti- biotics for a long time. In 1o45, the Director-General of Supply financed an investiga- tion for the production of Penicillin on a laboratory scale. Workers at the Institute of Science, Bangalore, and the Haffkine Institute, Bombay, have also been experiment- ing on the production of Penicillin. In March 1945, advantage was taken of the presence in England of Professor B. C. Guha, then an officer of the Department of Food, and a survey was undertaken by him on behalf of the Department of Supply of manufacture both in the U. K. and the U.S.A. The Department of Planning and Develop- ment sent out a team consisting of General Sir Saheb S. Sokhey and Dr. K. Ganapathy to investigate the possibility of manufacturing Penicillin in India. They submitted their report and certain investigations were made on the lines suggested in the Report. It was, however, felt that further investigations were necessary before a decision could be taken. Consequently, the Government of India sent out a second team consisting of General Sokhey, Dr. Ganapathy and Dr. Sankaran for the purpose. It has now been decided that the manufacture of Penicillin would be undertaken as a State enterprise in collabora- tion with a foreign firm. It is proposed to produce 1200 billion units per annum with a provision to increase it to 3600 billion units, if necessary. In the same factory, it is also proposed to manufacture certain sulpha drugs and synthetic antimalarials. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415ROM610,0050001-7 SCHIFF' S BASES FROM DIAMINODIPHENYLSULetiumh 63 of salicylaldehyde in alcoholic solution for over 4 hours, the disalicylidene derivative separated out in fine yellow-orange needles, m.p. 268-70?. In the preparation of 4:4'-diaminocliphenylsulphone Raiziss's method (J. Amer Chem. Soc., 1939, 61, 2763) was slightly modified and this has been described in the experimental part of the paper. BjCPERIMENTAL The method is a slight modification of the procedure adopted by Raiziss et al. (loc. cit.). 4-Nitro-4'-acetylarniuodiphenylsulphone was prepared according to the method of Raiziss et al. in their preparation of 4-amino-41-hydroxydiphenylsulphone ; but this was, however, simultaneously reduced and deacetylated by tin and hydrochloric acid to yield 4:4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone. 4-Nitro-4'-acetylaminodiphenylsulphone (go g.) was suspended in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (675 c.c.) and water (270 c.c.) and heated to boiling. To this solution was added tin turnings (roo g.) from time to time, and after the addi- tion was complete, the solution was heated for a further period of 2 hours. The mixture was treated with charcoal and filtered hot. The filtrate was cooled and basified with the addition of a concentrated solution of caustic soda (50%). The 4:4'-diaminodiphenyl- sulphone separated out on cooling as a crystalline, curdy precipitate and was purified by crystallisation from alcohol, m.p. 175?, yield 40 g. PreParation of 4-Arylidene-amino-e-cinnamylidene-aminodiPhenylsulPhone.?The 4-benzylidene-amino- and 4-P-rnethoxybenzylidene-amino-4'-aminodiphenylsulphones were prepared according to Buttle et al. (loc. cit.) and the 4-salicylidene-amino-4'-amino- diphenylsulphone was prepared by heating an alcoholic solution of 4:4'-diaminodiphenyl- sulphone with molar amount of salicylaldehyde for about 20 minutes. The mixture was cooled and the orange-yellow solid separating, was collected. This was washed with ether, and found to melt at 225-26?. Jain et al. (loc. cit.) recorded the melting point of this derivative as 172?. All the above mono-arylidene derivatives were mixed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde (r.l2 mole) and refluxed for 2 to 3 hours. The mixture was con- centrated and diluted with ether. The diarylidene derivatives separated. These were filtered and washed with ether. The 4I-amino group of the above 4-arylidene-amino-4'-aminodiphenylsulphone could not be condensed with benzaldehyde or anisaldehyde. But the same of salicyl- idene-arnino derivative readily condensed with acetaldehyde, glucose, and even salicyl- dehyde when heated under reflux in alcoholic solution as usual. In the case of glucose, a trace of ammonium chloride was added to bring about the reaction. From the ease of reaction it appeared that cinnamic aldehyde behaved as an aliphatic one and had been found to react easily with 4'-amino group of the 4-arylidene-amino-e-amino- diphenylsulphones. Preparation of 4-Acety1amino-e-arylidene-ami1iodiPhenylsulPho. ne.-- Although the monoarylidene-a minodiphenylsulphone did not react so readily with a second molecule 3-1737P-2 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 (54 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ri. P. BA SU AND K. R. C. FIANDRAN an aromatic aldehyde, the 4-acetylamino-4'-aminodiphenylsulphone, however, re- acted with cinnamic aldehyde as well as with salicyldehyde when reiluxed in alcoholic solution as usual. The characteristics of the compounds are recorded in the table below. TAnr,r? I Compound = (-",elieral formula : R=N (4) General appearance. N (40 = Fortnnla and Ma Wt Nitrogen % Found. vale. S.alicylidene HI Yellow needles, 019141803N2S 7.47 7.97 10 4) 225-26? (352) Salicylidene eintiamylidene Yellow needles, C2811220 3N28 5.72 6.o 111 P? I54- (466) Benzylidene Cinnatnyliclene Yellow powder, C28}12202N2S 6.4 6.22 111 P- 173-74? (4501 Anisylidene Cinnamylidene Yellow powder, C.2911240 3N2S 5.96 5.83 111.11- 177-78? (480) Sal.icylidene Bthylidene White needles., 02:14B03N2S 7.42 7.41 in.p. 16z-63? (378) Salicylidene 2:3 :4 :5 :6-Penta- White powder, C25/42608N2S 5.92 544 bydroxyhexyl- dene n1 P. 243-45? (514) Acetyl Cinnamylidene Yellow needles, 0231-1200aNkS 6.95 6.93 219-20' (404) Acetyl Salicylidene Orange crystals, e20ll1s01,N2S 7.28 7.1 111-11- 143-44? (394) 'GAL IMMUNITY RSSEANCR INSTITUTE, CALCUTTA Received June 17, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 [ sour, Tnclian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, logo] STUDIES IN THE NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE. PART I. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE NATURE OF THE PRECIPITATE OBTAINED BY THE INTERACTION OF SOLUTIONS OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE By ARUN K. DEY AND SATYRSHWAR GHOSH Ferric oxides of different physical properties and chemical character have been prepared for the first time by the precipitation from ferric chloride employing different quantities of sodium hydroxide and by carrying on the precipitation at different temperatures. The variation in the properties has been ascribed to the amphoteric nature of the oxide and a mechanism to explain the behaviour of ferric hydroxide has been suggested. The hypothesis has been supported by quantitative studies on the adsorption of the various ions in the system, during the precipitation of hydrated ferric oxide. The conductometric study of the precipitation has also been made. Two varieties of ferric oxide are well known ; Tommasi in 1882 (vide Weiser, "Hydrous Oxides", 1926, p. 364) recorded the existence of yellow and brown oxides, which were regarded by him as isomers. It was noted by Davies (loc. cit.) that the yellow variety, prepared by the oxidation of ferrous oxide or the carbonate, was denser and the solubility of this type of oxide in acids was very little. Weiser and Milligan (J. Phys. Chem., 1935, 39, 25 ; 1940, 44, io81) observe that the freshly precipitated oxide is amorphous, but on ageing it gradually transforms from ct-Pe20, to P-Fe00H. The yellow P-oxide is also the product of the slow hydrolysis of ferric chloride (J. Am e. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 238) . Thiessen and KOppen (Z. anorg. Chem., 1930, 189.113 ; 1936, 228, 57) opine that brown ferric oxide yields eight hydrates on isothermal dehy- dration, but their view has been challenged by Weiser and co-workers (J. Phys. Chem., 1939, 43, 1104). Not much work seems to have been done on the yellow oxide, and noth- ing is on record regarding the preparation of both of these oxides from the same reagents. It has, however, been observed by Banerji and Ghosh (Nat. A cad. Sci., India, Abstracts, 1942) that hydrated ferric oxide, when allowed to age gradually, becomes insoluble in mineral acids. They also observed remarkable variation in the peptisability of the oxide by hydrochloric and other acids with age. In the present investigation we have been able to prepare hydrated ferric oxides of varying colour beginning from deep brown to yellow by regulating the temperature and the concentrations of the reactants in the reaction between ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions. We have also observed that in all the cases precipitation is complete even before the theoretical quantity of alkali is added. The same phenomenon has been recorded by Britton (Ann. Ret., 1943, 40, 44) who studied the precipitation of various oxides by the E,. M. F. method. A similar observation has been made by Dey and Gliosh (this Journal, 1947, 24, 181) during the study of the precipitation of cupric hydroxide from cupric sulphate solution when the quantity of alkali required was 14% less than the theoretical amount. We have in this study made a quantitative investigation of the precipitation of ferric hydroxide by analytical and conductometric methods. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 1i6 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A. K. DEY AND S. (ROSH EXPERIMF.NTAL A solution of AnalaR ferric chloride was prepared and both iron and chlorine were Lstimated volumetrically and gravimetrically and were in the proportion required by the formula FeCla. At the outset, to to c.c. of ferric chloride solution were added different quantities of a standard solution of sodium hydroxide (total volume 40 c.c.) and the quantity required for just complete precipitation was noted. After filtration the filtrate was tested and was found to be acidic when smaller volumes of alkali solution were employed. The volume of alkali solution needed to yield a just alkaline filtrate was also noted. The observations were repeated at several temperatures. TABLE I rerric chloride soln.= 0,575214. Sodium hydroxide soln. = 1.9418M. Theoretically to c.c. of ferric chloride solution8.88 c.c. of alkali for precipitation of Fe(OH)n. Volume of NaOH solution at temperature of 23?. 40?, 50?. 6n?. 800. For complete precipitation 8.30 c.c. 8.3n c.c. 8.30 CC. 8.30 c.c. 8.30 C.C. For a neutral filtrate n 9.00 n.00 8 oo 8.go The effect of dilution was studied by diluting both the solutions of ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide ten times and similar observations were repeated ; the results are shown in Table II. TABLE IT Verric chloride soln.=o.0575M. Sodium hydroxide soln.=---o.ro42M. Theoretically fo c.c. of ferric chloride solution should require 8.88 c.c. of sodium hydroxide or precipitating Fe (OH) Volume of NaOH solution at temperature of 8n`. For complete precipitation 8.3o c.c. 8.6o C.C. 8.60 c.c. For a neutral filtrate 9.10 9.00 8.90 We thus find that on dilution the precipitation value approximates the theoretical values, and on raising the temperature, the values undergo negligible change. It was further observed that the samples of solid precipitates were readily soluble in hydro- chloric and nitric acids, when precipitated with alkalis less than the theoretical amounts. The colour of hydrated ferric oxide in all these cases were dark brown. When the amount of alkali was increased the precipitate became more and more insoluble in acids. When the alkali was in great excess, the precipitate became more yellow in colour and when ro c.c. of alkali were employed for precipitation, the colour of the oxide was deep yellow and a fair portion of the precipitate remained undissolved in even hot and con- centrated hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaving a yellow residue. This insolubility was more pronounced when the precipitation was carried out at higher temperatures. Now to ro c.c. of ferric chloride solution, taken in several TOO c.c.. flasks kept at constant temperature,ease 01/ were added di6fiere-gt. almisgsaoltaii5sK,1688itoblygottlitir Approved For Rel 2009/ Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES IN NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE 67 was raised to roo c.c. and they were maintained at constant temperature for an hour. The amount of iron, sodium and chlorine ions, and also hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in the supernatant liquid were determined accurately using a tnicroburette, by the usual methods. Knowing the amounts of the different ions taken, the amounts of ions asso- ciated with the precipitate were calculated. The results obtained at different tempera- tures are recorded in the following tables. Ferric chloride solution = 0.575M NaOH solution = 1.9418i1.1 Iron = 0.575 g. ions per litre Chlorine = 1.725 g. ions per litre TABLE III Hydioxyl = 1.9418 g. ions per litre Sodium = 1.9418 g. ions per liter Temperature = 25? Fe. Mg. ions taken. Cl. NaOH. Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. II or OH. Cl. Na. Pe. Mg ions associated with ppt. Na. Cl. 5.75 17.25 14.56 1.84 II 6.76 __ 2.15 - 20.49 5.75 17.25 15.53 0.76 5.14 - 2.00 - 12.11 5.75 27.25 16.12 0.45 15.17 16.12 Nil Nil 2.78 5.75 17.25 16.8q 1156..9459 16.77 11 0.12 1.30 5 75 17.25 17.28 00:0075 OH 17.14 ? 0.14 0.76 5.75 27.25 19.42 2.67 17.24 19.17 P) 0.25 0.01 TABLE IV Temperature=50?. Mg. ions taken. Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. Mg. ions associated with ppt. Fe. Cl. NaOH. II or OH. Cl. Na. Fe. Na. Cl. 5.75 17.25 25.53 0.665 H 11.01 - 4.05 - 6.21 5.75 17.25 16.12 0.041 15.29 16.12 Nil Nil 1.96 5.75 17.25 16.50 0.016 16.64 16.50 1/ II 0.61 5.75 17.25 16.89 0.010 16.88 16.77 31 0.12 0.39 5.75 17.25 17.28 0.078 OH 17.10 17.12 ,9 0.16 0.15 5.75 17.25 19.42 1.598 17.13 19.04 1, 0.38 0.12 TABLE V Temperature = 800. Mg. ions taken , Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. Mg. ions associated with ppt. Na. Cl. NaOH. n or Oti. Cl. Na Fe Na. el. 5-75 17.25 15-53 0.70011 15.45 - 0.90 - 1.80 5-75 17-25 16.12 0.214 15.09 16.12 Nil Nil 1,16 5-75 17.25 16.50 0.011 13.89 16.50 11 3.36 5.75 17,25 16 89 0.009 24.07 26.75 0,24 3.18 5-75 17.25 17.28 0.074 OH 15.76 17.11 0.17 1.49 5.75 17.25 19.42 1.760 16.10 18.64 ,, 0.78 1.15 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 68 X. K. DEY AN S. GHOSH The precipitation was also studied by noting the electrical conductivities of the supernatant liquid in the different cases when varying proportions of ferric and alkali solutions were used. For conductornetric measurements a great accuracy and precision was maintained. Instead of the cell constant, the calibration constant at different positions of the bridge wire was determined by the method of lAlark (J. Phys. Chem., 193o, 34, 885), and these values were employed for the calculations. To 5 c.c. of Ailto ferric chloride solution were added different volumes of M/.2 ?,iodiuni hydroxide solution, total volume kept at to c.c. and the precipitate allowed to settle for an hour at 3oO. It was centrifuged at 2500 r.p.m. for five minutes and the electrical conductivity of the supernatant liquid was determined at 30?. In another set, the concentration of alkali was kept constant and varying amounts of ferric chloride solution were added to it. The concentration chosen was 111/4 for both the reactants, so that at the equivalence point Fe : OH=I: 3, the concen- tration of the respective constituents in both the sets was almost the same. From the conductivity results the adjoining graph has been plotted showing the variation of specific conductivity with the increase in Fe : OH ratio (Fig. r). _0_6._ Newt/ added /0 red3 FecI3 ,xided to Atroli 9 . . / . / / .I , ,. I, , . , . . II . . 2 3 4 Value of OH/Fe+++ DI SCUSS TON results on the precipitation of hydrated ferric oxide from ferric chloride iolution show that similar to the observation of Britton (Ann. Rep., 1943, 40, 43) with various hydroxides, the amount of alkali needed for complete removal of the metal from !;olution is always less than the theoretical amount. In all such cases there are two possible reactions, which would result to such an observation. Increased tendency of hydrolysis with increased concentration of the alkali, according to the following scheme : Approved-14.113R-eteggelt81/09/0ge:(dhak tYPIS3E06445R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES IN NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE 69 The above will be more marked with increasing insolubility of the respective hydroxides and their strength as a base. (2) Hydrolytic adsorption of the anion, Cl-by the basic oxide, producing free alkali : Fe(OH)3 + NaCl + H20 [Fe(OTT)31Xl, + NaOH + In the first case the formation of ferric hydroxide takes place in stages, yielding various intermediate basic compounds, which ultimately with a definite excess of alkali would result in the formation of Fe(OH)3. In the second case, the quantity of alkali added precipitates the equivalent quantity of ferric hydroxide, which on adsorbing chlorine ions from the system liberates an equivalent quantity of OH- ions, which precipitate more .and more of the hydroxide. Our experimental results, as recorded in Tables III, IV and V, show that when the amount of alkali is deficient, the adsorp- tion of chloride ion is high and this goes on decreasing as the quantity of alkali added is raised. It is interesting to observe in Tables I and II that complete precipitation occurs when the supernatant liquid is slightly acidic. We find that in all the cases quoted in the aforesaid tables, the amount of alkali needed to yield a neutral filtrate is always greater than the volume needed for complete precipitation. This observation is con- tradictory to the case of precipitation of cupric hydroxide as observed by us (ioc. cit.), wlierP the filtrate becomes alkaline with complete precipitation. It may therefore appear to be anomalous, but keeping in view that ferric hydroxide is far more insoluble than cupric hydroxide, complete precipitation occurs at a lower OH- ion concentration, so that the filtrate may remain slightly acidic even though complete precipitation has been effected. If we regard the precipitate to be a basic salt in accordance to equation (r), shown above, it is obvious that earlier precipitation should be favoured by dilution and also by rise of temperature, as both of these are favourable for hydrolysis. A perusal of Table I shows that the amount of alkali needed for complete precipitation is not marked- ly affected by rise of temperature. From Table II it will be seen that with dilution precipitation occurs with the amount of alkali approaching theoretical values. Considering the analytical data for adsorption, as presented in Tables III, IV and V. we find that the adsorption of sodium and chlorine ions varies remarkably with the amount of alkali used for precipitation. The adsorption of chlorine in general de- creases, whilst the amount of sodium associated with the precipitate increases with in- creasing quantities of alkali added. These observations are easily explainable, when we remember that ferric oxide has an amphoteric character and the tendency of the adsorption of ions by such oxides is al ways governed by the hydrogen ion concentra- tion of the medium in which the adsorption is taking place (Dey and Ghosh, Proc. Nat. 'Acad. Sci., India, 1946, 15A, 143). Naturally when the OH- ion concentration is low, the adsorption of cr ions will be more prominent, while under such circumstances Na+ ions will not be adsorbed. Thus, we -find that at 25? (vide Table III) when the medium is prominently acidic containing 0.45 mg. M of acid, the adsorption of chlorine is 1.78 mg. ions, Whereas the adsorption of sodium is nil. Now, as the medium becomes alkaline, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 70 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ?. K. DIT ANT) 5. (HOSTT containing 1.67 mg. M of alkali, the adsorption of chlorine falls to o.or mg. Ions,7Whereas the amount of sodium associated is 0.25 mg. ions. Increase of temperature favours 'the association of sodium with the precipitate, whereas the adsorption of chlorine is diminished. The latter is, however, not rigidly f ()flowed by changes in temperature, as the phenomenon of hydrolysis at higher tem- peratures plays an important tole. The association of sodium ions with the precipitate ..,,?oes on increasing steadily with rise of temperature. Thus, when 19.42 mg. 111 of alkali are added to ferric chloride solution containing 5.75 mg. ions of ferric iron, the amount of sodium associated with the precipitate is 0.25, o.38 and 0.78 mg. ions at 25?, 50? and respectively. Ferric oxide with sodium hydroxide has a tendency to form sodium ferrite, and this will naturally be more prominent at a high temperature. Van Bemmelen in 1892 (vide Weiser, "Hydrous Oxides") prepared the yellow variety of ferric oxide by the reaction between sodium ferrite and water. We are of opinion that at higher tempera- tures sodium is found to be associated in larger amounts in alkaline media, as direct chemical interaction results to form some sodium ferrite. It is interesting to point out that ferric hydroxide, obtained at higher temperature with excess of - alkali, was definitely found to be of yellow colour and was highly resis- tant towards acids. 'Phis confirms our contention that a fair portion of the. ferrie hydroxide undergoes a chemical transformation to form ferric ferrite, which has lost its basic properties to be acted -upon by an acid,- according to the following scheme : Ve(OH), re.(t.)H.) + 011- (r) Fe(01,11), ? Fe0(OH);;; + H (21 Fe(OH) + Fe0(OH.!; + .?H2() (3) In equation (t) ferric hydroxide acts as ? a proton acceptor, i. e. as a ,base and in equation (2) it donates a proton, and behaves as an acid. The chemical interaction between the acidic and the basic properties of the hydroxide in the above manner results in the formation of Fent), which becomes chemically inert either as an acid or a base. The conductometric study of the precipitation of ferric hydroxide shows that though complete precipitation of iron as hydrated oxide takes place with a little lesser amount of alkali, yet the minima of the conductometric graph occurs ,when Fe : OH catio is I 3.2 when ferric chloride is added to the alkali, whilst it is 2.9 when alkali is added to ferric chloride. In neither case the minima correspond to the observed ratio for complete precipitation. We are of opinion that this divergency of the results c)ccurs due to the adsorption of the electrolytes present, and hence no accurate informa- ,ion can be obtained regarding the complete precipitation from these curve. We . , therefore suggest that Britton 's data on the precipitation of different insoluble hydro- :,lides using the E. M. F. method (/cc. cit.) is also beset with similar difficulties and hence fails to convey a true idea of the conditions of precipitation. DEPARTMENT or CHEMISTRY, I JNI vERSITIUS or SATIGA R Received November 29, 1947. ANT) ALLAHABAD, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES IN NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE 67 was raised to roo c.c. and they were maintained at constant temperature for an hour. The amount of iron, sodium and chlorine ions, and also hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in the supernatant liquid were determined accurately using a microburette, by the usual methods. Knowing the amounts of the different ions taken, the amounts of ions asso- ciated with the precipitate were calculated. The results obtained at different tempera- tures are recorded in the following tables. Ferric chloride solution = o.575.1V1 NaOH solution = 1.9418114 Iron = 0.575 g. ions per litre Chlorine = 1.725 g. ions per litre TABLE III Hydioxyl = 1.9418 g. ions per litre Sodium = 2.9428 g. ions per liter Temperature =--- 25? Mg. ions taken. Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. Mg ions associated with ppt. Fe. Cl. NaOH. H or OH. Cl. Na. Pe. Na. Cl. 5.75 17.25 14.56 1.84 II. 6.76 -- 2.15 - 20.49 5.75 17.25 15.53 0.76 5.14 -- 2.00 - 12.11 5.75 17.25 16.12 0.45 15.17 16.12 Nil Nil 1.78 5.75 77.25 26.89 0.05 15.95 16.77 0.12 1.30 5 75 17.25 17.28 0.07 OH 16.49 17.14 0.14 0.76 5.75 17.25 19.42 1.67 17.24 19.17 0.25 0.01 TABLE IV Temperature=5o*. Mg. ions taken. Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. Mg. ions associated with ppt. Fe. Cl. NaOH. H or 011. Cl. Na. Fe. Na. Cl. 5.75 17.25 15.53 0.665 H 11.01 -- 4.05 -- 6.22 5.75 17.25 16.12 0.041 15.29 16.12 Nil Nil 1.96 5.75 17.25 16.50 0.016 16.64 16.5o !I If 0.61 5.75 17.25 16.89 0.010 16.88 1.77 ? 0.12 0.39 5.75 17.25 17.28 0.078011 17.10 17.12 lf 0.16 0.15 5.75 17.25 19.42 2.598 17.13 29.04 ,, 0.38 0.12 TABLE V Temperature = 8o?. Mg. ions taken. Mg. ions available in supernatant liquid. Mg. ions associated with ppt. Na. Cl. NaOH. H or OIL. Cl. Na Fe Na. Cl. 5.75 17.25 15.53 0.700 II 15.45 0.90 - 1.80 5?75 17-25 16.12 0.214 15.09 16.12 Nil Nil 1.16 5.75 17.25 16.50 0.011 13.89 16.50 3.36 5.75 17.25 16 89 0.009 24.07 16.75 ,, 0.14 3.18 5.75 17.25 17.28 0.074 OH 25.76 17.11 ,, 0.17 1.49 5.75 V." 19.42 1.760 16.10 18.64 ,, 0.78 1.15 Approved or Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 I i8 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 K. DEY AND S. CIHOSH The precipitation was also studied by noting the electrical conductivities of the supernatant liquid in the different cases when varying proportions of ferric and alkali solutions were used. For conductometric measurements a great accuracy and precision was maintained. Instead of the cell constant, the calibration constant at different Positions of the bridge wire was determined by the method of Wark (I. Phys. Chem., 1930, 34, 885), and these values were employed for the calculations. To 5 c.c. of ill/to ferric chloride solution were added different volumes of M/2 sodium hydroxide solution, total volume kept at to c.c. and the precipitate allowed to settle for an hour at It was centrifuged at 2500 r.p.m. for five minutes and the electrical conductivity of the supernatant liquid was determined at 30?. In another set, the concentration of alkali was kept constant and varying amounts of ferric chloride solution were added to it. The concentration chosen was 14/4 for both the reactants, so that at the equivalence point Fe : OH= t: 3, the concen- tration of the respective constituents in both the sets was almost the same. Vrom the conductivity results the adjoining graph has been plotted showing the variation of specific conductivity with the increase in Fe : OH ratio (Fig. 1). FIG. Tr, 3 4 Value of OH/Pe" DIscussioN 5 Uur results on the precipitation of hydrated ferric oxide from ferric chloride solution show that similar to the observation of Britton (Ann. Rep., 1943, 40, 43) with various hydroxides, the amount of alkali needed for complete removal of the metal from solution is always less than the theoretical amount. In all such cases there are two possible reactions, which would result to such an observation. Increased tendency of hydrolysis with increased concentration of the alkali, according to the following scheme : Approved F6f1Releise )2001/09f06VCIA-RDP8-340445R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES TN NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE 69 The above will be more marked with increasing insolubility of the respective hydroxides and their strength as a base. (2) Hydrolytic adsorption of the anion, Cl-by the basic oxide, producing free alkali : Fe(OH)3 + NaC1 + H20 rri'e(OH)31xCl,, + NaOH In the first case the formation of ferric hydroxide takes place in stages, yielding various intermediate basic compounds, which ultimately with a definite excess of alkali would result in the formation of Fe(OH)3. In the second case, the quantity of alkali added precipitates the equivalent quantity of ferric hydroxide, which on adsorbing chlorine ions from the system liberates an equivalent quantity of OH- ions, which precipitate more and more of the hydroxide. Our experimental results, as recorded in Tables III, IV and V, show that when the amount of alkali is deficient, the adsorp- tion of chloride ion is high and this goes on decreasing as the quantity of alkali added is raised. It is interesting to observe in Tables I and H that complete precipitation occurs when the supernatant liquid is slightly acidic. We find that in all the cases quoted in the aforesaid tables, the amount of alkali needed to yield a neutral filtrate is always greater than the volume needed for complete precipitation. This observation is con- tradictory to the case of precipitation of cupric hydroxide as observed by us (loc. cit.), where the filtrate becomes alkaline with complete precipitation. It may therefore appear to be anomalous, but keeping in view that ferric hydroxide is far more insoluble than cupric hydroxide, complete precipitation occurs at a lower OH- ion concentration, so that the filtrate may remain slightly acidic even though complete precipitation has been effected. If we regard the precipitate to be a basic salt in accordance to equation (r), shown above, it is obvious that earlier precipitation should be favoured by dilution and also by rise of temperature, as both of these are favourable for hydrolysis. A perusal of Table I shows that the amount of alkali needed for complete precipitation is not marked- ly affected by rise of temperature. From Table II it will be seen that with dilution precipitation occurs with the amount of alkali approaching theoretical values. Considering the analytical data for adsorption, as presented in Tables HI, IV and V, we find that the adsorption of sodium and chlorine ions varies remarkably with the amount of alkali used for precipitation. The adsorption of chlorine in general de- creases, whilst the amount of sodium associated with the precipitate increases with in- creasing quantities of alkali added. These observations are easily explainable, when we remember that ferric oxide has an amphoteric character and the tendency of the adsorption of ions by such oxides is al ways governed by the hydrogen ion concentra- tion of the medium in which the adsorption is taking place (Dey and Ghosh, Proc. Nat. 'Acad. Sci., India, 1946, 15A, 143). Naturally when the on- ion concentration is low, the adsorption of Cl- ions will be more prominent, while under such circumstances Na+ ions will not be adsorbed. Thus, we find that at 250 (vide Table III) when the medium is prominently acidic containing 0.45 mg. M of acid, the adsorption of chlorine is 1.78 mg. ions, whereas the adsorption of sodium is nil. Now, as the medium becomes alkaline, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 70 . K. BEY AND S. GHOSH :.(intaining 1.67 mg. M of alkali, the adsorption of chlorine falls to o.or mg. ions, whereas the amount of sodium associated is 0.25 mg. ions. Increase of temperature favours the association of sodium with the precipitate, whereas the adsorption of chlorine is diminished. The latter is, however, not rigidly followed by changes in temperature, as the phenomenon of hydrolysis at higher tem- peratures plays an important role. The association of sodium ions with the precipitate goes on increasing steadily with rise of temperature. Thus, when 19.42 fig. M of alkali are added to ferric chloride solution containing 5.75 mg, ions of ferric iron, the amount of sodium associated with the precipitate is 0.25, 0.38 and 0.78 mg. ions at 250, 500 and ;-'0' respectively. Perric oxide with sodium hydroxide has a tendency to form sodium ferrite, and is will naturally be more prominent at a high temperature. Van Bernmelen in 1892 (vide Weiser, "Hydrous Oxides") prepared the yellow variety of ferric oxide by the reaction between sodium ferrite and water. We are of opinion that at higher tempera- tures sodium is found to be associated in larger amounts in alkaline media, as direct chemical interaction results to form some sodium ferrite. It is interesting to point out that ferric hydroxide, obtained at higher temperature with excess of alkali, was definitely found to be of yellow colour and was highly resis- tant towards acids. This confirms our contention that a fair portion of the ferric hydroxide undergoes a chemical transformation to form ferric ferrite, which has lost its basic properties to be acted upon by an acid, according to the following scheme : Ve(OH)42- + OW ??? (r) Fe(OH)3 Fe(OH)A Fe0(OH)i, + H4 (2) + Fe0(01-1)i Fe203 + H2O ? (3) Fe(OH)- 2 In equation (r) ferric hydroxide acts as a proton acceptor, i. e. as a base and in equation (2) it donates a proton, and behaves as an acid. The chemical interaction between the acidic and the basic properties of the hydroxide in the above manner results in the formation of Fe203, which becomes chemically inert either as an acid or a base. The conductometric study of the precipitation of ferric hydroxide shows that horigh complete precipitation of iron as hydrated oxide takes place with a little lesser amount of alkali, yet the minima of the conductometric graph occurs ,when Fe : OH ratio is 1 : 3,2 when ferric chloride is added to the alkali, 'whilst it is 2.9 when alkali is added to ferric chloride. In neither case the minima correspond to the observed ratio for complete precipitation. We are of opinion that this divergency of the results occurs due to the adsorption of the electrolytes present, and hence no accurate informa- tion can be obtained regarding the complete precipitation from these curves. We therefore suggest that Britton's data on the precipitation of different insoluble hydro- xides using the E. M. F. method (/c. cit.) is also beset with similar difficulties and hence fails to convey a true idea of the conditions of precipitation. 1)ErAaTnENT or CiirtuStay, Univicasiints Or SAUGAR Received November 29, 1947. AND ALLARARAD, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 t Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 1950] STUDIES IN THE NATURE OF HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE. PART I. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE NATURE OF THE PRECIPITATE OBTAINED BY THE INTERACTION OF SOLUTIONS OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE BY ARl7N K. DRY AND SATYESDWAR OHOSH Ferric oxides of different physical properties and chemical character have been prepared for the first time by the precipitation from ferric chloride employing different quantities of sodium hydroxide and by carrying on the precipitation at different temperatures. The variation in the properties has been ascribed to the amphoteric nature of the oxide and a mechanism to explain the behaviour of ferric hydroxide has been suggested. The hypothesis has been supported by quantitative studies on the adsorption of the various ions in the system, during the precipitation of hydrated ferric oxide. The conductometric study of the precipitation has also been made. Two varieties of ferric oxide are well known ; Tommasi in 1882 (vide Weiser, "Hydrous Oxides", 1926, p? 364) recorded the existence of yellow and brown oxides, which were regarded by him as isomers. It was noted by Davies (/c. cit.) that the yellow variety, prepared by the oxidation of ferrous oxide or the carbonate, was denser and the solubility of this type of oxide in acids was very little. Weiser and Milligan (I. Phys. Chent., 1935, 39, as ; 1940, 44, io81) observe that the freshly precipitated oxide is amorphous, but on ageing it gradually transforms from cx-Ite20. to 13-Fe0011. The yellow /3-oxide is also the product of the slow hydrolysis of ferric chloride (1. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 238). Thiessen and KOppen (Z. anorg. Chem., 1930, 189. 113 ; 1936, 228, 57) opine that brown ferric oxide yields eight 'hydrates on isothermal dehy- dration, but their view has been challenged by Weiser and co-workers (I. Phys. Chem., 1939, 43, 1104). Not much work seems to have been done on the yellow oxide, and noth- ing is on record regarding the preparation of both of these oxides from the same reagents. It has, however, been observed by Banerji and Ghosh (Nat. Acad. Sci., India, Abstracts, 1942) that hydrated ferric oxide, when allowed to age gradually, becomes insoluble in mineral acids. They also observed remarkable variation in the peptisability of the oxide by hydrochloric and other acids with age. In the present investigation we have been able to prepare hydrated ferric oxides of varying colour beginning from deep brown to yellow by regulating the temperature and the concentrations of the reactants in the reaction between ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions. We have also observed that in all the cases precipitation is complete even before the theoretical quantity of alkali is added. The same phenomenon has been recorded by Britton (Ann. Ret., 194.3) 40, 44) who studied the precipitation of various oxides by the E. M. F. method. A similar observation has been made by Dey and Ghosh (this Journal, 1947, 24, 181) during the study of the precipitation of cupric hydroxide from cupric sulphate solution when the quantity of alkali required was 14% less than the theoretical amount. We have in this study made a quantitative investigation of the precipitation of ferric hydroxide by analytical and conductometric methods. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 i6 A. K. DEY AND S. GHOSII PERIMENT AL A solution of AnalaR ferric chloride was prepared and both iron and chlorine were stirnated volumetrically and gravimetrically and were in the proportion required by the formula FeC18. At the outset, to ro c.c. of ferric chloride solution were added different quantities of a standard solution of sodium hydroxide (total volume 40 c.c.) and the quantity required for just complete precipitation was noted. After filtration the filtrate was tested and was found to be acidic when smaller volumes of alkali solution were employed. The volume of alkali solution needed to yield a just alkaline filtrate was also noted. The observations were repeated at several temperatures. TABLE I Ferric chloride soln. =0.575M. Sodium hydroxide soln. = 1.94181W. Theoretically Ii c.c. of ferric chloride solution 8.88 c.c. of alkali for precipitation of Fe(011)8. Volume of NaOH solution at temperature of 40'? 50g? 6o*. 8o*. For complete precipitation Por a neutral filtrate 8.30 c.c. 8.30 c.c. u.00 9.00 8.30 CC. 8.30 c.c. 8.30 c.c. g.00 8 go 8.90 The effect of dilution was studied by diluting both the solutions of ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide ten times and similar observations were repeated ; the results are shown in Table 11. 'I'ABLE II Ferric chloride soln.=0.0s75M? .Sodium hydroxide soln. = o.1942M. Theoretically fo C.C. of ferric chloride solution should require 8.88 e.c. of sodium hydroxide or precipitating Fe(01-1).. Por complete precipitation For a neutral filtrate Volume of NaOH solution at temperature of 25'. 50. 8o'. 8.5o c.c. 8.0o c.c. .o c.c. 9.10 9.00 8.90 We thus find that on dilution the precipitation value approximates the theoretical values, and on raising the temperature, the values undergo negligible change. It was further observed that the samples of solid precipitates were readily soluble in hydro- chloric and nitric acids, when precipitated with alkalis less than the theoretical amounts. The colour of hydrated ferric oxide in all these cases were dark brown. When the amount of alkali was increased the precipitate became more and more insoluble in acids. When the alkali was in great excess, the precipitate became more yellow in colour and when fo c.c. of alkali were employed for precipitation, the colour of the oxide was deep yellow and a fair portion of the precipitate remained undissolved in even hot and con- centrated hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaving a yellow residue. This insolubility was more pronounced when the precipitation was carried out at higher temperatures. Now to To c.c. of ferric chloride solution, taken in several too c.c. flasks kept at cimslatpl3MOTdrPOIVRelWarte .1/ LI 4/1313k16ePtrALIRBP83100106R56616t1t0d8WCFP171me Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 64 U. P. BASU AND X. R. CHANDRAN of an aromatic aldehyde, the 4-acety1amino-4'-aminodiphenyl5ulphone, however, re- acted with cinnamic aldehyde as well as with salicyldehyde when refluxed in alcoholic solution as usual. The characteristics of the compounds are recorded in the table below. TABLE I General formula : R=N (4) -C8114S02.C6114 N (4!)=R'. Compound R= R'= General appearance. Formula and Mol. Wt Nitrogen % Found. calc. i. Salicylidene H2 Yellow needles, C19111603N2S 7-47 7.97 m.p. 225-26? (352) 2. Salicylidene Cinnamylidene Yellow needles, C28142203N2S 5.72 6.o /11.P. 154-55? (466) 3. Benzylidene Cinnamylidene Yellow powder, c281-12202N28 6.4 6.22 nl.P? 173-74? (450) 4. Anisylidene Cinnamylidene Yellow powder, c291-12403N2s 5.96 5.83 1/1.13? 177-78? (480) Salicylidene Ethylidene White needles, e21.1-11803N2s 7-42 7.41 imp. 162-63? (378) 6. Salicylidene 2 :3 :4 :5 :6-Penta- White powder, C25H2608N28 5.92 5.44 hydroxyhexyl- idene m.p. 243-45? (514) 7. Acetyl Cinnamylidene Yellow needles, 023112003N2S 6.95 6.93 m.p. 219-20' (404?i 8. Acetyl Salicylidene Orange crystals, CAH1604N2S 7.28 7.1 m.p. 243-44? (394) BENGAL IMMUNiTY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CALCUTTA. Received June 17, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCHIFF S BA SFS FROM DTAMTNOMPFIENYLSULPHOW, 63 of salicylaldehyde in alcoholic solution for over 4 hours, the disalicylidene derivative separated out in fine yellow-orange needles, m.p. 268-7o0. In the preparation of 4:4'-diaininodiphenylsulphone Raiziss's method (J. 'Amer (hem. Soc., 1939, 61, 2763) was slightly modified and this has been described in the experimental part of the paper. TM$NTA r, The method is a slight modification of the procedure adopted by Raiziss et al. (loc. 4-Nitro-41-acetylaininodiphenylsulphone was prepared according to the method of Raiziss et at. in their preparation of 4-amino-e-hydroxydiphenylsulphone ; but this was, however, simultaneously reduced and deacetvlated by tin and hydrochloric acid to yield 4:4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone. 4-Nitro-4/-acetylaminodiphenylsulphone (90 g.) was suspended in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (675 c.c.) and water (270 c.c.) and heated to boiling. To this solution was added tin turnings (too g.) from time to time, and after the addi- tion was complete, the solution was heated for a further period of 2 hours. The mixture was treated with charcoal and filtered hot. The filtrate was cooled and basified with the addition of a concentrated solution of caustic soda (50%). The 4:4'-diaminodiphenyl- sulphone separated out on cooling as a crystalline, curdy precipitate and was purified by crystallisation from alcohol, rn.p. 1-75*, yield 40 g. l'reParation of 4-A ry1idene-amino-4'-cinnamy1idene-arninodiPhenylsulbhone.--The .1-benzylidene-amino- and 4-P-methoxybenzylidene-amino-4'-aminodiphenylsulphones were prepared according to Buttle et at. (loc. cit.) and the 4-salicylidene-amino-4'-amino- diphenylsulphone was prepared by heating an alcoholic solution of 4:4'-diaminodiphenyl- sulphone with molar amount of salicylaldehyde for about 2o minutes. The mixture was cooled and the orange-yellow solid separating, was collected. This was washed with ether, and found to melt at 225-26?. Jain et at. (loc. cit.) recorded the melting point of this derivative as 1720. All the above mono-arylidene derivatives were mixed with an alcoholic solution. of cinnamic aldehyde (r.r2 mole) and refluxed for 2 to 3 hours. The mixture was con- centrated and diluted with ether. The diarylidene derivatives separated. These were filtered and washed with ether. The 4'-ainino group of the above 4-arylidene-amino-4'-aminodiphenylsulphone could not be condensed with benzaldehyde or anisaldehyde. But the same of salicyl- idene-amino derivative readily condensed with acetaldehyde, glucose, and even salicyl- dehyde when heated under reflux in alcoholic solution as usual. In the case of glucose, a trace of ammonium chloride was added to bring about the reaction. From the case of reaction it appeared that cinnamic aldehyde behaved as an aliphatic one and had been found to react easily with 4'-amino group of the 4-arylidene-amino-4'-amino- diphenylsulphones. PreParation of 4-Acetylamino-41-arylidene-aminodiPheitylsu1Phone.-- Although the oionoarylidene-a minodiphenylsulphone did not react so readily with a second molecule ApiarkPiett-For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 E Jour, Indian Chem Soci, Vol. 27, No. 2, rgso] MEYER'S SYNTHESIS OF PYRIDINES FROM AMINOACRYLO- NITRILES : VERIFICATION IN THE LIGHT OF GASTALDI'S OBJECTIONS BY NIRMALANANDA PALIT The reactions of dinitriles have been extensively studied by V. Meyer and have proved to be a fruitful source for the preparation of pyridines. A typical member of the series has been obtained by Gastaldi from the corresponding pyrilitun salt and has been found to be different. This questions the correct- ness of the structure of Meyer's compounds. In the present investigation it has been shown that the structures of Meyer's compounds as a class are not incorrect, but so far as the particular member is concerned, Gastaldi's contension probably holds good and Meyer's compound may have to be represented differently. Meyer has developed a method for the synthesis of pyridines. /-Amino-/3-methyl- acrylonitrile was condensed with benzylidene-acetophenone in presence of sodium ethoxide to yield 3-cyano-2: 4-dipheny1-6-methylpyridine (I). The cyano group was hydrolysed with concentrated HC1 at 2600 to the carboxy derivative (II) which, when heated with lime, lost carbon dioxide and gave 2: 4-diphenyl-6-methylpyridine (III), m.p. 156?. The compound (II) on oxidation with permanganate gave 2 :4-diphenylpyri- dine-5:6-dicarboxylic acid (IV), m.p. 1850 (V. Meyer and Irmscher, Chem. Zentrli, rgoS, IL 594)? Ph CH CN.CH, CH I Me.0 CO.Ph CN Me Ph Ph Ph COoll( ? Mei/Ph Ph Ph COOHr\ Me/Ph COOHI/ \. Ph NH (I) Ph /\ Me/Ph 0 Cl.FeCl. (V) Ph Mel\ )Ph (VI) Ph /\ Ph (\ C0011 \/Ph 1\\)Ph (VII) (VIII) (IV) Gastaldi has thrown considerable doubt on this reaction. He has obtained (VI) from cetophenone or dypnone by the action of acetic anhydride in presence of ferric AgrpriNg.d-for Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 72 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 N. PALTT chloride and treating the resulting pyrilium salt (V) with ammonia and found it to be different from (III), m.p. 73. Oxidation of (VI) with permanganate in 5% sulphuric acid gave an acid (VII), the sodium salt of which on heating with lime at 4000 formed 2: 4-diphellY1Pyridille (VM) (Cf. Chem. Zentri., 1922, III, 778 ; 1p23, I, 75g). The author while studying a reaction, similar to that of Meyer (this ./ournal, 1937, 14, 355), obtained products which were assigned structures based on certain experiments which definitely proved the constitution of the dicarboxypyridine com- pound (IV) and indicated that Meyer's mode of representing the reaction as a class is not incorrect. Those egperiments form the subject matter of the present communica- tion. In the light of Gastaldi's research it became necessary to investigate Meyer's re- action more critically and for this purpose, in the first instance, the reaction was slight- ly modified in such a way that any chance of ambiguity was very much restricted. Thus, g-amino43-phenylacrylonitrile was condensed with 0-ethyl ether of dibenzoylmetha- ne, a substance which can hardly be expected to react in any abnormal way. The product formed was identical with 3-cyano-syn-triphenylpyridine, obtained by Meyer from the same aminonitrile and benzylidene acetophenone (loc. cit.). This reaction can scarcely be regarded as capable of taking any other course. Moreover, this cyanopyri- dine derivative on hydrolysis lost carbon dioxide and gave sytn-triphenylpyridine, identi- cal with that previously obtained by Newman from the monoxime of benzaldiacetophe- none by passing dry HO in benzene solution (Annalen, r8g8? 802, 240). This identity with Newman's compound, formed by an entirely different method, lends support to the correctness of Meyer's compounds. in the second instance, (IV) has also been obtained by an equally different method. Dibenzoylmethane reacts with m-amidophenol to form an anil (IX) which with dry HCI in glacial acetic acid solution closes up the ring to form a: 4-diphenyl-7-oxyquinoline tx) (Bulow and Issler, Ber., 1g03, 86, 4017). It has now been obtained more con- veniently by boiling m-amidophenol and benzylidene-acetophenone in alcoholic solution Atli a trace of alkali as the condensing agent. Permanganate oxidises the oxyquino- :ine to give 2: 4-dipnenylpyridine-5: 6-dicarboxylic acid, identical with Meyer's compound tlIV). Ph CO Ph \CH 2 /NZ\ OHjJC.Ph 0111 Hph \ \/N/ (IX) (X) These evidences therefore establish the fact that Meyer's reaction is generally correct, and if there is any doubt, it must be with the individual member (III), and to settle fiis issue it was thought desirable to synthesise it in such a way as would definitely prove its constitution, Ethyl g-aminocorotonate, which reacts with ethyl acetylpyruvate Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 MEYER'S SYNTPIES1S OF PYRIDINES 13 vigorously even at o? (Mumm and Htineke, Ber., 1917, 50, 1568), failed to react with dibenzoylmethane with alkaline condensing agents or when heated with zinc chloride under suction. The 5-diketone from styrylphenyl ketone and acetoacetic ester (Knoevenagel, ibid., rgoz, 35, 397) when treated with ammonia suffers intramole- cular ring-closure before it can react with the latter. Next the synthesis was attempted from dypnone and acetamide by heating them together with zinc chloride in a sealed tube at 34o0 for 48 hours according to the method of Pictet and Stchelin (ComPt. rend., 1916, 162, 876) but the analysis of the products did not agree with the pyridine in question. The following scheme was more successful. Ph C11 /N CO2Et?CH CH2 I i CN CO.Ph (XI) Ph CO,Etn Br \)Ph (XII) ? Ph COOH/\ I N/P (XIII) Ph Ph Ph /\ /N IN I I 2 p Ii \ jP11. sv_ Mel\/Ph N N N /N (XIV) Me I (XVI) (XV) Using methyl cyanoacetate the course of the above reaction was followed up to the bromo-ester corresponding to (XII) by Kohler, Graustein and Merril (J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1922, 44, 2536). With the more common ethyl ester, it was noticed that the formation of (XI) did not proceed to completion unless the mixture was main- tained just alkaline throughout the reaction by occasional additions of drops of sod;um methoxide solution. Bromine in glacial acetic acid converted the open-chain nitrile into the bromopyridine derivative (XII). This was reduced with HI and the product obtained (XIII) on dry distillation with excess of barium hydroxide lost carbon dioxide and gave 2 : 4-diphenylpyridine, identical with Gastaldi's compound (VIII). This energetically combined with methyl iodide on a water-bath and the methiodide at 300" (Ladenburg, Ber., 1883, 16, 1410, 2059 ; Lange, ibid., 1885, 18, 3438 ; Koenigs and Hoffmann, ibid., 1915, 58, 194) formed a mixture the major component of which was diphenylpyridine, but it also contained (v, m.p. 730) which was identified by its picrate. Meyer's compound (III, m. p. 1560) was not formed. The very small amount of material at hand and the unsatisfactory yields obtained by this process precluded any further study here and the work has been taken up again with a different line of approach which will be duly communicated. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 74 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 N PALlT X P R I NT Ir,NT A 1, 3-Cyano-2: 4: 6-trithenyikyridine (i, Ph in Place of Me).--?-P-Amino-g-phenylacrylo- nitrile (2.8 g.) (Holtzwart, J. Prakt. Chem., /889, ii, 39, 242) and dibenzoyhnethane-0- ethyl ether (5 g.) (Ruheman and ? Watson, J. Chem. Soc., 1004, 88, 462) were dissolved absolute alcohol and introduced into alcoholic sodium ethoxide (Na, 0.46 g.). The -0qui(i immediately assumed a deep red tint. Within half an hour it set to a semi-solid mass. Next day it was filtered at the pump and repeatedly washed with alcohol till perfectly white, yield 2 g. It was crystallised from a large volume of alcohol, m.p. 220' (Meyer, m.p. 220?). Wound : C, 86.4 ; H, 5.2 ; N, 8.5. C??HifiN, requires C, 86.7; H, 4.8 ; N, 8.4 per cent). Hydrolysis : sytn-Triphenv11yridine.--The hydrolysis was effected by heating the cyano compound with fuming HO in a sealed tube at 260? for 4 hours. On adding water a flocculent white precipitate was obtained which did not dissolve in .NaOH solu- tion, It crystallises in needles from ethyl acetate, acetone, alcohol and is least soluble in the last, rn?P. 136-37? (Pound: C2111,7N requires N, 4.56 per cent). A mixed melting point determination with the compound obtained by Newman's method showed no depression. 7-Hydroxy-24-diPhenylquivo1ine (X).?m-Arnidophenol (2.5 g.) and styrylphenyl ketone (5 g.) were dissolved in absolute alcohol (40 c c.) and boiled under reflux for 7 hours with the addition of a few drops of alcoholic potash. The solution turned red md on cooling set to a crystalline mass. This was collected and crystallised from izene, yield 2 g. Unlike the crude product it no longer tarnished in air and light, 273" (turns brown). The alcoholic mother-licit-tor on concentration gave a further yield of i g. (Found: C, 85.21 ; H, 5.23 ; N, 4.67. C2113,ON requires C, 84.84 ; H, ; N, 4.71 per cent). Picrate, shining orange-yellow flakes, 1n.. 246-47?. (Found: N., 10.8. C21HisNO.C6H3t.)7Ns requires N, ro.6 per cent). Oxidation of the Quinoline Compound: 2: 4-DiPheny1-5: 6-dicarboxylic Acid The oxyquinoline derivative (1 g.) was dissolved in aqueous KOH (conc., 3 g. excess was used to prevent hydrolysis on dilution) and then diluted with warm water to 450 C.C. The solution was heated on a water-bath. 5%KMn04 (Tech., g.) was very slowly added to it with stirring till the mixture became permanently pink ; excess of KMnO, was decomposed with SO? filtered hot and the precipitated oxide extracted with hot water. The filtrate was concentrated with occasional neutralisation with dilute II2SO4 to a small bulk when copious gelatinous inorganic matter separated. This was filtered off and the filtrate with copper sulphate solution -precipitated a greenish blue copper derivative which was collected, washed, suspended in water and decomposed with H,S. The gummy precipitate was extracted with warm dilute caustic soda and acidified, when a spongy mass was produced. The whole thing was extracted with ether, dried with calcium chloride and the solvent evaporated. The residue was crystallised from absolute alcohol, m.p. 185? (gas evolu- tion), yield too poor. (Found : C, 71.2 H, 4.4; N, 4.7. Ci9HisO4N requires C, 71.5 ; H, 4.1 ; N, 4.4 Per cent). Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 MEYER'S SYNTHESIS OF PYRIDINES 75 Condensation, of Ethyl Cyanoa,cetate with Benzylidene-acetoPhenone (XI).?The con- densation did not proceed satisfactorily unless very pure chemicals were used in absolute- ly dry condition. The ketone (2o g.) and the ester (i4 g.) were dissolved in carefully dehydrated methyl alcohol (30 g.) and to the warm solution sodium methoxide (5% soln.) was added dropwise till distinctly alkaline. The temperature of the reaction mixture shot up and the liquid began to boil. It was then refluxed for 2 hours with repeated additions of the condensing agent (2 drops, each time) to keep it alkaline throughout. After standing overnight the solvent was removed, the residue taken up in ether, washed with sodium carbonate, dried (CaC1.2) and finally distilled. At I? mm. pressure a few drops of cyano-ester passed off below 1000 and then the temperature began to rise till at 2000 tendency to decomposition was noticed. It was a very thick, viscous, transparent mass not solidifying even on keeping in ice for several days nor could it be crystallised from any solvent, yield 28 g. Action of HBr on above Open-chain Addition Product : Formation of Ethyl 2-Keto- 4 :6-diPhenyltetrahydfoPyridine-3-carboxylate.?The above light brown mass was dis- solved in warm carbon tetrachloride and saturated with dry HBr. The solution on keeping in an ice chest solidified completely. On rubbing with methyl alcohol shining white flakes were obtained, m.p. 150-55?, yield 22 g. It was crystallised from alcohol, m.p. .r6o?. (Found : C, 74.3 ; H, 6.1 ; N, 4.7. C2oHi,03N requires C, 74.76 ; H, 5.91 ; N, 4.4 per cent). Hydrolysis of this ester gave the acid identical with Kohler's product (/c. cit.). Action of Bromine : Formation of Ethyl 2?Broino-4; 6-diphenylpyridine-3-carboxy- late (XII).?The open-chain compound (XI) was treated with bromine in hot glacial acetic acid. Copious HBr was evolved and towards the end a very slight white granu. Far precipitate appeared which was identified to be ammonium bromide, suggesting hydrolysis of a part of the material. This was filtered off, the filtrate distilled under suction and the acid fumes removed in a vacuum desiccator over solid KOH. The residual thick brownish mass was boiied with water when it became nearly semi-solid but separated from solvents as an oil. The mass was next treated with hot caustic soda solution which dissolved a considerable portion of it to form a red solution from which a quantity of the ketotetrabydropyridine ester, described above, was recovered. The residue was a hard, red, impure solid which was repeatedly crystallised from alcohol with the addition of animal charcoal and kieselghur as oblong plates, m.p. 133-35?, yield very poor. (Found Br, 20.97. C20H1,O2NBr requires Br, 20.94 per cent). Reduction of the BromoPyridine Ester.?The bromo-ester (XII, 5 g.) was mixed with red phosphorus (r g.) and bydriodic acid (d 1.94,12 c.c.) aqd heated in a sealed tube at 1750.1800 for 2.4 hours. With the disappearance of iodine vapours a colorless liquid with large crystals were obtained. The crystals turned violet on exposure to air and were soluble in warm water. These were treated with boilirkg potash solution and concentrated. On cooling the potassium salt separated as a rose-red solid, freely soluble in water. Acidification precipitated the acid (XIII) in an impure condition, 1n.. 200-205?. The crude reduction product was refluxed with powdered barium hydroxide and a little water for 2 hours, cooled, filtered and dried. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 76 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 PAL1T Removal of the Carboxyl group : Formation of 2 : 4-DiPhenylpyridine (XIV).? The dry material was well mixed with a little more barium hydroxide and heated gently with a small free flame in a pyrex test tube fitted with a delivery tube dipping in cold water. Decomposition started with frothing and very soon an oily distillate con- densed on the cooler parts of the test tube. This solidified to a pale brown solid, yield 0.5 g. from x g. of the crude crystals obtained in the previous operation, m.p. 68? (pure) (Gastaldi, /oc. cit., m.p. 69?). (Found : N, 6.2. C,,I-1,3N requires N, 6.o per cent). Picric acid in alcohol produced a deep yellow picrate, nl.p 189? (Gastaldi, imp. 187'). ? 4-DiPhenyiPyridine Methiodide (XV).?This pyridine (r g.) and methyl iodide g.) were refluxed on a carbon lamp. Within an hour a red paste was formed which et to a glassy red solid on cooling. This was rubbed with warm rectified spirit when a yellow solid separated, ni.p. 206-208?. It was recrystallised from alcohol, in.p. eio?. (round : I, 34.1. C18Hi6NI requires I, 34.0 per cent). ? 4-1)iPheny1-6-methylPyridine.--The methiodide (4 g.) was heated in a sealed tube at 300?-315? for 2 hours affording a black transparent soft mass which was taken up in hot water, treated with concentrated NaOH solution and distilled in stealth. A slightly milky liquid passed over. Extraction of the distillate with ether, followed by removal of the solvent, gave a yellow oil having a strong odour of essential oil, but on keeping this votatile portion passed away leaving a very small amount brown solid Which formed a picrate, m.p. 184-87?. This was probably diphenylpyridine. The residue after steam-distillation was mixed with enough ether. Most of the black mass went into solution having a deep brownish green fluorescence. This was separat- ed, filtered from the slight brown precipitate formed, solvent removed and the residue crystallised from ligroin. Impure crystals separated melting at about 6o?, which energetically formed picrate. This was again mostly diphenylpyridine as the recrys- tallised picrate melted sharply at 769'. The mother-liquor (ligroin) was evaporated off, residue taken up in a little benzene, a few drops of petrol added and allowed to concentrate in air. Some crystals separated which were removed and washed with a little petrol. These melted at 69-72' and formed a picrate melting at 212?. The ex- ceedingly poor yield of this compound and its admixture with diphenylpyridine, which is so close to it both in solubility in different solvents and melting point, indicated the unsuitability of this method. CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT, SCIENCE COLLEGE, PATNA. Received September 24 949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 [Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol, 27, No. 2, 19501 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE WOOD OF CEDRELA TOONA, ROXB. ISOLATION OF A LACTONE, AN ESSENTIAL OIL AND A COLOURING MATTER BY DHARAM BAI, PARIHAR AND SIKHIBHUSHAN DUTT From the wood of Cedrela too cc, a lactone (m.p. 204?), an essential oil, and a colouring matter ?m.p. 256?) have been obtained in yields of 0.40, 0.17 and 0?25% respectively. The lactone, Cedrelone, has a molecular formula C251-13005. It contains one ethyleuic double bond, one phenolic hydroxyl, one ketonic group and a lactone ring in the molecule. Several derivatis es of Cedrelone have been prepared and analysed. Cedreta toona, commonly known as Tun in Hindi, is a tall handsome tree, about so to 6o feet high, belonging to the natural order of Meliaceae. It is found in abundance in the sub-Himalyan tract from the Indus eastwards, Chittagong, Assam, Burma, Chota Nagpur, Western Ghats of Bombay to the Nilgris and other hills of the Indian Pen- insula. The wood, which is of a brownish red colour, has a faintly aromatic odour, mainly due to the presence of a golden yellow essential oil, and a lactone. The wood is very light and is largely used in making light furniture and musical instruments. Mell (Text. Cot., 1931, 53, 68) found the wood to be an interesting source of a natural dyestuff. Besides the commercial aspects, the plant enjoys a great repute in medicine. The bark of the plant is a powerful astringent and has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery, and as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations (Kirtikar and Basu, "Indian Medicinal Plants", Vol. I, pp. 562-564). The infusion of the bark is given in intermittant fevers and blood compla- ints in Indo-China. The seeds have similar therapeutic value. The flowers are con- sidered emmenagogue in Bombay, and are given in disordered menstruation. The essential oil from the wood was analysed by Pillai and Sanjiva Rao (J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1931, 50, 220T). By steam-distillation of the powdered wood a golden yellow pleasant smelling essential oil (yield 0.44%) was obtained. The oil was found to consist of a tricylic sesquiterpene, i-copaene (35%), and bicyclic hydrocarbons identified as cadinene. The sesquiterpene alcohol fraction consisted mainly of /-cadinol (13 %). Apart from the essential oil, no systematic work on the wood of the plant has been done by any previous worker, and in view of the great medicinal importance of the plant, the present work was undertaken to find out the active principles present and to study their constitutions. The authors while working on the wood of the plant have isolated a pleasant smelling, heavy, essential oil, a reddish yellow colouring matter (m.p. 2560) and a lactone (m.p. 2040), in yields of 0.17%, 0.25% and 0.40% respectively on the dry wood. The systematic chemical examination of the essential oil and the colouring matter will be Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 U. B. PAR1HAli AND S. MITT the subject of separate communications; while in the present one the lactone has been studied in detail. The lactone, which has been named as "Cedrelone" by the authors, crystallises in colorless, glistening, rhombic needles and large hexagonal plates from benzene, welting sharply at 204?. It has a molecular formula of C.251-13006, and contains one ethylenic double bond, one phenolic hydroxyl and one ketonic groups. Several derivatives of the compound were prepared and analysed and are described in the experimental part of the paper. it:x3PERIMENTAL For preliminary examination the powdered dry wood (25 g.) was taken in a sohxl- t s apparatus and extracted with different solvents in the hot each time, for about an hour and the solvent distilled off. The following are the percentages of the extracts obtained in each case: Water 7.47 % CHC13 1.49 % McOH )7.0 CC14 x 'MOH I' 74 Benzene IA8 Acetone 5.go Ether i.8 Iftyl acetate o.o6 Petrol ether T.n9 The wood on complete ignition left 2.55% of a white ash. The air-dried, powdered wood of the plant (10.2 kg.) was extracted with hot 'henzene under reflux in lots of 2 kilos at a time. The extracts were filtered hot, the solvent distilled off and the viscous reddish concentrate was allowed to stand for one week, when large colorless crystals settled down. These were filtered off through a Buch- ner funnel and rapidly washed with ether. The mother-liquor and the washings were collected. These on concentration gave three more crops of the same crystalline com- pound with identical melting points. The ultimate mother-liquor was completely freed from benzene by heating on a water-bath under reduced pressure in an atmos- phere of carbon dioxide, thus affording a very thick red coloured oily stuff, which was f_entiml to be the solution of the lactone in essential oil. This was treated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide on the water-bath, excess of alcohol distilled off, the mixture after cooling diluted with water, and extracted with ether. The ethereal extract on recovery of the solvent gave a heavy, pleasant smelling essential oil (yield, 0.17 %). The alkaline solution on acidification with dilute hydrochloric acid precipitated the lactone, which had the same melting point as that of the original lactone. confirmed by mixed melting point when no change was noticed. The systematic work on the essential oil will be the matter of a separate communication. The wood after exttaction with benzene was further extracted with hot alcohol tinder reflux and the solvent distilled off when a syrupy residue was obtained. After removal of traces of the solvent by evaporation on the water-bath, the residue was extracted with hot acetone, the extract concentrated and the colouring matter precipi- tated with chloroform. The compound on drying was found to shrink at 2150 and Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF WOOD OF CEDRELA TOONA, ROXB. 79 melt at 254-56?. This was recrystallised from boiling glacial acetic acid in reddish yellow needles melting at 256?. On further crystallisations the melting point of the compound did not rise. Thus, 25.5 g. of the colouring matter were obtained in an yield of 0.25% on the weight of the dry wood. The colouring matter is soluble in water, alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone, but insoluble in chloroform, petroleum ether and benzene. It dissolves in alcoholic KOH with a yellow coloration and turns red with concentrated sulphuric acid. To alcoholic ferric chloride it imparts a greenish brown coloration and with an alcoholic solution of lead acetate, a yellow precipitate is produced. Ordinarily it has got no action on Fehling's solution but only reduces it after hydrolysis, thus showing it to be a glucoside. . On reduction with magnesium and methyl alcoholic hydrochloric acid it turns red, thus indicating the presence of a pyrone nucleus in the molecule. It was found to contain no methoxy groups. The various crops of the colorless crystalline matter, mentioned above, were mixed together and recrystallised from the least amount of hot benzene after treatment with animal charcoal when the compound was obtained in fine, colorless, rhombic needles and hexagonal plates melting sharply at 204?, which even after repeated crystallisation of the compound did not rise any further. Thus, 41 g. of the crystalline compound were obtained in an yield of 0.40% on the weight of the dried wood. Cedrelone possesses a characteristic faint odour. It is soluble in benzene, chloro- form, petroleum ether and acetic acid, while insoluble in cold and hot water and alcohol. It is insoluble in aqueous caustic soda and gives no coloration either on heating or prolonged standing. It is not volatile in steam and does not sublime. It dissolves in sulphuric acid (conc.) giving a deep red coloration, but on the addition of water the colour disappears and the original compound is reprecipitated. The compound gives deep yellow coloration with alcoholic caustic potash, thus definitely indicating the presence of a lactonic ring. From the alkaline solution acid precipitates the original compound. With alcoholic ferric chloride the compound gives a violet coloration showing the presence of a phenolic hydroxyl group. It fails to give Liebermann-Burchard reaction. The lactone neither gives any test with alkaline sodium nitroprusside nor reduces Tollen's reagent, a property mainly shown by Py-unsaturated lactones. The compound is unsaturated and adds on bromine in benzene or acetic acid. The compound indicated the precence of no methoxyl group as found by Zeisel's method. [Found C, 73. 52; H, 7.2'; M.W. (cryoscopic in phenol), 412, 415; M.W. (Rases camphor method), 410. C25110005 requires C, 73.17; 11, 7.31 per cent. M.W., 410]. Repeated attempts to prepare the silver, lead and copper salts of the compound were unsuccessful. Ced7elone Di bromide.--T he compound (1.5 g.) was dissolved in dry benzene (10 c.c.) and the mixture kept in a freezing mixture. To this was added an i% solution of bromine in the same solvent in small amounts during the period of about half an hour till the bromine was in slight excess. During the addition the temperature was not allowed to rise above o?. The mixture was kept overnight in the refregerator, and the solvent and the exeess of the bromine distilled off on the water-bath. The syrupy residue was dissolved in the minimum quantity of alcohol and a few drops of water added to the solution, when fine glistening orange needles settled down. The product was filtered, App_ro7vi1 Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 80 B. PARIHAR AND S. MITT washed with water and recrvstallised from alcohol in beautiful yellow needles, m.p. 116a, yield 1.4 g. The compound is soluble in methyl and ethyl alcohols, ethyl acetate and benzene, but insoluble in hot or cold water. (Found: Br, 26,4, 28.09. C261-130051r1 requires Br, 28.07 per cent). iicetylcedrelone.?The compound (2 g.) was dissolved in acetic anhydride (ro c.c.), nnhydrous sodium acetate (r g.) added and the mixture gently refluxed in a boiling tube on a sand-bath for about a hours. After that the mixture was poured into cold water, well stirred and kept in the refrigerator for about 4 hours, when the acetyl derivative crystallised out in shining crystals. It was filtered and thoroughly washed with water and recrystallised from 8o% alcohol in small colorless needles and plates, ut.p. 1480, yield 2.01 g. The compound is soluble in alcohol, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, ether and petrol ether, but insoluble in water. (Found : acetyl, 11.4, 10.9. (,',5112906.COCHs requires acetyl, 9.51 per cent). Cecirelone Phenylurelhame.?Cedrelone g.), dissolved in 5 C.C. of anhydrous benzene, was treated with phenyl isocyanate (2 g.), dissolved in 5 c.c. of the same solvent; the mixture was refinxed on the sand-bath for about 2 hours and then the solvent distilled off. The residue was allowed to cool when it became a syrup. This was dissolved in absolute alcohol and allowed to stand for some time when shining long needles melting at 232' were obtained. The compound is soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether and petrol-ether but insoluble in water. (Found : N, 2.32. Cv,H2904- t )CONHC,Ha requires N, 2.64 per cent). Ced'relone Itionoxime.?Ffydroxylainine hydrochloride (r.5 g.) and anhydrous sodium acetate (3 g.) were thoroughly mixed together in a mortar aud the mixture was taken in 25 c.c. of glacial acetic acid and heated for about half an hour on the sand- hath. To this was added cedrelone (S g.) and the mixture was refluxed in a boiling tube for about an hour on a sand-bath. The mixture while hot was poured into cold water, when a crystalline mass settled down. It was filtered, thoroughly washed with water, dried and recrystallised from hot alcohol in shining colorless prisms and needles. Imp. 258', yield 1.46 g. The compound is soluble in alcohol, acetone, ethyl -acetate, but insoluble in water, ether and petrol-ether. (Found : N, 3.18. C251-13a04.N0/1 requires N, 3.29 per cent). ('i pmISTR V DEPARTMENT, )E1,141 UNIVERSITV. DELHI. Received July 19, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 [Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 19501 THORIUM: ITS SEPARATION FROM CERITE EARTHS AND ESTIMATION BY M. VENKATARAMANIAH, T. K. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY AND BH. S. V. RAGHAVA RAO Detailed procedures have been described for the separation of thorium from cerite earth mixtures in proportions approximately from i :r up to i: to using the reagents : trimethylgallic acid, phenoxv- acetic acid, veratric acid, benzoic acid, ammonium benzoate -and tannic acid. Thorium in monazite la a also been successfully estimated employing these reagents The separation of thorium from the rare earths, particularly from the cerite earths, is one of the principle problems of thorium chemistry, since on the ease and effective- ness of this separation depends the commercial utilization of the element. Several methods have been suggested, but few have been investigated in any detail (Moeller et al., Chem. Rev., 1948, 42, 63). In the following pages are presented results of systematic investigations on a number of reagents, many of which are now reported for the first time. EXPERIMENTAL Each reagent was tried first on a solution of mire thorium, next on made-up mix- tures of thoriuni and cerite earths, and finally on a sample of Travancore monazite. The thorium solution was obtained by further purification of high grade thorium nitrate as follows. The thorium was twice precipitated with sebacic acid, and then with hydrogen peroxide. The oxide was dissolved in nitric acid, evaporated to dryness on a watev=bath and finally dried to a constant weight in an air-oven at roo? to 1200. The thorium content of the sample was variously estimated with sebacic acid (Mitchel and Ward, "Modern Methods in Quantitative Chemical Analysis", 1932, p? 14.9), oxalic acid (Scott, "Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis", 1937, Vol. I, 5th Ed., p. 946) and potassium iodate in nitric acid (Meyer and Speter, Chem. Ztg., 1910, 34, 306). All procedures yielded results agreeing within 0.2%. The cerite earth solution was prepared from monazite from which all thorium and the yttrium earths had been very carefully removed. The earth content was estimated by precipitation from an aliquot part with oxalic acid and weighing the ignited residue as oxides. No attempt was Made to determine the proportion of the individual members n the group, neither would it serve any purpose in this investigation. Por the estimation of thorium in monazite, a sample from Travancore was digested according to the usual practice with sulphuric acid and taken up in ice-cold water. Oxalic acid in sufficient excess wag next added and the oxalate precipitate was dissolved in fuming nitric acid and evaporated to dryness on a water-bath. The residue was taken up in water, made up to a definite volume, and aliquot portions were pipetted Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 .144 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 YENICATARAMANIAH, SATIANARAYANAMURTHY AND RAO out for each determination. It may be mentioned that attention was focussed not on an accurate analysis of monazite, but on the efficiency of the reagent as a means of separation of thorium from the rare earths. Trimethylgallic Acid.?Neish (Chem. News, 1904, 90, 196) made the observation that gallic acid in alcoholic solution precipitated thorium as a flocculent, slimy mass while holding other cerite earths in solution, but the subject was not further investigat- ed. Some preliminary experiments conducted by us showed that while the precipita- tion of thorium was incomplete in both alcoholic and aqueous solutions, large amounts of the cerite earths were simultaneously carried down. On the other hand, trimethyl- e-ailic acid in neutral or faintly acid medium proved highly satisfactory. Neither Ammonium gallate nor ammonium. trimethylgallate. however, proved of any value. The thorium solution was made just neutral to Congo red and diluted to 150 C.C. 'Solid ammonium chloride (20-25 g.) was then added and the solution heated to boiling. To this was added with constant stirring a slight excess of a boiling 2% solution of the reagent (i. e. about roo c.c. of the precipitant for every 0.I g. of the oxide). A ::!,elatinous precipitate resulted which settled down rapidly. After about 15 minutes 911 a water-bath, the precipitate was filtered hot through Whatman No. 41, washed with a boiling 0.2% (approximately) solution of the reagent to which a few grams of ammonium chloride had also been added, partially dried, and ignited to the oxide. When the quantity of the cerite earths is rather large, the precipitate carries small quantities of these and a second precipitation, as described below, is necessary. The washed precipitate was returned to the original beaker, dissolved in the minimum of hot dilute hydrochloric acid, and dilute ammonia was very carefully added till the liquid reacted but faintly acid to Congo red. Precipitation, washing and ignition were repeat- ea. dome representative results are shown in the following table. TABLE( I 11102 taken. o.118o g. o.r18o 0.2360 Cerite earths R203 added. Wt. of Th02 obtained in single pptn. u.rx8r g. 0.1178 c).2362 Double pptn. o.118o 0.240.5g. 0.1153 0.1181 g. ;.1184 (3..1182 u.45w 0.1182 slightly 0.1178 coloured 0.1182 0.1180 U.50.0 0.1185 slightly 0.1179 ,.1183 ) coloured (1.118o 1.1450 0.1200 0.11.8o ,,.1208 5 coloured 0.1183 Monazite 1 (0.0900 1 0,4708 0.0900 1,..4d898 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 THORIUM 83 Phenoxyacetic Acid.-Pratt and James If. Anier. Chem. Soc., 1911, 33, 1330) recorded that precipitation of thorium by phenoxyacetic acid in neutral solution was almost quantitative, while Smith and James (ibid., 1912, 34, 281) opined that the thorium salt was slightly soluble in water. A more detailed investigation appeared desirable. The following procedure yields good results. The thorium solution, which should react neutral to Congo red, is diluted to ioo C.C. and heated to boiling. To the boiling solution is added slowly and with constant stirring a slight excess (too c.c. for every o.I g. of Thu, will be sufficient) of a hot 2% solution of phenoxyacetic acid. The liquid is now once again brought to boiling, and set aside to cool. The cooled precipitate is filtered through Whatman No. 41 and washed with a cold 0.2% (approx.) solution of phenoxyacetic acid. The washed preci- pitate is now returned to the original beaker and dissolved in the minimum of hot diluted (I: 2) hydrochloric acid. The solution is diluted to about roc) C.C. and very carefully neutralised by dropping dilute ammonia until it is but faintly acid to Congo red. 'the thorium is reprecipitated, washed and ignited to the oxide. Some results are shown in the following table. TABLE II ThO2 taken. Cerite earths R203 added. Th02 obtained. Th02 taken. Cerite earths R203 added. Th02 obtained. 0.1140g. 0.1.143 g. 0.1180 g. 0.5610 g. 0.1183 g. 0.1140 0.1140 0.1140 0.5712 0.1144 0.1180 0.1178 0 1140 0.5712 0.1146 0.118o 0.1181 0.1140 1.1424 0.1143 0.1x80 0.1402 g. 0.1181 0.1140 x.104 0.1145 0,1140 0.2805 0.1138 0.1140 0.280.5 0.1143 Monazite 0.1140 0.4580 0.1138 C 0.0900 ) 0.4708 0.0902 0.0901 Verattic Acid.-This reagent or any of its analogues has not been mentioned in literature. The thorium solution which should be nearly neutral to Congo red, is diluted to ioo c.c., solid ammonium chloride (15-20 g.) added and heated to boiling. To the boiling solution is added, with constant stirring, a saturated boiling solution of veratric acid. The resulting gelatinous precipitate is allowed to settle, filtered through Whatman No. 41 filter, washed with hot dilute veratric acid in ,L)% ammonium chloride, transferred to the original beaker, dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, diluted and reprecipitated. After complete washing the precipitate is ignited and weighed as oxide. Representative results are shown in Table III. Benzoic Acid.-Benzoic acid was suggested by both Kolb and Ahrle (Z. angew. Chem., 19o5, 18, 92) and Neish (loc. cit.). Apparently without further investigation the reagent was pronounced unsatisfactory and rejected in favour of m-nitrobenzoic acid, a rather expensive reagent. The following procedure adopted by us has yielded results which compare favourably with any known method. Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 VVNKATARAMANIAH. SATYANARAYANAMMITHN AND RAO TABLE III Th02 taken. 0,1180 g. eerite earths R203 added. Th02 obtained. o.D86 g. 0.1186 0,1180 1.1450g. 0.1182 'Z 0.1179 Monazite ?. 0.0900 0,4708 "904 To the thorium solution, if strongly acid, dilute ammonia is added dropwise until the solution reacts hut faintly acid to methyl red. It is then diluted to :oo c.c. and heated to boiling. Hot r% benzoic acid solution (Too c.c.) is added with vigorous stirring followed by 5% ammonium acetate until the liquid reacts at this stage just neutral. A precipitate results which settles quickly. This is filtered through Whatman No. 41. After washing with hot 0.25% benzoic acid the precipitate is returned to the original beaker and dissolved in hot dilute nitric acid and precipitation is repeated. The second precipitate after complete washing is ignited and weighed as the dioxide. The results are shown in the following table. TABLE IV Th02 taken. Cerite earths added. 0.1140g. 0.2140 0.4580g. Th02 obtained. ( 0.1142g. (01141 10.1141 ( 0.1142 0,1140 0.5712 5. 0.1145 0,1148 0,1140 1.1414 (0 1148 0 1146 Monazite' 1 0.4708 0.0.0900 (0.090O j 0 0.0904 Ammonium Benzoate.?This reagent has not been referred to previously. The nearly neutral solution is diluted to zoo c.c,, acidified with 2 c c. of glacial acetic acid and cold 3% ammonium benzoate is run in a thin stream with constant stirring until about TOO C.C. have been added for every o.i g. of thorium dioxide sup- posed to be present. The precipitate is now left on a water-bath and after it has settled (usually 30 minutes) as much of the supernatant liquid as possible is poured through a Whatman No. 41 filter, without disturbing the precipitate. It is now stirred -up with hot 0.5% benzoic acid, filterd, and washed with the same reagent. The washed precipitate is transferred back to the original beaker and dissolved in a minimum of dilute hydrochloric acid. The solution is diluted to 15o C.C. and dilute ammonia is Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ?Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 THORIUM 85 run down from a burette until slight turbidity results. Precipitation is completed by adding a slight excess of ammonium benzoate reagent. The precipitate is next filtered, washed with hot 0.5% benzoic acid, and ignited to the oxide. The following table shows the results obtained. Th02 taken. TABI,n V Cerite earths R103 added. ThO2 obtained. 0.1140g. 0.1142g. 0.1141 0.1140 0.140 0.4580 g. 0?5711 0.1141 ?0.1145 0.1148 0.1140 1.1424 0.1148 0.1146 Monazite 1 0.0900 I 0.0900 0.4708 0.4708 0.0900 0.0904 0.0897 0.0900 Tannic Acid.- This reagent which has found such extensive use in the separation of columbium and tantalum does not seem to have attracted attention in this field. Neish (ioc. cit.) refers to it only passingly. The neutral solution is diluted to zoo c.c. after addition of ro g. to 15 g. of ammonium chloride. Dilute acetic acid is then added dropwise until a drop of the solution just turns Congo red paper blue. Mineral acids should not be used for this acidification. The solution is heated just to boiling (it should not actually boil), and hot 5% tannic acid solution at the rate of Too c.c. per o.r g. of thorium oxide is added slowly with constant stirring. The precipitate is left on a water-bath for z hours after which it is filtered through Whatman No 41 and washed with 2% tannic acid solution to which a TABLE VI Th02 taken. Cerite earths ThO, obtcl. Th02 taken. added. Cerite earths added. Th02 obtd. 0.0570g. 0.0572g. 0.2140g. 1.1424 g. 0.1143 g. 0.0570 0.4580g. 0.0573 0.1140 1.1424 0.1140 0.0570 0.4580 0.0574 o.118o 0.1183 0.11.40 0.1139 0.1r8o 0.1402 0.1183 0.1140 0.4580 0.1142 9.1140 0.5712 0.1148 5 Monazite e 0.0900 0.4708 0.0897 0.0900 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 VENN A TARA MANTA-FT, S ATYANARAYANAMURTITY AND RAO little ammonium nitrate or chloride has been added. The precipitate with the filtered Lapel is transferred to the original beaker and boiled with about 40 C.C. of dilute HCI ( I : 2 ) to dissolve the precipitate. Nitric acid should not be used. After thorough digestion iiInte ammonia is added until the liquid reacts just neutral to Congo red. Precipitation Ind washing are repeated and the washed precipitate is ignited to the oxide. The results !ire given in Table VI. In all cases, however, zirconium and quadrivalent cerium, if present, are shnul- laneously precipitated, a disadvantage that is shared by many reagents for thorium. It is thus necessary that cerium is reduced to the trivalent stage and zirconium is ,:cmoved earlier by a simple precipitation with oxalic acid. A Tv DHRA UNIVRRSITY WALTAIR. Received March 6, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 11149 DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE OF RANCID FATS. A MODIFIED PROCEDURE BY S. MuKHERjan Peroxide value of the butter-fat has been determined by combining the method of Wheeler and Lea. 1 Peroxide value is by far the most extensively used index for evaluating rancidity of fats and oils, A number of different iodimetric procedures, viz., those of Lea (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1931, 108B, 175), Wheeler (Oil & SoaP, 1932, 9, 89) and Taffel and Revis (.1. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1931, 50, 87T) are available for making such determinations, and although all these methods are presumed to react quantitatively and may do under most condi- tions, results by the different methods are not always reliable. The experience of the present investigator with peroxide determination using the three methods is that Lea's method gives lower values than Wheeler's and still lower values are obtained with the Taffel-Revis's method. The results were found to differ depending on the following factors : (i) the atmosphere in which the 'estimation is carried out, (ii) the temperature, (iii) the time of reaction and (iv) weight of fat used in the estimation. For this reason all the methods were subjected to re-examination using different weights of fat, different reaction period and using different temperatures, as also determinations were made both in presence of oxygen and in inert atmospheres. The experimental results with a sample of rancid butter-fat are tabulated below. TABLV, Determination of Peroxide valve by different methods. 1. Lea's'method. Wt. of fat. LooS g. 2.100 05020 0.2310 10.1000 5.5025 g. 3.5163 7.8203 1.0035 10.0 r.o g. 2.0 5.0 10.0 Time of reaction. 3 minutes I nil/Hite PP >1 2-3 Millate6 - Temp. 98.8' 11 2. Wheeler's method. 36-37? )1 Taffel-Revis method. 98.8' SP If Atmosphere. Nitrogen Air 11 59 CO2 PP >9 Peroxide value. 95.80 95-10 95.88 95.93 93.05 103.6 104.7 rcr.9 104.5 98.0 91.81 89,62 98.0I? 86.82 6-1737P-2 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 88 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 S. MIIKHERJEE Crom the results in Table I it is evident that the Wheeler method always gives higher values than the Lea or Taffel-12 evis method. This can be explained firstly as due to the inert atmospheres maintained in the other two methods, whereas in the Wheeler method the atmospheric oxygen liberates a certain amount of iodine from the KI solution. The lower values in Lea's method may, however, be due to the fact that there is a possible chance of partial decomposition of the peroxides at the high temperature employed. The still lower values obtained with the Taffel-Revis method are probably due to the incomplete extraction of the peroxides with the acetic acid alone. The use of chloroform is a probable advantage with the Lea or Wheeler method. Thus a point of conlsiderable importance in the peroxide determination is the atmosPhere in which the reaction is conducted, as also the temperature of the reaction. The Effect of Weight of Fat.-The next variable studied was the weight of fat used in the experiment, using a temperature of 36*-37c (Wheeler), an atmosphere of CO2 (Taffel-Revis) and a reaction period of 2-3 minutes (Lea) and Table II shows the effect of sample size on the peroxide value. TABLE II Peroxide value and samPle size. Wt. of fat. (butter-fat). Peroxide value. Wt, of fat. (butter-fat). Peroxide vlaue. 0.1025 97.22 i 5129 96.83 0.2050 97.22 2.0100 96.02 0.4110 97.03 5.1035 9,3.0 1.0030 96.84 9.9877 92.85 'rABLE III Effect of sample size on peroxide value. Coconut oil Wt. of fat. Peroxide value. Groundnut oil Wt. of fat. Peroxide value. Linseed oil Wt. of fat. Peroxide value. 0.1230 g. 9,2 0.1532 g. 26.0 0.1028 g. 27.2 0.2520 9.2 0.3185 25.3 0.2550 25.9 1.0207 8.9 0.8241 23.5 c.7574 23.4 2.0512 8.8 1.5636 22.2 1.2022 20.2 5.0 81 2.9400 20.4 2.5110 18.2 5.0 17.8 5.0 15.0 Comparison of the results obtained by Lea's method in Table 1 with those obtained in Table II clearly shows that in the original method of Lea there is a slight decomposition of the peroxide at the high temperature (about 1-2%). The peroxide value of a parti- cular sample of oxidised fat is moreover found to vary considerably with the weight of the fat. This is probably due to the re-absorption of the liberated iodine at the unsaturat- ed centres of the fat. This is more fully illustrated by the results in Table III where Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE OF RANCID FATS 89 similar experiments have been conducted with rancid coconut, groundnut, and linseed oils, the re-absorption of iodine by the oils being least with coconut and maximum with the linseed oil as the sample size is varied from o.1 to 5.0 g. The error due to this source may be reduced by restricting the weight of the fat to the lower value employed in the Lea's method, viz. i g. Effect of Reaction Time.?The next object was to study the effect of time factor on the peroxide value determinations. The following table (Table IV) records the results of such investigations using different reaction periods in the dark including those used by previous workers. In order to keep the weight of the fat constant and thus to mini- mise the effect due to this factor, nearly i.o g. of fat was used in these experiments, by taking the same measured volume of a chloroform solution containing a definite weight of the oxidised butter-fat. TABLE IV Peroxide values vs time. In CO2 atmosphere at 37. Wt. of fat. Time, Peroxide value. Wt. of fat. Time. Peroxide value. 1.0244 3-5 mins. (15.o 1.0460 211ours 97.5 1.0460 ro 95.5 4 97.5 3/ 15 96.2 6 97.5 30 97.3 Sl 12 97-7 45 97.5 IS 24 98.2 3, 6o 97.5 ey 48 98.93 Pig. 7INI IN HOURS 5 24 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 90 s. mUKHERJ E . Vrom the results in the above table it appears that almost 98% of the peroxide ieact within 3 to 5 minutes. For complete reaction of the peroxides with KI, it is better T:o allow one hour reaction time in the dark, as a safe measure. his is quite evident i'rcaut the flat portion of the curve in Fig.. relating peroxide value and time factor. Recommended Procedure.--For accurate determination of the peroxide the follow- oig procedure may therefore be used with advantage.. About i g. of the oii .yr fat is weighed into a 750 c.c. glass-stoppered iodine bottle from which air has pre- viously been exluded by flushing with carbon dioxide for 3 to 5,1ninutes, and ro c.c. of I solvent comprising 40 parts of ellela .and 6o parts of acetic acid (glacial, are 'Added to dissolve the fat. The solvent mixture must previously be flushed with CO for 5 to ro minutes before use to exclude any dissolved air ; 2 C.C. of a saturated solution of KI is next added and the stopper, moistened with TO solution, is carefully put in place and the whole kept in the dark for one hour (at 36'-37") after which the liberated iodine is titrated with Ai / 200- thiosulphate solution after diluting the reaction mixture with oxygen-free distilled water. Lea's procedure for carrying out the titration in a dark room illuminated by a tungsten lamp is definitely an advantage in determining the end- point with the starch indicator. The result is expressed as mi. o.002N- thiosulphate per g. of lat. The, method combines the essential features of the Wheeler's and Lea's method in that an inert atmosphere as used by Lea has been employed, the temperature used being that of Wheeler's, viz. 36?-37", at which the chance of decomposition of peroxide is nil and the weight of the fat has been confined to that used by Lea, viz. r g. to mini- mise the effect of re-absorption of iodine which will necessarily 'entail greater error when larger amount of fat is used, as in the original Wheeler's process. The results obtained by the modified method approach most closely to those obtained by Lea's method. The author expresses his grateful thanks to Prof. M. N. Goswami for his deep interest in the work. DEPARTMENT or APPLIED CHEMISTRY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, CALCUTTA. Received June 27, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 I Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 19501 KINETICS Oh' Tim REACTION BETWEEN CHLORAL HYDRATE;. AND 'BROMINE By A. N. KAPPANNA AND BEIANH RAMCHANDRA DEORAS The kinetics of the oxidation of chloral hydrate by bromine in aquecus solutions has been studied at 30? and 40?. The reaction has been found to take place according to the equation Ce13CII (OH) + Br2 CC,13C00 Ai+ 213T- The reatarding influences of hydrogen and br_mine ions on the velocity of :reaction have been quantitatively studied. The energy of activation of the reaction has been found to be 15830 calories. Bromine oxidises acetaldehyde to acetic acid in neutral solutions.. In acid solu- tions, however, the reaction results in halogen substitution through a prototropic mechanism (Dawson, Burton and Ark, J. Chew. Soc., 1914, 105, 1275). Trichloro- acetaldehyde which exists in aqueous -solution exclusively' aschloral hydrate, does not .offer any scope for substitution. The compound .chloral hydrate is itself, acidic. in. character and in acid solutions- the only possible reaction with bromine is oxidation. Ogialdro.(Ber., 1874, 7, 1461) reported that chloral, when heated with bromine, ,formed the acid bromide, CC13.COBr. Chlorine and bromine have .been shown to ;react photoehemically with chloral, yielding a number of oxidation .products ?.(Schumacher et al., Z. Physikal. Chem:, 1939, B44, 57; 1940, B47, 671. Kolthoff (Pharni._ Wee,k1)1ad, 1923, 80, 2) mentions that bromine does not oxidise chloral in acid. solutions. Itis well known that chloral hydrate molecule is stable only either in neutral or acid, solu- tions and that alkaline solutions decompose rapidly (Enklaar, Roe. tray. chitn.:,-1-905, 24, 419). Attempts to oxidise this compound keeping both the carbon atoms in tact should therefore .be made only in neutral or acid solutions. PreliminarY experiments carried out in this laboratory showed that chloral hydrate reacted with bromine at measurable speeds at ordinary temperature and in equimoleculat proportions. The quantity of acid formed, when decolorisation of a known -quantity of bronaine in presence of excess of chloral hydrate took place, was found on estimation to be equal to what should be expected if the reaction had taken place quantitatively according to the equation CCI,C-H (OH), + 13r, CC4C001-.1 + 2 HBr. ? The quantity of bromine taken up by a given quantity of chloral hydrate was like- wise found to conform to the above equation. That trichloroacetic acid was formed was further proved by the decomposition of the resulting solution on boiling, yielding chloroform and carbon dioxide. We have studied the kinetics of the reaction and the results are reported in this paper. BXPERIMENTAL Chemicals employed in this investigation were all of extra pure quality. solutions were all prepared in redistilled water. Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 The Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 92 A. N. KAPPANNA ANT) B. IL DEORAS The reaction vessels were kept in an electrically regulated thermostat for all kinetic measurements. The reaction was followed by withdrawing definite volumes of reac- tion mixtures and estimating the unreacted bromine iodometrically. Table I contains the results of an experiment carried out with a mixture contain- ing 0.25 M chloral hydrate and o.0054N bromine. The reaction mixture (ro c.c.) was titrated each time, after the addition of potassium iodide against Nhoo-thiosulphate. TABLE I Temp. =300. Time. min.. Thio 11.90 C.C. kin!. 01440 Time. 72 Thio. 5,50 C.C. 0.01069 9,30 J.01320 91 4.60 0.01042 30 8.00 0,01221 121 3.80 0.000407 50- 6.45 100 3.00 0.00853 It will be seen that the unimolecular velocity constant falls off as the reaction progresses, more rapidly at the initial stages than at the later stages. This may be due, as is known in other cases of aqueous bromine oxidations, to the accumulation in the system of hydrogen and bromide ions and the retarding influence they exert. Tables II and III contain results of two experiments carried out to test the influence of each one of these two ions on the velocity of the reaction. Potassium bromide was added in one case and hydrochloric acid in the other, in such quantities that the concentrations. of the bromine and the hydrogen ions in the respective mixtures could be regarded as constant through the course of the reaction. The concentrations of chloral hydrate and bromine were the same as in the previous experiment. 0 TABLIF4 II Temp. =30?. KBr:----o.o5M. t. Thio. k uni min. 10.90 C C. TABLRIII Temp. z---3o?. Cone of HCI=o.o5M. t, Thio. knni. o min. 11.50 C.C. ??? 30 6,90 0,00907 43 12.20 0.001736 46 740 n 008395 85 21.45 f) 001626 63 6.70 ox07705 245 10.50 0,1548 87 0.70 0.007429 234 0.20 0.001.522 115 5.10 o.006578 325 8.20 0.00 /488 ;8s 3.60 ,,.005865 LISS 6.85 0.001431 These results indicate that each of the ions, bromine and hydrogen, exerts powerful retarding influence, the effect of the hydrogen ion being more powerful. Each by itself is not sufficient to exert a steadying influence on the rate. The effect of the initial addition of sufficient excess of both potassium bromide and hydrochloric acid was next tried. The results are contained in Table IV. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 KINETICS OF REACTION BETWEEN CHLORAL }IW RATE AND BROMINE 93 TABLE IV Temp.= 300 Chloral hydrate=o.2o M. Bromine= o.002854 N. Hel (initial) = o.008 N. KBr (initial)=0.0377 M. 25 c.c. titrated each time against N/400-thiosulphate. t. o min_ Thio. 24.00 C.C. kuti. 30 18.90 0.007951 45 16.70 0.008050 6o 24.60 0.008027 75 13,15 0 008025 90 11.70 0.008000 121 9.20 0.007912 Mean 0.007993 The steady value of the velocity constant at the different stages of the reaction indicates clearly the role of the hydrogen and the bromine ions. The retarding in- fluence of hydrogen ion is obviously due to the suppression of the ionisation of chloral hydrate and the consequent diminution of the effective concentration of the anion which appears to be the real reactant, in accordance with the equation, OH CC13CH= (OH)2 H +CC13CH? 0? Similarly, the bromine ion diminishes the effective concentration of free bromine by forming the tribromide ion according to the equation, Br2+ Br? The order of the reaction with respect to chloral hydrate was determined by a set of experiments in which the initial concentration of this constituent was altered, while those of others were kept constant. Table V shows the variation of the velocity con- stant with increase in the concentration of chloral hydrate. TABLE V HC1o.oiN. KBr=o.o2 M. Bromine=o.002 N. Chloral hydrate (AI) 0.05 0.20 0.15 0.20 0.25 Jr x 104 10.42 21.42 31.05 39.15 49.45 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 KAPPANNA ANT) B. IC DEOIZAS These results indicate, considering that it is the ion of chloral hydrate that is in- volved, the unimolecularity of the process with respect to chloral hydrate. The reac- tion can therefore be represented by the equation, CC13.CH r, CCI?C00- 2H+ -H2Br- influence of Hydrogen-ion Concentration We chose sulphuric acid for the addition of hydrogen ion in all subsequent ex- etiments as the i.cidition of hydrochloric acid might introduce a complication by tile i'ormation of chloro.dthromide ion (Ray, tins Journal, 1934, 11, 117). Fable VI contains results of a detailed study of the retarding influence of hydrogen TABL,n VI [oral hydrate = 0.25 Al. KBr M. .Bromine = o.0o25N. 1;quiv. of H2SO, per litre 9,008 0.01 k X 104 22 27.40 0.02 0,03 11.10 004 o.05 0.O6 9.20 7-52 6.36 There is a progressive diminution in the velocity constant, as is to be expected if lhe anion is the reactant, with increase in the initial concentration of hydrochloric acid. The concentration of the anion could he reckoned on the assumption that chloral hydrate behaves like a weak acid., HA, in the following way where Ka represents the dissociation constant of the acid and HA, the concenbation of the unionised acid. From which we can deduce . -MA) A- = where (HA) is the total concentration of chloral hydrate. K? int( oducing this ill the kinetic expression, CA- x Ce?k'"".(11")itt x C' ' -i- kohs x Car, for concentrations (HA) large in comparison with Cur, the observed unimolecular velocity constant being- equal to - = ri hi x K? Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 AllinYfAF8E,IWMfoil?93Y9M4 qW4gTE,81.19KM?R90939M177 95 This equation demands that we should get a straight line if we plot f /kot, against [1.12SO4/2]. Actually we get a very good straight line with an intercept on the flz.thn axis which should be equal to r/y=1.20 X IO2 and the slope of the line r/let.K. = 2.416 x ro4 from which K. comes out to be equal to 4.96 X 'This value for the Ostwald constant for chloral hydrate would mean that chloral hydrate is a fairly strong acid. Chloral hydrate, even on very careful purification is definitely acidic in its reaction towards litmus and should be expected to be so by virtue of the two hydroxyl groups attached to the same carbon atom. But one could hardly believe that it could be as strong as monochloroacetic acid (K =1.53 x lo') The molecular conductivity of chloral hydrate in o.oi M solution is just o.6o (Enklaar, /cc. cit.) and it is a little difficult to reconcile this low conductivity with the high dissociation constant we arrive at on the basis of our kinetic study. We are in- vestigating this matter further but we have to content ourselves at present by recording the observation we have made. Influence of Bromine Ion on the Reaction Rate The velocity of reaction, as observed before, is affected very considerably by the presence of bromide ion. This is obviously due to the removal of bromine from its free state by the formation of tribromide ion. The results of the experiments carried out at 300 and 400 with different concentrations of potassium bromide in the reaction mix- tures are given in Table VII. TABI,14 VII Chloral hydrate = o.2oM. H,SO4 = o.of.N. Bromine = o.0025N. KBr. Ne X xos. k40? x ros. x Ne+Br k40e/k,0?. [kohl, ]. [hobs x k40;4+0 1. .Br 30. 40? k30? 0.025 III 4.439 10.56 2.38 5.944 13.20 0.050 3,496 5.72 2.445 5.870 13.09 0.075 2.921 7.61 2.606 5.890 13.31 0.100 2.530 6.76 2.671 5.961 13.51 0.125 2.127 5.96 2.800 5.731 13.41 Mean 5.879 13.304 From graph k' = 5.888 13.510 The velocity constant falls off with increase in concentration of bromide ion. The equilibrium equation (Br ) fret) X Br -leads ? _leads to the equation Br,? Br2 free ? X Br, tow expressing Br, total = Br, from Br,?. K+ Br 7-1737 P?Z Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 10; Approved For ReOase R991480,9496/pies11.R1-41?8,3F,29,M5R006100050001-7 The rate of reaction is proportional to the concentration of free bromine. Substitu- fin , this value for free bromine in the differential equation, we get K CBrg free K ,1CA xi n72 tow K+ 13r-- Clit2 total where k11=-.K.CA- (CA- being in large excess. kobs. CBr2 total (koi, being the observed unimolecular constant) therefore kob. =k". and 1 knb., k .K As should be expected from this equation we get very good straight lines on plotting ohs against Br-- (KBr) at both the temperatures. We get this inspite of the fact that we have employed concentrations of potassium bromide instead of activities of bromide ion. The intercept r/k" at 300 has a value of 1.7o x ro4 or k"=,.888 x ro and the slope I kg . K so') = 23.0 x re' from which we get (V20? =0.07380. Similarly lz" at 400 gives 0.74 x 104 or V= 13.cio X ro-3 and / k".K40?= 014 ro' from which Ko?roo. The values for K appear to be somewhat higher than what should be expected from the figures given by I,inhart (J. Ante?. Chem. Soc., ror8? 40, 158). The values for K Br- k"--= kobs. ? calculated from the observed velocity constants at different concen- trations of potassium bromide are included in the 5th and 6th vertical columns of Table VII. The constancy at both temperatures is good and the average values agree very well with the intercepts from graphs. Tempelature Coefficient of the Reaction Rate Attention might here be drawn to the ratios k iobs)40?/k(obs)30? given in the 4th column of Table VII which show a steadly rise with increase in the concentration of the retar- dant. This increase in temnerature coefficient, signifying increase in energy of activa- tion (which should be considered apparent energy of activation) is understandable as we know that the observed velocity constant involves the variable, concentration of bromide ion. The correct basis for the calculation of temperature coefficient is the value ot kil. k."40? = 13.51? 2. 294. k"20? 5.888 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 IKINETICS OF REACTION BETWEEN CI1LORAL HYDRATE AND BROMINE 97 The energy of activation calculated from this value of temperature coefficient conies out to be 15830 cals. Similarly, the temperature coefficient of the equilibrium constant for the reaction Br, + Br- Br3-, from the values of K, deduced from our measurements, leads to the value 5786 calories for the heat of reaction. DISCUSSION The results recorded in the paper indicate the reaction to be comparatively simple and straight forward. The equation OH CC13.CH? +Br, ---> CC18C00-+ 214+ + 2Br- 0- correctly represents the reaction kinetically and stoichiometrically. The process of oxidation consists in the removal of two hydrogen atoms from the chloral hydrate ion, as hydrobromic acid. One of the hydrogen atoms is the hydroxyl hydrogen, ordinarily somewhat remotely situated from the other hydrogen which is directly linked to the carbon atom. The point of interest therefore is to account for the simultaneous removal of these hydrogens by an activated collision with a bromine molecule. Such removal could be facilitated only in case where the two hydrogens are situated in sufficient proximity to one another in such a manner that a bromine molecule colliding in suitable orienta- tion could contact both. It is interesting to recall in this context, the structure propos- ed for chloral hydrate by Werner long ago (J. Chem. Soc., 1904, 85, 1376) to account for the formation of chloroform and formic acid from this molecule Cl H-0 / Cl?C?C I H\ Cl H-0 and compare it with the structure arrived at by Davies (Trans. Faraday Soc., 1940, 36, 333) on the basis of infra-red studies. Cl H-0 / / Cl 11-0 l'he only apparent difference between the two, as depicted on paper, is in regard to the disposition of the hydrogen atom directly attached to the carbon atom. The infra-red evidence is that the hydroxyl hydrogens are clamped towards the chlorines joined to the a- carbon atom. If we consider the actual locations of the three hydro- t the r AppilOvott(FoktRtiledext1200/1110110641CIAcRoPeW-t044 51k?016t1e/ 65016o fir tis Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A. N. KAPPANNA AND B. R. DEORAS distance between the directly linked hydrogen and any one of the two hydroxyl hydro- :.2.-cms is small enough to enable a bromine molecule getting in between them to contact both. Hence, in the chloral hydrate ion, in which there is only one hydroxyl hydrogen; the simultaneous removal of this and the directly linked hydrogen by a single energised collision with a bromine molecule is possible, provided that the energy conditions are satisfied. The energy of activation is of the magnitude usually met with in simple bimolecular -clactions, indicating the effectiveness of a good number of collisions and consequently die facility with which the reaction seems to proceed. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, NAOPOR. Received December 2, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 [Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 1950i CYSTINE AND METHIONINE IN THE. PROTEIN FROM THE. SEEDS OF CARILLA FRUIT By J. W. .AIRAN AND N. I). GTIATGE Two sulphur-containing essential amino-acids, cystine and methionine, have been estimated in carilla fruit seed-cakes. After the succesive extraction of the seeds of Carilla fruit (Momordica Charantia, N.O. Cucurbitaceae) with organic solvents like petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and alcohol, the residue was found to contain nitrogen and sulphur. The albumin, isolated from this residue atcording to the method adopted by Basu, Nath, Ghani and Mukherjee (Ind. J. Med. Res., 1937, 24, 4, 1027), was subjected to van Slyke's process (J. Biol. Chem., 1911-12, 10, 15) as modified by Plimmer and Rosedale (Biochem. J., 1925, 19, 1015) for the study of nitrogen distribution on the one hand, and Callan and Toennies method (Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed., 1941, 13, 450) for cystine estimation, and to Horn, Jones and Blum's method (J. Biol. Chem., 1946, 166, 313) for methionine estimation on the other. It contained 0.967% total sulphur, out of which 0.3647% was accounted for by cystine, and 0.3132% by methionine The percentages of these essential amino-acids were 1. 37 for cystine and 1.56 for methionine. Since these seeds are not discarded in most of the preparations where the Carilla fruit is used as vegetable, these figures have a significance, and hence they are put along with the figures for some of the common seed meals below, the data being taken from Block and Bolling ("The Amino-acid Composition of Proteins and Foods", 1945, P. 195)- %Cystine. %Methiottine. Peanut meal z.6 0.9 Cottonseed ? 2.0 1.6 Soyabean 1.3 1.3 Can) seedeakes (present work) 0.0841 0.0957 tXPItRIMHNT Total Sulphur.?It was estimated by means of Parr's sulphur bomb ; 0.2045 g. of protein yielded 0.01429 g. of barium sulphate which corresponded to 0.967% sulphur. Cystine.?Protein (I g.) and potassium permanganate (ro g.) were added to NaOH soultion (6.4g. in 150 c.c. water). The mixture was refluxed on a Water-bath for 48 hours, after which period the excess of the permanganate was destroyed with methyl alcohol. It was then acidified and the insoluble portion filtered off. The filtrate was boiled with bromine water, and then the sulphate ions were precipitated as barium sulphate, and trea- ted in the usual manner. The precipitate weighed 0.0266g. which corresponded to 13' Aif31bWalf16 rul4feilViocIfibkfte: telh*?6156016415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 .1. W. AIRAN AND N. D. GHA,TGE Methionine.?The protein (0.5594 g.) was refluxed on a sand-bath with i5 c.c. of 20% hydrochloric acid for 18 hours. After this period, the hydrolysate was concentrated to nearly 5 c.c. and then treated with a small quantity of vegetable charcoal, and filtered. The filtrate was then made to roo c.c. and 50 c.c. of this solution were withdrawn and concentrated to to c.c. roughly. It was then filtered and made exactly to to c.c. and 2 c.c. of this taken for estimation. Three small glass bottles were taken ; one of these was taken for the "blank" experiment, one for the 'unknown", and the third for the 'standard". For this estimation, an authentic sample of methionine was obtained from the B.D.H. into each of these the following reagents were added in the order given below : ?Blank". C.C. soln. 3 distilled water [ e.e. 5N- NaOH soln. "Unknown". 2 C.C. solti 3 cc. distilled water [ cc. sodium nitro- prasside soln., ro% 0.1 c.c. 5N-NaOH soln. "Standard". 2 c.c. soln. 3 c.c. dist. water c.c. sodium nitro- pruside soln., to%. OX c.c.5N-NaOH After these additions were made, the three bottles were shaken for ro minutes and then ;.o each of these, 2 C.C. of 3% glycine solution were added and again shaken for to minutes, and finally 2 c.c. of phosphoric acid were added. The bottles were then shaken and kept aside for 5 minutes. The bottle marked "blank" did not develop any colour. The solutions from the other iwo bottles were then taken for comparison of their colours. The readings with the Dubosq colorimeter were : 22 '`unknown" 9-4 "standard" 32.2 13.4 if a. 35.6 15.2 C.c. of the "standard" taken for comparison contained o.002 g. of methionine, whence he amount of methionine in the sample taken for analysis was 0.5594 g. or 1.529% in the protein. This would account for 0.3741% of the total sulphur. The albumin isolated was 6.135% of the seed-cake. Therefore the per- centages of cystine and methionine in the seed-cakes work out to 0.0841 and 0.0957 respectively. RAJARAM COLLRGI, K.OLAHRIR. Received November 9, 2949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Jour. Indian Chem. Soc., Vol. 27, No. 2, 19501 A STUDY OF MALONYLGUANIDINE AND ITS REACTIVE METHYLENE GROUP. PART I. CONDENSATION OF MALONYLGUANIDINE WITH AROMATIC ALDEHYDES UNDER STRONG ACIDIC CONDITIONS BY SUNIL KUMAR MUKHnRXE AND KUNJ BEHARI LAL MATIIUR Malottylguanidine condenses with aryl aldehydes in the presence of acetic acid-sulphuric acid mix- ture lea. 4 :1) to give arylidene-rnalonylguanidine sulphates ArCH: (C4H3N302).H2SO4]. In the presence of hydrogen chloride in saturation with absolute alcohol or acetic acid, the products are either an arylidene-rnalonylguanidine chloride ArCH : (C41-13N302).11011 or compounds of the bfs-type ArCH :[ (C4114N302) 1-ICI12, depending upon the nature of the aldehydes. Barbituric acid is known to give with aromatic aldehydes 5-arylidene-barbituric acids, 1 2C0 + OCHR 1 'NH?TO Directly --->- With aq. NaOH or NII4011. 'NH-8a) 1 1 'CO T=CH.R +11,0 (x) 1 1 'NH?TO even by warming the ureide and the aldehyde in aqueous or alcoholic solutions and without the use of any condensing agent (Conrad and Reinback, Ber., 1901, 34, 1339 ; Weinschenk, ibid., p. 1685). With thiobarbituric acid (Dox and Plaisance, J. Amer. Chem. Soc-, 1916, 88, 2164) the 5-arylidene-2-thiobarbituric acids are smoothly obtained from aldehydes, but 12% hydrochloric acid is needed to effect condensation. Certain NN'-disubstituted barbituric acids and thiobarbituric acids (Whitley, J. Chem. Soc., 1907, 91, 1342 ; Akabori, J. Chem. Soc., Japan, 1931, 52, 6oi ; Ber., 1933, 668, 139 ; Whitley and Mountain, Proc. Chem. Soc., 1909, 25, rat) can also be condensed more or less with the same case as the parent ureides. It is remarkable that barbituric acid and salicylaldehyde upon direct condensation (Conrad and Reinback, /oc. cit., p. 1340) yield 5: 5'-salicyl-bis-barbituric acid: NH?00 1 1 NH?00 CO CH 1 1 IN 2 CO CH2 + OHC. C6H., (OH) NH?CO N 1 1 NH?00 NH?CO ,/ 1 1/ CO 'CH 1 1 CH.C611.(OH) + H20 ... (2) ' Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ;02a, K. IIIJICHTHJEFI ANT) TC B L. NIATATTP Condensation products from benzaldeliyde and certain phenolic aldehydes in the presence of acetic acid are reported also to be of the his-type (Pavoline, Riv. Profwmi, no33, 15, 17x). In the above cases the condensation products are enerally coloured, though in the case of less substituted aldehydes colorless forms ,.re also met with. The compounds from the barbitruic acids are decomposed With aqueous caustic soda or ammonium hydroxide with the separation of the aldehyde in a way, ,erhaps, typical of the reversal of an aldol reaction (cf, equation r). in comparison of barhituric acid, thiobarbituric acid and malonylguanidine as a ,plantitative precipitant: for furfural in very (invite solutions, Dox and Plaisance ..111,Yr. Chem. Soc., T 076, 38, 2156) report incidentally the formation of furfuryliclene- uaionvlguanidine C.,H2OCH CJI,N302 in the presence of 12% hydrochloric acid. Apart from the above meagre reference little is known En far about the reactivity of maionylguanidine. In the Present investigation the results obtained by condensing ;,aalortylgnanidine with various aldehydes in alcohol and acetic acid under strong acidic conditions are recorded. When malonylguanidine is reacted with benzaldehyde in the presence of :glacial acetic acid-sulphitric acid mixture (4: I), a well defined crystalline product is obtained, which has the composition CHCH,1.11.280-1, the sulphuric acid. remaintrn7 chemically bound to the condensation product. The acetic acid-sulphuric acid mixture serves also as a solvent for malonylguanidinewhich 1;., difficult to dissolve in any other organic solvent except formic acid. Other aldehydes 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, 3-hydroxybenzaldehYde, 4- airrobenzaldehyde, Il-resorcylic aldehyde, pyrogallol aldehyde and vanillin can be con- densed with more or less portal ease giving products which are always coloured and contain combined acid. The latter is apparently released in cold water though by this treatment the solids invariably retain their original colour. On prolonged contact with water or 1-1Don beating, further decomposition occurs regenerating the malonYlguani- dine and the aldehyde. Decomposition is quicker With aqueous alkalis but is attended with the appearance of transient violet colorations in the case of phenolic compounds. All the products have the comonsition of an arylidene.-malonylguanidine sulphate, formed thus, + OCH.R. + TSO, [(C4:11sN,W CHR1.1I SO + ... (3) Reaction can occur also when hydrogen chloride gas, dissolved in absolute alcohol or laciai acetic acid. is used as the condensing agent. But the nature of the product ,;:2enis to depend -upon the aldehyde used. Vanillin, (3-resorcylic aldehyde, pyrogallol tidehyde and furfural give an arylidene-malonylguanidine chloride CO151\1.302 + OCH.R + HCI = r(C1rIEN302) : CHR1 HCI + 11.20 (4) in which curiously enough only one molecule of hydrochloric acid remains attached to the resulting product. On the other hand, benzaldehyde and 1-hydroxybenzaidehyde Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES OF MALONYLOUANIDINE, ETC. 103 give compounds having the composition of a bis-malonylguanidine derivative 2C4115N802 + OCH.R + 2HC1 = [(C4H4N,02)2 : CHRJ.2HC1 + H20 ??? (5) The arylidene-malonylguanidine chlorides behave more or less like their sulphate analo- gues but the bis-type of compounds are very soluble in cold water, though they also are hydrolytically decomposed with equal ease. The latter salts are, however, faintly coloured compared to the aryliderit stiliLates or chlorides, some of which are highly coloured. The analogous mode of the hydrolytic decomposition of the products from malo- nylguanidine and from barbitruic acid is suggestive of the reactive methylene group in malonylguanidine being involved in the reaction. The unsaturated character of the arylidene-malonylguanidine sulphates and chlorides is in accord with this view point. The above reactions can be explained if we consider that malonylguanidine is a "zwitterion" such as (II). NH?CO NH?C?OH NH?C-0" I I II HN=C CH, HN=C CH H2N+=C CH I I NH?CO NH?CO NH?C (I) (II) This internal 7...salt-like arrangement is justified by the properties of malonylguani- dine itself. As in the form (II) there is no incipiently ionised hydrogen atom, malonyl- guanidine is unable to condense with aldehydes directly like barbituric acid. However, in the presence of strong mineral acid, the7zwitterion character is lost and a salt with the acid will be formed thus, I II HN=C CH + HX I I NH?00 NH?C--OH I II H,N+ =C CH I I NH?CO Il' NH?CO I I H2N+ =C CH2 I NH?CO (III) (X= CI" or riso) X- X- 8 ?1737P.-2. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 1)4 S. K. M H ERJ BE AND K. B. L. M Ara U die glacial acetic acid or the alcohol serving the purpose of a solvent for the salt (in). In this way the reactive methylene group is made available for condensation, as it is in barbituric acid, with the difference that here a cation, e. g., from (III). is the reactive entity, instead of a neutral molecule. On this basis, the products holding only one equivalent of sulphuric acid (vide equation 3) should be deemed as acid salts. In an analogous way the Hs-type of the compounds may also be formulated. 1,:XPRRIMENT AL PtcParation of Malonylguanidine.?lt was best prepared and purified according to the method of Pass and Dutt (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India, 1939, 9, 93) from malonic ester and guanidine carbonate. In addition malonylguanidine Was found to dissolve in warm (8o?) formic acid from which it could be .recrystallised ; it failed to dissolve in several other non-polar solvents tried. Malonylguanidine did not condense with benzaldehyde in the presence of absolute. alcohol. The addition of sodium ethoxide evolved ammonia on continued heating indicating the occurrence of secondaiy decompositions. The use of glacial acetic acid or acetic anhydride was equally ineffective. Also, in the bare solvents used the malonyl- guanidine had remained practically insoluble. Finally, the following acidic .mixtures were found to give products of uniform composition and had the added advantage of serving as a solvent for malonylguanidine : (i) Conc. sulphuric acid (25 c.c.) diluted to Too c.c. with glacial acetic acid. (ii) Absolute alcohol saturated with hydrogen chloride gas. (iii) Glacial acetic acid saturated with hydrogen chloride gas. (_ondensation of Molonylguanidive with Benzaldehyde in the presence of Glacial Acet;c Acid-Sullthurric Acid Mixture.?The acid mixture (12.7 c.c.) was added quickly to malonylguanidine (1.27 g., o.of M) withi vigorous stirring and slight warming on the water-bath, when all the guanidine practically went in solution. If the required amount ,ff the solvent was not used at once, a part of the malonylguanidine tended to form a gelatinous product which failed to be redissolved in excess of the solvent. The clear liquid was decanted off from a few undissolved particles into a boiling tube containing a solution of benzaldehyde (1.6 g., 0.015 M) in glacial acetic acid (5 c.c.) and the mix- ture was heated on a water-bath at 8o'-go0 with occasional stirring. After To minutes, yellow feathery crystals began to appear, which increased considerably afterwards. Gpon cooling, the whole crop of crystals was filtered, washed repeatedly with glacial acetic acid till the washings ceased to give any precipitate with aq. barium chloride. They were then further washed with carbon tetrachloride to remove acetic acid and dried at 9o?. The product was pure enough but could he recrystallisecl from formic acid, The compound was light yellow, showing leaflets under the microscope, ni.p. 236- (decomp.). It decolorised quickly f% poiassium permanganate and bromine tvai?r in the cold. On boiling with water it decomposed to give a strong smell of Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES OF MAIDNILGUANIDZE, ETC. i:05 benzaldehyde and the aqueous filtrate gave a precipitate with barium chloride. The latter test could also be obtained from a suspension of the compound in cold water. Dissolution occurred also in aqueous alkali and concentrated sulphuric acid ; it was followed by decomposition in the first case and colour change to golden yellow in the last case. IFound : N, 12.3 ; II2SO4 (after aq. decotnp.), 30.21. [C61-15CH : C4113N302].112SO4 requires N, 13.41 ; 112SO4, 31.4 per cent). Yield 1.68 g. (56%). PreParation of various Arylidene-malonylguanidine SulPhates.?Condensations were run, as in the previous experiment, with various aldehydes (0.015 to o.02M). Of all the solvents tried formic acid had excellent solvent properties for the resulting products, which themselves had crystallised out from the reaction mixture more or less in the pure form. They were decomposed by hot water and aqueous alkalis, with the evolution of strong characteristic smell of the aldehyde, e. g., in the compounds with 4-chloro-, 4-methoxy-, 2-hydroxy-, 3-methoxy-, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehydes. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolved them giving yellow-orange solutions. With phenolic compounds, however, aqueous alkali gave also transient violet colorations. and concentrated sulphuric acid produced charring. The compounds from 3-hydroxy-, 4-methoxy-, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehydes were also slightly soluble in ether, chloroform and hot acetic acid. In every case the products decolorised, 2[%, potassium permanganate. The test for unsaturation with bromine water, as applied to the non-phenolic compounds, was also given. Table I summarises the chief results- obtained, those from benzaldehyde being also incorporated for the sake of cornT, pleteness.. . Condensation, of Malonylguanidine with Benzaldehyde and 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde. in the presence of Absolute Alcohol saturated with Hydrogen Chloride.?The malonyl guanidine (0.635 g., 0.005 M) was gradually dissolved in alcohOlic hydrogen chloride (35 c,c.) and after filtration from a few undissolved, particles, reacted with a solution of,henzal-, dehyde (o53 g., 0.005 M) in acetic acid (3 c.c.) in a boiling tube he mixture was: , stirred and warmed at 40'-50 and kept overnight. The crystals that had separated were washed first with acetic acid and then repeatedly with chloroform till the WaShitigs: ? ceased to give a precipitate with aqueous silver nitrate. They were then dried, at.90 , ? The compound had a faint yellow colour. It charred at 244? and decomposed with frothing at 256?. It was very soluble in cold water which deposited white-granular mass on keeping. By this treatment also the aqueous liquid smelt freely of benzalde7; hyde. The aqueous filtrate gave a precipitate with aqueous silver nitrate, insoluble in nitric acid. Decomposition was quicker with aqueous alkalis. It dissolved in formic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid with evolution of' hydrogen chloride in the latter; case {Found': N, 19.82 ; HC1 (after alkaline decomposition and weighed as Agel), 17.7. C,H,.,CH [C4II4Na02.Hel]2 requires N, 20.24 ; HCl, 17.58 per cent}. Yield 0.7g. (61.3%). In a similar experiment with 3-hydroxyhenzaldehyde (.0.9r g., 0.075 M) crystals appeared after 1-1- hours at room temperature and the reaction was completed by keep- jug overnight. The produet has its properties like the compound with .benzaldehyde, imp. 242-46? (decomp.). {Found : N, 19.5 17.1, HO.CJI4CH [(C41.14Na02,- He1l2 requires N, 19.03 ; IIC1, 16.93 per cent}. Yield 0.9 g. (67.1%). Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 106 Ar-CHO & wt. He.CHO (Benzal- dehyde t.6 g., 0.015 M) tC1).e8F14.CHO 4 11.4 g , 0.01 /VD (e1130). e6ll.4.0H0 4 (Anisaldehyde. 2.04 g., 0.015 M) 1011). C6H4.CHO (Salicylaldehyde, (2.84 g., 0.02 11/) (OH). eel-14.CH? 3 u.84 g., o.ols M) (NO2). C6H4.CHO 4 (2.27 g., o.o1,5 114) (OH)2. C6113.C110 2:4 1 (13-Resorcylic aldehyde**, 138 g., o.or S. K. MUKHERJER AND K. IL L. MATHUR TABLE I Formation ot Yield. the compound After ro mins. heating After 5 mins. heating. After w mins. heating. Heated for r fir. & kept overnight. After 20 mins heating. Heated for 3 hrs. & kept for 3 hrs. Heated for 2 hrs; ppted by Ac() IT c.c.) & AcOH (to c.c.) & warmed. a-101a. eel-4CH? After 40 mins. 3 : 4: 5 1 heating. I Pyrogallol aldehyde) (CHe0)(011)C8H3.CHO After to mins 3: 4 I heating. (Vanillin, 2.28 g., 0.015 M) Colour, shape & decomp. point. 1.68 g. 56.0% Yellow leaflets; decomp. 236-38? 2.20 63.1 23.1 67.6 190 55.1 2.38 71 6 0.62 17.2 1.50 34.9 1.80 50.0 1.7o 48.0 Arylidene-malonylguanidioe sul- phate. (Ar*CH: C4H3N305 HeSO4) Nitrogen H2SO4 Yellow star-like crystals; de- comp. 251-52? Golden yellow leaflets ; charred 2400; decomp. 247? Yellow feathery leaflets; charred 220? ; decomp. 266' Yellowish green leaflets: charred 1340; decomp. 300? Pale yelow leaflets; decomp. 3/80 Dark red ; charred 270? soln. in hot ACOH, green florescence Tiny red plates; charred 22o? Yellow leaflets; charred 26(1? ; decomp. 27o? Found. Cale. Found, Cale. 12.30 13 41 30.21 31.40 12 44 12-05 12.02 12.24 28.71 28.57 12.71 12.76 30,34 29.80 12.84 12.76 28.81 29.80 16.70 15.64 27.09 27.30 8.63 9.79 23.45 22.84 tr.6o 27.32 27.14 11.54 II 69 27.80 27.39 Condensations of Malonvtguanidine with 2:4-Dihydrox3)-, 3 :4:5-Trihydroxy-, 3- Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehvdes and with Fur f ural -The condensations were run exactly as in the previous experiment, with malonylguanidine (0.635 g., 0.005 M). In the case of vanillin glacial acetic acid, saturated with hydrogen chloride, gave equally good result. All the products were decomposed by water giving the combined acid and the aldehyde back. Concentrated sulphuric acid and formic add dissolved them with the evolution of hydrogen chloride in the former case and colour change to golden yellow in the latter case. Aqueous alkalis produced transient red-orange colorations in the case of the di- and tri- phenolic compounds. All the products had deeper colour than the his-type of compounds and their composition tallied rather with an arylidene- malonylguanidine chloride. The results are summarised in the following table. +- This 'Ar' is the same as signified by that of the aldehyde used. ,* The figures agrced with t of distettlatt- td_r action. =ulna Approved For Relehaatsen2001/09/0be: LAA-Ituia63-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 STUDIES OF MALONYLGUANIDINE, ETC. I TABLE II Ar-CHO & wt. Formation of Yield the compound. (H0)2C6113.CHO After ri Ins. 2 :4 1 at room temp. (0-Resorcylic aldehy- de**, 1.035 g., 0.075 Al) (H0;10.6H2.C1-10 After ri hr. 3:4:5 I at 4o? (Pyrogallol aldehyde, 1.16 g., 0.075 .A/) (CH30)(OH)C6H3.CHO Within i hr. 3 4 1 at 6o* (Vanillin, 0.76 g,, 0.005 Al) e4l-130.CH? Within (Furfural, 0.72 g., zo mins. o 075 MI g. 77.40% 1.10 73.3 o.58 32.2 o.66 53.7 Colour, shape & charring point. Deep yellow; charred 241-42* Orange blocks; charred 202? Tiny red plates; charred 221? Carbonised; greenish black; infusible. Arylidene-malonylguanidine chloride (Ar*CH: C4l-I3N302.11C1) Nitrogen HCI Found. Cale Pound. Cale. 15.01 14.81 12.30 12.87 13.81 14,02 11.92 12.20 14.13 14.11 II 15 12.00 15.4 17.39 11.32 15.10 * This 'Ar' is the same as signified by that of the aldehyde used. ** Solution in formic acid of the product diluted with acetic acid gave bluish fluorescence. Reactions in aqueous solutions under strong acidic conditions are proposed to be further investigated. The authors' grateful thanks are due to Dr. S. Drat for suggesting this piece of work and for his continued interest in it. CHEMICAL LABORATORIES, UNIVERSITY Or DELHI, DELHI. Received June 18, 1949. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 REVIEWS Die Thermodynamik des Warme?Und Stoffaustausches in der Verfahrenstechnik? Von Dr.-Ing. Werner Matz?Verlag Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff?Frankfurt (Main)-1949 ; pp. 355+ xii, Figs. 1.1.4. Price 3o P.M. (approximately). This is a book on Thermodynamics of 'Rxchange of Heat and Matter that take , place in industrial processes. e. g., evaporation, distillation, absorption, adSerption, extraction, heating, cooling, etc. Exchange of heat and exchange of material between different parts of a system have been treated together. Scattered throughout' the literature are to he found thermodynamic treatment of the processes mentioned before ; but here, in one single volume, all these processes have been dealt with from the same Point of view. The author has restricted himself only to the processes peculiar to chemi- eal industries and has not touched on operations like expansion, compression, refrigera- eion. flow of fluids, etc., which form the subjects of most books on chemical engineer- ng thermodynamics. Treatment of the subjects selected is thorough and ?rigorbus. The atithor has laid special etriphasiS on the Law of Conservation of matter, the first two Laws of Thermodynamics, and Dimensional analysis. The Second Lawhas been applied with the help of extrophy-concept. All lovers of thermodynamics will find the book interesting and instructive. It may specially be recommended to chemical engineers and industrial chemists Who want to acquire more intimate knowledge of the processes they handle. Considering the ex- cellence Of the hook it is expected that in near 'future an English translation Will come out from America. [4.R. High Polymer Physics: A Symposium?Edited by Dr. Howard A. Robinson. Pp. 572+ xiii. Published under the auspices of the American Institute of Physics by the- Chemical Publishing Co. Price 11.2.00, High Polymer study has during recent years come into great lime light. The developments have been so rapid that it is very difficult for any investigator to keep abreast of the huge mass of informations on its various aspects that are accumulating in the scattered literature on the subject. Unlike the chemical substances having small molecules, macromolecular substances are of :mportance mainly for their physical characteristics, It has therefore ben very opportune for the High Polymer Branch of he American Physical Society, of which Dr. Howard A. Robinson was the Chair- man, to arrange a symposium on High Polymer Physics and to publish the papers con- tributed there on. The contributions are from most of the leading investigators in the various branches of high polymer in America and cover a wide range of aspects of the subject. Many of the articles were scattered over a large number of Journals, but they have been revised by the authors to take into account the developments in the intervening periods. This, therefore, serves as a quite handy collection of very useful ituformations to one desiring to pursue the subject. The twentythree papers that have been contributed are divided into four parts. The first part deals with Determination of the Molecular Structure of MO Polymers and includes the uses of colour and Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 REVIEWS 109 Fluorescence indicators, applications of Infra-red methods and X-ray diffraction methods for determinations of structures. The articles on the physical properties of high polymers form the second and the largest part and deals with such topics as Mechanical properties, Equation of state, Viscometric investigations, Formation of ionised water films, Thermal behaviour, creep, permanent set and electrostatic properties. The third part deals with the Chemical Physics of the high polymers. The fourth part contains articles on the apparatus for the measurements of thermal diffusion and light scattering. The articles are contributed by the leading investigators on high polymers in their own ,lines of research and as such they are in general very well presented and give a clear and up-to-date account of the aspects dealt with. Being reports of a symposium it cannot, however, be expected to give a connected account of the whole subject. Some of the articles presupposes a considerable amount of preliminary knowledge of the subject ; Eyering-,'s paper on "The mechanical properties of textiles" may be particularly mentioned in this connection. On the whole, the book will prove to be an asset to workers on high polymers and Dr. Robinson may be congratulated for his bringing out such a useful volume. K. B. Gmetins Handbuch der Anorgaidschen Chemie.?S Auflage (Edition). System Number IS, Antimon. Teil B 2. Pp. 496. In this volume the treatment of the physical properties of antimony, not dealt with in the previous volume, has been concluded. This comprises a part of the electrical properties of the metal ; addition and correc- tion to the physical properties described in the previous volume ; chemical properties of the element; its detection and estimation ;. the various compounds of antimony with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorinP, chlorine, bromine and iodine. All references to literature till the middle of-1948 have been fully considered. Gmelins Handbuch of Inorganic Chemistry enjoys the Same reputation and posi- tion as those of Beilstein's Handbuch for Organic Chemistry: The present volume also thoroughly maintains this tradition. No university or research institute of. chemistry chemistry can Miss this volume in their library. P. R. Modern Plastics?by. Harry Barton. Published by ?Chapman & Hail2 ud Edition, revised & enlarged. Pp. 778 ; price so Shillings: This century has provided the background for an enormous expansion of the plas- tics industry. Technical and scientific knowledge regarding plastics is, however, still confined to a few scientists and competent technicians. The spread of tectinical education is imperative for the healthy growth of any major industry. This book has been written with a view to removing the lack of knowledge on Plastics as the author rightly thinks that "Lack of knowledge and lack of efforts results in the facile and disastrous industrial policy of purchasing foreign licenses for processes and goods. This is the easy way out but it subsidises foreign developments and effective- ly stifles one's own". Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 110 REVIEWS The book, divided into 5 parts (each subdivided into several chapters) dealing res- pectively with (I) Raw materials for plastics and Theory of plastics formation, (II) Thermosetting resins and their plastics, (III) Cellulose Plastics, (IV) Vinyl Plastics, (V) Glyptal, Casein, Silicone and Polyamide plastics, (VI) Analytical aspects and Physical Testing of plastics, provides a considerable amount of technical information which though seemingly "somewhat sketchy to the erudite- is adequately comprehensive and of much practical value. The presentation of the subject is well balanced. B. K. M. Chyma : Annual Studies in the History of Chemistry, volume II. Editor in Chief: Tenney L. Davis. Published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1949. Chymia is rendering a great service to the History of chemical science of the world in publishing authoritative articles of well reputed authors on the subject ; some of them are professors of the History of Science and curator of research institutes. It appears like the first volume of this study to be less representative so far as chemistry in ancient India is concerned. Even in the article on "The experimental origin of chemi- cal, atomic and molecular theory before Boyle," Professor Hooykoas has not unfortu- nately mentioned anything about the theory of atom in Indian philosophical science, though it is very likely that the Greeks imbibed the idea of atoms from the Indians. R. C. Quarterly Reviews?Vol. II, No. 1, 1948. Pp. 91. Price 8/- Sh. The Chemical Society, London. These reviews are being published by the Chemical Society. The present issue which forms No. i of Vol. II deals with the recent development of our knowledge on the following subjects :? I, Disproportionation in Organic Compounds. 2. The Chemistry of Silicon Polymers. 3. Physiologically active unsaturated Lactones. 4. Far Ultra-violet Spectra, Ionisation Potentials and their Significance in Chemistry. As these reviews have been made by competent workers in the respective field, they will undoubtedly be found very useful by all advanced students and workers in chemistry. And as such they should find a place in all scientific libraries. P. R. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 LIGHT'S ORGANIC CHEMICALS NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC DRUGS ARE THE BEST AND THE CHEAPEST L. LIGHT & CO., are prepared to assist firms who wish to market new Organic Chemicals and Drugs. If the substance had never been produced in bulk before, the research needed to work out an efficient synthesis can be undertaken. Production on an exclusive basis undertaken for Clients. 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We should not limit our protein requirements to the usual dal only but we should eat, wherever possible, peas, eggs, fish, meat, nuts and, of course, milk. However, proteins, by themselves, are not enough to keep us in full health arid strength for which we need-a balanced diet Consisting of all the five food factors and in their correct proportions. These factors, apart from proteins, are carbo-hydrates (millets, rice, sweet potatoes, wheat), vitamins (amlas, carrots, tomatoes, lemons, papayas), minerals (brinjals, drumsticks, lettuce, spinach) and fat like Da/da which is pure and energy-giving. DOES THINNESS MEAN BAD HEALTH? Write for free advice today?or any day! THE DALDA ADVISORY SERVICE P.O. BOX NO. 353. BOMBAY 001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ILLEGIB VI NAN.K RMEE VOL. II June, 1950 No. 6 MORE ABOUT THE PLANNING COMMISSION Elsewhere in this issue we have published a letter from a member of our Association and also a resolution adopted by the ASWI Unit of the Central Laboratories of Scientific and In- dustrial Research, Hyderabad. Both are highly critical of the editorial entitled "The Planning Commission" which appeared in the April issue of the Vijnan-Karmee and which they con- sider to be in conflict with the resolution passed at the Poona Session of? the Association. In that session the following resolution was adopted: "The Association of Scientific Workers of India views with grave concern the rapidly deteriora- ting economic condition of thc country which vitally affects the scientific workers along with other sections of the population, leading to mass scale unemployment and hindering the healthy growth of the community. This Association is of the opinion that the solution of the problem lies in the industrialisation of the country on the basis of a socialist economy". This resolution was reproduced in the April issue of the V ijnan- Karmee, to which the editorial of that issue also directed attention. The Association stands by this resolution. Hence the misgiving that this Journal is trying to go behind this resolution should be dismissed. Doubtless, planning can achieve its fullest ? objective only in a socialist framework. It is a socialist economy free from the inhibitory con- tradictions inherent in capitalism, which can raise production to undreamt-of heights. In private profit, the cycles of boom and slump are bound to occur. If production goes up, prices tend to fall and profits tend to decrease. Prices are then sought to be raised artificiaHy by curtailing production. Thus, while the world is still in need of goods of all kinds, factories may close down depriving the people of those goods and at the same time throwing large masses of workers into unemployment. In many cases even essential commodities which have been produced are destroyed in order to keep up prices. Even at present it is reported that in America thousands of tons of potatoes are being coloured with a dye so that they may be rendered unacceptable for human consump- tion. These are being fed to animals. Similar- ly wheat is being fed to cattle, whereas a large part of the world including India goes hungry. It will be remembered that America recently refused to reduce the price of wheat for India even by a small amount. It is not necessary to blame only America for it. Wherever the capi- talist system works, its inexorable laws operate and in plethoric plenty people perish. During the economic depression of the thirties, as every- bo.iy knows, coffee used to be burnt in Brazil and oranges thrown into the sea by Spain. Under socialirn, on the other hand, the means of pro- duction is owned by the community and produc- tion is also meant for the entire community and, therefore, the artificial hindrances which private enterprises put up to the expansion of production a society pp Wile &Fatale az enatiOAtka9 Afit6 : OPaalaiiisa-00/14?810&109APIAgrUZre. be Approved For Release 2001/9S9Ljah-FDP83-00415R0061000500017No. 6 lanielaw aley eased freely to meet the requirements of the community. Planning in such circumstances, as in the Soviet Union, can achieve astonishing re,ults in a relatively short time. There are of course critics of socialism. ?I.:hey point out that with the abolition of private ein:rprise initiative would tend to disappear and role would not work to the best of their capacity. This 'postulates that the love of profit Aoile can stimulate a person to action. It is t roe that in the early stages; as had happened a the Soviet Union, such a psychology inherited tn the old society tends to persist but by eclocation and example it is possible, at least to ereat extent:, to make the people socially ?ninded, so that they would work to the best of ? heir capacity knowing that in a socialist coma nunity one is for all and all for one. While, therefore, it seems to us that there is no fundamental solution of our problem we by-pass socialism, we have still to take cognisance of the contemporary eitiotrion and see what can be achieved even -,-thin the limitations from which we suffer. The Planning Commission which has been set Eip ley the Government of India surely cannot tehieve results which it could have done in a ;ocialist economy. We shall be wrong if we teepect the Planning Commission to give results iike those which flowed from the Planning Commission of the Soviet Union. But to turn ,.nir back on the Commission in a spirit of non- eraoperation would hardly help matters. Even ae the capitalist system of America, President n-evelt introduced limited planning as in the eepeeiment with the Tennessee Valley Authority. Here within a particular area and inspire of the opposition of many vested interests, the life of a population has been greatly transformed and the whole condition of the people has been cisanged i?aritai listlesseess and poverty to comparative happires.s and prosperity. Who would ignore plennad achievement of the TVA and ridicule it simply because it was established in a capital- jai ;sec:Apanatoved For Release 2001/09/06: mMliiinmg....II?1??*nmipm?NaTmmnrMM?eep????uffp........r?gworJP/ON?Mb?rwom It appears that the Planning Commission has been established in order to function as an overall authority for preparing integrated plans of development and having thein executed by the different Government departments under a system of priorities. It will also probably coordinate these plans with those of private industry. Apart from the question of socialism and capitalism, it is well-known that in India even for projects which are sponsored by the Centre and by the States there is a great deal of competition for money, material and foreign exchange. There are the river valley projects, three of which are in the process of active execution?the Damodar Valley, the Hirakund and the Bhakra: Besides these there are a large number of river valley projects which ate at different stages of investigation and planning. There is an urgent need for the additional production of at least 1-2 million tons of iron and steel annually. There is the necessity for the large-scale production of fertilisers, of synthetic petrol, of essential drugs like penicillin, sulpha drugs and paludrin. ? These projects are Government-sponsored. Even far these priori- ties have to be determined. Essential materials, both indigenous and imported, be canal- ised in the right direction. Which organisation exists in India to (a) see the needs of all branches of national economy in perspective (b) prepare Plans for these branches, (c) integrate these plans (d) establish priorities and (e) canalise money and materials for the production of commodities in the order of their importance and also according to a time schedule? The Planning Commission is apparently meant to take charge of this work. In the absence of -each a Commis( ion, there would be a lot of confusion and wastage of materials and effort. ? It is true that the comoosition of the Planning Commission leaves much to be desired. We would have I ked to see on it repreientatives of scientific workers and of peasants and workers who constitute the vast bulk of our pooulation ck4dRQM-q1441.R99#1819019STivie whole Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 I VIJNAN4CARMEE [ 3 course of planning and egecution of projects. We would have liked further to see that Govern- ment accepted socialism as the basis for this planning. But that has not happened. Should we jettison this _ Planning Commission? Or should we, while holding that the Planning Commission could have best functioned in a socialist framework and while knowing that it must suffer from limitations under present conditions, try to give it assistance so that it may achieve even the limited objectives it holds ? It . is now reported that the Planning Commission has decided to set up an Advisory Board. The Planning Commission could thus at least associate themselves with representatives of various interests mentioned above through this Advisory Board if they wished to do so . When the Commission prepares its plans or establishes priorities for execution we have a right to offer our suggestions and criticisms. It would be far better to try to keep the Plan- ning Commission on the right path than merely take a negative attitude to it in the present circumstances of the country. SCIENTIFIC TALENTS FROM ABROAD Considered in a background of post war financial difficulties, of the limited resources of our country and of the pressing and exacting problems associated with the rehabilitation of the displaced persons, it is no small achievement on the part of the Government of India to have established on a firm footing the National Che- mical Laboratory, the National Physical Labor- atory, and the Fuel Research Institute within a period of six months and venture on the com- pletion of a fourth one. Elsewhere in this issue appears a brief life sketch of Sir Edward Mellanby, the sixtysix year old British scientist who has been appointed the Director of the National Drug Research Institute of India. The news item in the daily papers reporting this appointment, just as we were going to the press, stated that Sir Edward was likely to take up his duties at Lucknow by October next. So we can fondly expect that the fourth institute in the chain of our proposed national laborato- ries would start functioning with its full comple- ment of staff within a short while. Without the dynamic leadership of our popular Prime Minister Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru and the untiring efforts of his able lieutenant in the Department of Scientific Research Shri Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar it is doubtful Affiravgi IWRiel3991/A96 domain of science the little that we have done so far. It would be a very happy augury indeed if there is greater scientific outlook amongst our civil servants for solution of many of the pro- blems that beset the country. We must say that before the Nehru Government came into power the outlook of the main body of civil servants was woefully lacking in proper scientific bias, and scientists, whether in Government service or in the universities, were regarded as "penny in the slot machine" for answering certain questions that cropped up in the adminis- tration. Not that such an archaic bent of mind of the administrators has rad.eally changed but there is today, a greater appreciation of science and what science can do. Our Association is fully alive to the need for recruitment of scientific talents from abroad in the proper development of science and techno- logy in our country. This subject was given the fullest consideration by our Association at its annual general meeting held at Poona in January last. Resolution No. 6* unanimously adopted at the annual generel meeting, enun- ciated in no uncertain terms the views of our Association. One of our suggestions was that :? WelsAaMiVigiA*Potidgobbirl-tbruarY. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 4 1 VIJNAN-RARMEE [ No. 6 i-he foreign experts who may be appointed from time to time, according to the needs of the country, should be of such age and experience :is may permit of associating themselves with the sctive pursuit of science along with their local colleagues , thus not only inspiring the young indiao scientists but also raising the existing standard of technique and laboratory practice. Csasequently, we had expressed ourselves against the principle of appointment of superan- nuated persons even of established reputation from abroad, and particularly of those who had n cut away from the active pursuit of science lot a considerable period. We have the greatest respect for Sir Edward Mellanby as a top ran- g nutrition scientist and for his abilities in managing the affairs of the Medical Research Council as its Secretary for a period of more than as years. True it is that he held for some years she appointment of Professor of Pharmacology at Sheffield but he has spent almost tho whole of his life on nutrition research. Now that the appointment has been made we welcome Sir Edward in our midst and we hope that he will do his best to stimulate drug research in this country. In our Resolution on the recruitment of foreign scientists we had expressed ourselves strongly in favour of appointment of Indians as directors of our national laboratories. Certainly, we did not want that anybody who is not suit- able should be appointed simply because he was an Indian as such a practice would be against thL: :,pint of science which we profess and also gaiiist the interest of the country in general. ...11111?1111MINIMEM We had greatly appreciated the appointment of Professor K. S. Krishnan* as the Director of our National Physical Laboratory. In view of the fact that Shri Ram Nath Chopra had truly and well laid the foundation of drug research in the country many years ago, and as more than one of his able assistants had earned, we presume deservedly, recognition of their work both in this country and abroad, we were look- ing forward to the appointment of an Indian at the helm of our national drug research. But that was not to be. The appointment of a nutrition scientist even of the eminence of Sir Edward indicates, and we regretfully note the fact, that in the opinion of the Government we do not possess, amongst the scientists in India employed on the research on drugs, a suitable person who could be given the responsibilities of the Director. Whether oae possesses ade- quate qualifications to hold a certain appoint- ment is purely a matter of opinion and conse- quently we would not like to raise any contro- versy based on opinions alone. However, we hope that within a short time scientists in our country would attain that experience, ability and eminence which is needed to guide the destinies of our national laboratories, and recruitment of foreign scientists except as temporary advisers, would not be necessary. We would, however, advocate invitations extended to eminent men of science from abroad for lecture tours in the different centres of teaching and research in the country. * See page x "Vijnan.Karmee" March, t950. CRISIS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY We have published in this issue an article on the present crisis in the Textile Industry. It is not justifiable in the present shortage periods to close down the mills and stop the production of cloth because the parties interested do not get as much profit out of the working as they feel they should get. It has been suggested It15 filiticVdePinalq gvagiti 28?004,0B1 :adiVairdB-(190201tROIr./6 f9111391XleiveA or technicians and labour whose joint efforts are sure to keep a mill in production. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 ] VIJNAN-KARMEE I 5 DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN INDUSTRY THE CRISIS IN THE COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY (By? A Scientific Worker ) The crisis in the Cotton Textile Industry not only creates a crisis in the homes of those directly connected with it but has wider impli- cations on the national well-being itself. The fall in production inherent with the crisis offers scarcity of the basic requirement of the popula- tion with resulting soaring prices and black- marketing, and ultimately inflation to the ruin of the nation. It is not an uncommon experience that whenever a man, engaged in a textile industry, comes across a common man in confidence he is confronted with a volley of questions such as : (a) Why this closure of Mills ? (b) Way there is accumulation of stocks ? (c) How long the shortage of cloth will Continue? (d) Will we ever get cheap cloth as before tne War? In order that one may be able to answer these 'questions scientifically and unbiased, one has to have comprehensive knowledge of the Indian Textile Industry in particular and world textile position in general. Unfortunately all the scientific workers, though intimately con- nected with the industry, are not aware of the various factors?both real and unreal-respon- sible for the occasional crisis as the top manage- ment being part and parcel of capital is not interested in taking the rank and file of the technicians into confidence and giving them use- ful information to understand the position possibly because they themselves form one of the targets of attack in case of the crisis. Further, it is not unlikely that in not too distant future, the Government of the country, realising the need of consumers, may embark upon a policy of taking the scientific workers into C913 PEPirev7ifeRFICNii,e631900F1/96 catastrophic situation, On the above consider- ations it is essential that there should be fre- quent discussion among Scientific Workers in the know of the situation so that they may be able to arrive at definite conclusions and edu- cate the public and suggest ways and means to the Government to meet the situation. Such a discussion was held recently, amongst our members wherein the points raised by the Tndustrial Unemployment Committee formed the basis of discussion. The industrial Un- employment Sub-Committee, appointed by the Bombay Provincial Labour Advisory Board, on 8th June' 49, has attributed the crisis to one or more of the following causes :-- Cot ton shortage. Accumulation of cloth and yarn stocks. Financial stringency. Transport bottle-neck. Non-availability of stores and spare parta. (6) Reduced margin of profits due to in- crease in wage bill. Staggering hours. Lack of co-operation between capital and labour. 1. Shortage of Cotton: Due to the partition of the country into India and Pakistan, the shortage of cotton has come to stay for some time to come. Against the total production of 3,190,000 bales in 1947-48 from Ix million acres, the internal requirements including extra Factory consumption (27o,000 bales) amounted to 4,480,000 bales leaving a deficit of 1,290,000 bales. Out of this total production about 230,000 bales of short staple cotton were surplus to internal requirements. These are exported. If allowance is made for ,tR:,-ItPPrPa-V01189kl0gIRP0lger of (7) (8) Approved For Release 2001/09/06_: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 6 I VIJNAN KARMEE [ No. 6 1,520,000 bales wh ch has to be met by imports. ilte Government of India was aware of the substantial gap of 7 to 9 lakh bates for the year 1948-49 but failed to remove it by imports on aommensurated scale. This is a genuine ,;ource of trouble which can be over-come with The second cause of the shortage of cotton ta ordain!. Due to the failure of the Govern- no to control the price of Kapas, its price gone up considerably resulting in hoarding of cotton and leading it to black market. Dis- oibution of raw cotton to textile mills and a eater security and supervision of all sales and par .:hoses and the fixation of ceiling price for cotton and controllod price of Kapas will miti- gate. this evil considerably. However, as far as the supply of cotton, is co.n..erneti, the tension has to a -great deal eased. The Government of India has made arrange- ments to import 8 lakh bales and if need be hinte, and cotton from abroad has already come ....lid the shortage is fast disappearing. Besides, 71.1e. Government has undertaken measures to e cotton production by increasino acreage i?,,ndtf cotton, providing irrigation facifitiea, eupplying suitable fertilizers cm. It is claimed hat the increase in productioo dihi to these in.:arures will be to the order of 8 lakh hales 'Z. Accumulation of Stocks: Some time back the accumulation ot stocks mills was said to be the major headache kAling, to the closure of mills. This is some- thing on.lincierstandable when we look at the figures of total production and per capita cloth avaitable to the pooulatiort Total Mill Production aa 1949 =a,929,68o,000 vcis. Production of hand- looms In 1948?49 7=1,100,000,000 yds. -.:i0Th imported in 10'48-49 47,430.000 Ydb? _ a Ctecline. In the year x vistin did not tA_5114,4V-WPW0iRgaq,u Approved For Release: 2-0,,c949$9,1 i. A91 uaiyarn -allottel to Exported to Pakistan in 1948-49 (200,000 bales of approx. 1500 yds) Exported to countries other than Pakistan in 1948-49 Total Export in 1948-49 Net available to con- sumers (337,038,000 people) Per capita cloth available comes to 13.8 yds. annually. The per capita cloth available for consumpa . tion in 1938-39 was 17.94 yds. which has fallen to 13.8 yds. in the year 1948-49. This figure will be reduced tO 13.8 yds. per head per annum, if we consider too million yards of cloth purchased for defence services and other government reotairements, and it would be further reduced. to T2 yds,? if we take into account the quantity of cloth smuggled into Tibet, China and other areas adjacent to Bengal and :Punjab and other illicit eicorts from small norm Considering still . further. the differential need of the Urban population which form 13% of India's total population whose need comes to an average of 25 yds./ heati/aentun the cloth avallahle for the Rural population comes to approximately to yds. per head per annum. The . is quite insufficient ,!:;pecially when one compares it wi he tattrlars average per capita consumption which .as 42 yds. in 1928-29. But still we hear of the accumulation of stocks. How is this? Is it aot ,flue to the icICL that. cloth prices are so high that it is not within the purchasing power of the mases? Because of the high price of the textiles, not only the home consumption has declined, but the export trade has also suffered =-- 300,000.000 yds. = 340,863 000 yds. -----,-- 640,863 cm yds. -='4,636,247,000 yds. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 ] VIJNEE-KARMEE 7 ..4?121M11.13 it. Of the 350 million yards of cloth earmaiit- ed for export during 1948 to countries other than Pakistan, only 167 million yards could be exported. Luckily due to devaluation of the currency this position has improved considera- bly and once again Indian textiles have demands out-side India. In this connection the Textile Commission's contention for the accumulation of stocks is significant and is as follows:? (1) Manipulation with the cloth packing. (2) Production of cloth having no demand in the market in order to take maxi- mum advantage of the price structure. (3) High pricing of cloth coupled with fall- ing purchasing power of the masses. Mr. Barat, the Textile Commissioner, has told in one of his statements that the accumula- tion of stocks at that time of the year was a seasonal phenomenon and would ease out when the harvesting was over. Thus it will be readily seen that the cry of accumulation was meant to get the controls re- moved and the capitalists succeeded partially in lifting of controls on distribution. But did it solve the problem as the capitalists claimed? The answer is an emphatic No. In the first week of November, 1949 there were 2,02000 bales with the mills in the Bombay Province as against 2,42,000 bales in the first week of September. In course of two months only 40,000 bales had been disposed of. This fact alone suffices to prove that controls were not responsible for the accumulation of stocks. ' Finally, the Government of India, realising the need to counter-act the deterioration of tl-e export trade in first half of 1949 and the urgent need of stimulating export to earn much need- ed foreign exchange, set up an Export Promo- tion Committee under the Chairmanship of Mr. A. D. Gorwalla. On the basis of this Committee's recommendations, the Government has liberalised their export policy with the re- sult that 4.1111V9)YetciFq6-PaligtMcVANgii06 has disappeared since then. The devaluation of the Indian currency on 19th September, 1949, in terms of dollar by 34%, as pointed out earlier, has a further stimulating effect. It is no news that huge quantities of grey Bed Linens are finding profitable dollar market. But this over-activity on the export side has its dark side too. It is learnt reliably that at the very first instance the entire quota of one quarter was completed in one month and most of the mills are now concentrating on exports sorts. Since there is lack of commensurate in- crease in the over-all production, this substan- tial increase in the export trade will create a void and there is risk of serious shortage of textiles for internal consumption. 3. Financial Stringency: The third reason of inadequate finance is mostly coming from uneconomic and small units with insufficient resources. But from the very fact that these concerns did very well dur- ing war and the period following it, one must not accept it on its face value. Instances are not lacking to show that such conditions have been created due to mismanagement, internal dissensions and family feuds of the Managing Agents. The case of Sholapur Spg. and Wvg. Mills is an example. It is now an accepted fact that this is not an uneconomic unit and that the source of trouble were the Managing Agents and the Board of Directors. It is, therefore, thought necessary that the Government should appoint an Experts' Com- mittee to study how many of such mills are small and uneconomic and suggest ways and means to work these mills. 4 Transport Bottle-Neck: Those who have followed the recent discuss- ion on the Railway Budget must have found with relief th4t this headache has gone once for all. 5. Non-availability of Stores and Spare Parts: To any technician who has had any ex-- i)GlehtINPW114017,90&194SCIP(11 7 ? war 8 ] Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 VIJNEE-KARMEE [ No. 6 days, this argument will not be acceptable.. We are able to get our spare parts and stores with ease from abroad and our local work-shops too are in a better position to supply most of our demands. When the industry could work to the fullest capacity in those trying days of war giving target production, closure of mills on this ground is flimsy. 6. Reduced Margin of Profits due to Increase in Wage Bill: At the very outset one has to consider that the wage bill is not the major factor in the cost of Indian Textiles. Moreover a proper scrutiny will show that though there is an increase in wage bill its percentage increase is very much below that of the percentaae increase in the prices of cloth. Besides it is not true that there are reduced profits. Following facts speak for themselves. The block capital of the entire cotton textile industry is slightly more than too crores and the industry reaped the gross profit of ;72 crores between 1940 and 1946. Indeed a substantial portion of it went as taxes bat the net profit itself was 79.42 crores and the Managing Agents commission amounted to 40 crores. It will be seen that 119.4.2 crores or much more. than the block capital was realised in 7 years only. Thus even if there is reduced profit, there is hardly any reason to close the mills in the interest of the nation. But according to Mr. M. P. Gandhi, the truth is different. "The year 1948 was a year of bumper profits to the textile mills. According to ene source the total profits made by the Bombay Textile Industry alone in 1948 amonnted to 2o crores as against Rs. 7 crores in 1947." The figure for the year 1949 is not available bat looking at the industri- al balance sheets the position continues to he encouraging. 7. Staggering boors: Dispute between die Management and the Labour is quite natural for working staggering it since it occupies practically the whole of their day towards their duties. 8. Lack of co-operation between Capital and Labour: Without considering the pros and cons of the recent Government legislations, one thing is certain that they have been instrumen tal in re- ducing dislocation of work due to labour dis- putes. The man-hours lost during the last year were considerably small, so per cent of the loss was due to lock-outs. On the above analysis and further discus- sions, the following conclusions were arrived at which if implemented will go a long way in averting the present crisis as well as putting the industry on surer and scientific footing. Abolition of the Managing Agency System. Any student of economics will admit that the Managing Agency system has out-lived its existence. Whatever may be its merit a few decades earlier, it is an accepted fact that it is not in tune with the time. A substantial por- tion of the company's earning goes as Agent's commission with no corresponding gain. Whilst the net profits for the year 1940 to 1946 were 79.42 crores, the Managing Agents' com- mission paid during the period was 40 crores and thus it will be seen that an amount equal to so per cent of the net profit went as such. Compulsory Grouping. As the growth and development of the (ndian Textile Industry was not on a planned basis, a number of small en.1 uneconomic units at odd places came into being. In order to improve the working of such units, the compul- sory grouping of such mills into manageable and economic corporations is highly desirable. The superiority of such managements has been amply demonstrated in various countries. In Czechoslovakia, the Government has centralised over goo independent units of textile industry into about 30 national corporations to run on commercial lines with very fruitful results. In hours. Because wile,ras the capitalist gains by China a hu c car orations with ssio units was 1 way 99 SIPingeflecUariPtetlea4# 2ARANs9/MenFIARIPP (1M4 tiat within Ap.oroved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 j VIJNAN-KARMER [ 9 two years, it amply demonstrated its superiority in both efficiency and reduced cost of produc- tion over the privately owned mills. Standardization of Production. Advantages of standardization of production have come to be recognised in all quarters. A beginning was made during the war in this direction by the introduction of the utility clothes. This scherite, however, did not Suc- ceed due to the half-heartedness of the measure, sabotage from the industrialists and finally mis- management in the distribution from the offi- cials. In order that the scheme of the standardiza- tion of production may be a success, the follow- ? ing points have to be taken into consideration. pi. The needs of the broader sections of the population of various regions as regards their tastes and requirements have to be scientifically studied, both from the point of quantity and quality. 2. Grouping of the mills on the basis of their capacity -to produce the various standar- dised qualities in order to get maximum effici- ency. Attempts should be made that the mills cater to the needs of the regions in which they ore, situated as far as possible. 3. While drawing specifications for stan- dardised sorts, it has to be borne in mind that the clothes are of balanced structure so as to offer better durability. Control on Raw Materials. Unless the raw material is made available to the mills at reasonable price, it is too much to control the prices of yarn and cloth. The Government is certainly to be blamed for taking only half-hearted measures such as controlling the .price of cotton and leasing kapas uncon- trolled. Controls to be effective should start right from raw materials to the finished goods. Not only cotton but all other important raw? materials and accessories etc. should be con- trolled if the costs of production are to be kept within reakpipbbatidifior Release 2001/09/06 Items like dye-stuffs, chemicals, spare parts etc. which are imported from outside should be purchased in bulk by the Government and distributed according to the requirements of the industrial concerns. Such a practice in U. K. in the purchase of cotton has proved successful. This will further ensure the import of only essential articles and thus save the much needed foreign currency. Scientific Utilisation of Labour. Work-load assessment on a scientific basis, through Time Study, as a means for proper utilisation of men and machinery is now well recognised. The system of allocating jobs to operatives up till now has no scientific basis at all, which has led to inequitable distribution of work-load whereby some are called upon to do a larger share of work than normal whilst others have hardly sufficient work to do. In order, therefore, to take maximum advantage of labour productivity, work-loads must be scientifically distributed, keeping in view actual effort, skill, training etc. Under the stress of present conditions, it is becoming increasingly important to cut down manufacturing costs to a minimum while in- creasing the wages of the operatives. This can only be done through a system of Rationalisa- tion by getting the maximum output per operative and per unit of machinery installed. The Re-deployment scheme of the British Textile Industry has been a major success in spite of the initial difficulties. Setting up of an Advisory Body. The Government -should constitute an ad- visory body consisting of representatives of technicians and labour which will advise the Government on matters concerning the Textile Industry and suggest executive actions in the cases of mills mis-managed. In order that such an advisory body may function satisfactorily and the technicians in general be in a position to offer impartial ad vice, security of their services should be safe- :ggalthRIPP83-00415R006100050001-7 To I Approved For Release 2001/4494EARDP83-00415R006100050001F 17No. 6 SIR EDWARD MELLANBY Famous Nutrition Scientist Appointed Director of India's National Drug Institute.* Sir Edward Mellanby, one of the eminent nutrition scientists of the United Kingdom and until recently the Secretary of the Medical Research Council, was born in 1884 and was elucned in Cambridge. He was a student of St. Thomas's Hospital, London where he ob- tainel his M.A. and M.D. and b gan his teach- ing c treer as demonstrator in Physiology. From 1913-2o he was lecturer and later Professor of Physiology at the King's College for Women in the University of London. He then went to Sheffield as Professor of Pharmacology until 1933 when he received his appointment as Sec:re- vary of the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. Two years later he was elected Fullerian Professor of Physiology in the Roy I Institution. His early pieces of research work concerned the physiological effects of alcohol. About this time the late Professor Hopkins was carry- ing on his research which led to the determina- tion of vitamins. By dietary experiments on 'ninnies Mellanby found that rickets was cansed by the absence from their diet of a fat soluble substance which controlled the deposi- tion of calcium in the bones. This work led to the i lentification of Vitamin D as separate from Vitamin A. He is also responsible for prov. ing the rachitic properties of cereal diet, and he identified the substance as "Phytic Acid". He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as long ago as 1925. His investigations in the held of nutrition have included a study of the effects of the lack of iodine. In one of his latest researches he has demonstrated that bread made from the flour bleached chemi- cally by nitrogen trichloride, popularly known as agene process, can cause in dogs canine hysteria. He has long been recognized successive committees appointed to advise the Ministry of Health. He was associated with the League of Nations also and acted as Chair- man of two international conferences for the Standardisation of Vitamin g and International Technical Commission on Nutrition. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet of his country. He was the re- cipient of quite a series of honours. He was Oliver Sharpey lecturer of the Royal College of Physicians in 1902; obtained the Stewart Prize for Medical Research from the British Medical Association in 1924; Bissett-Hawkins Medal of the Royal College of Physicians 2929; Cameron Prize of the Edinburgh University in 2932 and Royal Medal of tne Royal Society the same year. He was appointed the Croonian Lecturer of the Royal College of Physicians in 1933 and a Linacre Lecturer in Cambridge the same year. He with his wife May Mellanby, who is also a famous nutritioa scientist, was awarded the Charles Mickle Fellowship of the Toronto University in 1935, Moxon Medal, Royal College of Physicians 1936, appointed Harveian Orator Royal College of Ph3,sicians 2938, Rede Lecturer Cambridge University in 2939, Croonian Lecturer of the Royal Society 2943 and was finally awarded Buchanan Medal of the Royal Societ) 1947. He has been elected honorary member of various learned societies in quite a number of foreign countries. He re- tired from the Secretaryship of the Medical Re- search Council in October 2949. His has been a life full of achievements and glory. Though basically a medical graduate, he made his mark in Physiology and Biochemistry and was award- ed Doctorate from most of the reputed Univer- sities in the United Kingdom. as anA aut. og Fori 't lzr8verRe Ugg6 in? '009itig ? Cifs*-kbittliStielltalrerab el lit alai rn Woration United ngdom an was a member o the :vices. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 ] VIJNAN-ICARMEE [ I Letters to Your editorial on "The Planning Com- mission" in the April issue of Vijnan-Kartnee has prompted me to make the following re- marks. There seems to be a general tendency to be- lieve that some sort of planning is a magic cure-all for all the ills that our country is heir ta. Readers of Vijnan-Karmee could not have failed to notice that this widespread miscon- ception is implicit in the whole tone of the editorial. But it must be remembered that there is planning and planning. From a study of the plans in fourteen countries, Prof. S. E. Harris has crystallised the salient features of the different plans in the following subtitles of chapters in his book: "Economic Planning" (A. Knopf, go). U.S.A: Approach to planning. India: An Exercise in Economic Arithmetic. Germany: Imposed Plans. Greece: A Plan from Abroad. Japan: Diagnosis without Therapy. Norway: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Pro- gramme. Netherlands: Planning under Duress. France: Planning to Modernize. Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary: Ap- proaches to a fully Planned Economy. USSR: A Planned Economy. Argentine: Planning towards Autarchy. All these are Plans ! It is clear that any plan -can be judged from two points of view. Firstly, whom does it benefit? Secondly, how far will it be put into practice? Every plan is designed to benefit those who do the planning and the groups or classes to which they owe allegiance. Our Planning Commission does not consist of any represen- tatives of the workers and the peasants. On the other hand, it is composed of the big finan- ciers, the capitalists, their stooges and their lawyers. Ant6gEdufttgeRelealtatta2COM119181 ? appointed by the present Government of India the Editors which is completely in the grip of the capita- list and feudalist vested interests and whose reactionary anti-labour policy is notorious throughout the democratic world. Any plans produced by such a Commission can only pro- fit the vested interests and cannot do any good to the people. The "presence of our Foundation-President" is naively supposed to "vouchsafe a scientific approach to the prob- lem." It is well to remember that his presence in the Government of India has not in any way resulted in a scientific approach to probl sins facing our country. On the contrary, ever, problem has been tackled from the point of view of enriching and consolidating the reac- tionary vested interests. Even if a scientific approach is guaranteed by some miracle, what is there to be happy about in the acientifie exploi- tation of the common worker? Considering now the second point, it is ob- vious that the "Master Over-All Plan" will be just one more file to be pigeon-holed unless it is implemented in all its entirety. Otherwise it is as good as leaving the country in the hands of the few who greed for private profit, as is being done now. The method of implementa- tion of the plan has been left delightfully vague in the terms of reference of the Commission. This is quite deliberate and the reason is simple. If by chance, one or two clauses which are likely to do some good to the ordi- nary people were to be included and if the implementation of these were not likely to bring in quick profits, the vague terms of reference provide a loophole by which such clauses may not be put into operation. It is clear that those parts of the plan which do not benefit the the planners and their representatives but which have been forced in by popular pressure of a troubled conscience will never be implemented. : CIALRBP8EldtgRitlt Blear5aliDihr usual stuff about the "naain difficulty" being that of Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 12 j VIJNAN-KARMEE [ No. 6 finding out money". Do you remember what Dr. S. Trone, the planning expert, has been trying to knock into our heads all these months? "The important thing in plan," he said, "ia not the money. It is the people". To quote one example, have you heard about the Ferghana Canal, 157 miles long, which was built in the record time of 17 days because the people knew they were working for them- felves ? To quote another, what could the Chinese National Planning Commission do under Chiang-Kai-Shek with all those billions of notorious American dollars ? Instead of pointing out all these implications, you smugly mention "the general expression of satisf ction at the appointment of the Planning Commission"! Da you realise that millions in our country have not even heard of the Com- mission, leave alone express satisfaction at it? Q loting our Poona resolutions in the body of your editorial, you have omitted the words "on a basis of a socialist economy" after the words ?rtrie industrialisation of our country" Line 25, col. t), but instead you call for "increasing production", like one of the stooge bosses from the INTIM. You mention the "minor issue" of the "absence of a scientist" as being a disappointment to many scientific workers" _and even consider it as "deliberate". ! You finally end with a silly and inane joke about technical and non-technical personnel and "the fundament- al rule in mathematics" I have been forced to deal with this editorial at length because it exhibits the same incoher- ence, the same irrationality and the same bank- ruptcy of thought that have characterized the previous editorials in Vijnan-Karmee. I wish that all members of the Association will come forward to protest against these so-called edito- rials which say nothing, mean less and lead nowhere. N. N. Narayara Rao, Member, ASWI, Bangalore Branch. nr?????=1?114.0M1=11111111??? The Editors have received the following resolution from the Secretary of the Central Laboratories, Scientific and Industrial Research, Hyderabad Unit of ASW I- "This Meeting of the CSIR Unit of ASWI takes a serious view of the editorial appearing in the April issue of Vijnan-Karmee on the Planning Commission and feels that it goes against the spirit and aim of the Policy Resolu- tion No. 1, passed at the Third Annual General Meeting of the ASWI at Poona as also at the Allahabad session of the Association. " "These resolutions clearly lay down that till the Government adopts the policy of nationalisation of basic industries and builds the economy of the country on the socialistic-basis, the deteriorating economic conditions of the country "affecting the scientific workers along with the other sections of the population" cannot be remedied." "In view of the present policy of the Government that they do not envisage any nationalisation for the next Is years or more, only the appointment of the Planning Cornmiss- ion without accepting the fundamentals of a planned Socialist economy cannot solve. the present economic crisis. Therefore, we strongly feel that the organ of the ASWI cannot advo- cate such on apnointment without a clarification of the objectives as enunciated in the re ;olution of the ASWI and much less can it afford to offer full cooperation to the Commission on behalf of ASWI. With the limitations of the Com- mission above pointed, the inclusion or non- inclusion of a scientist is meaningless._ And hence, the editorial not only is at variance %hist the fundamental policies of the Association but also creates illusions and false hopes among scientific workers." "We therefore feel that the Vijnan-Karmee should clearly demand for a fundamental change in the pOlicv Of the Government in favour of socialist economy as a prelude to the appoint- Approved FoTfRelease 2001/09/06 : ClittSki1:9143kitReiglAtlildiff013608447mbilise Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 ] VIJNAN-KARMEE 13 the opinion of the scientific workers all over the country to bring about such a change." Dismissal of Prof. Johot Curie...A.n attack on the charter of Scientific Workers. The dismissal of Prof. Frederic 'Joliot-Curie from his post of High Commissioner for Atomic Energy is reminiscent of Hitler's attack on Prof. Einstein and the banishment of the world famous scientist from Germany. Attack on Science has always been a symptom of desperation on the part of reaction. Reuter's message announcing the news to the world reports that "The Premier, M. Bidault, dismissed the brilliant 5o year old nuclear scien- tist because the Professor's public statements and unreserved acceptance of resolutions passed at the French Communist Party Congress three weeks ago made it impoossible for him to retain his job." The obvious reference is to the activi- ties of Prof. Joliot in championing the cause of peace and demanding a ban on the Atom Bomb. The activities of the Professor as the President of the World Committee of Partisans of Peace seeking to mobilise the conscience of the world fore ban on the Atom Bomb directly follow his understanding of the social responsibilities of the Scientist recognised by the Charter for the Scientific Workers adopted by the World Feder- ation in its very first Assembly. The Charter has the following to say regarding the responsibi- lities of the Scientist. To the world. To maintain the international character of science. 1.32 To study the underlying causes of war. 1.33 To aid agencies seeking to prevent war and to build stable, bases for peace. 1.34 To work against diversion of scientific effort to war preparations; in particular to the use of Science in providing methods of mass destruction" (Vihanti ' to', the observed values being 5.1 x ro4 and 1.23 x ro4 respectively. (2) Elastic constants : Using the formulee given by the author for calculating the elastic constants of a-quartz in his earlier paper (Saxena, 1944). we get cii c12 C33 C13 C44 C14 C66 Ccile? 15.0 2.3 13.7 5.4 9.9 2.0 6.3 X IOU. obs 8,7 73 10.5 1.4 5.8 1,7 4.0 x Ion. It has to be pointed out that the values of R?; R12 etc., calculated from (4.2) and from (2.7), using the given values of D2/ A and F2/A, do not tally. This is due to our insufficient knowledge of force-constants in quartz.. For if we take K=2.526 x Do' dynes and K3=- - 3238 x Io5 dynes instead of the above values, we find that the two values of Rn, R12, R,,, R44 and R;(R, -R1219) agree exactly but those of R,3 and R1.1 do not, and in addition the? agreement between the observed and calculated values of Raman frequencies becomes much worse. Even if we disragard the Rarnan and infra-red frequencies and consider only the elastic constants, we Eee that four force-constants are not enough for calculating the six elastic constants ds the disagreement in the two values of 1233 and R1,1 is evidently due to this cause. Therefore when we are calculating 17 quantities with only four force-constants, the disagreement between the two calculated values of R11, R12 etc., may be expected and it does not in any way vitiate the method of calculating the piezo-electric constants adopted in the paper. (3) Raman and infra-red frequencies : Using the determinants given by the author in the earlier work (Saxena, 1944, 45) we get Raman frequencies Infra-red frequencies calc. 156 256 473 1109 1147 772 479 lOX obs. 207 356 466 1984 rrir 800 488 385 ? 1190) Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 482 B. D. Saxena and K. G. Srivastava As we have calculated 17 different constants (2 piezo-electric, 7 elastic and 8 Ratnan and infra-red frequencies) with the help of only four force- constants, only a rough agreement between the observed and calculated values can be expected. Moreover, neither the structure of quartz nor the force constants are correctly known, for according to the structure of Gibb's (1926) and Wei (1935) the Si-0 distances in quartz have only one value while according to Machatschky (1937) there are two values which differ widely and according to Brill, Hermann and Peters (1942) the two values differ only very slightly. However, it is evident that the values of the piezo-electric constants calculated by using a generalised system of force-constants are much closer to the observed values than those obtained on Born's assumption of the validity of Cauchy 's relationship. There are no calculations of the piezo-electric constants of quartz. Gibbs calculated only the piezo-electric modulus 8,, cf a-quartz by finding the relative shifts of the centres of gravity of oxygen and silicon atoms for the pressure of one dyne and got a value which is nearly five times too high. We have obtained much better agreement and the discrepancy is most likely due to the uncertainty` in the structure of quartz and the values of the force-constants 1b, a-- > c and a-->d, for the different directions of the incident -magnetic field in the crystal. In the first place, . these frequencies will be large, since they correspond to separations produced by the predominant cubic part of the field. Secondly, they will differ from one another by small amounts, since Aviv will be of the same order as the ratio of the separations produced by the rhombic part of the field to that produced by the cubic part. The results will be that for Ni" salts (i) the contribution from orbital moments to the total effective moment cannot be large ; (2) these contributions will be practically the same along the ,different crystal directions, thus producing very little anisotropy. On the other land, when as in Co' the pattern is inverted making triplet level the lowest, the orbital contributions along different directions will be mainly given by the frequencies . corresponding to the energy separations and Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 490 A. 13ose g7--e respectively, due to the rhombic field, which are much smaller than those due to the cubic field. Further, the separations g-->f and f-->e will be of comparable magnitudes. Hence we conclude (1) that the contributions from the orbital moments will be large ; (2) that the differences between these contributions along different directions in the crystal, will be comparable to their absolute magnitudes, leading to a very high anisotropy of the order of 25 to 30 for Co ++ in comparison with 3 to 4 '34 only for Ni" salts, all at room temperatures, as is quite well known (Bose, 1948). On the other hand, Tables I and II show that there is no such marked contrast between the cupric salts and the ferrous salts, in spite of the inversion of the Stark-patterns for the two. in both of them the orbital contributions are found to be large, as is shown by a comparison of the observed p2 values of Cu" and Fe ions, with the spin only values for the two ions, namely 3 and 24 respectively. Both the salts show large anisotropies of the same magnitude, Ap2/p2=ig to 24 % for the different salts at room temperatures. One would, therefore, be tempted to attribute the negative results of the inversion to the fact that, whether the Stark-pattern is erect or inverted the ground level is a multiplet and hence would correspond to large contributions to orbital moments and to a large anisotropy. But such a simple explanation is vitiated by the interesting fact pointed out by Bethe, (/c. cit.) that the doublet is 'non-magnetic' i. e., there can be no orbital contributions involving the frequencies corresponding to the separation of the components of the doublet ; so that the large orbital contributions in Cu" salts cannot arise from the low frequency terms, as it presumably does in Fe" where the ground level is a triplet. So one has to invoke, to explain the orbital contribution in Cu", the terms depending on the separation between the doublet and the triplet; and in order to explain the large anisotropy we have further to postulate that it is only the lower of the two levels of the doublet that will be occupied, even at the highest temperature in our measurements ; in other words, to postulate a separation between the two levels of the doublet, much greater than kT even at these temperatures. The latter postulate is plausible, since, the separation produced by the rhombic part of the field, though smaller than that produced by the cubic part, can still be much greater than kT. Thus,- we should expect the orbital contribution in Cu" to be much smaller than in Fe". But since, the contribution from the spin moments in Cu" is also much smaller than in Fe', namely in the ratio of 3: 24, the ratio of the orbital contribution to the spin contribution is of the same order in both the salts as actually observed. In the ferrous salts, the high anisotropy is due to the orbital contribution being different along different crystal directions?actually adding to the spin contribution along two of the directions., and acting against it along the third. The /32 value along this direction will, hence, be less than even the spin only value of 24. On the other hand, in Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Paramagnetism of Single Crystals, etc. 491 Cupric salts the high anisotropy iS due to the. orbital Monierit being -confined to a single direction. 2. Magnetic ProPerties of Cupric Salts Among the cupric salts studied by us copper sulphate penta-hydrate is the most interesting. The crystal is triclinic and from the X-ray analysis of this .crystal made by Beevers and Lipson (1.934), we know that it contains two molecules of CuS0,, 51120 in the unit cell. Further, each Cu ion is surrounded by six oxygen atoms, four of which belong to four water molecules and form a square with the Cu" ion in the centre and each at a distance of 2.o 5, and the other two oxygen atoms belong to SO 1 ions located centrally above and below the square, each at a distance of 2.4 A from the Cu ++ ion. This octahedral arrangement of the oxygen atoms is thus not quite regular but has a tetragonal symmetry, which may be regarded as obtained from a regular arrangement by pulling out the diagonal joining the last two oxygen. atoms. Presumably thus, the crystalline field in the neighbourhood of the Cu" ion should also be predominantly cubic in symmetry, with a tetragonal component superposed upon it, the principal axes of the two fields being the same. _ As have been shown by Krishnan and Mukherji (1936, 1938), the tetragonal axis of the field, associated individually with the two Cu" ions in the unit cell of the crystal, are nearly perpendicular to each other. Further, denoting the direction of the tetragonal axis of the ion by z and the principal susceptibilities of either ion along this axis and in the plane perpendicular to it by K, and K1. respectively, and distinguishing the axes of the two ions in the unit cell by subscripts r and .2 respectively, they conclude that (1) KJ >Ki, (2) the direction in CI-1SO,, 51420 crystal perpendicular to the ziz, plane, should be one of the principal magnetic axes of the crystal, (3) the exterior and the interior bisectors of the angle between Zi ane z,2directions should be the other two principal. axes, (4.) _since zi and z, are nearly at' right angles, the susceptibilities along the latter two axes must be nearly equal and of the magnitude (K +I< J.)/ 2, and that along the first axis at right angles to z,z, plane equal to K.L. Denoting the two nearly equal susceptibilities by x, and X, respectively and the third by X2 we have Xi( ? X3)= (K + /2 and since K 1>K.1., All these various results have been verified by Krishnan and Mukherji. Further, _using the data for susceptibility at low 'temperatures, of powdered .crystal by de Haas. and GOrter 4nd from their own: tneasurement of the anisotropy down to liquid air temperature, they. conclude that though . the squares of principal magnetic moments p12( ,7-,N2) and 1222 are ,'Nzery.,.different, they are 'both nearly independent of teMperature. In other ApproOetiltgfRelease 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 (2) Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 492 A. Bose words, all the susceptibilities follow the Curie law but with different Curie constants i.e. a law of the type Ci 2=2, 3(?a) 'r C2=0.399 and C,( ?3)=0486 ; unlike the usual type of variation ! 2=I 2,3, ??? (3) (,0 where C is the same but O's different in different directions. We have directly measured the absolute susceptibilities at different tem- peratures down to 8ouK along one of the directions in the crystal, namely, the one that sets parallel to the field when the crystal is suspended with 'c' axis vertical, and using the anisotropy data of Krishnan and Mukherji, calculated the values of 1,,2(-1,2,) and 1'22 for the crystal at these temperatures. The data are given in table II and are in agreement with those of Krishnan and Mukherji. The j values also agree with various other authors and are given in T able III, together with p' values by the same authors for the two Tutton salts of copper to be discussed later. TABLE III P2 For Various Copper Salts By Different Observers. A lit13.,r CuSO4, 51120 11111.1?????????111????????? CuSO4,(N144)2.904,6II20 CuSO4,K29.04,CH20 Temp. ?K da Haas and 290.0 Gorter (Leid. 169.4 Comm., 21ed 77.47 14.29 1,2 3.705 3.663 3.626 3.505 Temp.?K 1,2 Temp.?K 1,2 lanes (1935) ? ? 295-7 3.741 2908 3.729 1 22Q,8 83.3 3.708 3,66o 205.6 82.1 3.696 3 657 IZeekie 292.2 3.654 292.7 3.720 287.5 3.684 (1939) 80.4 3.632 79.9 3.690 78.6 3.633 71-78 3.528 14.00 3 648 14.13 3.64o 1.58 2.634 1.60 3.642 1.60 3.579 ['resent 295.2 3.701 295.9 3.761 295.9 3.683 Author I 168.8 3.701 225.0 3.748 276.9 3.630 88.7 3.626 92.9 3.706 83.9 3.592 We may draw attention here to the interesting result that for the crystal of Cu504, 51120, P22 conforms roughly to the sPin only value of 3, whereas the other susceptibility is considerably in excess of it, which shows, in view of the relations (2) between the principal susceptibilities of the crystal and the ion stated earlier in this section, that the contribution of the orbital moment Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Paramagnetism of Single Crystals, etc. 49_4 is practically confined to one direction, namely, to the tetragonal axis of the crystalline field in the neighbourhood of the ion. Denoting the effective moments of the ion by P Pi., as against the effective moments pi(-p3) and of the crystal, we have Pi2( ?P32) = (P112 + P.1.2)/ 2 and P22=1).1.2 from which we obtain s? TABLE IV CuSO4, 5H20 (5) ?????1?????!1??=1111! '1"K 295.2 88.7 p112 4.588 4.377 Py? 3.258 3.251 ?from which one can see, that the contribution from the orbital moment is considerable and is confined to the direction of the tetragonal axis of the crystalline electric field. The temperature variation of the moment if any, should be also more prominent in this direction as it actually is. The above results arc interesting, since, from the 'non-magnetic' nature of the ground level hid] is the doublet level, we were already led to the conclusion that the orbital contribution is confined to one direction in the crystal. That when the crystalline field has tetragonal symmetry this direc- tion should be along the tetragonal axis, is indeed to be expected, and can also be explained from direct considerations of the symmetry of the field ; since the orbital moments will be quenched almost completely along directions perpendicular to the tetragonal axis, and if any part of it is conserved it must be along this axial direction only. In view of the fact that the magnetic anisotropies in the two cupric Tutton salts are nearly the same as in copper sulphate, it is tempting to try whether a similar cubic field with a feeble tetragonal component will also fit the observed data for these two salts. The Tutton salts as already mentioned are monoclinic and contain two Cu" ions in the unit cell. Assuming the field to be tetragonal, the xraxis of the crystal should be evidently the projec- tion of the tetragonal axis of the ion on the (oio) plane of the crystal. Denoting the inclination of this tetragonal axis of the ion to the ((no) plane by 0, we get the following simple relations between the principal magnetic moments of the crystal and those of the ions :? p,2 =P112 cos 20 + Pi.' sin 20 I2 2 = F11.2 ... (6) p32=p ri 2 sin2 +P2 cos 20 If the above assumptions, regarding the tetragonal symmetry of the crystal field associated with each Cu" ion, be correct then we should expect 1322 p2 J., to have practically the spin only value of 3. This is actually so as will be seen from below. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 494 A. Bose IAflLl V Crystal : (2uSO4, A2SO4, 61120 12 e=1)22 1' 2 = P12+ P32 7 P22 A=Ntli 295,9 3.330 4(22?, L)2 .; 327 4.464 A =K 295 9 133.9 3.449 4 752 4 562 Knowing P.2 we can indeed go further and calculated P12 from the observed values of 1),2 and p32 using the relation (6), since then P 2 + p_1_2 = p a 2? The values of P11 2 so obtained are given in the table above. These values agree well with the values deduced from the crystal CuSO4, 51120 and show (r) that the fields in the Tutton salts do have tetragonal sym- metry, in spite of the fact, that in the Tutton salts, the Cu ++ ion is surrounded by six identical oxygens all belonging respectively, to six water molecules, unlike in copper sulphate in which two oxygen atoms are different from the rest and belong to two SO,? groups; (2) that even the magnitudes of the cubic and the tetragonal parts of the field are the same in the Tutton salts as in copper sulphate. The above conclusions lend strong support to the view expressed by us m our earlier papers (Bose, 1947, 1948), and which has generally been adopted in our discussions, that in addition to the cubic part, the feeble noncubic part of the field also may be due to the immediately neighbouring atoms, and as long as these neighbours are the same and arrang- ed in the same configuration in different crystals, the crystal fields in them also will be the same. These results, have important significance in view of the interesting theorem of Jahn and Teller (1937, 1938), that the asymmetry and the magnitude of the crystalline field are determined ultimately by the degeneracy of the ground state of the paramagnetic ion. The six oxygens surrounding the Cu ion will be strongly bound to the ion and the group as a whole will form a more or less rigid system having tetragonal symmetry. But the binding between two such groups present in the unit cell will be much feebler and hence the two tetragonal axes may slightly change their relative orientations with change of temperature ; consis- tent of course with the requirement of the monoclinic symmetry of the crystal of these Tutton salts, namely, that one of the groups should be the mirror image of the other. In other words, though the crystal fields and therefore, P 1! and 131 will be practically independent of the temperature, the angle 0, which the tetragonal axis makes with the (oro) plane, as also its projection on the (oro) plane, may change slightly with the temperature. The projection of the tetragonal axis is evidently the x, axis of the crystal, and thus we can readily see how without any change in the crystalline field, dither in its magnitude or in its asymmetry, there can be appreciable change. in the Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Paramagnetism of Single Crystals, etc. 495 direction of the x, and x2 axes of the crystal. The angle q/ may be calculated from the relation, and its temperature variation for the two Tutton salts ma Y be seen from the' Table VI. We specially -emphasise this point, since an explanation of-the change .of axis in terms of thel change in crystalline field, as has _been attempted by Jordahl (ro34), is not only complicated but requires'a large rotation of the rhombic field axes with reference to the axes of the cubic field. TABLE VI Ij'or the angle Crystal : CuSO4, A2SO4, 6112() Temperature ?K . Angle ct. in degrees A.'-=N114 A=K 295.9 92.9 295.9 83.9 ? 40.8 31.3 41.8 41.0 Before concluding this section we should refer to some important results obtained by Reekie (1939, vide Table III) on the mean susceptibilities of these three cupric salts at liquid hydrogen and helium temperatures. Por.all the three salts the effective magnetic moment, corresponding to the mean susceptibility, is practically independent of temperature down to about 14?K (as we-have also found for each of the three principal moments separately and over a shorter range of temperature). But below this temperature there is a striking contrast in the behaviour of the copper sulphate on one side and the two cupric Tutton salts on the other. Whereas, in copper sulphate the value of p, comes down rapidly at liquid helium temperatures and the trend of the p2 - against T curve suggests that it may reach very lo W values in the neighbourhood of absolute zero; in the Tutton salts the fall in p, is very slight and its rate is of the same order as at higher temperatures. Presumably, associated with this is the observation of Ashmead (1939) that the specific heat versus tempera- ture curve of copper sulphate shows a large hump in the region of 4?K, which is completely absent in the corresponding curves of the two cupric Tutton salts. These results do not appear to be explicable on the crystalline field theory, and indeed, at present, on any theory. 3. Ferrous Salts Versus Cobalt Salts As we mentioned in an earlier section, the triplet level in the Stark- pattern of the D-levels of Pe" being lowermost, there should be a large con- tribution from the orbital moments, and the contributions should be different Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 496 A. Bose along different directions, actually addin:_; to the spin contribution along h , and J? directions and acting against the spin along pi, direction. Hence the large anisotropy in the crystals. We further see from the experimental data given in Table II that p, and pa have nearly the same values which vary little with temperature and they are not much different in the two salts. In cobalt salts (Bose, 1948) all the three p's tend to become temperature-independent at high temperatures, the values being very different from the sPin only value of p2= 15. The experimental values for Fe' show that pi certainly, and probably also pi and p? will reach temperature-independent values at high temperatures, and it is not unlikely that those temperature-independent values may all be the same, namely, the sPin only value corresponding to P2=24. If this is so it would mean that high frequency contributions in Fe" are much less than in Co l-1-. CKNOWLEDGMENT The author takes this opportunity of thanking Prof. K. S. Krishnan, D.Sc., F.R.S., for his kind interest and help in the series of investigations on the iron group of salts, of which the present paper is the last, which were completed before 1q41 but could not be published so long due to unavoidable circumstances. REFERENCES Ashmead, 1939, Nature, 143, 85.5. 13eeyers, C. A. and Lipson, H., 1934, Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 145, 570. H 1929, Ann. der Phys., 3, 133. Bose, A., 1947, Ind. IOW% Phys. 21, 277. 1948, 22, 76, 195 and 276. Garter, C. J., 1932, Phys. Rev., 42, 437. (le Haas and Gorter, C. J. Leiden Comms. 2 iod. Jahn and Teller, 1937, Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 161, 220. 1938, 11 11 11 164, 117. Janes, R. B., r933, Phys. Rev., 48, 78. Jordahl, 0. M. 1934, Phys. Rev., 45, 87, Krishnan, K. S., Banerjee, S. and Chakrayorty. N. C., 1933, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (A) 232, 99. Krishnan, K. S. and Muklierji, A , 1938, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (A) 237, 135. 10/ 1936, Phys. Rev., 50, 86o. 1938, 1/ 1.1 54, 553 ?, 1938, ? ? 54, 84). Penney, W. G. and Schlapp, R., 1932, Phys. Rev., 42, 666. Reekie, J., 1939, Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 173, 367. Van Vleck, j. H. 1932, The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities (Oxford). ? 1932, Phys., Rev., 41, 208. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 58 A NEW HORIZONTAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPE By N. N. DAS GUPTA, M. L. DE, D. L. BHATTACHARYA AND A. K. CHAUDHURY (Received for publication September 20, g8)1 Plates XVIA and XVIB ABSTRACT. A new horizontal electron microscope with several special features has been constructed. The technical details of its construction, power supplies and operation are given in this paper. The microscope can be operated at a maximum electron energy of 8o,000 electron volts and is designed for an electron optical magnification of twenty thousand diameters. INTR 0 DU CTTO N?HIST ORIC AL An electron microscope with several distinctive features has been pro- duced in the University College of Science, Calcutta. It is the aim of this paper to describe these features in detail.. However, from the point of view of interest to the reader, a short historical account of the development of the electron microscope up to its present stage will be given, before the technical 1eatures of the new microscope are described. The science of electrcn optics is of recent origin Its basis is the funda- mental theoretical work on electron lenses by Busch who first showed in 1926, that axially symmetric electric and magnetic fields possess lens characteristics with respect to electron radiation. The practical development of magnetic lenses was carried out by Knoll and Ruska (1931, 1932) in the Technische Hochschule, Berlin. The first electron microscope employing magnetic lenses with pole pieces?the prototype of all modern instruments?was con- structed by Ruska in 1934. A cold cathode gas discharge tube was used as the source of electrons, there was no provision for air-lock arrangement for introduction and removal of specimens and the final image formed on a fluor- escent screen was photographed through a window by means of an external camera. Marton introduced several improvements in the design of an electron microscope developed by him in the University of Brussels, in 1935. He used a heated filament, air-lock specimen chamber and arrangement for direct recording of electron micrographs on photographic plates introduced into the vacuum. He was also the first to photograph biological si.ecimens with an electron microscope. Two years later in 1937, the first electron microscope in Britain was -constructed by the Metropolitan Vickers Company for Martin, Whelpton and Parnum 137. At about the same time Burton in Canada organised a programme Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 498 Das Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury of research in electron microscopy in the University of Toronto. Two of his graduate students, Prebus and Hillier (1930 built the first electron microscope in America. By 1939 resolving powers better than roo A? were obtained by Canadian and European workers. (Burton, Hillier and Prebus 1939). At this stage when the great potentialities of the new microscope was well proved by these successful research instruments, developed prim- arily in the university laboratories, industry' took up further development. The first commercial electron microscope was built at about this time by Siemen's company in Berlin (Borris and Ruska 1939, 194.0). The lens coils and the filament of the microscope used current from storage batteries and the coils were water cooled. The high voltage- unit co:nsisting of the con- ventional transformer rectifier system was in a seperate assembly on account of its great bulk and for better shielding of the microscope from sixty cycle electro-magnetic radiation. Von Ardenne in 1040 published a description of his universal electron inicrose.ope developed in the .Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin. It was designed for bright field, dark field and steno operation. The notable features of this instrument were the arrangement for tilting of the specimen for sterioscopic photography and perfect alignment and also the possibility of direct electronic magnification up to 50,000 diameters_ In 1039 Marton came to U. S. A. and joined the R. C. A. laboratories. There he developed the first R. C. A. electron microscope called R. C. A. type A (Marton 194o, Marton, Banca and Bender r94o). A year later R. C. A. announced the development of the first commercial electron microscope in U. S. A. called R. C. A. type B. (Zworykin, Hillier, and Vance 1941 a, Hillier and Vance fg4r). The chief improvements on its predecessors were (a) combination in a single unit of both the microscope and its power stipplies and (b) the use of high frequencies for generation of high voltage and heating of the filament. For stabilisation- of the high voltage, feed-back principle was used. In 1941 various attempts were made to increase the electron energies so as to make possible the examination of thicker specimens with the help of an electron microscope. Muller and Ruska (1941) adopted a Siemens microscope for operation at 220 ekv. Von Ardenne (1941) modified his electron microscope described earlier for operation at 2oo ekv. Zworykin, Hillier and Vance (1941 b) also reported the construction of a 300 ekv. microscope. In these cases the microscope body was similar to those already described. Only the electron gun was built in two or three stages and the voltage dis- tributed between them by means of a voltage divider across the high voltage supply for stable operation. In 1942 Prebus built an electron microscope in the Ohio State University, Columbus, following the design already developed at Toronto. . Microscopes Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 I AS (UV IA, DE, I3HAT FACHARYA & CHAUDHURY PLATE VII A Fig. 1 '[iotograph of the Calcuita University Elecron Mk:To: .ope. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 499 based on this design were also installed at the Eastman Kodak Co. and in Columbia Carbon Co., in U.S.A. In the subsequent year R.C.A. announced the development of a small compact electron microscope called R.C.A. console model (Zworykin and Hillier 1943), In this unit the condenser lens was eliminated and the objective and the projector lenses contained in the same magnetic circuit. This extreme simplicity of design had been obtained at the cost of a fixed magnification of only s000 diameters and an operating voltage of only 30 ekv. The resolution was reported to be better than roo A?. In 1945 Marton, now at the Univerity of Stanford, produced an electron microscope employing five lenses and designed for three stage magnification which could be varied from 400-40,000 diameters. This microscope had an intermediate lens in between the usual objective and the projector lenses and was designed for operation at roo ekv. During war the research and development of electron microscopes was mostly restricted to U.S.A. However, some work was carried on with great difficulty in Holland, France and Great Britain. Poole developed in 1944 an electron microscope in the Institute of Electron Optics at Delft, Holland whose details have just been published (Poole 1947). This instrument opera- tes at 150 ekv and is a four lens unit. With a distance of only 6o ems between the object and the final image the magnification produced can be varied continuously between r000 and 8o,000 diameters. This instrument has also an arrangement for using 35 mm. film. In 1947 the Metropolitan Vickers Co. in England anounced the production of the first commercial electron microscope in England EM 3 Model of Metro Vick. (Haine 1947). The instruments described so far are electromagnetic instruments using electromagnetic type of lenses. The development of electrostatic lenses and .of electron microscopes using such lenses has proceeded almost side by side with that of the electromagnetic instruments. Shortly after Busch's original discovery, Davisson and Calbick (1932) in U. S. A. and Brilche and Johannson (1932a) in the A. E. G. laboratories in Berlin successfully developed electrostatic lenses. Briiche and Hagen (1939) and Mahl (1939) designed the first electrostatic microscope of high magnification in the A. E. G. laboratories in Berlin. Boersch (1942) built at the University of Vienna a versatile type of electrostatic- electron microscope. This instrument could be easily adapted for taking the usual transmission pictures, electron shadow micrographs as well as diffraction patterns. In 1943 Bachman and Ramo, of the G. E. C. laboratory in U. S. A. developed a three stage electrostatic instrument. With a very simplified design they obtained a resolution ro times that of the light microscope and an electronic magnification varying from 500-1000 diameters. In France, the Compagnic Generale de Telegraphic sans FT (C.S.F.) has also produced an electrostatic instrument. Although the electrostatic instruments are simpler to construct, from the point of ultimate performance they have not yet appeared on the market as any serious rival of the electromagnetic instruments. ApprevedirorRelease 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 500 Das Gupta, De, Rhattacharya and Chaudhury :DP.SCRIPTION OF TE-IB NRW MICRO3COPF; .,,,,-An illustration of the new electron microscope is given in Pate XVI A, Fig. 1. *Fig. 2 shows a section of the complete electron optical system. There are several ' 'Iume/01?0A FIG. 2 Sectional Diagram of the New Microscope features which distinguish this unit from all the instruments described earlier. This instrument is a completely horizontal unit with different elements mounted on two stainless steel rods held in position by brass sleevings which can slide over the steel rods. It is thus possible to dismantle any part of the microscope without disturbing the rest. The distance between any two elements can be varied, it is also possible to interpose an extra element between two of the existing ones if desired. The instrument is thus essentially-a research unit, very flexible in design and highly suited for investigations on electron-optical problems. Due to horizontal positioning each microscope element is approachable from all sides and the image formed on the final fluorescent screen can be demonstrated to a number of people simultaneously. The instrument consists elf the usual three lenses, the condenser, the objective and projector lenses and is designed for a maximum electronic magnification of twenty thousand diameters. The electron gun, the condenser, the objective and the projector lenses are supported on separate carriages consisting of pairs of horizontal brass plates H, ? H? FI?, Ii. 116, and H, H,. Any of the pairs of brass plates can slide together in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the axis of the microscope on a pair of stainless steel guide rods R, R,, fixed to the frame of the instrument. The upper plates H,, 1I3, Hand H, supporting the microscope elements can also be raised or lowered with respect to the lower plates by a set of screws. These two motions at right angles to the optic axis can be given to any element of the microscope. By means of transmission gear arrangement the operator, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 501 'sitting at the control table near the final fluorescent screen, can move any of the lenses or the gun for proper alignment. Uach of the three lenses has four levelling screws by means of which the lens may be slightly inclined to the axis so as to allow for any asymmetry of the pole pieces. In addition to lateral motions, the gun can be slightly tilted about horizontal and vertical axes passing through the tip of the filament F, by means of the screws M, and M, respectively. The different elements are connected with one another and with the vacuum manifold U by sylphon bellows so that relative movement is possible maintaining the vacuum. The length of the microscope column from the filament tip to the objective is 59 cm. and the length from the objective to the fluorescent screen Q., is 79 ems. For evacuating the microscope column an oil diffussion'purnp and a Cenco Hypervac 2o are used. The mechanical pump is housed in a specially designed underground chamber a little distance away from the microscope in order to reduce noise and vibration. A thermocouple gauge measures the fore-vacuum while the high vacuum within the microscope is indicated by an ionization gauge. A. Illuminating System The illuminating system consisting of the electron gun, the primary viewing screen Qi and the condenser lens L, is shown in the figure 3. The electron gun is a three electrode system consisting of the filament F, cathode shield C and the anode A. The filament consists of a .005 inch diameter tungsten wire bent into hair pin shape. The filament current leads F1) F2 consist of a steel cylinder surrounding a steel rod; the two are kept insulated from each other by means of a pyrex tube. The filament is heated by means of a high-frequency (150 kc/s) current and may be maintained at a maximum negative potential of 8o ekv. with respect to the anode which is earthed together with the main body of the microscope. The cathode shield is a cylinder of stainless steel with an 1/8 inch diameter aperture, located just in front of the filament tip. The filament is kept fixed axially within the cathode shield by means of an alsimag cylinder K. For changing the filament, a part of the cathode shield may be unscrewed at c1. The cathode shield is insulated from the filament and may be suitably biased when it serves' as a control grid. The distance between the filament tip and the centre of the shield can be varied by means of the adjusting screw M, at the high potential end. The anode A is a copper hemisphere, drilled axially with an 1/8 inch hole to allow the beam to pass through. The distance between the anode and grid aperture is about r inch but may be adjusted by screwing at Cd. The anode is surrounded by a steel shield E, which cuts off X-radiation from the anode due to bombardment of high energy electrons. The high voltage insulator I consists of one ft. long pyrexcylinder metallised at the end Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 502 Das Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury to which are soldered steel flanges I on either end. The complete filament assembly is held in position by the centering aluminium disc D. The whole EL (Cr...10_0A 1 ? ... 4. as _CSWDENSER LENS 11:1'iG. 3 Illuminating System of the New Microscope. /I anode,81-B3 sylphon bellows, C cathode shield, F filament, GI-Gil vacuum gask ets. El1-H4 brass carriages for movement of the electron gun and condenser lens, I rnetallised pyrex insulator, J steel flanges soldered to the insulator, K alsimag cylinder, Li condenser lens coil, M1-1113 adjusting screws for controlling the position of the electron gun, P1 con- denser pole piece, Qi primary viewing fluorscent screen, RI, R2 rods permitting horizontal motion of the gun and condenser lens, SI?S5 gasket tightening screws, T1 brass spacer in condenser lens, U vacuum manifold,. V1 viewing port. gun assembly is demountable and is -made vacuum tight by means of the rubber gaskets G4? G, and gasket tightening screws Si ?S4. For a change of filament, the filament unit together with the cathode shield can be taken out by unscrewing S1. The electron beam after leaving the gun assembly fails on the primary fluorescent screen Q, which is a copper rod with an axially . drilled hole. This allows the central portion of the beam to pass through and enter the condenser lens L,. V, is a small port for viewing the crosssection.. of the illuminating beam at this position. The condenser lens Li is also shown in Fig. 3. It consists of a coil housed in an iron cylinder of length 74- inches, external diameter 61 inches and internal diameter 5/8 inch. The magnetic circuit is completed through the iron except for a small gap bridged by non- magnetic brass piece T,, through which the field extends into the vacuum. The field is further concentrated by the insertion of accurately, machined pole pieces Pi of special design, drilled with a central hole for the passage Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 503 of electrons. The coil of the condenser lens is outside the vacuum system ; only the inner hole of 5/8 inch diameter is connected to the vacuum System. B. Specimen Chamber A vertical section of the spechnen chamber through the optic axis is shown in Fig. 4. The object stage N is held in position by means ffour LIL SPECIMEN CHAMBER OBJECTIVE LENS cr, 0 ? ? . Vs 66 Vs ..0 c'roircil'l " g 0 s?-? ? /-_-_, ?R4 ,-...J ....,...;.: .1. .010 1 0 0. %o0:: 5_ 1 /,.. ..-,.. ? ? . -,, V????.,(0?-? F)Y.,!-10??"*.A ...col, ?----- , ) 0 0 , .0 0 .." z P ? , oO . . .0-, ,,,i? , 1, ' 5',. ' .., ? ..??L30?_gf fa. ' 6.9'.- 6 r340.."- . 1 . . ?????. , ? ,,.. mmalme ..--..-45:1-% ..e". .1,1"KoW..;91974,6%, ? I '. //,' // APZ.V.OrelYariliA, VW,' 24Y. i' ' .1 _. jf, EMI .1114, ?Se0,....0?..e.,40,fiege 501404..W...e.;~ .w,Moreige..0?;:;:...A2K4.?0:4 PROJECTOR V,1 .../;///'n ? 0,1? SCALE I 27 t; s 6 7 x!' ???? ? "WM .FIG. 4 Objective and Specimen Chamber of the New theloscope. 41 brass end piece, /3? B5, B13, B11 sylphon connections, C1 brass cylinder. G11?G1 vacuum gaskets, H5, H9 brass carriage for movement of objective lens, L2 objective lens coil, NI, N2 object stage with the movable part N1 within the fixed part N2, p2 object lens pole piece, 02 intermediate viewing screen, R1, R2 rods permitting horizontal riiotion of objective lens, R3 steno-motion rod, Rg ?R6 horizontal supporting rods for specimen stage, S5--S1 tightening screws, T2 brass spacer in objective lens, U vacuum manifold, 172, V3, V4 viewing ports. horizontal rods .124.? R7, attached to the end piece Ai which fits tightly into the brass cylinder C,. For stereophotography the part N, of the object stage can be rotated through a small angle within the fixed part N2. The tilting .of the stage for stereography is accomplished by means of the rod 123 which projects from the lower side of the chamber, through a Wilson seal. Two viewing ports V2 and V, on the upper side .of the chamber allow a view of the specimen stage through all operations. A vertical section of the object chamber perpendicular to optic axis is shown in figure 5. Four hydraulic sylphon belloW B6 B. are Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 504 bas Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury Fin. 5 Mechanism for Movement of Specimen Stage. /36--R, hydraulically operated sylphon bellows, E2 brass ring holding the horizontal rods R4 ?R6 together, G18?G23 vacuum gaskets, R3 steno motion rod, R1?R7 horizontal brass supporting rods, 56 tightening screw for air-lock chamber, V3 viewing port, X forked handle for removing specimen from stage to air-lock chamber and vice versa. Y air-lock chamber, Zi?Z4 hydraulic connections froth the sylphons t the control panel. . fitted at 900 to each other for moving the object stage in two perpendi- cular direccions at right angles to the optic axis. In normal position: the tips of the bellows rest in four accurately drilled holes in a brass ring E2 fixed to the carrier rods.R.?RS. The four bellows, slightly'compres.sed, press against each other and help to keep the stage accurately centered and also at a fixed distance relative to the object lens pole piece P2 (Fig. 4)-. By coni- pressing and expanding the hydraulic sylphons it is possible to move the stage in a plane perpendicular to the microscope axis and thus exPlore -rdifferent parts of the specimen. The fluid from the sylphons B, ? B, passes through small copper tubes Zi ? Z., to a corresponding unit on the control desk,: It is thus possible to move the stage while looking at the image on .,the ,final fluorescent screen Q. The unit on the control desk is provided Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Alicroicope 565 with both coarse and fine control adjustments, so that the specimeu .ca u be placed accurately in any desired.position. The .a:rrangement has lib backlash and gives a very smooth motion of the specimen across the field of view; The specimen change operation is Performed with the help ,of the airlock arrangernenf shown in Fig. 6 Which is a vertical section of the unit, ?,,When removing the specimen from the vacuum, a phosphor bronze fork XX holds the bucket W and a 900 rotation of the fork handle from outside releases the, bucket frOm the specimen stage and brings it into the air-lock _chamber In thi g position the bucket is pressed from behind by the brass rod Rs carry- tile gasket G-27. Half a turn of the nut C1, presses the gasket G2/1 against the back of the bucket and seals it off from the microscope Ivacuttml.y While the_bucket,is held in this position, air is introduced into the airlock. 6 "PAY oPY,,, Afm 6,5 041 4. # 6,9 62 , Priedo 23 ,/yfffy Altigtv 111,c, /:4:F,:,avicye400PrAgl z/./ ? ? ' 40:042e.. 0? 00 R., 7, C, fflf /-my ?ffiroMd*.g 619 B5 : FIG. 6 Vertical Section of the Airlock Chamber at Right Angles to the Optic Axis. 1 '1 139 sylphon connection to the manifold, C1, C2 split nuts for closing and opening the airlock chamber, Di brass box containing airlock arrangement, E3 specimen holder, G15, G19, G24) G29 vacuum gaskets, 0 object, R4-1:7 four brass rods which support the stage and allow it to be moved by the hydraulic stage shifter, R9 rod for sealing off (by means of gasket G27) the specimen from the microscope vacuum, operating through the Wilson seal G29, V2 viewing window, W section of the bucket which carries the specimen from the stage to airlock chamber 1r1 or vice versa, rt airlock chamber, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 506 Das Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury chamber Y, by releasing the nut C2. The specimen holder E3 is now removed through the opening made by removal of C2. The procedure is reversed for introduction of new specimens into the vacuum system. When a new specimen has been replaced with the bucket in the position shown in Fig. 6, the nut C, is locked in first thereby isolating the airlock chamber Y4 from the external atmosphere by means of gasket The rod R, is now pushed back and by means of the fork XX the bucket is replaced in the specimen stage .N4. Once the bucket is held by the specin:en stage, it is freed from the fork and can then be moved about by means of hydraulic arrangement described previously. Only the air trapped in the small chamber Y1 is introduced into the microscope each time a specimen is replaced. This arrangement permits quick replacement of specimens without seriously disturbing internal vacuum. The whole airlock arrangement is contained in a brass box DI which is sealed to the specimen chamber by means of gasket G,, and clamping screw S9 (Fig. 5). C. Objective Lens The objective lens L, is shown in Fig. 4. This coil is bigger than the condenser lens coil .L1, with an inner diameter 2 inches and outer diameter 731- inches. The whole coil is shrouded in an iron cylinder except for the brass spacer T2. This lens contains a specially designed pole piece P2 of very short focal length. As asymmetry of the pole piece finally limits the resolving power, great care was taken during construction so as to minimise asymmetries as far as possible. The objective lens forms an intermediate image on the intermediate viewing screen Q2 attached to the projector lens. I). Projector Lens The section of the projector lens L2 together with the photographic unit is shown in Fig. 7. The projector lens coil is similar in construction to that of the condenser coil. The projector:pole piece P3 is inserted at the projector coil end remote from the gun. A copper rod with an axial hole and a coat of fluorescent material is fixed to the other end of the projector lens. This constitutes the intermediate fluorescent screen Q2. E. Photographic Unit Fig. 7 shows a vertical section of the photographic unit through the optic axis. The final image may be obtained either on the flourescent screen Q, or intercepted by the photographic plate Q. The plate magazine K, holds about twenty photographic plates and is demountable for loading in the dark room. The plates are moved forward by a pressure pad, the pressure being maintained by the vacuum. In order to release one plate into Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-R0P83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 507 the photochamber the. knob R9 on the back of the photochamber is pulled. One plate then drops on to the carrier bar R?, which can be moved from ? ,;.-.A.,..,......".6-7.4,-/x Asr..-Asyg, 4/).1?1??81.7::::gli`Oicg ././ -.A.-1.41.,,,sg, z.s-79 , / ;724 .1.. /.; 0 .ce , lo???0?0%?0?o% .,,,,Ag 0.O.3 '30 ci9,? ??,75 el, ...-......,--,..,- .. .......-41 d ......1.....47.4 11'470 nALZOTZ,OH49.02vAl X.. , FIG. 7 Vertical Section of the Projector Lens and Photographic Chamber through Optic Axis /12 terminal aluminium plate, B12, Bi3 sylphon connections to the rest of the microscope, C2 plate receiver, D2 adjustable photographic shutter, Ei pressure pad holding the plates in readiness for dropping one at a time, G37 ? G0 vacuum gaskets, K2 photographic plate magazine holding about twelve 31" x 4" plates, L3 projector lens coil, R7 knob kr releasing one plate at a time, P3 projector lens pole piece, 02 intermediate flourescent screen, Q3 photographic plate in position and carried by the carrier bar R10,Q4 final flourescent screen 6" diameter, Sib ,S18?S21 ggsket tightening screws, U vacuum manifOld ccnnection, Y2 -valve interlock:into the airlock chamber. outside and the plate held in any position in the exposure field. Four exposures can be made on a single photographic plate. After the exposure is made the shutter D, is closed and the carrier bar lowered until the plate drops into the plate receiver box C,. The air-lock valve Y, is now closed, air introduced into the receiver box and the plates removed for development. By means of a knob it is possible to swing the whole plate carrier and shutter mechanism out of the path of the electron beam so that the total area of the fluorescent screen-(5 in- ches in diameter) Can be utilised for visual observation of the micrograph. ApprovefdlForRelease 2001/09/06: CIA-R0P83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 508 Das Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury The whole photographic unit is mounted on stainless steel guide rods by means of brass sleevings (Pig. r, Plate XVIA). The unit is connected to the vacuum manifold and the projector lens by means of sylphon bellows B12 and Bin. 11;LF,C.TRONIC CONTROL CTRCUTTS High Voltage SuPPly fcr Electron Gun Vigure 8, Plate XATIB is an illustration of the r.f. high voltage unit. The schematic diagram of the high voltage circuit is shown in Fig. g. Schematic diagram of high voltage generator and regulator. The circuit arrangement follows basically that developed by Hillier and Vance ( 1941 ). A high frequency oscillator 0 supplies 500 volts at 50 kc/sec. to the series resonant circuit consisting of L and C of resonance frequency 50 kc/sec. The resonant circuit, by virtue of its inherent characteristic, steps up the input voltage Q times across the terminals of the condenser C, Q being the efficiency factor of the series resonant circuit. Q in our case being about 40, the voltage across C is 20 kv at 5o kc/s. This voltage is subsequently quadrupled and rectified by the unit M in the manner first described by Greinacher (ig21) and later used by Cockroft and Walton (1932). The unit M incorporates a resistance-capacity network which serves to filter out the ripple content from the output voltage. The output, thus multiplied, rectified and smoothed, is 8o kV negative relative to the ground and is connected to the filament F of the microscope through a current limiting resistance S. The stability of this high voltage is an important consideration for best resolution of the electron microscope. In order that want of sharpness in the final image, due to fluctuations in the high voltage supply alone, will not exceed ro A. the maximum permissible variation in the high Koltabbo6161 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R0061 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 DAS GUPTA, DE, BHATTACHARYA & CHAUDHURY PLATE X.VI B Fig. 8 Photograph ol High Frequency Voliage Unit. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 509 is I part in ro, 000. This degree of stabilisation is achieved by making use of the principle of inverse feed back. By means of the voltage divider R+ r across the high tension generated at M, a part of the output voltage is balanced by the dry battery E and the difference is applied to the direct current amplifier A. Any out of balance voltage due to instability is amplified by A and then supplied to the electrOnie regulator B which in turn controls the high tension anode input to the oscillator 0. This feed-back amplifier arrangement is such that the variation in the oscillator output is in antiphase to those of the rectifier quadrupler unit and is capable of neutralising the original variation in high tension. The d. c. amplifier A consists of 2 stages, the output variation of which is in the same phase as that of input. This affects the electronic regulator B which acts as a series load to the oscillator tube in 0. The electronic regulator B is similar to that used for regulating currents to various lenses (described below). In addition to the above electronic voltage regulating system the whole a. c. supply is pre-stabilised by a constant voltage transformer of saturable reactor type. B. MicroscoPe Fitment Sup Ply The filament of an electron microscope usually requires 2-3 amperes at about 2 volts depending on the nature of the filament used. The filament supply has to be maintained at a very high negative voltage with respect to ground and also has to be accurately controllable for varying the intensity of the beam through the microscope. In the present unit, the microscope filament is heated by r. f. current of about 150 kc/s. This reduces the problem of electrostatic shielding and also simplifies that of high voltage insulation. The filament current is supplied by the secondary of a r. f. transformer T through the primary of which passes the r. f. current from an oscillator. . The anode voltage of the oscillator is supplied through a variable resistance by means of which the output of the oscillator can be easily regulated thereby controlling the microscope filament current, The anode circuit of the oscillator is completed through a relay system, operated by the current from the ionisation gauge measuring the vacuum. Whenever the vacuum inside the microscope column falls below the limit, at which it is safe to operate the instrument, the ionisation gauge current becomes excessive and this automatically disconnects the anode voltage. The oscillation ceases at once and the filament of the microscope is thus saved from being burnt off. C. Current Regulators for Electromagnetic Lenses In a magnetic electron microscope it is essential to keep the currents through the various lens coils strictly constant. The stabilisation tolerences Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 510 Das Gupta, De, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury of the different current supplies for a resultant image unsharpness :of 10 X. can be computed theoretically (Zworykin, et al 1946) ; the values so obtained for an optimum aperture are as shown below : Supply Tolerance ,6,1 /1 Condenser lens 1.0 x )objective lens 5.5 x 10-5 l'rojector lens 1.3 x ro-4 The three lenses have three separate electronic regulators of the general type shown in figure to. A number of 61.6 beam tetrodes connected in parallel serve as the main power tubes driving the magnetising current through the lens coil L in series with a variable resistance R (eventually a number of resistors providing the coarse, medium and fine controls). The voltage drop produced by the load current on passing -through the resistor R is compared to that of a dry battery and the difference is applied to the grid of a 6SI7 tube. The anode voltage of tills tube controls the grid excitation of the 6L6 tubes. The circuit is thus essentially a degenerative voltage regulator described by Hunt and Hickman ,1939). It maintains a constant voltage across the control resistor R and with constant load, it acts as a good current. regulator at very low frequencies. The regulator action is further helped by the screen connection of the 65J7 as shown in the Fig. xo. Variation in the current is obtained by variation of R. 0-- 6 L 6 FROM POWER SUPPLY LOAD CURRENT METER Fi.G.10 Circuit diagram of the lens-current regulators. LENS LOAD CON TROL RESISTOR The simple electronic circuit alone is incapable of giving the required degree of stability. The primary a. c. supply is further pre-stabilised by a conventional constant voltage transformer of saturable reactor type. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 5ft With this circuit, it has been possible to secure the required order of- stability. Slow drifts arising from changes in resistance due to heating or iitranges in thermionic emission, etc.., have been observed, which have been minimised to smile extent by using stabilised a. c voltage to heat the filament of the tubes. D. Vacuum Gauge and Relay Circuits The electronic circuit also includes a thermocouple and an ionisation gauge for measurement of microscope vacuum. The thermocouple gauge is fitted before the, diffusion pump and, measures the, rough., vacuum produced by the mechanical pump. The ionisation gauge is placed after the diffusion pump very close to the microscope filament. ,It indicates the final vacuum produced at this point. . A relay is fitted in the ionisation gauge circuit which automatically shuts. off the high voltage and the heating current of the microscope filament as soon as the pressure inside the microscope becomes more than 3)_< io-'rnm of mercury. Thus the vacuum gauge and the relay system protects the microscope from damage due to accidental failure of the high vacuum as a result of a suddenly developed leak. A second relay is incorporated in the high voltage circuit, which shuts off the high voltage, if for any reason, the current drawn from the high voltage becomes excessive. This relay therefore protects the components of high voltage circuit in case of an accidental failure of electric insulation. C ONCLUS I 0 N In this preliminary report the constructional details of the new electron microscope have been given. It will be seen from the introduction, that in every country the electron microscopes were first developed in the university laboratories. It was only after a great deal of experience had been gained, during researches carried out in these laboratories, that it was possible to produce an electron microscope commercially, first in Germany nearly ten years ago and then in U. S. A.,, and only last year in countries like England, Holland and Prance. This paper contains an account of the attempt to construct for the first time in a university laboratory in this country an instrument of this type. ACKNOWLEDGMUNTS In this project we have been helped by one of the pioneers in this field, viz., Prof. Marton. We. are all indebted to him for his Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 512 Das Gupta, be, Bhattacharya and Chaudhury advice and guidance in designing the instrument and help in the procurement of ? parts from U. S. A. Mr. Bert F. Bubb of Stanford University has been of great assistance in the mechanical construction as well as in. designing. Apart from the mechanical parts, the complete electronic power system consisting of the bigh frequency oscillators, both for the microscope filament heating as well as for the rectified So,000 volt d.c. source for the electron gun, the highly stabilised current supplies for the three electromagnetic lensee, the vacuum gauge and the safety relay systems were built up in our laboratory. Some of the local radio manufacturers particularly Messrs. Indian Radio Institute and India ? Radio Manufacturing Co. of Calottta, have helped us br making high Q radio frequency coils and transformers according to our requirements. The authors are thankful to Mr. B. M. Banerji of this laboratory for some useful' suggestions on circuit problems. They are also very much indebted to Prof. M. N. Saha for his constant encouragement and enthusiastic help in this project. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge with thanks the gift of Rupees 17,500 made by Dr. B. C. Law for the purchase of components for this microscope. 1NsTrruTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS CALCUTTA UNINERSITY REFERENCES Ardenne, M. v., 1940 Z. Phy, 118, 339. Ardenne, M. v., 1941, Z. Phys. 177, 657. Bachman, C. H. and Ramo, S., x943, J. rip/A. Phys., 14, 155. Boersch, H., 1942, Phys. Z., 43., 513. Borries, B. v. and Ruska, F., 1939, Naturwiss., 27, 577. Borries, B. v. and Rusks. E., 1940, Siemens Z., 20,227. l3riiche, E. and Hagen, B., 1939. Naturwiss., 27, 809. Briiche, E. and Johannson, H., I932a, Naturwiss, 20, 353. B. and Johannson, H., 1932b, An/. d. Phy., 13, 145. Burton, B. F., Hillier, J. and Prebus, A., 2939, Phys. Rev., 56, 11:71. Busch, H., 1926, Ann d. Phys., 81, 974. Cockroft, J. D. and Walton, E. T. S., 1032, Proc. Roy. Soc.A, 136. 619. Davisson, C. J. and Calbick, C. J., 1931, Phys. Rev., 38, 585. Davisson, C. J. and Calbick, C. J, 1932, Phys. Rev., 42, 580. Greinacher, H., 1921, Z. Phys., 4, 195. Haine, M. E., 1947, Engineering, 164, 4249, 20, Hillier, J. and Vance, A. W , 2941, Proc. Inst. Rad. Eng , 29, 167. Hunt, F. V. and Hickman, R. W., 1939, Rev. Sci. Instrum,, 10, 9 Knoll, M. and Ruska. E. 2931, Z. Techn. Phys,, 12, 389. Knoll, M , aud Ruska, B. 1932, Z. Phys., 78, 3/8. Mahl, H., 1939, Z. Techn. Phys., 20, 3i6. Mahl, H., 194o, Ihrh. der: A. E. G. Forschung, 7, 43. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A New Electron Microscope 513 Martin, L. C., Whelpton, R. V. and Parnum, D. H., 1937,1 Sci. Instrum, 14,.14. Marton, L., 1935, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg, 21, 6o6. Marton, L., Banca, M. C. and bender, J. F., 1940 R. C. A. Review, 5, 232. Marton, L., 1940, Phys. Rev., 58, 57. Marton, Ii.. 1945, PIM A14)1. Phys, 16, 131. Muller, H. 0. and Ruska, E. 1941, Koloidzschr., Z, 95, 21 Poole, J. B., 1947, Philips Techn. Rev., 9, 33. Prebus, A. 1942, Eng. Exp. Sta. News. Columbus, 14, 6. Prebus, A. and Hillier, J., 1939, Canad, J. Research, A17, 49. Ruska, E., 1934, Z. Phys., 87, 580. Vance, A. W.,1941, R. C. A. Review, 5, 293 Zworykin, V. K., Hillier, J., and Vance, A. W., 1941a, Elec. Eng. 60, 157. Zworykin, V. K., Hillier, J., and Vance, A. W., 1941b, Jour. App. Phys, 12, 738. Zworykin, V. K., Morton, G. A., Ramberg, E. G,, Hillier, J., and Vance, A. W., 1946 "Electron optics and the Electron Microscope," John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 214. Zworykin, V. K., and Hillier, J., 1943, J. Appi. Phys., 14, 658. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 TOMORROW'S INSTRUMENTS TODAY RAJ-DER-KAR & CO. COMMISSARIAT BUILDING HORNBY ROAD FORT BOMBAY OFFERS FROM STOCK GLASS METAL DIFFUSION PUMPS, METAL BOOST4E PUMPS, OILS AMOILS OCTOILS OCTOIL, BUTYL SABACATE MANUFACTURED By DISTILLATION PRODUCTS (U. S. A.) SPENCER MICROSCOPE CENCO HIGHVACS BESLER EPIDIASCOPE COMPLETE WITH FILM STRIP ARRANGEMENTS Telephone 27304 Telegrams 2 Lines TECHLAB Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 We are now iitainfracturing : * Soxhlet Extraction sets of 100cc, 250cc and 1000cc capacity B. S. S. Pattern Viscometers * Kipp's Apparatus of 1 litre and / litre capacity Petri Dishes of 8" and 7." diameter AND ALL TYPES OF GRADUATED GLASSWARE such as Measuring Flasks, Measuring Cylinders, Burettes, Pipettes, etc., etc.. Manufactured by: INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING APPARATUS CO., LTD. CHOTANI ESTATES, PROCTOR ROAD, BOMBAY, 7. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 'rhe following special publications of Science, 210, Bowbazar Street, Calcutta, are 3f them :? Subject Methods-in-Scientific Research The Origin of the Planets Separation of Isotopes Garnets and, the'ir Role in Nature (r) The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2) Studies in the Germination of Seeds. ??? the Indian Association for the Cultivation of available at the prices shown against each Author Sir E. J. Russell Sir James H. Jeans Prof. F. W. Aston Sir Lewis L. Fermor Sir Arthur. Hill 31 Interatomic Forces ... Prof. J. E. Lennard-Jones The Educational Aims and Practices .?. R. A. Millikan of the California Institute of Technology. Active Nitrogen ... Prof. S. K. Mitra A New Theory. Theory of Valency and the Struc- ... Prof. P. Ray ture of Chemical Compounds. Petroleum Resources of India ... D. N. Wadia The Role of the Electrical Double ... J. N. Mukherjee layer in the Electro Chemistry of Colloids. A discount of 25% is allowed to Booksellers and Agents. Third page of cover do. do. do. Other pages do. do. do. RATES OF ADVERTISEMENTS ? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??11. ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ? ??? ?11 ? ???_ ??? ??? ??? Price RS. A.' O 6 o co 6 o o 6 0 2 8 o 8 o o 6 o 2 8 o 3 0 0 2 8 0 I 12 0 Rs. 32, full page ? 20, half page ? 12, quarter page PS IP 25, full page 16, half page ? 10, quarter page 15% Commissions are allowed to bonafido publicity agents securing orders for advertisements. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 CONTENTS PAGE 5(5. Calculation of Piezo-electric Constants of a-Quarty on Born's Theory?By Bishambhar Dayal Saxena and Krishna Gopal Srivastava 475 57. Paramagnetism of the Salts of Iron-group of Elements at Low Temperatures, Part III. Six Co-ordinated Ionic Salts of Cu" and Fe" Ions?By A. Bose 483 53. A New Horizontal Electron Microscope?By N. N. Das Gupta M. L. De, D. L. Bhattacharya and A. K. Chaudhury ??? 497 PRINTED BY NISIIITCHANDRA SAN, SUPERINTENDENT (OFFG.), CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 48, HAgLA ROAD, BALLYGUNGE, CALCUTTA AND PUBLISHED BY THE REGISTRAR, INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE, 210, Boubaza? Street, Calcutta. Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP8 ASSOCIATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS OF INDIA 'POW MEMORANDUM ON THE CENTRAL COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, NEW DELHI Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 25X1A 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ASSOCIATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS OF INDIA MEMORANDUM ON THE CENTRAL COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, NEW DELHI 1 The Central College of Agriculture was started on a permanent basis in 1947 on the personal initiative of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the then Minister for Food and Agriculture. Thc fact that high priority was accorded to the establisment of an All India Central Agricultural College at a time when the Government was preoccupied with partition work and problems arising out of it, is but one indication of Government's recognition of the importance of Agricultural Education in the country. Now when the recruitment of staff and procurement of equip- ment are just complete and when the first batch of students is about to appear for their degree examination, the decision of the Govenment not to admit students in the next academic year comes as a big surprise. The principal reason adduced in favour of this decision appears to be the need for economy. This decision and the 'Grow More Food' drive, however, ill go together. Indeed, the establishment of first rate Agricultural Colleges is the sine quanon of development of agriculture on modern scientific lines and the decision to close down the College, if true, cannot but be regarded as a retrograde step, and certainly false economy. GENESIS OF THE COLLEGE It was in 1944 that Sir Pheroze Khareghat, then Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture, in his memorandum to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research ( I. C. A. R. ) pointed out the necessity of atleast ten more agricultural colleges to serve the needs of the country for the proper development of its agriculture. The I. C. A. R. formulated a scheme for opening one such college at Delhi. The scheme was accepted by the Government of India after close scrutiny and a college christened as Central College of Agriculture was opened on a permanent basis in 1947 at a temporary site located at Anand Parbat to cater for the needs of Centrally Administered Areas and provinces and states having no Agricultural Colleges of their own (vide Appendix A).. Funds (Rs. 8o lakhs) were made available for securing a permanent site and construction of new buildings. Various sites were inspected but unfortunately, no final decision was taken and major portion of the grant was surrendered at the end of the financial year 1947-48. The college is still continuing at its original temporary site. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 2 The recruitment of staff and procurement of equipment are,.. however, almost complete. Over Rs. 12 lakhs have already been spent. The college has now all the four classes and the first batch of students is to appear for the degree examination ( B.Sc. Hons Agr. ) in April, 1950. CASE FOR THE COLLEGE The reasons which necessitated the starting of the College in 1947 are now more pronounced, for neither have any new colleges imparting education upto the B.Sc. Hons. Agr. been started nor have the boundaries of the States of the Indian Union been so adjusted as to enable the existing agricultural colleges to cater for the needs of the entire country. A Central College continues to be as essential as before. It may be stated that there are 14 agricultural colleges in the states of Madras, Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh Punjab (I), Mysore and Delhi covering an area of 537, 985 square miles, thus leaving a huge area without agricultural colleges still. There are thus no agricultural colleges in West Bengal, Assam, Orissa including the States, Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg with states, Vindhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, Rajasthan, M.atsya Union, P. E. P. S. U., Saurashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir States and United States of Travancore and Cochin. Comparison with other countries is quite interesting. In Eng- land and Wales with an area of 58,343 square miles, there are 7 agricultural colleges each governed by a separate foundation and seven Universities with departments of Agriculture each providing courses in Agriculture leading to a Degree (Luxmoace Committee report 1943, pages 20-21). In the U. S. A. with an area of 3,022, 387 square miles, there are 48 land-grant colleges of agriculture - each attached to a State University. Thus, while in England and Wales one agriculture college serves an area of 4,167 square miles and in U. S. A. 62,966 square miles, in India the area served is 107,300 square miles. The various committees set up for the improvement of agri- culture have given different estimates of agriculture graduates required for the next few years as, for example, the Khareghat Memorandum places the estimate at 7000 for the Indian Union, excluding the States, the Agricultural Education Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education estimates the number at 18,000, for the next 10 years. The annual out turn of graduates from all the colleges was estimated to be only 400 in the year 1942-43 and may now at best be about 500. Thus, there is a wide gap to be filled up. Inspite of the fact that more than 75% of the population of the country is engaged in agriculture, India has still to import food worth several millions of rupees. This is a sad commentary, but the reasons Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 are not far to seek. Undoubtedly, the chief cause is that our methods still continue to be antidiluvian. To remedy this defect, it is essential that as large a number of trained personnel as possible should be made available, and for this purpose the number of agricultural colleges must be multiplied and not that even existing colleges should be abolished. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION The University Education Commission set up by the Union Government in 1948 has also bestowed some thought to the problem, and their recommendations are contained in Chapters 4 and 7 of their report. A few of these are: r. That agricultural education be recognised as a major national issue. 2. That, since in a democratic country sound agricultural policy must rest on the understanding and participation of those engaged in agriculture, the study of agriculture in primary, secondary and higher education be given high priority in national economic planning. 3. That present Agricultural Colleges be strengthened in equip- ment and in teaching s'taff, and that each one, in addition to a pro- gramme of well proportioned general and agricultural education, endeavour to find some phase of agricultural practice or some related interest such as agricultural credit or agricultural co-operatives in which it shall undertake to achieve mastery. 4. That new agricultural colleges, where possible, be associated with new Rural Universities, so that agricultural education may be supported and enriched by contact with other fields, and by common use of personnel and equipment; and that each such new agricultural college should also explore some phase of agriculture often related to the locality, in which it will strive to become an outstanding authority. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the President of the Indian Republic, in his speech on the 28th February 1950 at the Silver Jubilee Session of the Inter University Board at Banaras, has appealed to the States and the Centre for the implemention of the recommendations of the University Commission (Vide Appendix B). ARTICLE 48 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The importance of agricultural development has been specially emphasized in the Constitution of India. Article 48 provides: Organisation of Agriculture and Animal 'The State shall endeavour to develop Husbandary. agriculture and animal husbandry, on modern and scientific lines and shall, in Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 4 particular take steps for preserving and improving the breed, and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other draught cattle." The need of agricultural colleges is thus patent. THE PROPOSAL TO ABOLISH THE COLLEGE Though no authoritative announcement seems to have been made re: the reasons for such a retrograde proposal, the following considera- tions may possibly have weighed with the Government in coming to the decision to retain the college without new admissions (Vide Appendices C & D) 1. Till the College has its own building, a large amount ( Rs. 91,000) is paid each year towards the rent of the buildings. 2. That various States of the Indian Republic are contemplating to start colleges of their own and there is not much demand for seats at the College from the States. 3. That the construction of new buildings for the College and Hostels and acquiring the new site will require a huge sum, and even if the college is shifted to I. A. R. I. a sum of over Rs. 20 lakhs will be required for additional buildings. These reasons are examined below:? I. The rent paid by the Government for the College Estate is about Rs. 91,000 annually This covers the buildings, three Hostels, Swimming Pool and over roo barracks out of which the College itself is utilising about 35 barracks. This estimate covers the accommo- dation occupied by the Indian Institute of Fruit Technology (which is now shifting to Mysore) and Plant Protection Staff of the Agricultural Ministry. The rent collected from the occupants of the above accommodation totals to Rs. 55,000/- per annum; and as stated by the Hon'ble Shri Jairamdas Daulatram in the Indian Constituent Assembly (Legislature) on 2Ist December. 1949, the annual rent for the colege is only Rs. 36,000 (vide appendix C). One of the hostels is occuplied by the Post and Telegraph staff, the 65 barracks are in the possession of displaced persons, and the Swimming Pool is lying unused eversince the college started for want of supply of water. Further, no separate room rent is charged from the college students nor are they charged for electricity. If appropriate rent is charged from the displaced persons occupying the barracks or from the Ministry of Relief and Rehabili- tation who is responsible for their occupation, a room rent is charged from the boarders as is done in colleges all over and the Swimming Pool is surrenoleled _to the Ramias Trust tht expenditure to Government Approved For Kelease 2001/09/06 : CIA-KIDpo3-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 5 on account of heavy rent can be reduced to less than half i. e. Rs. 15,000/- per annum. 2. The new colleges (three) which have been started in the States are only up to the Intermediate Standard. In view of the difficulty in obtaining the equipment and the qualified staff, it is well nigh impossible to develop them as first rate colleges in the near future. The neighbouring colleges are too crowded and can not be expected to cope with the increasing demand in the conntry. If the Centre is finding it difficult to spend a paltry sum of a few lakhs to develop and maintain one agricultural college, how can the Union States be expected to start first rate Agricultural Colleges when there is acute financial stringency practically all over. Orissa, West Bengal and Travancore-Cochin are already reported to have given up the schemes for starting Agricultural Colleges, due to the financial difficulties. In spite of the short period for which the College has been in existence, it has attracted students from all over the country and indeed a large number have to be disappointed on acconnt of a limited number of sixty seats being available. The selected candidates come from Delhi, Ajmer-merwara, Andamans, Coorg, Himachal Pradesh, Bengal, Orissa, Jorhat, Travancore, Nepal and Indonesia. Displaced students from Pakistan have also been admitted. 3. As explained earlier the funds once made available for a permanent site and construction of buildings, had to be surrendered. It does not mean that due to the indecision that prevailed then, the future generations should suffer. However, due to the financial crisis if it is not possible to find the necessary sum in one financial year, it could easily be spread over two or three years. In the meantime, the college can continue on the present site with reduced expenditure as proposed in (t) above. The expenditure can be further curtailed if for practicals, the students are taken to the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. The small distance should not stand in the way of this essential facility. This is usually the practice in foreign coun- tries where the farms are situated 8 to io miles away from the college and students attend to field work by going in trucks. The trucks could perhaps be obtained from the Central Ground Water Organisa- tion of the Ministry of Agriculture, which is now closed down (one such truck has already been obtained). SUGGESTIONS REGARDING THE ECONOMICAL RUNNING OF THE COLLEGE The Economy Committee has already suggested that this College which is designed to admit too students per year should either be transferred to the Delhi University or be placed under the Director, Indian Agricultural Research Institute. If the latter propcsal is given effect to, the students and the staff will have the benefit of the best Agricultural Library in the East and the well-equipped Research Laboratories and thus keep abreast of day to day discoveries and Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 6 researches. The Standing Advisory Committee of the Legislature for the Ministry of Agriculture at its meeting in May 1949 suggested that the College be integrated with I. A. R. I. and this would result in economy in non-recurring expenditure We wholly endorse the above views and further urge that to provide the necessary educational and academic atmosphere, the College shouid be immediately affiliated to the Delhi University and its relevant statutes and ordinance (appendices E and F) implemented, which so far has not been done, though the College has been functioning for three years under provi- sional recognition. It must be particularly mentioned that statute 31(2)(a) provides that recognition can be given to a college if it is established on a permanent basis. If it be argued that the College cannot be housed in the present accommodation of I. A. R. I. it is suggested that the present allotment accommodation to the staff there be readjusted. Only laboratories for practical classes may be constructed for the time being and this should not cost much. It might be pointed out here that most of the equipment and apparatus for the college work has alreardy been purchased, and what- ever more is required already exists in the I. A. R. I. and Central Tractor Organisation. The Metreological Observatory at I. A. R. I. can also be utilised for the special training in the Agricultural Metereology according to the syllabus recommended by U.N.E.S.C.O. Such facilities cannot be provided to any other College located elsewhere in the country. By adjusting the present designation and duties of the staff according to the Delhi University ordinances, the necessity of extra staff can also be eliminated. THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS COLLEGE This is the only college which imparts education on an all India basis and the graduates naturally develop an all India outlook which is essential if the agriculture industry is to make effective headway. The college being near the University and the I. A. R. I. would have a higher standard of education than any other college can afford to give and indeed is already training students for the B.Sc. Agr. (Fions). The students here come in contact with research workers of repute and are in touch with latest developments in the Agricultural Science. The staff will also have facilities for research and can thus inspire the students with a spirit of enquiry and reason. As already mentioned, candidates from Nepal are receiving their training in this college and even candidates from Indonesia seek admission. The college with all the facilities it has, is, therefore, ideally suited for developing as a centre of Agriculture for atleast the entire South East Asia region, and rendering_ the_exchange of spalents possible. Approvedior Keiease 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/016 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 In conclusion, from what has been stated above, it will be clear that there is full justification for continuance of the college and that its need has not only not disappeared but has actually become greater. The Hon'ble Finance Minister struck a very hopeful note in his latest budget speech (appendix G) and now that a surplus is anticipated it is not too much to hope that this nation-building institution will survive the axe. Our Prime Minister has given assurances on more than one occasions that existing permanent institutions and other useful schemes already taken up will not be closed down or abandoned on account of financial difficulties. We, therefore, most earnestly appeal that the College be permanently retained and developed as a first-rate institution, and the provisions of the Constitution implemented: ? Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 APPENDIX A Extract from page No. 470 of Indian Farming of Sept.. 1947 Vol. Viii No. 9. Q. I have heard that an Agricultural College has been started in Delhi. Will you please furnish me with information regarding the standard of admission and the subjects taught in the institution? Does the College intend to impart practical training in agriculture ? A. The aim of the Central College of Agriculture, Delhi is two- fold : to give a systematic course of scientific agriculture to young men, with a view to prepare them for promoting modern agriculture in the country-side on economic lines, and to train students for undertaking research in agricultural problem. The need for qualified staff required for the execution of agricultural schemes has long been felt, as each requires approximately 200 agricultural graduates a year, and the Centra[ Government requires, for the execution of its own plans, about 500 trained men immediately, and more in the near iuture. Similarly Indian States are in dire need of trained personnel. It is also intended to organize a one year course with Hindustani as the medium of instruction. This course will be entirely of a practical nature comprising inter alia the study of crops and improved methods of cultivation, farm management, modern daiiying, horticulture and simple treatment of pests and diseases of cattle and crops. The College is open to students deputed by the Governments of Centrally Administered Areas and other provinces which have not got Agricultural College4,to students deputed by Indian States, by the Government of British Colonies or other countries outside India and to private students who are residents of Centrally Administered Areas. APPENDIX B Extract apd the speech of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, President of the Republic of India on the occasion of Silver Jubilee Session of the Inter University Board at Banaras on the 28th of Feb. 1950, as reported in the 'Statesman' dated I-7-1950. 'We ha7e recently had a Commission appointed by the Government of India to go into the *mile question of university education. It had among its members distinguished educationists not only from India but also from England and America, and was presided over by Dr. Radhalirishnan. The Commission has submitted a very valuable report containing not only a review of the achievements of our university education, but also making suggestions and recommendations which are of a far-reach- ing character. We have had many republics in this country, but they were tiny compared to the Republic which we have just established. The responsibility of the people Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 9 has correspondingly grown in size and inunsity and it is for our educational institutions to fit the citizens for the great task that awaits them understand that it is going to be expanded on a larger scale consistently with efficiency which depends on the number of suitable and competent teachers. I believe expansion there is limited only by the time that is taken in training and preparing the various grades o, teachers for the purpose. The scheme of rural uni- versities, as has been pointed out by the authors of the report, is only an exten- sion of that scheme with such modifications as appealed to them. "I feel that in recommending the expansion of education in that direction, the Commission has done the greatest service to the country in its present set-up. It is now for specialists and experts and for the State Governments and the Cen- tral Government to work out the practical details and implement its recommenda- tions. APPENDIX C Extract from the report of the Ministry of Apiculture, 1949-50 THE CENTRAL COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE DELHI :-- With the new admissions made in August and the formation of the final year class, the College had started functioning with all the four classes and the total number of students is 176. The College showed good results at the examinations of the University of Delhi, the passes from the second year class being as high as 92 per cent. Physical training is compulsory and the students are taken on study tours to all parts of India. The College, however, continues to be located on the leased Estate, and to overcome the difficulty for want of properly equipped laboratories, practicals had to be arranged at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute and by borrowing apparatus from the C.P.W.D. Far from there being an expanasion in the coming year, considerations of finance have considerably affected the growth of the Institution. It has been decided to retain the Institution without new admissions for another three years, till all the students now on the rolls complete their course. If, however, the financial situation improves, it is intended to review the position. APPENDIX D Extract from the proceedings of Constituent Assembly of India (Legislative) Part I Vol. IV-No. 18 Wednesday, 21st Dec. 1949. pages 602-604. (AGRICULTURAL TRAINING INSTITUTIONS). *795. Shri Satis Chandra Samanta : (a) Will the Honourable Minister of Agriculture be pleased to state how many new agricultural training institutions have been started in the years 1948-49 and 1949-50, by the Government of India? (h) Are there any private agricultural training institutions and fArrliNeklehniddf kelease 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 TO (c) If so, is any of them recognised by Government? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : (a) None. (b) and (c). There are eleven agricultural training institutions in the provinces and States. Nine are recognised by Government. A statement containing details is laid on the Table of the House (See Appendix XX, annexure No. T.). Shri Satis Chandra &manta : May I know whether any short course training arrangements have been made for those officers in service who have not sufficient experience in agriculture? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram: We have got post-graduate training arrangements at Delhi in the Pusa Institute. Shri Satis Chandra Samanta : Have Government any arrangements for imparting training to officers in the Department who have had no training in agriculture ? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : Officers who were not at all trained in agriculture need not be in the Department. Shri Upendranath Barman : Is it a fact that the Government of India is proposing to close the Central College of Agriculture ? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : No. Shri Upendranath Barman : Is it a fact that new admissions have been stopped ? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : They may be stopped from the next year but the College will continue for three years atleast unless the situation changes. Shri Deshbandhu Gupta: May I know whether it is a fact that the decision referred to by the Honourable Minister regarding the Central College has been taken on account of the expenditure, which is incurred on the residence of the students and the figures supplied were not correct? The Honourable Sri Jairamdas Doulatram : That was only one of the considerarions but it is difficult to expand the college in the present set-up on account of financial stringency. Shri P. T. Chacko : May I know whether the Central College is being housed in a rented building and if so, what is the rent? The Honourable ShriJairamdas .Doulatram : It is in a rented building al4b1i16i6ati:isrikelailiD20101EMYRAV liCIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Dr. P. S. Deshmukh : May I know if the Honourable Minister has any scheme for assisting and giving grants-in-aid to private Agricul- tural training institutions? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : I think a number of institutions are receiving grants from the Provincial Governments and naturally it will be the function of the Provincial Governments to give financial aid to local Agricultural institutions. Shri A. Karunakara Menon : Have any existing institutions already been stopped or hampered by the economy drive of the Government in the year 1949-50? The Honourable Shri Jairamdas Doulatram : Not, so far as the Central Government is concerned. So far as the Provincial Government is concerned, I will have to secure information. Shri Deshbandhu Gupta : Is it a fact that there are certain facilities available to the Central College of Agriculture in Delhi which are not available in other provinces and if the institution is closed, there will be great hardship? Mr. Speaker: Order, order, Next question. APPENDIX E University of Delhi, Act No. VIII of 1922 and statutes ( 1949 Edition) Statute, No. 31 (page 49). (2) A College applying for recognition shall satisfy the Uni- versity on the following points :? (a) that it guarantees a satisfactory standard of educational efficiency for the purpose for which recognition is sought, and that it is established on a permanent basis: (b) that its financial resources are such as to make due provision for its continued maintenance;, (c) that it is under proper management and is suitably ciragnised; (d) that its buildings are suitable and sufficient; (e) that the furniture and library and laboratory equipment are adequate; (f) that the provision for the residence, discipline and super- vision of students is satisfactory; (g) that due provision is made for the health and recreation of students; (h) that qualifications and number of its teaching staff are adequate' and the conditions of their service such as may be approved by the University; Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/0612CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 (i) such other matters as are necessary for the maintenance of the tone and standards of University education. (3) A College applying for recognition shall give full informa- tion in the application on the following matters:- (a) constitution and personnel of its Governing Body; (b) standards and subjects in respect of which recognition is sought; (c) accommodation, library and laboratory equipment and strength of the College; (d) number, qualifications, work, emoluments and conditions of service of teachers; (e) provision for hostels, playgrounds and the residence of the Principal and other members of the staff; (f) fees proposed to be levied; (g) the financial provision made for the continued maintenance of the College; (h) such other matters as may be prescribed by the Ordinances Statute No. 30 (page 47). 3. Each College recognised by the University shall be managed by a regularly constituted Governing Body which shall include the Principal and at least two other members of the teaching staff of the College elected by the teaching staff including the Principal and not less than two members appointed by the University. The rules relating to the constitution and powers of the Governing Body and the appointment, powers and duties of the Chairman and other officers of the Governing Body shall be such as may be prescribed by the Ordinances. (9). Every College shall comply with the relevant Statutes, Ordinances and Regulations of the University. APPENDIX F Ordinances Of Delhi University, 1949 Ordinance No. XII (College appointed teachers) page 24. i. No wholetime teacher shall be engaged by any College as a member of its staff at a salary less than Rs. 200/-/- p.m. ( In ac.A., the minimum start is Rs.1- 16o- p.m.) 2. No whole-time teacher shall be engaged by any College as a member of its staff except on an Agreement of service in the form annexed hereto, or an agreement substantially to like effect, and every teacher shall sign the Agreement before he enters upon his duties. 3. (t) No whole-time teacher may be engaged for less than twelve months, save in the case of a temporary appointment made to fill a Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/014 CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 sudden and unexpected vacancy, but such temporary appointments shall not be made for a period exceeding six months, and shall be reported forthwith to the University. (2) A temporary appointment may be made in the case of a temporary vacancy caused by the absence of a teacher on leave, but shall not extend beyond the date of the termination of the leave of absence of that teacher, and shall be reported forthwith to the University. Government Maintained Colleges Ordinance XIX (page 36) t. A Government Maintained College (in this ordinance called a Government College), shall, subject to any general rules of the Government of India, be a self-contained and autonomous institution and, subject as aforesaid, have control over its own affairs and its own finances. 2. (t) No Government College shall have more than 600 students on its rolls, but so long as the preparatory classes for Univer- sity degree courses continue to exist with the approval of the Govern- ment of India, the number in those classes shall not be included in the College rolls for the purpose of this Ordinance. (2) The Governing Body shall meet at least once every academic term and, subject to the general rules of the Government of India, have general supervision and control of the affairs of the College and shall maintain its own, records of its proccedings. (3) The Governing Body shall appoint a secretary, not being a member of the Governing Body, who shall summon meetings, record proceedings and perform such other clerical functions as the Governing Body may direct. 3. (I) The member of the Governing Body of a Government College elected by the teachers or appointed by University shall not hold office for more than three years at a time, but shall be eligible for re-appointment or re-election. (2) Every Government College shall, subject to the general supervision of the Governing Body, have a duly constituted College Council, consisting of not less than seven members of the teaching staff elected by the teaching staff, to advise the Principal on the administration of the College. 4. (1) The method of appointment of teachers in a Govern- ment College and their conditions of service shall be such as may be approved from time to time by the Government of India aftee consul- tation with the University. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : C14M-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 (2) The payment of salaries to teachers in a Government College shall be in accordance with scales approved by the University. (3) The Governing Body, before advertising a post on the teaching staff, shall give notice to the University of their intention to do so and shall take into consideration any representations the University may make thereon within fourteen days. 5. The number of recognised teachers in a Government College shall be such that the proportion of students on the rolls of the College to the teachers in the College shall not exceed twenty to one in the case of Pass students and twelve to one in the case of Honours and postgraduate students, unless a higher proportion is approved by the University. 6. The Executive Council may from time to time cause an inspection to be made of a Government College for the pm pose of satisfying themselves that the conditions of this Ordinance or any conditions on which recognition has been given are being complied with. APPENDIX G Extract from the Budget Speech of Dr. J. Matthai, Minister for Finance, on the 28th February, 1950 as reported in the =Statesman' dated 1-3-1950. "It has been a year of great difficulties and great anxiety. It has been a period of almost unprecedented trouble. There were times during the year 1949 when some of us most immediately concerned with the economic activities of the Government had a sense of almost overwhelming crisis, but on a close examination of facts as they stand today, I feel that I am in a position to tell the House mat the stage of crisis at any rate is now definitely passed" said Dr. Matthai, India's Finance Minister, when he presented the Budget in Parliament on Tuesday." Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 25X1 C Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ? Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 VOL. 15 Announcing JUNE 1950 No. 12 ZE1Ss THE NEW ZEISS WINKEL STANDARD-MICROSCOPE Outstanding Zeiss Instrument for Resedch a n d Special Work. It embodies several novel mechanical features in addition to newly computed optics, all going to make4picroscopy more precise and more pleasing. ? Other ZEISS WINKEL Specialities : 1 ? BIOLOGICAL MICROSCOPE. ? PETROLOGICAL MICROSCOPE- ? PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE. ? PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS. ? DIRECT VISION SPECTROSCOPE. 1 ? POLARIMETER. ? SACCHARIMETER. \ A D A I R, DUF.CT & CO. (INDIA) LTD. CALCUTTA BOMBAY : MADRAS Literature on request. ? SOLE AGENTS ? " ? CAMBRIDGE INSTRUMENT CO., LTD. England PYROMETERS A LI_ TYPES A VAILABLE FROM STOCK: FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY Baeline.44 Lawrie a Co., Ltd,. UALCUTTA 5/991 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 4ke LAKSHMIBILAS IHI All 11 II IL The Medicated Hair Oil for LADIES & GENTS Atanutactut ad L MOSE &--CO., II CALCUTTA. ESTD. 1874. LAKSHMIBILAS BAIR IL lEY nt IJ genuine and Ararat ad I. L. NOSE & CO., Li CALCUTTA 11 EL tSTD. 1874. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 RO/ENCE AND glnatiltlt Phone: 3176 B.B. Grams: "NADIACHEMI" Nradliia C hemica II Works ILtd.. C-44, 45, & 46, COLLEGE STREET MARKET, CALCUTTA JUST ARRIVED from ENGLAND and AMERICA LARGE STOCKS of APPARATUS and CHEMICALS for Schools, Colleges, Analytical and Research Laboratories Please send your enquiries to us in HillE GENE] 4 Insist on PAC From Di Balance An Ordinary to a Super Sensitive IM1IICI11. Analytical balance at your Service Warning! Look to the above Registered Trade Mark on your instrument you buy. RAE, MANRUIFACTURal G Co. SONARPURA : BENARES When replying to the advertisers, please mention that you have seen the advertisement in Science and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Juno, 1950. .?????????? El El Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 11 igCIENCE AND .01:114Ultill. The perfect Answer to a Scientist's Prayer METTLER* BALANCES ANALYTICAL--SEMIMICRO?MICRO With the following sensational features: automatic weighments up to 200, 100 or 20g. (depending upon the model) large optical scale, range 0-115 mg. constant loading of the beam, resulting in constant sensitivity throughout the whole range single dial registering the weight built-in, standardised, rust-free, first quality weights quick reading-each weighing (from putting sample on pan to recording the weight) takes only 30 seconds! personal error reduced to a minimum Analytical Balance E 5 Reading to 0.0001 g. .Manufactured by? E. METTLER ZURICH, SWITZERLAND. Three Models: E 5: Capacity 200 g. reading to 0.0001 g. E 6: Capacity 100 g. reading to 0,00002 g: Micro: Capacity 20 g: reading to 0,000002 g: * These very balances are sold in E 5 Reading: 123.7306 g. Sapphire bearings: harder than agate perfect damping absolutely foolproof: even a schoolboy can take weights to the 6th decimal in less than a minute! prices fairly competitive with normal-type balances! U,S.A. by Fisher: & Co. under the name Gram-inatic Sole Agents: RAJ-DER-KAR & CO. COMMISSARIAT BLDG., HORNEIY ROAD, Phone: 27304 (2 Lines). FORT, BOMB A Y. EC=111 111=1 c=lIi IEED Gram : "TECHLAB" When replying to the advertisers, pleaze mention that you have seen the advertisement in Mews and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 El El El [7] El El ^ EJEI Juno, 1950.iii Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULT IJRII Essummuinsmilirollasiniullaironagnininiumminionionosimumiulionnummumilliminoliumiummuniiiiarnramminimililinlionniii[siimiumunin We itnuaactute Analytical Reagent NITR IC ACID Sq. Gr. (Abt.) ?11?? ? ( H N 03 ) 1.42 MAXIMUM IMPURITIES: Non-Volatile Matter 0.001% Heavy Metal (as Pb) 0.0002% Chloride 0.0001% Iron 0.0001% Sulphate 0.0003% Arsenic 0.000005% The International Chemical Industries iminioimummuomuminianummomemonsammunimmiannamisummiviiiiiiiiiiiiimpuoviiiiiimommannummullmminimiumminimmumamonumeniummiliminnumummue, 103B, UPPER CIRCULAR ROAD, CALCUTTA, 9. 11111111101111 al11153 alumunimuumumuummumniummu 11111111 humunamounuourt.muummuniu-: Tr; Woth Smoothly Please get your Laboratory furnished by us with Chemicals Apparatus and Other Requirements CALCUTTA SCIENTIFIC 47-C, GARPAR ROAD, CALCUTTA, 9 MART ,74111 umunumunumuunnummunnumuun unumuunnummuurolumnuntimmuE PASCALL END RUNNER MILL A mechanically opperated pestle and morter for grinding either dry or wet material- Fitted with 10" dia hard, acid resisting porcelain mortar and runner. The runner is hinged and can be swung c!ear of the mortar thus facilitating emptying and cleaning. Available with h. p. motor or arranged with fast and loose pulleys for op- eraton from an existing line shaft. SOLE AGENTS: DvAN Co PEOPLE'S BUILDING SIR PHEROZESHAH MEHTA ROAD, FORT, BOMBAY When replying to the advertisers, please mention that you have seen the advertisement in Science and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ill June, 1950. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 iv SCIENCE AND CULTITItE 211111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111HUME .= ANESTY MACHI ES LTD. MAKERS OF TABLET MAKING- MACHINERY AND AUTOMATIC STILLS FOR DISTILLED WATER OPERATED ON STEAM, ELECTRICITY, GAS OR KEROSENE SOLE AGENTS IN INDIA KILBURN & CO., LTD. CALCUTTA 4, FAIRLIE PLACE. Phone No: BANK 2321 P.O. BOX 61. a BOMBAY ASIAN BUILDINGS NICOLL RD. 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Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 1111111111111111111111 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Juno, 1950 v SCIENCE AND CULTURE (0=== Because Paper Remembers What You Can Forget SAVE TIME PREVENT ERRORS PUT IT IN WRITING gat rut Papet j5ot wtiting & pein ting atam: Ragohurnath Dun &Sorts Ltd.. "BHOLANATH DHAM" 33-2, BEADON STREET, CALCUTTA Phone B. B. 4175 'Grams : "NOTEPAPER" BRANCHES: CALCUTTA : 64, Harrision Road & 167, Old Chinabazar Street. DACCA : 58, Patuatola. Banaras Chowk. Gauhati : College Hostel Road. II II II III III III III III III III III III III IH III III III III III II III III III FARMING I The Journal of Agricultural Progress he authoritative articles written in non-technical language in this fully- illustrated magazine enable both lay- men and those engaged in the industry to keep abreast of the latest scientific and technological develop- ments. Monthly 1/6d. Yearly 19/- sh. Post free JARROW & SONS LTD., T oniuminwilimiliiiiiiimmilimmilim milimminmitrimmininimimminnoks 1 E E 1 DISCOVERY Ei E ..11 1 The Magazine of Scientific Progress = F. P. a .1 = = s A fully illustrated magazine in which leading authorities describe in every- day language, the latest advances in science and technology. Monthly 1/6d. Yearly 19/- sh. Post free E 1 i JJAIRROILID & SONS LIMA E COW- GATE, NORWICH, ENGLAND 1 COWGATE, NORWICH, ENGLAND F. 1 e a E miliiiIIIIIIIII1111111111111111111I11111111111011111111111111111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII'lllrE When replying to the advertisers, please mention that yoe have seen the advertisement' in Science and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950. muldrimoilli111111111111111111111$1111111111L1111111111111 1211111111MEHRE111 vi SCIENCE ANI) CULTURE 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111411111i111111111111111111111111111111111111K Ee ANNOUNCING_ TO ALL, LABORATORIES FUNCTIONING IN THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA MADE IN "11E=M[1111" BRITAt N (REG. TRADE MARK) The outstanding range of "E-MIL" GOLD and GREEN volume- tric laboratory apparatus and thermometers now in daily use in laboratories of renown on the six continents of the world. To enable you to judge our claims in this connection, we are offe- ring an ecomomical standard sample case of useful assorted "E-MIL" GOLD apparatus. These will be despatched direct to you from factory works in England for : - 13. 3s. 5d. free delivered (inclusive of packing) (One sample case only can be supplied to each laboratory.) SUPPLIES AVAILABLE FOR PROMPT SHIPMENTS FROM FACTORY WORKS IN ENGLAND INSTITUTIONS AND DEALERS HOLDING VALID IMPORT LICENESE. PLEASE CONTACT MANUFACTURER'S ACCREDITED REPRESENTATIVES IN THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA Asa% scHE ironic com VANN LOTLIKER MANSION 503, GIRGAON ROAD, BOMBAY-2 TEL. RAms : ASHACOM. 4111112M111111101111111111111111111ffilliIIII 1-11111111111111111111111111119M111111111i1111111111111111111111!DI 111;1111111111111.111111111111111111-*1111411111311111111111:11111111111111111% When replying to the advertisers, please mention that you have seen the advertisemept in Science and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950. Vii SCIENCE AND OULtURE LIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII111111111111111111111111111111111111ME E = = . WE ARE ? ? riot ai Fe* ALL YOUR LABORATORY NEEDS INSTRUMENTS: APPARATUS: MICROSCOPES: CHARTS SPECIMENS: MODELS: CHEMICALS: STAINS: ETC BIEN ARTIUM NATURAL SCIENCE LIMITED 6, MANGOE LANE - CALCUTTA ,-,1 ? Branch : KADAMKUAN, PATNA Gram : SIENSTRADE, Calcutta & Patna SOLE AGENTS for FLATTERS & GARNETT CALCUTTA MODEL WORKS W. M. AINSWORTH & SONS INC MNCHEirER, ENSLND, CALCUTTA COLORADO, U.S.A. eAglotroo (vamp co;gxm A BOON TO THE INSTITUTES by reliable and prompt service DIRECT IMPORTERS AND STOCKISTS OF LABORATORY REQUISITES OF 6. EVERY DESCRIPTION FROM A TO 9 Z INCLUDINC CHEMIACLS ETC. I Full particulars from UNIQUE TRADING CORPTN. 51-53 NEW HANUMAN LANE, BOMBAY 2. Grams : `UNILAB' rj (wagm=a),?cio) iii THE ARYAN PATH HI Hi HI HI Hi Editor: SOPHIA WADIA HI HI Principal Contents for June HI HI SIX POINTS OF VIEW M. Hirivanna in In in CULTURAL CONTACT HI HI WITH KENYA Peter Koina,nge in HI THE X FACTOR ' IN HI POLITICS . George Godwin TO HI JA IN CULTUii RE K. S. Dharanendraiya -HI III THE MYSTIC POETRY II ill II OF THE SUFISDI Said Naficy HI HI II Hi Annual Subscription Rs. 6;-: Single Copy IP -/12/- II II II II Editorial Office: II II 1 1II II II I "ARYASANGHA", MALABAR HILL, BOMBAY 6. ' Il II II II III Managerial OII ffice: II II GANPULE BUILDING, ROOPURA, BARODA. II ' II II = III When replying to the advertisers, please mention that you have seen the advertisement in Science and Culture. 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HUNDREDS IN DAILY USE IN INDIA. (e) Naggard Oscillographs of International Television Corporation, London. . W. J. ALCOCK & CO., LTD. 7, HASTINGS STREET, CALCUTTA We undertake drawing out Schemes for Complete Factories and Technological Laboratories includ- ing Building Work and Supply of Internal Fitt- ings according to the latest design. WE ALSO HOLD AGENCIES FOR THE SUPPLY OF FOLLOWING LABORATORY REQUISITES: (a) All types of Laboratory Fittings. (b) Scientific Instruments and Optical Apparatus. (c) Electrical Measuring Instruments including:- Ammeters, Voltmeters, Milliammeters, Wattmeters, Multitest Meters, Pyrome- ters, Frequency Meters, Galvanometers, Resistance and Capacity Bridges, etc., etc. (d) Hospital Equipments including:?Steri- lizers, Autoclaves, Hospital Beds and Fittings, Fitters, Blood-testing Apparatus, Electrocardiographs. (e) Scientific Glasswares including:?Beakers, Flasks, Burettes, Pipettes, Stopcocks, Funnels, Dishes, Basins, both Pyrex and Ordinary Glass. (f) Furnaces: Muffle Furnace Tube Furance including Control Panels. (g) Chemicals: All types of Fine and Heavy , Chemicals. when rep ftrtcoVigivEgrKe MAIO 9N6y bicatAIREW 82e-0441tfiRke6 4000500011-7Ju1ture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 tliine, 1950. "glide /tea SCIENCE AND OTIDTDEE at least twice and find it quite invigorating. I am not aware that it has produced any harmful effect on my health. On the contrary, the morning cup makes me cheerful and renders for starting the day's work." me- fit t? Dr. Meghnad Saha, D.Sc., F.R.S., Palit Professor and Head of the Department of Physics, Calcutta University, is one of the most eminent scientists of India and is famous internationally for his work on Nuclear Physics, especially on the Theory of Stellarspectra which brought him the Fellowship of the Royal Society. He represented India at the 220th Anniversary of the foundation of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1945. tcnohaticit INSERTED BY THE CENTRAL TEA BOARD !TX 326 25X1C )111111111$1111i11111111PREffillnIllrlinalnilannellilliriiii1111111111111111111111111RMINN111111111111111111111111111011111111111111111111111111111L1114111111i1111C1111111111111111111111111111111111011111111111111111111i119111thin111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111I1111111111111101111P1M11111A111111111111101111111111111111IINIEEINIII7.! When'--s t1141-14b19483t260141griedbdgtillbtrI Cultu re;. - Approved For_Releas-e- 2001/6.9706 F-CIA7 4. Monthly JoirnaI of Natural and Ctilti.Lral Sciences Published bp the INDIAN SCIENCE NEWS ASSOCIATION Editors: D. M. Bose S. K. Mitre A. C. P. Ray S. N. Ukil Sen Associate Editors A. K. Ghosh R. Chatterjee B. Mukherjee Collaborators S. P. Agharkar Atmaram G C Mitra K. G. Bagchi A. C. Banerjee K. Banerjee S. K. Banerjee K. P. Basu D. N. Wadia K. V. Giri H. P. Bhaumik K. BiSWRS N. N. Chatterjee N. K. Bose D. Chakravarti N. R. Dhar S. C. Chatterjee J. C. Saha S. P. Chatterjee A. C. Josh; N. N. Dasgupta S. L. Hora G. J. Fowler N. R. Sen S. S. Bhatnagar H. P. Malty P. C. Mahanti B. 1VIiikerji S. C. Mitra S. R. PaLit J. N. Mukherjee N. C. Saha Kamalesh Ray B. B. Sarkar S. K. Ghaswala J. M. Sen V. Subrahmanyan S. N. Sen B. C. Kundu S. C. Sirkar S. S. Sokhey J. N. Bhar Maneck B. Pithawalla K. P. Chattopadhyay S. P. Ray Chaudhury H K. Mookherjee Surendra Nath Sen Editorial & Publkation Offices 92, Upper Circular Road. Calcutta 9. Advertising Office 92, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta 9. VOL. 15 JUNE 1950 No. 12 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN I NotA. 453 is Communal Conflict or War Instinctive??K. C?11 akherji 462 Forest Ecology and Evaporation Measurements in India?G. S. Puri 465 Indian Weather and Locust immigration in India R.17. Badami. 467 Wild Mangoes of India -Sung, Kumar Mu,kherjec 469 Education in Germany with Special Reference to the System of Chemical Education?Haragopal Biswas 471 Total Synthesis of -Estrone and its Isomers?D. K. Banerjee,. 474 Atoemcnergie and Atombombe 475 ? NOTES AND NEWS 477 Limmts TO Til DITOR : Calcium Gluconate from Cane Sugar -8. Balsundaram,1?. K. Hirani and V. Subrahmanyan 483 On the Bionomics of the Carp Thynnichthys Sand khol (Sykes)--P. 1. Charko and S. Y. Can't pati 484 Theory of the Corona Disc Colours-- Y. C. Nail 485 Energy of Homopolar Bonds-8. K. Kulkarni Jatkar and (Miss) S. B. Kulkarni 486 Effect of Refining and Deodorization of Coconut Oil on Calcium Utilization?H. N. De and .1. N. Karkan 486 487 Development of the Female Gametophyte of Oryza Coaretata Roxb--A. K. Paul and R. M New Reagents for the Characterization and Purification of 8- Guatazidene?K. B. Dull, Sukh Deb and I'. C. Cuha 488 Need for Investigation on Synthetic Motor and A? lotion Fuel for lralia?J. N. Rakshit 488 Search for New Antibiotic Producing Fungi for Controlling Pathogenic Organisms?S. K. Mukherjee, S. Sew and P. A' . Nandi 489 Sunspot Activity and Cosmic Ray Disturbances 1. L. Chakraborty and P. K. Seri Chowdhury 490 Systematic Sampling. II?A . C Das 491. ioOK 11, EV LE ws 492 ? The annual subscription to the journal is lls. 10/- (inland), f. 1 or $4.00 (Foreign). Ordi- nary Membership fee for the Association is Rs. I5/- (? 1. 10s. or $ 5.00) per year which covers the subscription of the journal. A person or a Corporation paying Rs. 150/- (I 12 or $ 48.00) shall be eligible for a Life Membership of the Association and will be entitled to a copy of the journal every month. The Indian Science News Association and the Editors of "SCIENCE AND CULTURE" assume no responsibility for statements and opinions advanced by contributors to this Journal. All MANUSCRIPTS should be legible and typewritten. 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Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULTU A Monthly Journal of Natural and Cultural Sciences Vol. 15 JUNE 1950 No. 12 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN INDIA IN a previous article' we gave an account of the progress which had been made during the fiest half of the century towards the introduction of agricultural research, educat.on and development in this country; at the same time the movements for rural cooperation, rural reconstruction, and basic education were also described. We shall now try to assess the achievements of these moven- ents and to indicate the directions along which future development should proceed. Research and Development?Some notable progress had been made through the efforts of the Institutes for Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Research, in some of the provincial Agricultural Experiment Stations, and also in some under Central Commodity Committees. The opinion has however been expressed that "while under grants-in-aid received from the I.C.A.R. a good deal of research work has been carried out, the improvements effected have not been taken up by the cultivators" i.e., there has been a lack of coordina- tion between research, development and extension work. The implication has been that the latter two are the responsibilities of the provincial agricultural depart- ments, and they have not pulled their weight in the team work. In our view, which shall be discussed later, a better machinery has to be devised for this purpose which involves certain redistribution of subjects now placed in the Union, State, and Concurrent lists in the Indian Constitution. Taken all in all, the progress achieved so far has not been commensurate with the vastness of the prob- lems involved and with the variety of subjects relating to agriculture on which government action is necessary. We have probably in Institutes under the Ministry of Agriculture and in the Commodity Research Stations and Technical Laboratories small sections dealing Science and Culture, 15, 407, 1950 with the breeding of disease resistant food, cash, and other crops, for Agricultural and Soil Engineering, Agriculti,ral Chemistry, for Dairy Industry and Animal Husbandry, for Entomology and Plant Quarantine, but most of them are in their early stages of develop- ment. There should be a large number of regional laboratories for plant science and animal husbandry, and for their processing and industrial utilization, soil investigation laboratories, bureaus for the classification and study of microorganisms and pests, so far as tlrey affect agricultural and animal husbandry industries. The Centre should also take an active part in starting and financing of provincial agricultural experiment stations and in providing machinery for the coordina- tion of the work of the central and provincial agencies. Agricultural education in the higher stages, the training of teachers for agricultural high schools in the provinces, as well as extension work, should also be the responsibi- ? lity of the Centre. Financing of Agricultural Research?We have collected in the following table some data obtained from different sources on the relative areas under culti- vation of the different food, and cash crops; and the amount spent for research, processing and marketing of these commodities. We find that a disproportionate amount of money is spent on research on cash crops which form only about 14% of the area under cultivation, while research on food grains and pulses and other crops which form about 81% of the area under cultivation are comparatively neglected. This was probably a result of the British rule when the foreign traders and industrialists were primarily interested in the raising and technological processing of cash crops. This arbitrary division of food and cash crops should be done away with, and all commodity research stations st mild be placed on the same footing as in the U.S.A. Problem of Agricultural Education?From the begin- ning the education was top heavy. There was a need for the starting of agricultural colleges for the training, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCt AND ctiTtrItt Vol. 15, No. 12 at least of recruits to Government agricultural services, but the openings were relatively limited, arid the colleges Authoi Source. of /wow LC Nit, oil certain miricuil oral ; 'on, modifies Ministry of miculture lC.A.14. ? Ccmtmod ity Research 1-nsti- Ministry of for Rice, Agriculture Potato etc. IJ oder Centre I Commodity N.Vhole or part of 1,;0.111.1 11 t1404 P.P85 levied Ammtnf of grant PerePntage of el I Iterated areas -Rs. 11.00 lakFts Rs. 11,70 " 80.9% .2.03 " (food grain & pulses) not known Colton IRs. IS Lac (Its. 10 ") Jute (Re. 7 ") Sugarcane ; its.11 ") 8.3% approximately If !see; is 6% T, I not known ;Mewed (lotion. Lac, Jute and Sugarcane Central Committees have t heir 5'echnolciiiical Research Laboratories at Matunga, Naitikuni. Calcutta and Kanpur respectively. The data are approximate ;Ind taken from T.C.A.R. Hand book (1948). Report (1944-4r9 and Famine Commis- s Report ( (944). did not attract sufficient number of the sons of laud owning class,-s. On the other hand there is not a large class of yeoman farmers whose sons could have benefittA by education in agricultural colleges and. particuia,rly in agricultural high. schools. The latter have been utilized for the training of agricultural over- seers ; at. is doubtful whether the training given was sufficiently thorcugh in theory and in farm practical work. 7ilie majonty of the eons cf. cultivators, 'bur- denw with lin con om fed_ hold ing,-;, did nit receive airy primary education, much less education of a suitable kind. Rural education must be reorganized from the ho- tt no upwards, from basic primary and agricultural high schools to colleges situated in the midst of agricultural a7,e.Ls. Titi riessibility of introduction of such education 1.1iends on some measure of rural prosperity, which will act as an incentive to the people for further coopera- tive efforts to improve their economic and social statns. The Gandhian ideal of self sufficient village communi- ties supported by the present type of agricultural in- dustry and handicrafts, wilt not be able to meet the re- uirements of an overpopulated rural communty f, 'ng competition of industrialized towns. The Con- g,.css movement of the 19130's attracted a large number idea:list, worker. But since Congress has comet? power :from 1947, the movement appears to have lost much its idealism and driving force. Rural indebtedness and its Rem, wal?The high agricultural prices prev-aling since the commencement oJ the last war and which is still continuing, have to a certain extent removed one of the permanent handi- caps to the development of healthy rural communities viz., rural indebtedness, based upon low prices of agri- [tuna commodities. The pre-war exploitation of the rural population by the industrial and commercial communities has for the present been reversed, resulting in a general rise in the cost of living. This black mailing of the town by the country will not be an unmixed evil, if it leads, at least in some of the more flourishing of the rural areas, to the abolition of indebtedness amongs,t the cultivators, and to instal in the latter a desire to introduce better amenities of life in the villages. The State can help this movement by providing amongst other facilities, cheap electric power to the rural commu- nities. This will benefit not only agricultural produc- tion but also help in the introduction of power driven rural industries. The Famine Commission (1944) reported that between 1942 and 1945, there was a subs- tantial reduction of rural indebtedness in all the pro- vinces, especially amongst cultivators with large hold- ings and to a, considerable degree amongst those with medium holdings. On the other hand it appears pro- bable that the small holders as a class have not bene- fitted materially. The beginnings of rural prosperity thus initiated, cannot be maintained unless some scheme for regulation of prices of agricultural commodities be adopted, which will ensure a fair minimum price for the cultivators and a fair maximum price for the consumers, and undue fillet ations of prices be prevented. For reasons stated in their Report, the Famine Commission recom- mended that the simplest remedy would be to main- tain the prices of the two principal cereals, rice and. wheat within predetermined limits, even if it should be found, that the prices of the other commcdities cannot be regulated. Rural Rehabilitation?Future development of rural areas will depend on two sets of factors vz., (i) the faci- lities which the Government- can provide and, (ii) how the people can organize themselves so as to obtain the maximum benefit for themselves out of the facilities so offered: (i) The Government can promulgate laws regard- ing the size of holdings and their assessment, minimumn prices for agricultural commodities, can supply rural areas with cheap electricity, irrigation facilities, suitable education and health services, provide the rural commu- nities with improved disease resistant seeds, manure and fertilizers, make provisnin for large scale supply of credit and of technical assistance and supervision. (ii) Government assistance can only be effective when the community is organized for cooperative efforts in all spheres of their lives. If they can develop an enlightened cooperative spirit, in which their rational self interest will be safeguarded, and know how to de- mand and utilize Government assistance, then only will prosperous self governing rural communities deve- lop. After discussing the respective merits of 'Collective farming, Joint farming and Cooperative farming', Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN _INDIA the Famine Commiss'on came to the conclusion that the future, development of agriculture in the case of small and medium farmers depend in considerable measure on the organization of these classes into multi- purpose village cooperative societies. They make recommendations as to how these societies should be federated into unions, and what procedure should be adopted for their effective working. Large landholders are to be encouraged to organize themselves into agri- cultural associations, and the farm workers also be encouraged to organize themselves. In the concluding chapter of their Report they remark: that "the food problems with which we have been primarily concerned, merges into broad problems of agricultural and economic developments, and these in turn are linked up with fundamental social questions. Poverty and hunger have been too often accepted as part of the nature of things and much of the countryside may almost be described as a rural slum, whore hopelessness engendered by slum conditions prevail. Such an attitude of mind, on the part either of' rulers or of ruled, is in- compatible with progress. Without vision arid faith in the future little can be achieved". This brings its to the consideration of proposals which the University C:mmiss.on has made for providing an educational programme suited to bring into being the nw state of rural society. As an illustration of how such things have been done in other countries, they describe in detail the part played by the 'land grant' colleges of the U.S.A., with their associated Agricultural Exper ment Stations and Extension Services all run on a cooperative basis between the Agricultural Depart- ment of the Federal and State Governments. The Commission's recommendations on agricultural educa- tion and rural universities are very mach influenced by the U.S.A. examples. We do not believe that the Indian problem can be solved by an unintelligent imitation of U.S.A. prac- tices. The U.S.A. is a comparatively thinly populated country which has made it possible to have large farms; the shortage of labour has encouraged mechani- zation of farm work. During recent years horse drawn agricultural machines have been replaced by power driven tractors and other appliances. Such large scale farming has led to certain undesirable agricultural practices under which the soil has in many regions de- ten i rated badly. Efforts are now being made to stop this soil deterioration. While the yield per capita of agriciaural worker is very high, the yield per acre is 'moderate compared to what is obtained in many of the western European countries. In this country, primarily of small holdings and superfluity of manual compared to available mechanical power, the problem requires a different approach. Nevertheless due to the similarity in political structure in the two countries viz., Federal union of States enjoying a great deal of autonomy, the machinery evolved in the U.S.A. for coordinating the activities of the Federal and State Departments of Agriculture are worth studying and adoption, with necessary modifications, in our country, 455 We shall devote the rest of the review in discussing A. American agricultural administration and edu- cation programme; B. Reform in Indian agricultural education and administration; and C. Rural, Secondary and University Education in India. A. American Agricultural Administration?It is interesting to note that during 1862, when under the Morril Act grants of federal lands were made to the dif- ferent States and Territories of the U.S.A., for the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college in each State, which were enjoined "to teach amongst other things such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and to mechanical arts, in order to promote liberal and practical education of the indus- trial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life", the Congress in the same year established the De- partment of Agriculture, with the directive that "the general designs and duties of the Department shall be to acquire and to diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected in the agricultire in the most general and comprehen- sive sense of the word". Further the Commissioner for Ariculture -Was directed to acquire information "which can be obtained by means of books and cor- respondence; and by practical and scientific experi- ments, by the collection of statistics and by other appropriate means within his power". Thus thee two agencies started in the same year, h ave revolutionized the development of agriculture in the U.S.A. The U.S.A. Department of Agriculture: consists of (a) eight large operating or program units, which are named (i) Offices including Extension, Forest, and Soil Conservation offices, (ii) Administrations : including Farm credit, Farmers Union, Production and Marketing, Rural Electrification, and Agricultural Research; and (b) in addition there are eight Staff and Service Offices at departmental level. These are : Budget and Finance, Foreign Agricultural Relation, Information, Library, Personnel, Plant and Operation, Solicitor, The Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Of these the functions of the Extension Service and of the Agricultural Administration are of most in- terest to us for our present discussion. The latter consists of six large Bureaus viz., (1) Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, which deals with chemical, physical and engineering research. into the properties of farm commodities and the method Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 456 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE of utilizing such commodities. The bulk of the research- es in this Bureau are conducted in four Regional Research Laboratories, whose efforts are directed to discovering ways of utilizing specific agricultural com- modities for food, feed and non-food industrial pur- poses, especially of farm commodities in which there are regular or seasonal surplus. (2) Animal. Husbandry and Production?deals ith applied and fundamental research relating to the breeding, feeding and management of farm stock, except dairy cattle, poultry and fur bearing animals, and the technology of animal products. There are four regional laboratories. (3) Bureau of Dairy Industry. (4) Entomology and Plant Quarantine. (5) Human Nutrition and Home Economics? deals with (a) Basic human needs for food, clothing, housing and other goods and services and (b) Relative utility and economy of goods available for basic human needs. (6) Plant Industry, Soil and Agricultural Engine- ering?devoted to (a) Improvement of crop plant production, by reducing the hazards of crop production and improvement of yield and quality of crops. There are three regional laboratories for basic research. (b) Soil Science deals with classification and im- provement of soil, management of soil in humid and dry-land regions, and under irrigation_ Study of basic soil-plant relationship and research on the preparation, technology, and use of fertilizers etc. There are two regional research laboratories devoted to basic research. (c) Agricultural Engineering devoted to engineer- ing problem of primary processing of farm products, use of electricity, use of faim buildings and equip- ments and operation of farm machinery. Office of Experiment Stations?Its function is to direct as well to coordinate the researches carried out in the Federal Experiment Stations, its other function is to advise the State Experiment Stations, located in land grant' colleges, and to coordinate their work with those of the Federal Laboratories. it is stated that these Experiment Stations have been tremendously important to the development of scientific farming of the Nation. The new and improv- ed commodities and farming methods developed by these stations are outstanding examples of the great values which accrue to a Nation through scientific research. The importance of the stations can be scarcely over emphasized. .4 yr Mal/Aral Experiment Stations?The stations grew out of the 'land grant' colleges. We have referred to the latter in the introduction to this section, and shall deal with them in detail later. Between 1862 and 1887 the Federal Government acted to extend agricultural experiment stations to all States and Territories with 'land grant' agricultural colleges 14 States had independently established such stations. Besides a main station there are branch stations and field laboratories in different parts of the AND CULTURE VOL 15, No. 12 States, to suit differences in soil, climate and diversi- fication of agriculture. Federal Grants for State Experiment Stations? The Hatch Act of 1887 appropriated $15,000/- annually to each State for the experiment stations. The grant was increased progressively till in 1928, the authori- zation reached. a total of $ 90,000/- per station per year. The States have contributed 2 to 3 dollars for each dollar of Federal grant. During 1947, the grant from Federal funds to the Experiment Stations was approxi- mately $ 6.2 million, out of which about $ 3.1 million was utilized for background research, $ 2.95 million for applied research and only 0.15 million for deve- lopment work. The research programmes of the State Experiment Stations include Industrial Utilization, Agricultural Engineering, Animal and Dairy industries, Entomology and Zoology, Forestry, Home Economics, Plant Science, Soil Science and Watershed Protection and Conservation. The Hatch Act also laid down specific authoriza- tion for scientific research at Federal Stations; the direc- tives were mostly for applied and developmental charac- ter. Later the Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935 directed the Secretary for Agriculture `to conduct research in- to laws and principles underlying basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects' and also "authorized and directed (the Secretary) to encourage the same type of research in Agricultural Research Station" i.e., basic research was introduced in the latter. The role of the Federal Department in the admi- nistration of grants for financing the State Experiment Research Stations, was also laid down in the Hatch Act. of 1887, which directed the Secretary 'to indicate from time to time such lines of enquiry which shall appear to him most important and in general to fur- nish such advice and assistance as will best promote the purpose of this Act'. In later Acts the Secretary was directed to coordinate "the work of the Department of Agriculture with that of the State Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations". In principle, it appears that there is nothing to differentiate the type of agricultural research under- taken by the Federal and State Departments of Agri- culture. The cooperative participation of the Federal Department of Agriculture is limited to problems which are common to two or more Stat. s or are of regional nature. Commodity Committees?In the Federal Depart-. (tient of Agriculture, there are a large number of Com- mittees, - of inter-departmental and of inter-bureau - character, which have been created to serve in an. advisory policy making role to the Secretary c Agri- culture. Amongst these we select the twenty inter- bureau Committees, whose combined assignments encompass the entire commodity responsibility of the Department. The Committees were established to bring together in one group, individuals from all research units with interests in one particular commodity. Each Committee is concerned with recording the primary Problems related to their commodity areas and recom- Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN INDIA mending research programmes needed for their solution. Through this method research programmes for cotton, grain, rice etc. are developed which cut across bureau lines and represent an integrated research programme. Some of the commodities are: Poultry Dairy Cotton Grain Citrus fruits Peanut Flax Rice Deciduous Troenut Wool fruits Livestock Tobacco Potato Dry Bean Feed Sugar Vegetable and Transportation Here there is no separation, as in India, into cash and other commodities, of which the former are under semi-autonomous All-India Central Committees. Land grant Colleges?These were started, as stated earlier, under the Morril Act 1862 with Federal land grants. There are now 70 of such Colleges and Uni- versities. Each State has at least one and in 18 States there are two, in about half the States, they are the State Universities, all but two have Agricultural Colleges. From 1887 Federal grants were given to 'land grant' Colleges, to launch Agricultural Experiment Stations, Laboratories and experiment fields, which provided the source materials for the entire land grant system of liberal and practical education. Class room instruction and research stimulated each other. Throughout the country, land grant colleges pushed back the walls of intellectual darkness, each discovery opening new potentialities. The experiment was so successful that by 1914, the farmer's complaint was not that science was too slow or fruitless, but the knowledge of the laboratories was fully 25 years in advance of general farm practices. Hence they demanded that new steps be taken to make the results of science available to the men on the land. 'So the Federal State Extension system was launched. Here was an unique 'land grant' experiment. An adult educational system reaching from laboratories, class room and experiment fields to men and women throughout rural America'. "In that half century, the land grant colleges had enlarged and enriched all types of and phases of education, not only at the college level but at the secondary school level as well". The teachers trained in these institutions "in agriculture, industrial arts, home economics, basic sciences, and liberal arts were_ introducing new courses into high schools, just as extension agents were carrying infor- mation to the farms and homes of the land". "The land grant institution now enrol on their register approximately as many students as the other 1200 Colleges and Universities combined? about a million students". The agricultural programme of the land grant college is three fold : (1) the Colleges/ or teaching division, (2) the Experiment Station or Research Institute, 457 (3) The Agricultural Extension Service. So far as one can make oat, the Experiment Sta- tion with branch station and laboratories in differ- ent parts of a State is the main, if not, the sole agency by which agricultural research is conducted in a State. As a recent report states "Research supported by State and Federal funds is frequently indistinguishable at the experiment station. Different facets of a single problem may be supported both by Federal grants .and State funds. The same scientist may direct men paid by either fund. The results of both are commonly utilized". The Agricultural Extension Service became another aspect of Federal and State cooperation. The new know- ledge about scientific agriculture as developed in the Experiment Stations are incorporated with instructions given in the Colleges. This scientific information which is the basis of all progress in agriculture on the farms, is supplied to the latter by the Extension Service, which is a cooperation programme of the Federal Govern- ment and States and local communities. The persons who carry this linowledge and demonstrate it to the far- mers are called County Agents. They are trained in the Agricultural Colleges and have a bachelor's degree in agriculture as minimum qualification. They are appointed by and work under colleges. Teaching of agriculture in rural high schools was given a stimulus by Act of Congress passed in 1917. Before this act was passed, less than half the States gave any grant-in -aid to secondary schools for the teaching of agriculture. The new Act appropriated Federal money for the pre- paration of teacher training, in agriculture as a coopera- tive venture with teacher training institutions. It carried the stipulation that funds appropriated for the preparation of teachers shall be matchk, d dollar for dollar by the States, or by local community or both. At present 72 Colleges and Universities are training teachers and supervisors of vocational agriculture, of this number 63 are land grant colleges. B. Reform in Agricultural Education in India? The short account given above gives a picture of the key position held in the U.S.A. by the 'land grant' colleges in carrying on agricultural research in Experi- ment Stations, incorporating the results in teaching of agriculture, in training teachers for agricultural secondary schools, and County agents for Extension Service. It is not surprising that the American members of the Indian University Commission should place be- fore their Indian colleagues, the principle of 'land grant' colleges as model for agricultural education, associated with the proJosed rural universities in India. Some of the Commission's recommendations on agricultural education are: (i) that as far as feasible agricultural education be given a rural setting so that it shall include direct participation in and experience with agricultural life and practices; (ii) that new agricultural colleges, where possible be associated with new rural universities so that agri- Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 458 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AN cultural education may be supported and enriched by e,ndact with other fields, and common use of personnel and equipment; (iii) that a widespread series of experimental hums e developed by the central and provincial. Governments as resources and adequately trained men become available; these experiment stations to repre- sent all major types of soil, climate, crops and topo- graphy ; that as nearly as possible every basic elemen- tary school, every rural. secondary and every rural university should have its own small experimental farm, so that the spirit of research and experiment &rail prevail all rural life, and that where practicable every experiment station or college where student on work or study programmes may provide labour while becoming: acquainted with experimental and research. methods.,arding, existing agricultural colleges, the Com- mission recommend that they be strengthened in equip- ment and teaching staff, and that each one, in addi- Hon to a programme of well proportioned general and .-igrioultaral education, endeavour to find some phase I agricultural practice or some related interest, like lgricultural credit or agricultural cooperatives, in which shall undertake to achieve mastery. Similarly the tiew adieultural colleges should explore some phase of .tgriett !tare or related interest often particularly related to its loettlity, in which it will strive to become an out- sdatuling authority. N o I NTPTAN AGRICULTTTR AL POLTCY A (Vie Ultll re in the New Constit ytion---Subject matter .-d? laws made by (Union) Parliament and the Legisla- ture of 5fates is defined by Article 249 of the Constitu- tion, There are three lists given in the seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution, of which list I contains the names of subjects which the Parliament is alone r'njtowered to deal. There is another list (IT) with Wh ich the States (provincial) Legislature is alone em- powered to deal. While there is a third list (III) of coneurrent subjects with which the Union (Central) am] the State T.egislatures can both deal. Arlicie 45 provides : The State (Union) shall cmdeavoilr to organize agriculture and animal husbandry di modern scientific lines and shall in particular, take ,4etts for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter of cows, calves, and other roileh. and draught cattle. (hi looking through, the three lists in seventh. '-1chedule we discovered to our surprise, that agriculture, which should be the responsibility of both the Union and the States, does not find a place in List ITT of con- current subjects. On the other hand in State List II, we md No. 14 : Agriculture, including agricultural edu- cation and research, protection against pests, and pre- vention of plant diseases ; and No, I : Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases ; veteri- nary ft. ..Lining and practice. D CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 In the concurrent subject List TIT the only refer- ence to agriculture and animal husbandry is in No. 29 : Prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagions diseases affecting men, animal or plants. The above noted ommission should be rectified and the sections 14 & 15 of List ii should be trans- ferred to List III. In implementing the changes Suggested in the Cons- titution, the following powers and responsibilities should devlove on the Union Government: (i) For the maintenance of administration, bureaus and services on the lines existing under the U.S.A. Department of Agriculture , the different functions will be developed out of the existing machi- nery and taken up as resources and adequately trained personnel become available. (ii) In particular the functions listed under the Agricultural Research Administration of the U.S.A. and at present carried out by the All India Institutes for Research in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Dairy Industry should be extended by the opening of a number of laboratories and experiment stations suited to the requirements of different regional areas of the country. Such work should be in cooperation with State Experiment Stations and deal with problems affecting two or more States or of regional nature. (iii) Special regional laboratories for soil science and for watershed protection and conservation should be started. (iv) The distinction between cash and other agricul- tural commodities should be abolished. If it is found necessary to continue, for research and development purposes, the imposition of cess on these commodities, the total cess collected should be credited to a central. authority who will be responsible for its utilization. The Minister of Agriculture will be advised by suitable constituted Commodity Committees who will bring together in one group individuals from all research units with interest in one particular commodity. These committees will be responsible for recording the primary problems related to their commodity area and research programmes needed for their solution. Agricultural research and development can be carried mainly through the agencies of the States Ex- periment Stations. Plant breeding, basic investigations on rusts, fungi, insects etc. affecting economic plants, storage of their products and similar investigations on animals, and evolving methods for their prevention and control, can best be undertaken by cooperation between Regional States and University laboratories specializing in such work. (v) Similarly the-work of technological laboratories at present under Central Committees viz., on Cotton (Bombay), Jute (Calcutta,) Lac (Namkum) and Sugar (Kanpur) should not be confined to investigations on products of one economic plant or insect only. They should be converted into large regional laboratories equipped for investigations of physical, chemical, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June; 1.950 AGRICULTURAL nDtYCATION AND tESEA11,011 IN INDIA and engineering problems connected with, and for the discovery of new uses for, economic crops, which are the speciality of each of the regions. So far as possible duplication of work in the different regional laborato- ries should be avoided. (vi) The Union Government should be responsible, jointly with State Government for the proper equipment and maintenance of State Experiment Stations, State Agricultural Colleges, for the training of teachers for agricultural secondary schools and for Extension work. The I.C.A.R. is at present discharging, not very satis- factorily, some of these functions. Further extension of its powers on the lines of the Federal Office of Ex- periment Stations of the U.S.A. is necessary. (vii) The responsibilty of the Union Government for (iv) will in part take the shape of grants to the States, which will be matched by similar grants by the latter and other local agencies. The other part of the Union's responsibility will be to provide machinery for super- vision and coordination. The problems of agricultural administration of this country with its peculiar social and economic structure and its traditional agricultural practices are vast and complicated. We have suggested certain changes of Constitution and administrative reorganization and ex- pansions and a new adjustment of the activities of the Union and State departments of agriculture, with a view to securing expansion, better rationalization and coordination of their respective functions. These proposals require to be supplemented by detailed studies, one of the most important and complicated of which is the machinery for Extension service, which in view of the small holdings and present illiteracy of the culti- vators Must go much further in directions not considered necessary in the U.S.A. In most of the Central and State agricultural departments, there has been many failures in the work of extension. It is over 20 years that an Agricultural Commission was appointed to examine on the state of agriculture and rural economy of the country. The Famine Com- mission of 1944 has done valuable work in this direction. Probably the appointment of a Committee to report on the overhauling of the machinery of agricultural administration (both on Union and State levels) on the lines discussed above may be desirable. C. Rural, Secondary and Univers?ty Education? In '13' we quotel some of the important recom- mendations of the University Commission on Agri- cultural Education (Chap. VII). They were based upon an adaptation of the structure of 'land grant' colleges to our local conditions. We are told that these 'land grant' colleges provide 3000 occupations including such as are suitable to students from agricultural vocational schools, who desire to specialize in different aspects of agriculture. The Commission recommended that the new agricultural colleges, 'where possible, should be associated with new rural universities, so that agri- cultural education may be supported and enriched by 459 contact with other fields, and by common use of person- nel and equipment'. In Chapter (VIII) on Rural Uni- versity we did not discover any coherent scheme of rural collegiate education, correlated with agricultural education and extension work. It appears to Ls that Chapters VII & VIII were written by different members of the Commission, and no attempt was made subse- quently to fuse them into a coherent system. This has to some way detracted from the usefulness of the Report. The whole of rural education is divided by the Commission into : 8 years of basic education; 3 or 4 years of post basic or secondary education; 3 years for college, and 2 years for post-graduate university work for master's degree. The expression 'college' in this connection refers to not only to education leading to an academic degree but to any education beyond the secondary school whatever may be its form. Adult education through People's College-- The Commission views the possibility that a large proportion of Indian rural boys and girls may not at- tend formal school beyond the seven or eight years of basic education. The Commission suggest that for such people some form of adult education may be arr- anged similar to that provided by the People's College of the Scandinavian countries, especially of Denmark. People's College of Denmark are residence insti- tutions for adult young people, chiefly from rural life. They are not vocational but cultural in their purpose. All of them and of the Agricultural Schools are private institutions, usually owned by principals, but sometimes by an association. A People's College applying for public funds must be first recognized by Government. While the Government allows a certain proportion of students under eighteen, the People's College are conducted on the assumption that it will be well to have a break in schooling between the 14th and the 18th year or longer. Many Danes hold that during this period between adolescence and maturity young people want to grapple with practical affairs, to become self- sufficient and self-reliant. It is felt that students should first learn the manual labour of their future occupation, and should not attend People's College unless and un- til they have a strong desire for education. There is no space here to evaluate the results of the People's College movement. Their alumni have taken leading role in the cultural achievements of' the country, in initiating social legislations and in helping the economic development of the country. The Commission does not however indicate how the proposed rural univer- sities will help in the starting of any adult education movement in this country on the lines of the People's College. Basic Education?To see rural higher education in good perspective it is considered necessary to have Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 460 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULTI:tRt Vol. 15, No. 12 some idea of the elementary and secondary education out of which it should emerge. The Commission consider that the programme of Basic National Edu- cation for grades one to five, may be considered as a representative statement of what basic education for rural areas should be. This programme is in practice in several parts of In(lia, and appears in main to be justifying the expectations of those who gave it form. A possible criticism of actual practice is, over emphasis on one process of producing fabric and cloth. 'In some ways it seems desirable that a more distributed interest and attention to varied processes of rural life would be desirable'. There is no attempt to indicate how the agricultural activities can be made to provide such interests. As post basic secondary school programme has been less carefully worked out and while that of higher education has not been clearly formulated, the Commis- sion proceed to consider them in detail. Rural 8econdary Schools--A successful development of secondary rural education should presume decentra- lized well balanced progressive industrialization. In fact a considerable part of the vocational training of post basic school should be to prepare boys and girls, TM longer needed for agriculture, for other callings. The industrial development of India is being handicap- ped by the lack of workers who are skilled in hand and eve, to fill positions not requiring full professional training. As rural industries develop, the rural secon- dary schools should go far to meet that need. Again we miss here any references to special types of agricul- tural vocational schools necessary to provide: (i) Training to sons of yeomen farmers, to fit them to become better cultivators of land ; (ii) Training for village guides, who will pass on to the cultivators all the information about improved agricultural technique in State and agricultural college experiment stations; and (iii) To provide overseers for such. stations. Amongst the number of types of rural secondary schools which will emerge as the general principle of basic education find expression in practice, the Commi- ssion selects one type for detailed consideration. Such a school should, unless there are good reasons to the contrary, be residence school with pupils living in hos- tels or if feasible, in such houses as would be suitable for good village life. On the other hand it is important that school experience shall not divorce him from his village associations, so that he cannot return to work in the world from which he came. The secondary school village would as a rule serve it group of villages and should be conveniently situated with reference to them. It will cater for 150 to 200 students, and will require 30 to 60 acres of land, of which 10 acres should be used for school house, hostels, homes for teachers, play grounds, workshops and industrial sites. The rest should be for agriculture, forest and pasture. All this is very desirable, only the cost of starting and running such schools in large numbers appears to be prohibitive. Certain sugges- tions are given for reducing the cost of construction e.g., by making the pupils and teachers take part in building the school village, with the help of a person trained in village and school planning. Further the life of the school should follow the course of life of a good village, except that about half the working time should be given to study, and about half to practical work. There are some kind of work with which nearly every pupil should become familiar, such as child care, cooking, and keeping of home for girls, and agriculture and the use of household tools for boys and girls. The school should raise most ?fits food and should teach boys and girls how to make the land yield as much as possible. The practical work should include farming, building? carpentry, housekeeping, weaving, street clearing, and other useful village work. It should also include one or more modern industries, manufacturing goods for sale. Rather than work and study for a part of each day, it probably will be well to divide the students into two shifts, each shift studying and working Pn alternate days or more probably alternate weeks or fortnights.. For many of the pupils the secondary school period would complete the schooling and their special training. Others would find it desirable to go to more advanced rural schools or colleges. A syllabus is given of the more formal type of edu- cation to be given in these schools, both for the imparting of information and what is more important the deve- lopment of attitudes of mind and spirit. Other topics like self support in Basic Education and Division of Labour in Basic Secondary Schools are discussed in the Report, into which we cannot enter for want of space. A very attractive picture of rural secondary school is presented in the Report; it will require to be tried in specially selected rural areas, as pilot scheme, for tests, (1) regarding the cost involved; (ii) on the development of cooperative building and other practical activities amongst the teachers and rupils, and (iii) on the feasibility of cembining the formal and practical portion of the training as mapped out with the capacity of the pupils to assimilate the training within 3 or 4 years of post basic edu- cation. Rural Colleges and Universities?As a general type of arrangement it is suggested in the Report that a rural university should include a ring of small resident undergraduate colleges, with specialized and university (post-graduate) facilities in the centre. The number of undergraduate students in. each college should be about 300 and the maximum overall enrolment for colleges and university combined about 2500. This arrangement will combine the advantages of small resi- dent undergraduate colleges where there are close rela- tions between teachers and students with the advantage of fully developed university which offer a wide range of specialized and advanced educational opportunity to Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 - Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RE8EA11011 IN INDIA advanced students or to other students with specialized interest. The aim of each college would be to equip its students with general educational foundation and to encourage the development of individual aptitudes and interests as they appear. A great deal of flexi- bility and adaptability in the courses to be offered to the students is recommended. While there should be many elements common for all students, the curri- cula should be made to fit the needs of individuals; and not to make the students to conform to an arbitrary curriculum. Each student should be given the oppor- tunity, without sacrificing the general core of education, to begin specialization at whatever time he is ready for it, even at the risk that he might later change his field of occupational interest. Some students have clearly defined occupational interests at an early age. The other important recommendation is that in rural colleges as in rural secondary schools, general studies should be united with practical courses, so that those who attend college should become cultured educa- ted men and women, and also persons trained and skilled in some field or prepared for further advanced training. Probably the greater part of rural college students will not have further schooling except for 'refresher courses' and so their college courses should include occupational preparation. Also as with rural secondary students, rural college students may spend about half their time at studies and half at practical work. The working and study period should be longer than in secondary schools, the interval between work and study being perhaps 5 or 10 weeks each. This programme of work and study has been develope-1 in some places in Europe and America, through more than 35 years, and has been successful. In America a steadily increasing number of universities, technical institutes and similar institutions now use ?it. "There is a tendency in University circle which look upon alternating work and study and also upon 'practical' courses, e pecially those calling for manual craftsmenship as suited to inferior minds, while profess- ional courses are for intellectuals. This separation of skill of hand from skill of mind has greatly retarded the mastery of the physical world and has been the major cause of poverty, especially in India. Practical skill should be looked upon as equal in dignity and worth to purely intellectual skill. Like scholarship, it should be recognized with ascending grades of achieve- ment and opportunity, so that the man who develops high ability with hand and eye may have an open road to advancement equal to that of the purely intel- lectual worker". Examples cited in the Report to 2, 461. support this view are the great contributors to astrono- my who have based their work on mechanical skill. Charles F. Kettering the famous General Motors Manager, and Henry Ford in their earlier years worked out ideas with their own hand as mechanics. Ways and Means?As to ways and means of get- ting the rural education programme under way, the Commission remarks; "The criticism would be made that while the programme outlined would be a desirable one, India does not have the resources to put it into effect. Most of the provinces are already committed to the principles of basic education. Each of them might well establish a number of nsident secondary school villages hnd they might cooperate in establishing one or more rural universities. Similarly the Central Government might well establish several resident se- condary school villages and a rural university. The growth of the new system will depend largely on the supply of suitable teachers. The Central Government or the Provinces might establish one or more training schools for teachers of this programme. "The Gandhi Memorial Trust might well establish several secondary school villages over India, and one rural university, staffing them with persons trained in existing training centres and with others who are sin- cerely committed to the principles of basic education. It will be no disadvantage for the programme to have varied independent beginnings. The new type of secon- dary schools and universities should be vigorously developed as essential element of the educational ex- pansion on which the future of India depends". We bring our survey of "Agricultural Education and Research in India" to a close with the above ex- tract. The proposals for rejuvenation of rural educa- tion and the starting of rural universities are too com- plex to be described adequately in a few paragraphs or can be assessed at the tail end of our present review. If occasions arise, we hope to return to it again. D.M.B. REVERE Ncns 1. Report, University Education Commission, 1948-49. Vol,l. 2. Report, Calcutta University Commission, 1917-19. Vol. 3. 3. The Famine inquiry Commission, 1945. Final Report. 4. Report on Post-War Educational Reconstruction, Central Advisory Board of Education. 5. Report on Post-War Agricultural Reconstruction, 6. I.C.A.R., Organization and Functions. Part I 1948. 7. Education in Modern India; Anath Nath Basu, 1946. 8. Science and Public Policy in U.S.A. Steelman Report, Vols, 2 and 3, 1947. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 1412 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 sattistct ANTI crtvrintt Vol. 15, No. 12 IS COMMUNAL CONFLICT OR WAR INSTINCTIVE? K. C. MITKHEIt.11 RIVA RT1WFN'T OF PSYU}IOLOUY, CALUUTTA UNIVERSITY NsTINur refers essentially to a conative impulse A which man inherits for the satisfaction of his most fundamental needs of life. So instinct is in the i lid iv ifiu al 's psychological make-up. Aggressiveness is iegarded by McDougall to be an unit of this make-up. But killing is not the only manifestation of human aggression. Litigation in the defence of one's own interest and political campaign not leading actually to any war also come of the aggressive impulse. Even intellectual endeavour to understand and master the ovirolanfait is considered sublimated manifestation of. the aggressive impulse. So the mere fact that man has aggressive impulses does not necessarily imply hat war is inevitable and unavoidable. Thus war is not a co-existent factor of aggression. In fact war may tonic out of some specific conditions which it is not pos- sible for one to establish from the study of the indivi- dual's psychological make-up. The American history iiows generally a peaceful state of human affairs-- quite different from the state of mind which the people of Europe present. These people, deriving from the same stock behave differently in different countries not because of any changed psychological structure, but because of the different socio-political conditions under which they live. So the basic human factors remain almost constant while the sociological factors are the variables. But Freud finds in this basic human nature the unavi)ittable element of war. According to him m-ali is th unavoidable manifestation of man's innate les triicti He believes that destruction for its own sake is one of the strongest human motive forces. In international wars this self-destructive tendency if the people is indeed deflected to an outward object. accoruing to Freud the innate destructiveness of man causes war and war is unavoidable. Men must hate and destroy something.Only if they have a common external object of hate can they be saved from each ifther's destructiveness. Leaders understand this ins- tinctively ; and in order to avert revolution they insti- 1 ate war. This is not the place to discuss Freud's problematic death-instinct theory. But even if it is true that man is innately destructive and that war is the manifesta- th in of destructiveness it does not necessarily follow I hat man will always have to conduct wars. We ob- serve that Freud has studied the manifestation of this destructiveness under different conditions and found that this destructiveness might be diverted towards external objects.' But he has not discussed the necessary relationship of tins destructiveness to war. So war as a manifestation of this destruc- tiveness may occur only under certain social comfi- t ions- -na,ional or international. It is not well known whether an innate destructiveness for its own sake Why wi ? Paris International Institute of Intellectual -operation, League of Nations, 1933), pri.3-9. goes beyond the limits of self-preservation. The rela- tionship of aggressiveness to self-preservation is still uncertain. But there is no doubt that a destruc- tiveness for its own sake may exist as a secondary pheno- menon in the form of sadism. This sadism is often considered as a secondary erotization of an originally self preservative aggressiveness. It seems that in morbid development, when a large quantity of inhibited hostile impulses accumulate these may be drained by sadistic behaviour which serves merely as a grati- fication and not for self-preservation. So even when destructiveness for its own sake causes war or hostile conflicts it is under special conditions of life that such development arises. So the conditions of war-like conflicts may pri- marily be mental or environmental. Though the condi- tions of the two kinds are not exclusively separate but still their relative importance in the determination of conflict or war varies in different cases. When the emphasis is made on the environmental factor it means that the existence of a particular people is threatened by particular environment ; that is to say, when a pebple endeavours to ensure its existence its endeavours con- flict with the strivings of other peoples subjected to the same environmental forces. Thus we find that when an environment is brought about by the strivings of a people in its struggle for existence? rendering it difficult for other peoples to adapt themselves to it, then an attempt is made to alter that environment, but thus attempt is resisted by the people who consider that any alteration of the environment will affect its own existence. As a result communal conflict or war follows. This is an economic crisis which it is difficult to prevent through psychology. But Freud in a letter to Einstein holds that 'con- flict of interest among mankind is in the main usually decided by the use of force. This is true of the whole animal kingdom from which mankind should not be exempted'.2 It means that war is the usual way of setting conflicts between groups. This view tends to refute those who seek the causes of war in a specific emotional disturbances of the masses and refer to it as a mass psychosis. We observe communal con- flict often come out of a mass psychosis. In this con- flict the aggressors as individuals remain relatively normal, well-adapted persons. They go about their business, take care of their family and so forth. But it is only when they join a group, when they become members of a mass, they lose certain qualities which determine normality and thereby become instrumental in helping to produce a mass delusion, belief in which is shared by all the other group members; their delusion is a mass delusion and may not be effective indivi- dually under the test of reality. Individually there 2 ibid., p.3. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 IS COMMUNAL CONFLICT ? may remain a few persons who may have friends among the members of the other community whom they hate collectively. But these few people may be influenced by propaganda through newspapers, leaflets etc. and may believe in the wickedness of the members of the other community without argumentation. Thus they become intellectually participant in the mass delusion without active cooperation with the mass. This mass psychosis which operates in the origin of communal troubles is distinct from the individual psychosis and so we find that a delusional disorder of the mass-mind may leave the individual mind still intact. To understand this mass psychosis we should try to analyse the basic complex of the individuals actively participating in the communal massacres. So our endeavour will certainly be misdirected if we merely embark on an investigation of the various accusations brought against the members of one community by the others. False accusation is bound to occur in the com- munal conflicts. The differences in habits and ways and says of life, differences in wealth, culture and status can not adequately explain the original cause of communal bitterness, because these differences exist among the members of the same community. But we find that when these differences are irrationally exaggerated and used as a weapon in the hands of the politicians; when false charges and irrational indictments are made by the leaders, they are accepted by the mass-mind and communal fury follows. We shall try to know the mental mechanism that allows the false charges and calumny to spread like an infectious disease and produ- ces such a, delusion in the mass-mind that an unrestrict- ed discharge of destructive aggression follows. It has been already pointed out that this aggressive des- tructiveness is due to the delusional disorder of the mass- mind. The individuals come under the spell of this delusion when they join the mass. This psycho-patho- logical disturbance of the mass-mind is not a mass-neu- rosis, it is a mass-psychosis, for the very essence of a neurosis is that it afflicts the individual with inhibitions and makes him asocial, an outsider to the group. So the neurotic individuals cannot form a group. A psychosis is specifically precipitated by a break of the ego with reality. A break with reality means that the individual withdraws his instinct cathexes from the objects of his present world and allows his ego to escape from reality by regressing emotionally to a past level of his childhood?the stage of narcissistic self- love. So the psychotic ceases loving the object and loves only himself; object-libido becomes transformed into narcissistic ego-libido. The over-abundance of narcissistic self-love makes him megalomanic; and he becomes unconscious of his failure to struggle with reality. The relative incapacity of the psychotic to adapt to reality precipitates all his mental disorder by impelling his ego to escape through the avenue of infantile regression. This regression goes so deep that the peculiarities of primordial narcissism in which hatred governs the environmental relationships deve- lop in the ego. This stage of narcissism is both an ontogenetic and phylogenetic phenomenon and it is OR WAR INSTINCTIVE 1 463 conflicts in man. In this stage of primordial narcissism there is no barrier of repression; for the pm-morbid ego of the psychotic in its trend to regression cannot afford that expenditure of energy necessary to sustain the defence mechanism of repression. So the super- ego of the psychotic is not strong and effective. In fact the psychotic ego regresses to the infantile stage of development where there is no super-ego?or where its governing power is still represented by the parent. So Freud has shown that the mental energies from which we build the intra-psychic power of our super-ego stem chiefly from the introversion of suppressed aggres- sive energies; specially those which we were forced to deflect from our parents. The ego allows these intro- verted aggressions to be made over to the super-ego. While submitting to this inner parent, the ego perceives its aggressions as pangs of conscience or as feelings of guilt. But in the process of the deterioration of the psychotic ego system the super-ego gradually succumbs to it. So the ego loses its orientation toward reality as well as the capacity to differentiate between the ex- ternal object reality and inner irrational psychic reality. The psychotic then sees the object world in terms of the irrational imagery of his unconscious. But all the im- ages which populate the world of the psychotic are in essence representative of but one figure?that of the parent. The ego breaks down because it cannot solve its conflict of ambivalence, of loving or hating the pa- rent. This latent ambivalence conflict with the parent which precipitates psychosis in the individual by a break of his ego with reality is split up in the individual through participation in the collective ego of the crowd. The parental power of the unconscious of the individual is re-extroverted into the leader whom he loves and into the people of the other community whom he chooses as the object of his hatred. So the mass-leader represents the beloved parent in whom the child needs to believe for the sake of his own security. By becoming a member of the mass and accepting the mass-leader as the external parental representative the individual becomes a child for the period. So the individual inner super-ego disappears; all his inner responsibility is thus off; the barriers of repression are lifted and the instinct force of primitive hate and destruction unla- shed. This release of repression allows the unconscious materials to enter the conscious ego ; and the conscious ego becomes subjected to drives and wishe., of the inner irrational psychic reality. So the individuals, as the members of the mass, believe in all false accusations especially conveyed by the leader against the members of the other community not inspite of, but because of their irrationality. So LeBon describes the leader as follows : "The nimbus of the leader is sustained only if what he says is unreal, incomprehensible and beyond discussion. The mass can believe in what he says only, when his speech appeals merely to beliefs and not to approval by argumentation". According to LeBon it is not what is real that counts, but only the unreal matters in the mass. So the crowd is incapable of distinguishing subjectivity from objectivity. So the mass suffers from paranoic delusion and 'wanders, along the borderland of the unconscious, because it this pathology of hate which lies at the basis of communal is governed by instinctual d rives of destruction and wild- Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 464 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULTURE ness, which', as LeBon holds, 'slumbers in everyone of us'. The crowd man thinks and acts completely under the spell of the primary processes in the unconscious instead of responding to the categories of logic, ethics arid aesthetics which govern our conscious mind.. Si) the regressive conscious mind of the crowd man thinks and acts irrationally. For the crowd mind. this regression is temporary but during this period of their temporary regression the members of the mass who feel individually powerless overcome their ac-vtual. infantile impotence by submerging their individual egoes into the collective ego of the group and care for no obstacles in the way of their action impulses. The restoration of this infantile mass --regression to normal- cy is at present the problem of the day. But behind this mass-regression and collective discharge of aggressive energies there is the pathological group-formation. The crowd-mindedness of the people is responsible for all communal riots and conflicts. So tieBon expresses the fear that the crowd-mindedness of modern man will bring about the destruction of civili- zation. It is the immaturity of individual egoes that make the individuals a more easy prey to the crowd- mind. The egoes are immature as a result of their super- ego weakness. An ego is mature if it has developed. a strong and effective super-ego as the internalised repre- sentative of the external parental power. This super- ego checks the infantile regression of the ego by helping the ego to test reality and to act in accordance with this testing. So the aim of all measures against communali- sm should primarily be the effective development of this social super-ego in men so that they are equipped for reality testing. But there is no mechanical process for the development of a lasting reliable strong super-ego in men. Extensive researches on the ana- lysis of different afflicted persons should be undertaken in India in order to understand and combat their mental complexes. Even children should not be neglected in Ibis work. The redirection of destructive tendencies into constructive channels, courses in social living and. imparting knowledge of the psychological facts of life should be the educational task so that the basic prepa- ration for the mature development, of the super-ego may begin early in life. The old system of totem feasts at regular intervals and of dramatic performances which we call in Bengal Vatras' seem to be useful ins- truments for the introverted making over of the pent- up aggressive energies to the super-ego. Tn Jatim the audience indentifies itself with. the tragic hero who commits terrible crimes and succumbs to the conse- quences of his guilt. In watching the performance of the drama the audience, by way of fantasy-identi- fication with the hero in his crime and in his downfall and guilt-feeling is enabled to re-introvert, the aggres- Vol 15, No 1 2 sive energies and consequently to augment the Strength of the super-ego. At present the aim of the theatre is to offer the people what the people like without considering what the people need. The aim of the games should similarly be not merely to test the relative strength of the contesting teams but the emotional enthusiasm of the people should he utilized on a mental. plane after the discharge of their aggression so that the minds of the people are carried from the spirit of coMpe- tition to the spirit of cooperation arid they feel united in love with one another by participating in songs, speeches, theatrical performances etc. It has been pointed out that the communal propaganda becomes most effective if it is irrational and appeals to the unconscious of the mass especially in the cheap kraal? where chronic alcoholics, addicts and psycho -pathic criminals gather, rj hese psychological slums which breed hate and destruction need Mental Sanitation just as the unhygienic living quarters need to be weeded out of swam :S in order to combat malaria or tuber- culosis. In communal fury, we have observed that man as an infantile individual feels weak ; so he flees into the mass and feels so overwhelmingly powerful that?whatever he might do--impunity is assured to him. Rut when the emotionally regressive individuals are not, sure of this impunity and the government lends its strong support to the minority making it as powerful as its opponents the immature individuals may then feel less tempted to become crowd-minded. So Mahatma- move for the safety of the minority in Noakhali. Calcutta and. Delhi was most psychological and greatly effective . The opposition of violence by non-violence is indeed a phenomenon of the inner-conflict of ambi- valence in man but the phenomenon of unrestricted discharge of destructive energies occurs for the lifting of the barriers of the super-ego which Mahatmaji as a re-extroverted super-ego desired to restore in the mass- mind. So this was a most psychological intuition for Mahatninji to feel that 'that which can be exercised only among friends is of value only as a spark of non- violence while 'the greatest enmity requires an equal measure of ahimsa2 to be cultivated in several. births' of generations in an atmosphere ofpurity and diseipline.3 To establish this intuitive vision of the internalised super-ego Mahatmqji possessed and to utilize its truth to the benefit of the people a scheme of work on the analysis of afflicted persons was necessary. Distin- guished psychologists and psychiatrists should be em- ployed to study the importance of this epoch making theory. Mahatimaji's disappearance may cause the disappearance of this vision unstudied but history will reflect on it. Science always entails for its success a huge waste of money and energy. No -f .imitati ihtriign, December 14, 1947 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 FOREST ECOLOGY AND EVAPORATION MEASUREMENTS IN INDIA 465 FOREST ECOLOGY AND EVAPORATION MEASUREMENTS IN INDIA G. S. PURI vOREST RtstARCH INSTITUTE, DEHRA DUN IN a recent paper Ramdas (1949) recommended that I a network of evaporation recording stations be Set up in India to providing adequate data for use in Agriculture arid Hydrology. He says "and besides the evaporation records, measurements from_ soil sur- faces (with soil evaporimeter sets) as well as seasonal. variations of the depth of water table, etc., should be made (p.174)". This suggestion is very welcome to ecOlogists, soil scientists and all those who arc engaged in the Andy of vegetation in relation to habitat factors. Evaporation or, more accurately speaking, a ratio of Precipitation/Evaporation is one of the major eco- logical factors governing the development of both soil and vegetation. In humid regions especially in higher latitudes where this ratio is high the chief trend of development in the soil is leaching as a result of which woodland soils with advancing age, become impoverished at the surface of soil bases, especially calcium. Depending upon the amount of calcium present in the rock most forest soils under natural conditions tend to develop podsolic profile and running parallel to the develop- ment of the soil there occur corresponding changes in the development and succession of vegetation. For ex- ample, immature or new soils in humid countries of Europe (e.g., in the English Lake District) are less base deficient and support the growth of ash, ash-hazel or ash-hazel-elm type of mixed woodland with exacting requirements on soil bases (Puri, 1949b; 1949e). This type is, however, succeeded in time by oak, oak-brich Or in the south of England by beech-holly communities which requires lesser amounts of calcium for their growth (Puri, 1949c). On reassorted soils or those de- rived from rocks poor in calcium, e.g., Bagshot Sands, the final stage is the conversion to healthy conditions where the soils become very acidic on the surface with a bleached A horizon and enriched B layer with iron, or humus pan. In such areas roots of trees cannot pene- trate to great depth in the soil unless hard pan is physi- cally broken to enable them to reach the lower layers. In regions with a low ratio of Precipitation/Eva- poration the chief trend in the development of the soil is evaporation, by which mineral salts from lower layers of the soil are continually brought to the surface. Some of the forest soils in tropical climate of Northern India therefore, become enriched with bases in the course of their development. It is on account of high evapora- tion froni the soil that surface layers in most types of our forests, even in hills at high altitude, are base saturated and show a poorly developed profile. The data of Griffith and Gupta, 1947 ; Taylor and others, 1936; loon, 1939f, Puri, 1949, etc.' agrees with the argu- ment developed here. It may be pointed out that some high figures for? exchangeable calcium obtained by Hoon in surface layers of some soils may be partly due to high amount of Ca present in leaf litter of the existing vegetation. An illustration of this type of development in the soils and vegetation may be found in the Kidu Hima- layas where freshly laid immature soils, rock screes, or sandy alluvia are colonised by the air pine (Pinus longifolia), a non-exacting species. This is succeeded by Kail (Pinus excelsa) and deodar (Cedrus deodara), species with higher requirements for soil bases, which become available to the seedling growth at the surface layers of the soil through evaporation and leaf litter (Dili, 1949f; 1950c). Fire is also considered by forest officers to play a notable role in the occurrence of those species but the action of fire in this case is similar to that of high evaporation. At higher altitudes in the main valleys, or in side valleys in the Kulu Himalayas there is a higher preci- pitation, as a result of which the surface soils tend to be leached of minerals. The development of vegetation in this region is similar to that of Europe and proceeds from broadleaved species of Cornus macrophylla, Prunus padus, Juglans regia, Aesculus indica, etc., with high lime requirements, to spruce and silver firs, whose demands on soil minerals are low (Puri, /oc. cit). Similar sequence is seen in the Kashmir valley (Hoon, /oc. cit.) and it seems that the development of soils and vegetation is related to the ratio of Precipi- tation and Evaporation. In lateritic soils under teak in warm tropical climate of S. India the data of Griffith and Gupta (1947) shows that a change in Precipitation/Evaporation ratio by opening the canopy and increasing evaporation from the soil brings about a deterioration of soil for this species and encourages growth of other species. The importance of Precipitation/Evaporation ratio in the development of vegetation and soils is abundantly recognised in Europe (see Stamp, 1947, p. 92) and this knowledge is applied to scientific forestry and agri- culture in most countries. In this country, however, on account of diverse climatic conditions and lack of adequate records of evaporation (and even rainfall at some places), the significance of this factor in the development of forest vegetation and soils has not been properly appreciated. My preliminary survey of sal forests in the Debra Dun valley and available data of Griffith and Gupta as indicated elsewhere (Puri, 1950a,d) tend to show that the failure in regeneration of Shorea robusta in places which have been over-exploited is perhaps, related to a change in this ratio. Under close canopies of pure sal, where the soil is little exposed to sun there is less evaporation. Furface soils in such situations are acidic and have low amounts of calcium and high amounts of nitrates. Under these conditions (see table III on pp. 22-23 mi Griffith and Gupta, loc, cit) it is seen that Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE A the regeneration of Shorea robusta. a non-exacting species with only 1.46% of foliar Ca as compared to !!-6% in most of its associates, is present. An injudi- cious opening of canopy would increase evaporation as a result of which surface soils become saturated in lbws and thus allow the growth of only exacting species at the expense of sal (Pur.i, 1950nd). flanges of a similar nature seem, to be working in conifer forests of the western Himalayas as well, where one species or the other fails to regenerate after felling operations. The author's studies on these lines in coni- fer forests of' the Kulu and Parbatti valleys are in progreSS, and the preliminary results which closely agree with those of Taylor et al, (1936) already seem to show tile causal relationship between precipitation and evaporation and growth and regeneration or various conifer species. The examples given above seem to show clearly that exact data on evaporation and rainfall over small areas in a forest are essential for successful silviculture Of our important timber species. Ramdas's suggestion for collecting evaporation data embraces only agricul- ture areas but it is highly essential that similar eva- poration measurement stations he set up in important :forests of India. Provincial Forest Departments main- tain records of rainfall at their offices and Rest Houses in the forest and at some places temperature measure- ments are also taken. it would be of immense interest, to have soil evaporimeter sets at such places to begin with and. to extend observatories to other areas in the forests later on. The cost of providing such an appa- ratus as given by Ramdas (about Rs. 500/-/-) is negli- gible as compared to the value of the data in forest ma- nagement, growth and regeneration. The Meteorological 14:_upartin.ent may perhaps, advise the Forest Depart- ment in regard to the extension. of their service of soil evaporatnm measurements for mutual benefit ; since observations from agricultural stations alone will per- haps, not give satisfactory results for assessing the effect of climate on vegetation. The ratio of Precipitation/Evaporation could be of wider application in Ecological Soil Survey in rela- tion to agriculture, forestry and land conservation. Being, faced at the moment with shortage of food, wood and fuel we should be interested in putting all avail- able land under vegetation and for this purpose it is necessary to study potentialities of land and soil-climate- vegetation complex on A. long term basis. The im- portance of Precipitation and Evaporation measure- ments on more accurate lines is thus obvious in the natural economy of our country. The first attempt at understanding the climate of India on the basis of Precipitation/Evaporation was made by Raman and Satkopan (1935), who used the single value factor "the annual rainfall minus the annual evaporation" for records of 80 different stations in th.e ceuntry At about the same time Hosking (1935) calentati climatic values for regur soils of India for comparison with black earths of Australia and his studies culminated in 1937 in the preparation of a ND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 map of India showing Meyer Ratio of Precipitation! Saturation deficit. This map shows the minimum value of Meyer ratio of 5 for central part of Sind and the maxi- mum value of 4000 for Cherrapunji which records the maximum rainfall in India. Hosking's map of Meyer ratio was used by I.C.A.R. in making the first soil map of India. in relation to climatic zones. This map, however, is preliminary and does not show any clear correlation between differ- ent types of soil and Meyer lines and relation between vegetation and these lines is still less evident. A good deal of work has been done in Australia to express .Precipitation/Evaporation ratio more accu- rately with a view to correlating it with different types of soil and vegetation and Prescott (1949) has recently brought forth this relation in. an excellent paper, which should serve as a tyre study for work in this country. Prescott states "that the most efficient single-value climatic index is P/Eni where P represents preeipitation. E evaporation from a free water surface, and m is a constant varying from 0.67 to 0.80 with a probable mean of 0.73. A value for this index of 1.1. to 1.5 corresponds to the point where rainfall balances trans- piration from vegetation and evaporation :from the soil" (ioc. cit.., p.19). The Government of India has set up a central com- mittee on soil research (1.949) one of the aims of which. will. be to advise planning of soil surveys and the pre- paration of soil map of India. It is hoped that this committee will remember the interests of Ecologists (Puri, 1948) and Foresters and recommend an ecological approach to the survey of soils. Soils, being dynamic systems, must be examined, surveyed, and classified not only in relation to climatic (Precipitation/Evapora- tion ratio) but also to vegetational, biotic and historical factors. The advantages of ecological approach in this survey are obvious, since its aim is primarily to use the soil for the maximum production of agricultural or forest crops without impairing in any way its produc- tive capacity for future use. The ratio of Precipitation/Evaporation is one of the important ecological factors governing the fertility of the soil, hence it may be stressed that to aid (i) Successful forestry, (ii) Soil survey, and (iii) Soil con- servation the service of evaporation measurement stations be enlarged so as to embrace forest areas as well. 11,Ei,u1usv( 1,15 lloon, R. C. (1939). A study of the soils in the hill areas of Kashmir, Ind. Fol.. Rec. Siln. SP:riP,R, 3: 6 llosking, J. S. (1935) Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Au,s4., 53; 168 Hosking, J. S. (1937) The ratio of precipitation to saturation deficiency of the atmosphere in India, Curr. 5. Griffith. A. L. & R. S. Gupta (1947) The deterriii ati on of characteristics of soil suitable for sal (Nliorea robusta), Ind. For. Bulletin, 138. - (1947) The characteristics of teak soils with spe- cial reference to laterisation, Ind. For. Bell. Puri, G. S. (1948) "A plea for the establishment of Ecological Survey of India to conduct researches in applied plant urology in relation to forestry, agriculture and soil conser- vation", paper submitted to the Government of India, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 INDIAN WEATHER AND LOCUST IMMIGRATION IN INDIA Ministry of Agriculture, through the High Commissioner for India in London. ----- (1949a) The ecology of erosion and land slips, Journ. Ind. Grog. Soc., 24 (1949b) The ash-oak woods of the English Lake District, Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc.. 28. (1949c) Surface Geology, vegetation and plant succession, Proc. 36th Ind. Sci. Cong., III, 149. (1949d), The historical factor and its application to forest ecology, Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc., 28, 63. (1949e) The Vegetation of some disused quarries at Ingleton, Yorkshire, England, Journ. Ind. Rot. Soc., 28. (1949f) Physical Geology and Forest Distribu- tion, Science and Culture, 15, 183. (1950a) Ecological approach to the problem of sal (Shorea robusta) regeneration in the United Provinces Part II, Proc. 37th Ind. Sci. Cong., III, 64. (1950b) Conifer forests of the Kulu Himalayas, Proc. 37th In,d. Sci. Cong., Poona. 467 ------(1950e) The distribution of Conifers in the Kulu Himalayas with special reference to Geology Ind. For. (1950d) Soil pH and fcrest communities in the Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of the Dehradun valley, U.P., Ind. For. (In Press). Prescott, J.A. (1949) A climatic index for the leaching factor in soil formation, Journ. Soil Science, 1. Raman, P. K. and V. Satkopan (1935) "Science Notes", India Met. Deptt., 6, No. 61. Ramdas, L. A (1949) Evaporation measurements in India, Central Board of Irrigation Journal, 6 : 2 Science Notes and News (1949) "Central Committee on soil research", Current Science, 18, 7. Stamp, L. D. (1947) Britiains' structure and scenery, The New Naturalist, 4. Taylor, M., I. D. Mahendru, M. L. Mehta and R. C. loon (1936) A study of the soils in the hill areas of the Kulu forest Division, Ind For. Rec. Siliv, 1 : 2 INDIAN WEATHER AND LOCUST IMMIGRATION IN INDIA* R. V. BADAMI NAUTICAL AND ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BOMBAY rrom the climatic point of view, the outstanding feature which distinguishes the Indian region from other parts of the world is the monsoon which represents interactions between the air masses of the two Hemis- pheres. Its advent in June and retreat in September are known as the transition periods. In some years, the fluctuations associated with the first transition may commence as early as in April and those with the second may not cease until October. So far as Rajputana is concerned, the immigration of locusts appears to synchronize with the first transi- tion and emigration with the second transition. This of course is a generalization, departures from which in individual years should furnish a valuable basis for the correlation between the habits of the locusts and the deviations of the various meteorological elements from their respective normals. This note is however mainly concerned with average conditions. The home of the monsoon winds in India is to the south of the Equator. The monsoon current is popular- ly known to have two branches, viz., the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. As a southwesterly current, the Bay of Bengal branch strikes Tenasserim in April or May. It then proceeds as a southeasterly current through Burma, and the U.P. and reaches the Punjab and Rajputana by Jane or July. From the point of view of heavy rainfall, this branch in association with a monsoon depression is important for the Rajputana desert. A monsoon depression usually travels from the north- west angle of the Bay of Bengal, off Orissa, towards aj putana The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon, on the other hand, strikes Malabar as a southwesterly current *This work was done while the author was an Assistant Meteorologist at Karachi in 1945-46 under the direction of Dr. S. N. Sen, the then Dy. Director-General of Observations (Fore casting), Indian Meteorological Department. by June, and gradually extends northwards to Gujerat, and then proceeds towards the eastern Himalayas across Rajputana. In some years, the Arabian Sea branch causes early monsoon rain in Rajputana. The advance of the monsoon into Baluchistan is of very short duration and erratic in character. It may be said that on the average the monsoon does not last over the Baluchistan hills for more than five days. The monsoon rainfall extends to the Mekran very occa- sionally, indeed the number of rainy days in this area and further west in Persia is even smaller and therefore negligible. On the eve of the establishment of the monsoon, there is a low pressure area over Persia and Baluchistan. It is observed that the monsoon can never establish itself over India until the dcy bulb temperatures over Arabia, Persia and Baltchistan are high, the maximum often exceeding 110?F. As a matter of fact, this zone of high temperatures may even extend to the Caucasus in some years. The summer duststorms are often violent over the Persian gulf and the diurnal range of temperatures in Persia and Baluchistan region is also high. Moreover, the trajectories of the surfa6e and upper winds often provide a light following wind to the locusts. As a matter of fact, the favourite paths of the locusts from Persia entering India and other countries are surpris- ingly similar to the wind fields in this region. In June, the locusts migrate from Persia, which is a rainless area in summer, and settle down in India over a desert area viz., Rajputana where there are about three to four days of rain in a month yielding about 2" of rainfall. From October onwards, on the other hand, anticy- clonic vortices often appear over Rajputana and Gujerat. These are known to cause markedly foggy conditions along the Sind Mekran coasts in the mornings. The trajectories of the light upper winds in these vortices Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 4168 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIE1WE axe north easterlies over Rajputana and south-wester- lies over Gujerat. The trajectories, therefore, fre- quently provide following winds for short westward flights of locusts over the north Arabian Sea and then across the Mekran coast. The emigration of the loc- usts from India in October should therefore be from II;ujjytitana which dries up quickly after the rains, to Persia where the rainy season commences. The single factor which appears to control the migration of locusts is seasonal desiccation, the direc- tion of flight of most of the swarms being determined by light tbilowing winds. The migration cycle of locusts is thus closely correlated with the rainfall cycle" between Rajputana and Iraq. The cycle is explained by Tabie . 1. It sets out the rainfall and rainy days at some of the Persian and Rajputana stations. AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 maximum rainfall in the Winter to another with its maximum rainfall in the summer. These are the centres between which the cycle operates. It is for the ento- mologists to consider whether about tour to five rainy days in a month giving about two inches of rainfall may be said to furnish the Optimum' conditions for locust settlement and breeding. It is a well known fact that there is close correlation between insect and humidity, and swarming is governed by reproductives under the influence of physical factors. The Meteorologist would like to know whether the locusts dislike dust storms, and like fogs? Further, do they try to avoid temperatures below ;0''.11'. and above I 10F. on the average? There are airsacs in locusts which help in bouyancy and respiration during long flights BLE NORNIAL RAINFALL & RAINY DAYS (abOV 0.I0) IN SOME SELECTED STATIONS OF IRAQ & HAJPUTANA BASED ON 4 HAUS' DATA 1934-1937. NORMAL RAIN FA 1.L. 111.4 Q Diwaniqa. Nov. 1.07 0.53 3.03 Doe. 1.47 1.26 1.63 -Rum. 1.09 0.75 1.87 Feb. 1.19 1.29 2.02 11utlarh. 0.70 1.04 0.56 0.33 8 hai bah. 1.02 1.95 1.05 1.28 Muscat. 0.13 0.73 2.74 1.02 I' t 8'T..4 '1 V ONS & ILA 6.11 I Jodhpur 0.38 0.23 0.10 0.34 Bikaner. 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.53 lIar Ui nier. 0.23 0.07 0.11 0.25 0.16 0.26 0.17 0.15 Karachi. (Dr igh 111ewl) 0. 0.34 0.30 0.78 t. 2.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 ti want 1.5 3.3 2.5 2.5 Pesci. 7.0 3.5 5.3 6.3 tent bah. 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.0 mini bah. 2.7 4.3 25 2.7 Muscat. 0.3 1.7 2.3 1.5 /TA JP!, 'IA 1-i4 STATIONS & KA R A.0111 Jodhpur 0.5 0.13 0.5 0.7 kik:lacy 0.3 .0 IL;] 0.5 Lila ipur 0.5 0.3 0.5 kennel. 0.5 0.7 0.3 Karachi (prigh Road) 0 0.3 1.5 March April May Juno July Augest Sept. Oeto. 0.13 0.58 0.21 0.72 0.89 1.75 0.19 0.57 0.39 0.65 0.56 0.06 0.03 0.17 0.36 0.28 0.09 0.06 9.12 0.16 0.02 0.52 NOS NTAL RAINY 0.3 1.3 0.7 0.5 1.7 4 . 5 0.5 1-7 1.5 1.7 1.3 0.3 0 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0 0.7 It is seen from the Table that on the average Persia is practically rainless in the summer and Rajputana has little rainfall in the winter. The averages of these elements over long periods fully confirm these features. The winter maximum or rainfall in Iraq (Persia) is associated with the eastward passage of western dis- turbances. The summer maximum of rainfall in lIajpu- tana, on the other hand, is more or less associated with the westward passage of eastern (monsoon) depressions. It is clear from the preceding paragraphs that the cycle of locust migrations is from one desert region of Approved For Release 2001/09/06: 0.59 0.01 O. o. 1.62 0. U. 0. 1.20 0. 0. . 0.39 O. O. U. 0.29 O. O. 0.01 0.02 O. 0.02 0.01 0.05 2.07 3.58 3.11 0.10 1.38 4.18 1.57 0.03 2.03 6..29 2.85 0.01 0.49 4.66 2.31 0. 1.11 4,11 4.11 DAY. 1.0 0 0. O. 0.7 0 0 0 3.3 0. 0 0 1.7 O. 0. 0. 1 . 0 0. 4). 0. 0. 0. o. 0. 0.3 3.0 6.3 5.0 0.3 2.0 5,3 5.5 0.3 6.0 9.0 5.0 0 1.3 5.7 .3.3 0 1.7 4.3 0.3 0.13 0.13 0.62 0.76 2.24 0.09 1.11 0.03 5.66 0.13 1.25 0.0$ 0.15 0.01 O. 0.05 11 0 0 1.7 o 1.3 0 0 o. 0 1.3 0.3 1.7 0.3 8.0 0.5 2.3 0.5 0.7 0 through air. Could there be no relation between. densities of air inside the body and the surrounding; air, to urge insect to move forward, and while doing so, takes as a matter of fact, the normal wind trajectories, from sur- face to about 3000 feet? Do they try to select a region with relative humidity the diurnal range of which is -between 50 and 90% for breeding . purposes?. Can they stand a diurnal range of temperature exceeding 30'? 11)o they find sandy soil preferable to other types? These are a few of the questions the ansWers to which might stimulate research in the border line of Meteorology and Entomology. CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 WILD MANGOES OP INDIA WILD MANGOES OF INDIA* INTRODUCTION SUNILKUMAR MUKHERJEE BOTANY DEPARTMENT, DELHI UNIVERSITY THE mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are broadly grouped under two categories?(i) the seedling races (both wild and cultivated) and (ii) the horticultural varieties, propagated by budding or grafting (Popenoe, 1932). The seedling races, cultivated or wild, are not so well-known in India, as the mangoes of this country are obtained mostly from grafted varieties, which grow successfully over large tracts of Bombay, Madras, Bengal, Bihar and United Provinces. A fair knowledge about these types is available in the surveys of the varieties in Bombay (Burns and Prayag, 1921), Madras (Naik, 1941), Bihar and U.P. (Woodhouse, 1909), and Bengal (Mukherjee, 1948). On the other hand, the knowledge on the wild types consists mainly in the reports of their occurrence in different areas ; no detailed information regarding their fruits being available. Wild forms of M. indica (mango) which are closely allied to the cultivated grafted types are reported to occur in the tropical and lower mixed forests of Burma and the Andamans (Kurz, 1877), in the evergreen forests of Khasi Hills and the valleys of Assam (Kanjilal, Das and Purakayastha, 1947), in Sikkim (Hooker, 1876), in the sub- hirnalayan tract, in deep gorges of the Baraitch and Gonda hills in Oudh, in the outer hills of Kumaon and Garhwal, in the higher hills of the Satpura range, and along the Western Ghats in South India (Brandis, 1864). As information about the wild types is necessary for utilizing them in any programme for breeding of this fruit tree an exploration was undertaken in the Khasi Hills, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Kalahandi (Eastern States Agency in Orissa) and Chota Nagpur to discover the types of wild mangoes occurring in those areas, an enumeration of which is made in the present paper. DESCRIPTION OF TIIE WILD TYPES The genus Man gifera L. contains 41 species, dis- tributed froM India to the Philippines and New Guinea through Malay Peninsula and the Archipelago. Among these only 3 species occur in India (Mukherjee, 1949a). Of the Indian species, M. khasiana Pierre is of doubtful oedurrenee as it has not been recently found in Assam, wherefrom the 'type' specimen was collected. The other two species are M. sylvatica Roxb. and M. indica L. (the common mango), which are very much allied. A description of the wild races of both of these Indian species are given below. M. sylvatica Roxb. a species occurring only in N.E. India (Assam and dhittagong Hill Tracts) by the *The work has been conducted with the financial assistance of Indian Council of Agricultural Research at the Botanical Laboratory of Calcutta University. 3 469 side of ravines and small wallahs in the hill gorges up to an elevation of 3,000 ft., is a very tall tree attaining a height of about 150 ft. with a straight trunk, 25-30 ft. in circumference at base. The leaves axe long and broad like some of the long-leaved mangoes but the petiole is much elongated (3-4 inches). The inflorescence is of the same type as the mango (M. indica), with similar pentamerous flowers having only 1 fertile stamen, but completely glabrous. The fruits are very characteristic (Fig. 1), elliptic in shape with a pointed acuminate apex not found in any Figs. 1-10 showing fruits of wild mangoes. (Reduced to WI of the original drawing) 1. .111". sylvatica; 2-10. N. indica (wild races), 2. Chittagong Hill Tract type, 3-10. Kalahandi types :, 3. Type 1, 4. Type 11,5. Type III, 6. Typo IV 7. Type V, 8. Type VII, 9. Type VI, 10. Type VIII. other species ; greenish yellow when ripe, with a smooth thick epicarp, much thicker towards apex ;flesh thin, slimy, almost free from fibres and with a fine aroma. The fruits of the species, collected from three lo- calities differ in size ; the Mikir Hill type (at 1,000 ft.) has the largest fruit (10 cm. x 6 cm.), the Khasi Hill type (at 2,500 ft. )has the smallest fruit (8 cm. x 3.5 cm.) and the Chittagong type(at 1,000 ft.) has fruits of inter- mediate size. The Khasi Hill type flowers during Sept- ember-October and produces fruits during December ?January, whereas the other two types produce fruits during March-April. This species may improve by breeding and culture, as the flesh of the fruits is almost free from fibres and gives out a fine aroma when ripe. The fruits are reported to be edible and are used for pickles. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 470 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Ci11CC1l AVI) CrtILTITRE M. indica Linn., has similar tree habit as the former species, and occurs mostly in the evergreen forests at an elevation up to 3,000 ft. in the gorges of the hills or by the sides of ravines and nullahs. The leaves are similar to M. sylvatica, with long petioles unlike the cultivated types. The inflorescence and the flowers are similar except being pubescent. The fruits are dif- Firent from those of M. sylvatica, and are like the culti- vated varieties in shape, but of smaller size. They are described below: I. Chittagong Hill Tract type, collected from the forests, 20 miles from Rangamati, the headquarters of the Tract, where it is very common. The fruits (Fig. 2) are oblong, small, 5 x 2.75 x 2.5 (mi. in size, golden-yellow when ripe. ; basal cavity absent; shoulders short and equally falling ; beak imper- ceptible; skin thick with short close glands; flesh scanty, adhering to the innumerable fine, soft fibres, juicy and very acidic, with an agreeable flavour; stone almost wholly filling up the fruit. ?NOT shouldep -Basal cavity - Sinus BPeadtk. Beak Groove-- Apex Diagrammatic drawing of a fruit showing the various parts. 2. Katahandi types, collected from the Thuamul Rampur Forests of the state, about 40 miles from its capital Bhawanipatna. It belongs to the Eastern States Agency of Orissa. Eight different types of fruits have been collected, details of which are given below : Type I. Fruits are 9 x 6x 5 cm. in size, elliptic-oblong in shape ; basal cavity absent ; shoulders smooth, left higher, right sharply falling ; beak slight, pointed, 2 cm. below narrowed apex (Fig. 3) ; flesh thick but traversed with fibres. Type ii. Fruits 9 x 6 x 5 cm. in size, ovate-01)1611g in shane; basal cavity absent; shoulders almost level; beak very slight, 2 cm. below round apex (Fig. 4) ; flesh thick but traversed with fibres. Type Ill. Fruits 7 x 4 x 4 cm. in size, elliptic-oblong in Bylaw; base protruded; shoulders equally falling ; Vol. 15. No. 12 beak slight, almost imperceptible ; sinus shallow below the beak (Fig. 5). Type IV. Fruits quite big and plump, 8 x 6.5 x 6 cm. in size, elliptic in shape; basal cavity slight; shoul- ders equally falling but prominently ridged ; beak prominent, broad, pointed upwards, 2.5 cm. below apex ; glands prominent on skin ; flesh thick but traversed with fibres (Fig. 6). Type V. Fruits as big as some good cultivated grafted varieties, 9 X 7 x 6 cm. elliptic-oblong in shape ; basal cavity deep ; left shoulder broader ; beak almost imperceptible ; sinus prominent below the beak ; flesh thick but traversed by fibres (Fig. 7). Type VI. Fruits 6.3 X 6 x 5.2 cm. in size, roun- dish in shape ; basal cavity slight; shoulders almost level, left broader ; beak slight, almost imperceptible ; apex round (Fig. 9). Type VII. Fruits 5.5 x 6.2 x 4.4 cm. in size, roundish in shape; basal cavity absent ; shoulders level, left slightly broader ; beak very prominent; pro- truded side ways from apex (Fig.8). Type VIII. Fruits 5.3 x 4.6 x 3.6 cm. in size, ovate- oblong in shape ; basal cavity absent ; shoulders level, equally falling; beak very slight, almost im- perceptible, 2 cm. below round apex ; flesh thin, fibrous (Fig. 10). CONCLUSION The two species,M. sylvatica Roxb. and M. indica L. occurring in India, are very much allied in their morphological characters differing mainly in the fruits. The leaves of the 'wild' types of .M. indica show tendencies towards formation of large leaves with long petioles, as are found in the wild species, M. sylvatica ; but in the cultivated varieties of mango the petioles are much shorter. This similarity suggests that ill. sylvatica has played some part in the evolu- tion of M. indica, wild types of which are very common in the areas of NE. India where the former species oc- curs. Moreover the chromosome number for both the species is same, 2n=40 and n=20 (Mukherjee, 1949b). The anatomical studies has not indicated much differ- ence between the three species M. indica, M. caloneura and M. sylvatica (Mukherjee, 1949 c.). An analysis of the pollen grains also shows that they have grains of almost similar size and shape (Mukherjee, 1949d). All these evidences suggest that interspecific crosses between these two species may easily occur, as the flowering season in some of the M. sylvatica types merges with that of the mango; and hybridization in nature has therefore played an important part in the evolution of the mangoes. The different fruit types reported in this paper show that the wild mangoes also possess a variety of shapes as are found in the cultivated varieties. Mcireover in the forest areas where suitable conditions for their growth are available, they attain almost the same size (Types II, IV and V), as the good cultivated varieties. The cultivated horticultural varieties of Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 CHEMICAL EDUCATION IN GERMANY 471 mango have been classified by Woodhouse (1909), Burns and Prayag (1921) and Popenoe (1911) on the basis of fruit-characters. Mukhel-jee (1948) has recently classified them into 3 groups?Round?, Ovate-oblong-- and Long?fruited on the basis of fruit-shapes and deli- mited the different varieties by the presence or absence of beak, sinus, basal cavity etc. The types enumerated in this paper show that these different fruit-shapes are also represented in the wild races, along with the different characteristics of beak, basal cavity, ridges an the shoulder etc. It appears therefore that selection by man has played an important role in the produc- tion of these cultivated varieties from the various wild types growing in India. SUMMARY An exploration into the forests of Assam, Chitta- gong Hill Tracts (near Burma border), Kalahandi State (Eastern States Agency, Orissa), and Chota Nagpur has led to the discovery of the three types of fruits of M. ,sylvatica and 9 types of M. indica. The fruits of the wild mango are of various shapes as are found in the cultivated varieties, and sometimes attain the same size as the latter types. It is indicated that selection by man played an important role in the production of cultivated mangoes. M. sylvatica and M. indica are very much allied in morphological features, with the same flowering time in some types. As they occur in the same area and have the same chromosome number and similar anatomical features and pollen-morphology it appears quite likely that hybridization in nature between the two species has played an important role in the evolution of the mangoes*. LITERATURE CITED Brandis, D. Tho Forest Flora of N. W. & C. India, 126, 1864. Burns, W. & Prayag, S. H. The Book of the Mango. Bull. No. 103, Dept. Agric. Bombay, 1921. Hooker, J. D. Flora of British India, ii, 13-20, 1876. Kanjilal, U. N., Das, A. and Purakayastha, The Flora of Assam, i, 336, 1937. Kurz, S. Forest Flora of British Burma, i, 303-305, 1877. Mukherjee, S. K. The varieties of mango (Mangifera Indica L) and their classification Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal, 2, 101-133, 1948. --A Monograph on the genus Mangifera L. Lloydia, 12, 73-136, 1949a. Cytological Investigation on Mango (Manglfera indica L.) and the allied Indian species (in press), 1949b. ----Anatomical studies on some species of Mangifera in relation to Taxonomy. Journ. Ind. Bet. Soc. 28, 162-171, 1949c. Pollen Analysis in Mangifera in relation to Fruit- set and Taxonomy (in press), 1949d. Naik, K. C. South Indian Mangoes. Bull. No. 24, Agric. Dept. Madras, 1941. Popenoe, W. Pomona Coll. Jour. Econ. Bot. December Issue, 1911 ---Manual of Tropical and subtropical Fruits, 79-145 (MacMillan & Co.), 1932. Woodhouse, E. J. The Mangoes of Bhagalpur. Quart. Jour. Dept. Agric. Bengal, ii, No. 3: 168-187, 1909. *I am grateful to Prof. S. P. Agharkar, Director, Maharas- tra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Poona for his keen interest and encouragement in the work. Thanks are also due to the various Forest Department Officials for help in collec- tion of the wild mangoes. EDUCATION IN GERMANY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SYSTEM OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION HARA COPAL BISWAS, sin PRAFULLA CHANDRA RESEARCH LABORATORY, BENGAL CHEMICAL, CALCUTTA WHEN we come to look at the list of Nobel Prize winners in chemistry we are surprised to find that among the 40 recipients of the prize from the year 1901 to l939; 15 are German and 3 are Swiss. I mention the number of the Swiss winners as the method of instruc- tion in Swiss educational centres is of the same type as in the German scientific institutions. That almost half the Nobel Prizes in chemistry should go to practically one country cannot be attributed to mere chance nor can it be attributed to climatic effect or racial superi- ority of the people. There must be some fundamental causative factor for the remarkable efficiency of the Germans in the field of chemical science. The secret of success of the German people lies in the very high standard of their method of instruction inaugurated by men of genius like; Liebig Hofmann, Kekule, Baeyer, Emil Fischer and others, and steadfastly maintained in the foremost chemical institutions of the country. Now I should like briefly to describe here the edu3ational system in Germany, laying special stress on the instruction in chemistry that obtains in the Ger- man scientific institutions. In Germany education of children begins in the primary schools or Volkschule'. in the 4-year course children from the age of 6 to 10 learn reading, writing, simple calculation, domestic science and religion. Next they join high schools Oberschule' or `Gym- nasium'. In Switzerland these schools are known as `Mittelschule' or middle schools which offer 6-year course for students of the age from 13 to 19 years. The Gymnasium provides 9-year course in which pupils from 10 to 19 years of age learn Latin, French, English,- German, sometimes Greek, including literature. Mathematical course consists of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, arithmetical and geometrical progressions, fundamental principles of spherical trigonometry as well as diffdrential and integral calculus. Biology and chemistry are also included in the course. Chemistry is divided into general inorganic chemistry, fundamental conceptions of organic and physical che- mistry. Principal topics to inorganic and physical chemistry are : chemistry of water, of lime and mortar, carbon-dioxide and a few other well-known metals and non-metals, stoichiometric fundamental conceptions, io- Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 472 SCIENCE AND CULTURE fihic reactions, introduction to the modern conceptions on the structure of atoms as well as co-valent and electro- valent combinations. Introduction to orizanic chemistry includes fermentation catalysis, hydrocarbons, alcohols, organic acids, esters, carbohydrates, di-and polysacchari- des and proteins. The practical course consists of simple inorganic analyses, esterification, nitration, saponification, etc. The course of physics includes mechanics, optics, acoustics and electricity. There are theoretical and practical exercises in chemistry and physics_ Besides one has to study general and eco- nomic geography of all countries, history of German and other -European countries, religion and history of the Church, artistic and technical drawings, history of fine arts, music and gymnastics including sports. The, student has to appear in the oral and written exami- nations in these subjects. This school-final examina- tion is a strict one, and is called "Reife-Priifung", "141-aturum' or "Abitur". The written examinations are organized by the Ministry of Education and the oral examinations take place in the presence of the ministerial staff. After passing his Abitur' the student is entitled to higher studies either in the University, in the technical Hochschule or in the Akademie. An Akademie generally imparts training in fine Arts and Al usic. In the University there are the following faculties:- (I) Philosophical Faculty and Faculty of Natural Sciinces, (2) Medical Faculty, (3) Legal Faculty, and (4) Theological Faculty. The Philosophical Faculty deals with German, English, Sanskrit and other languages and literature as well as history, philosophy, etc. The Faculty of Natural Sciences, on the other hand, is divided into chemistry, physics, mathematics, geology, zoi-dogy, botany, etc. Thc Teehnische Trochschule is composed of two falai lties : (a) .Faculty for Applied Sciences. (b) Faculty for Pure Sciences. The following subjects fall under the former cate- gory : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) To Construction of Machine and Apparatus, Electrotechnique, Building Engineering, Land Survey, etc., Agriculture, ? and Fermentation and Brewery. the Faculty of Pure Sciences belong : (1) Chemistry, (2) Physics, (3) Botany, (4) Geology, Minerology, and Mathematics. The scientific subjects (1, 2, 3, 4) taught in the Rochschule are mainly of the applied type. The out- look of the Hochschule is oriented to a practical point of view. The University on the other hand cherishes tire advancement of fundamental science. Vol. 15, No. 12 The president of a Faculty is known as "Dekan" and the president of a Hochsch.ule or a University is called a " Rektor". The system of education adopted_ in the University is descrbed in brief below : University study leads to the degrees of Dr. Phil. 11. or Dr. Chem. The principal subject may be any one of the natural sciences. We should here concentrate our attention to the course of studies required for Dr. Phil. in chemistry. The frame work of the study consists of practical work. (a) Analytical Chemistry : Carrying out of a cer- tain number of inorganic qualitative analysis : metals, anions; technical analyses, the alloys. When the student has performed satisfactorily the prescribed number of analyses and experimental work he is allowed to under- take quantitative analytical practical work. Here also he must carry out a fixed number of gravitnetrie, color-- metric, titrimetric and potentiometric estimations. On successful completion of all these (duration 2 to 4 semesters) the student must appear at the theoretical oral examination in analytical chemistry (individual examination lasting for 30 minutes). If he -passes these examinations he is allowed to take up preparations of organic compounds. (b) The student has to prepare here 10 inorganic and 34 organic preparations, and further he has to syn- thesize 5 dyestuffs and correctly to solve 5 organic analyses. If he performs this course satisfactorily in 3 to 4 semesters he must appear at an examination in organic practical chemistry (Methods : aliphatic; an anatic, and heterocyclic chemistry in fundamentals. ndividual examination oral, lasting for 30 minutes). When he has passed this course hemust take during the vacation a three week's course in microanalysis. He must learn the handling of microbalance as well as the micro-determination of CH-, N-, -OCH,, active hydrogen, acetyl, C-methyl and so forth. If he has satisfactorily gone through this course he is entitled to take up his doctorate work, which generally takes 4 to 5 semesters' time. This consists of an independent research work under the guidance of corresponding Dozent. Besides this practical frame work, side examina- tions in other branches are also required ?Along with his attendance in the general and special lectures in chemistry the student must also occupy himself with other branches of natural science. Before doctorate examination the student has to go through 3 examina- tions in other branches arid this must not be before 5 years of his doctor-examination. For a student of chemistry, mathematics and physics are compulsory. Besides he is to take one of the following subjects? mineralogy, geology, physiology, zoology and botany. All examinations are oral?each test lasting for 30 minutes. Mark below 400/ are not counted. Marks above 60% are considered as marks of distinction. When a candidate has passed all these examinations (when one of them is not sufficient he can repeat it once more), he is entitled to present his dissertation. If the dissertation is approved by the Faculty he must be Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 CHEMICAL EDITCA prepared for the final examination within 6 months. For a student of organic chemistry this examination consists of: physical chemistry, oral 30 minutes; organic chemistry; written 4 hours and oral 1 to 2 hours. A candidate desirous of doctorate in physical chemis- try has naturally to take a short course in organic che- mistry. In the University, before doctorate degree, generally no diploma is giVen. In some German Universities, however, the student has to pass diploma examination (8 semester course) to qualify himself to take the doc- torate course. When the performance of a student has beei . specially good (all examinations with marks above 60%, and dissertation also very good) it may be mentioned in his diploma (distinction) but no addition is made to his title. After his doctorate degree a student acquires no other distinction or degree. As the first step to academic career he must be associated with a professor as Dozent. This stage is known as Habilitation Period. He must now publish a series of good work and conduct a long habilitation work and submit an inaugural dissertation. The corresponding Faculty decides the acceptance of this dissertation or `Habilitationsschirft'. The student is now eligible for academic facilities; and is entitled to give lectures as a recognized `Privatdozent' at the Uni- versity. He is not yet a professor but if there is any vacancy he may be nominated or appointed to the post of a professor. In the teaching line in the University or Hochschule the following grades of service exist : (a) Privat-Dozent; (b) Ausserordentlicher Professor, (c) Ordentlicher Professor. Technische Hochschule offers facility for the diplo- ma of Chemical Engineer in 7 years. Here the annual courses are strictly and properly organized. After two years' study the student must appear at the first preli- minary diploma examination in four subjects, conducted orally. After another 2 years he is to sit for the second preliminary diploma examination. This is also conduct- ed orally, but in a number of subjects. The student has then to undertake a short diploma work, which is naturally of much lower standard than the doctorate work. When this is completed, he appears at the final diploma examination consisting of both oral and written papers. The diploma of the Hochschule (as of the Eidgenossischen Technischen IUochschule of Z ()rich) is a highly prized one. After getting his diploma an ambitious student can devote another 2 years or so for doctorate work there. For this he is to submit a thesis and to sit for the doctorate examinations?oral and written., Chem. or D.Sc. of the Hochschule and Dr. Phil. II of the University are absolutely equivalent degrees. In addition to the prescribed courses mentioned above; a `Doktorand' (candidate for doctor-degree) must read a few papers on some notable chemical pro- blem of the day in a colloquium, where all the Dokto- rande', Dozenten' and professors of the allied subjects of the institution assemble together. TION IN GERMANY 473 The higher students have also got opportunity to attend lectures in the chemical society arranged once every week. We have already noticed the difference between the function of the University chemical institutes and Technische Hochschule. There is, however, another category of institutions which are mainly concerned with technical training. In Switzerland there are two such institutions?one at Winterthur and the other at Burgdorf. No Middle School attendance or school- leaving certificate is necessary for admission into these institutions. They impart purely technical training in different subjects to youngsters. The course of instruction varies from 2 to 4 years. Besides the technical training received at such a Technikum', a young man may avail himself of the facility to qualify himself as a Laborant' (laboratory assistant). To attain this end the candidate must be associated with an eminent chemist (a professor or a research chemist) for a 3-year course. After this ap- prentice training period he must pass the prescribed tests to become a recognized Laborant'. It is needless to mention that people trained in this way add greatly to the efficiency of the academic or industrial laboratories of the country. The system of chemical education in the Swiss University institutions and Hochschule is practically the same as in the corresponding German institutions. In both the countries aft:n. the Doktor Diplom' no further academic recognition exists. As it is almost impossible at the present time to visit German chemical institutions on account of political restrictions, the Indian students would do well if they visit Swiss chemical institutions. But the stu- dents must acquire a working knowledge of German before they start for Switzerland. The minimum expenses for board and lodging at Zurich amount to about 225 to 250 Swiss Franks (Rs. 100-85 S.F.) The student has again to spend additional 50 to 75 Franks for tuition fee and the cost of the chemicals and appa- ratus he has to use per month. While describing curriculum I have used the term semester. Their academic year is divided into two semes- ters? summer and winter semesters. The research is organized on the pattern of a routine manufacture. One can traverse step by step without any loss of time. Standard equipments like high vacuum pumps, hydro- genation and ozonization apparatus, equipments for microanalysis, the ultraviolet spectrograph, spectro- photometer, microhydrogenation apparatus, pressure hydrogenation apparatus, thermostat etc. arye always ready at hand. The expert pharmacologist is also not wanting in this picture. A new chemical compound is prepared today and by to morrow evening all the relevant physical and chemical constants of the com- pound are ready at the worker's desk. Unless such fa- cilities are forthcoming no progress worth the name can be expected in any brii.nch of practical science today. The library facilities are equally great and com- mendable. Any recent journal or book and any old Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 471 SCIENCE AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 reference book including patent literature of every land are within easy reach of every student. This brief account is written in the hope that the gifted persons at the helm of our educational affairs will come forward to remodel the existing system of che- mical education in a way which will faeilitate positive progress long overdue in this most important branch natural science upon which rests the well being and prosperity of our newly awakened nation. We are quite confident that given proper facilities and efficient organization of our institutions for higher chemical studies and research, the present and coming generation of our chemistry students will not fail to give a good account of themselves and will significantly contribute to the advancement of chemical science in the country.* *In fine I should like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Hobert Schwyzer, privat dozont to Professor Paul Karrer, to Dr. H. Oeppinger of the I.G. Farbenindustrie, Hoechst, and to Dr. C. Schuster of the Badiche Anilin mid Sodafabrik, Ludwigshafen, Germany for the help they extended to me in this connection. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF ESTRONE AND ITS ISOMERS* D. K. BANERJEE coni.Eqn OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JADAVPUIS THE first total synthesis of the naturally occurring sex hormone estrone (1) was achieved by Anner and Miescher' in 1948. The programme of this synthe- sis which was finally made successful by the Swiss workers was initiated by Robinson and coworkers2 as early as I 935 and considerable progress was recorded in. 1938, when the conversion of the key compound- keto-ester (11) to the diacid (III) was reported3. CH?O If /N. (10011 1 I ' 1 ,\/`\./\ 1 11 1 C112, cook', I II I / ("H 30 H r? C211rn En 1940 Bachmann , Cole and Wild s4 in A rnerica announc- ed the first total synthesis of a naturally occurring sex hormone equilenin. t This classical piece of work can be considered as a triumph of technique in the syn- tlietic organic chemistry. in this synthesis keto-ester (IV) was converted into d, 1-equilenin (V) and d, 1- isoequilenin (V1) through a series of steps, all of which *Based on a lecture delivered at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. t Since then two different syntheses of equilenin have been reported by Johnson and coworkers.5 were attended with very high percentage of yield. Following ' the same sequence Bachmann, Kushner 0 C11,11 I/r\ ?COOCH, I ! I II 0 I I /?/\ CH,0 IV ,\^/, I'I1111 I if /?/NG HO I II I 11- I II I /?/NG' 1110 VI: and Stevenson6 in 1942 succeeded in synthesizing a stereoisomer of estrone, "estrone a" from the keto-ester (Ii), which was prepared by a method somewhat dif- ferent from that of Robinson et at. in their successful synthesis of natural estrone Anner and Miescher have used essentially the same scheme as Bachmann et at; but they have exhibited exceptional skill and thorough- ness in isolating three out of four possible racemic isomers of II. Conversion of all these isomers into six of eight possible racemic forms of estrone, estrone a-f, have now been reported7. This includes natural estrone, estrone b. Very recently a completely new synthesis of natural estrone and remaining stereoisomers g and it has been reported by Johnson, Banerjee, Schneider and Gutsches. Investigation on this synthesis started with the suc- cessful conversion of a-decalone (V11) to trans 8-methyl- -hydrindanone-1 (VIII) by Johnson9. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1050 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 TOTAL SYNTHESIS OE ESTRONE AND ITS ISOMERS This model experiment was carried out with a view to applying similar reactions to the terracyclic ketone (IX) for its conversion into estrone molecule. Starting I II I II /%/\/ 011,0 0 /\ IX materials for the preparation of IX are m-hydroxya- cetophenone (X) and 1, 5-dihydroxynaphthalene (XI), both of which are easily available cheap products. X and XI were respectively converted into m-methoxy- phenylacetylene (XII) and 1, 5-decalindione (XIII). Latter two compounds were condensed, reduced and dehydrated to give the unsaturated ketone (XIV) in 70% overall yield. Cyclisation of XIV was carried. out with hydrogen chloride and aluminium chloride in benzene solution and an oily mixture was isolated, from which were crystallized in about equal amounts two stereoisomers of IX. Both these isomers were converted into corresponding benzal derivatives, which were methylated to yield four different angularly methy- lated stereoisomers in conformity with the previous observation during the model experiment on ce-decalone. All these methylated benzal derivatives were oxidized with ozone to corresponding d, 1-homomarrianolic acid methyl ethers. Latter dibasic acids on ring closure 475 and demethylation yielded estrone b (natural estrone), estrone d (previously isolated by Miescher) and new isomers estrone g and h. OH I II III 1 I II 1 I III CH HO 00-0113 I 01130 OH XI XII XIV Total synthesis of all possible stereoisomers of the es- trone molecule may be regarded as unique achieve- ment in the history of organic chemistry and will provide immense impetus in future for the synthesis of more complicated molecules in the steroid field. REFERENCES ' Anner and Miescher, Experimentia. 4, 25, 1948; Hely. Chim. Acta, 31, 2173, 1948. 2 Robinson and Schettler, J. Chem. Soc., 1288, 1935. a Robinson and Walker, ibid., 183, 1938. 4 Bachmann, Cole and Wilds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 62, 824, 1940. 3 Johnson, Peterson and Gutsche, ibid., 69, 2942, 1947; Johnson and Stromborg, ibid., 72, 505, 1950. O Bachmann, Kushner and Stevenson. ibid., 64, 974, 1942. 7 Anner and Miescher, Hely. Chine. Acta., 32, 1957, 1949. a Johnson, Banerjee, Schneider and Gutsche, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 72, 1426, 1950. a Johnson, ibid., 65, 1317, 1943 ; ibid., 66, 215, 1944. ATOMENERGIE AND ATOMBOMBE * EINSTEIN wrote a letter to President Roosevelt on August 2, 1939, outlining some of the potentia- lities of atomic energy including the atomic bomb. There was an initial grant of 6,000 dollars for beginning the work and it reached the final total of two billion dollars for making the bomb. Since 1940 the United States Government has invested 4.5 billion dollars in this project, a sum which exceeds the total national *By Dr. Friedrich Dossauor, Professor of Physics, in the Uni- versity of Freiburg, Switzerland, (2nd enlarged edition, 342 pages, published by Verlag Otto Walter Ag Olten : in German). debt since 1918. This does not include the cost of the projected hydrogen bomb. On December 2, 1942, the first controlled atomic pile started working at the University of Chicago. On 16th July, 1945, the first atomic explosion took place in the deserts of New Mexico under the supervision of Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, who as a student of the Bhagwad Gita (he read Sanskrit with Aurthur Ryder, whose delightful translation of the Panchtantra is avail- able in a cheap edition) was reminded of the sh,loka in the 11th chapter mentioning the splendour of a thousand suns. This test practically demonstrated the Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 47(1 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE A possibility of a chain reaction for atomic explosion when fissionable material exceeded a certain critical mass. On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb (uranium 235) was dropped on Hiroshima. Two days later a plutonium bomb fell on Nagasaki. This was followed by two atomic. explosions in peace time for the Bikini tests. Plutonium was first produced in U.S.A. from an atomic idle in January, 1944, and a start was made with only half a milligram to study its chemistry. As a result of it the Hanford plant came into operation for the production of plutonium. It also occurs, as has recently been revealed, natrually in traces with uranium, but is not available in sufficient quantities to dispense with its preparation from all atomic pile. The book appeared in its 2nd edition as a result of the great interest aroused by atomic energy and atomic bomb, and was published simultaneously in a French translation at Neuchatel. It deals with the developments up to the Bikini tests or the 5th atomic explosion, and does not envisage the development of the thermal-nuclear bomb, the so-called superbomb or the hydrogen bomb, which requires an atomic ex- plosion to furnish the high temperature of about 20 milion degrees for synthesizing helium from ordinary or heavy hydrogen provided in the elementary stage or from lithium hydride. On the contrary, the author holds that it is "certainly without prospect" (page 89) that it should be possible to form helium from neutrons and protons with the energy levels obtainable on earth. The hook needs third edition to be topical and to catch up with, the long strides made by science since it appeared last, and also stands in need of a further revision as it has hero and there sentences without verbs and some in as on page 7 in the foreward to the 2nd edi- tion Muge' is printed in place of 'Muhe', on page 40 preyed is spelt `-prooved', on page 132 it is wrongly stated that ordinates show isotopes, on page 190 at the bottom in place of' is printed rit on page 1.96 in discussing the critical mass for starting a chain c3' reaction is printed r in place of on page 248 y2 r2 in place of uranium (238) is printed uranium (236), on page 269 'y' is omitted from 20V.2 , on page 303 'particles' is spelt' particels', in the Index graphite as moderator is referred to page 186 wrongly in place Of page 1.57, Fermi is spelt Faemi, J. J. Thomson is spelt Tompson but on page 274 as Thompson, Lise Meitner is sometimes spelt Liese Meitner in the book. Hitler is quoted in the text (page 320-321) but the author has consigned him to oblivion by omitting him from the index wher6 Mr. Winston Churchill is mentioned. It is not revealed if it is because Mr. Winston Churchill is a Fellow of the Royal Society. As stated in the foreword, only elementary mathe- matics is used in the book and no more knowledge of physics is assumed on the part of the reader than is available to a student of physics early in college. The book consists of 12 chapters and is generally very read- ND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 able. In the first eight chapters, it gives an easy back- ground for understanding the production of atomic energy. It treats in an interesting manner such sub- jects as cosmic ray radiation, electro-magnetic waves, inter-connection between matter and energy, protons, neutrons, materialization of energy, elementary parti- cles, Einstein's -Law Equivalence, particle reactions and nuclear reactions etc. It has instructive tables, figures and graphs. At the head of chapters it has neat pen drawings of scientists, and there are also some photo- graphs in the book. The place of honour is rightly given to a portrait of Professor Otto Hahn at the begin- ning of the book, but just behind it is the photograph of an anonymous scientist standing near a 7mev beam of protons from a cyclotron in Rochester, U.S.A. One wonders who he is and has to read 290 pages to discover that the young man remarkable for a luxuriant growth of hair on his head is the author's son. Like the usual run of Swiss -publications the get-up and type of the hook are good, and make one wonder when Indian printers and publishers would attain this standard of book-making for ordinary publications. The author touches upon the question about why the Germans lagged behind in manufacture of the atomic bomb (pages 153-154, and 320-321). The allies had in the continent of America a land without a black- out and without bombing. Their laboratories were not destroyed or damaged by aerial bombing, as re- peatedly happened at Peenemunde. Their transport was not destroyed or damaged. There was no scarcity of essential raw materials. Besides, the Nazis perse- cuted their top ranking scientists who were not Aryans. Hitler stated early in his career, When a scientist pro- tested to him against this kind of persecution, that Germany could do without Physicists for a few years. Einstein went to America. Lise Meitner, a collabo- rator of Dr. Otto Hahn left Germany. Prof. Hans A. Bethe left Tubingen for the U.S.A. where he later worked on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos. Prof. Fermi left Italy for the United States, and Prof. Niels Bohr left occupied Denmark for the United States and, like so many others, helped in making the atomic bomb. Other scientists who were in Europe were unwilling to put such a terrible weapon in the hands el' the Nazis and very few of the eminent German scientists were Nazis. The author wisely leaves this question for those concerned to answer. The last chapter has the title "Reflections, Funda- mental Questions, Questions- of Life, and Question for Humanity". The reflections are not deep and in funda- mental questions of philosophy the author is naive and says: "The natural laws that the research worker finds and expresses are more than mental concepts (Gedan- kendinge). For if they were only these, and if in the laws and equations there were not truly contained a representation of the reality of nature, how could it be that our machines in fact produce what they are meant to produce, that medicines heal, soothe pain, bring sleep, that our fields produce fruit four and five fold, that aeroplanes fly, -that electric light brightens our Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 NOTES AND NEWS nights, and that, it must be mentioned, the new weapons kill and destroy so frightfully? Is the atomic bomb real? If it is not, but is only a mental concept, why are the Japanese towns destroyed? If it is real then this reality is born of intelligent thought and thinking beings, and the power that resides in them is not of men but the discovered power of nature". (Pages 317-318). It is to be noted that real and reality have been used with different connotations indiscriminately. The author seems to be unconcerned about analysis of perception and of phenomenon, of the methods and limitations of knowledge, and the views on such sub- jects of Einstein and Planck, Hume and Kant, Edding- ton and Jeans, not to mention a host of others. They cannot adequately be discussed in a review of this book, but suffice it to say that they make no such claim for science and scientific laws and hypotheses. When more than one hypothesis or equation can cover the same facts it is a tall claim that reality is confined in any one of the conceptual representations. One need not be a vedantist to realize that sense perception, imagination and reason, that is science, can never 477 know the universe as it really is. Such fundamental questions are best left for epistemology and metaphy- sics. It should be apparent to any student of the above quoted paragraph of the author that the destroyed Japanese towns were as much mental concepts (or reality) as the atomic bombs that fell on them, and the same applies to the machines and the goods they pro- duce as to the medicines and the aeroplanes. On page 325 the author goes religious and says that all scientific advance is the Revelation of Reality by the Creator on communion. This kind of cheap claptrap and frothy mysticism is best left out of a scientific book. The author does not mention even casually the question of scientific freedom that is agitating so much the research workers and is making them resentful of State control and glice surveillance. It is also hinder- ing scientific advance as science cannot thrive in a stifling atmosphere that denies freedom of associa- tion and discussion to the workers. Notes and News NADI BIJNAN MANDIR Dr. B. C. Roy, Chief Minister of West Bengal, laid the foundation stone of the central laboratory of the River Research Institute (Nadi Bijnan Mandir) at Haringhata on the Ganges, about 32 miles from Calcutta, on May 21 last before a distinguished gathe- ring of scientists, experts, engineers and Ministers of State. Sri Bhupati Mazumder, Minister, Irrigation and Waterways presided. Laying the foundation of the Institute, Dr. Roy recalled that a few years back, the people of Calcutta were alarmed at the news that the Bidyadhari River, which used to carry the refuse of the city, was silting up. People in Bengal had then little knowledge of rivers and finally, the Calcutta Corporation had to re- organize the sewage system. Subsequently the river dried up. The maritime Port of Calcutta is at present not in a happy position because of the rising silt and sand deposits. The Port Commissioners are thinking of a ship canal from Diamond Harbour to Kidderpore docks. A number of swamps, the Chief Minister added had been formed in West Bengal affecting the health of the people and to remedy this, resuscitation of Bengal's drying rivers is essential. The laboratory of the River Research Institute was now opened to help revival of these rivers. 4 V. P. Chandra Gantama, Dr. Roy expressed the hope that the various river projects in India as also in other countries of the world would be benefitted by the results of research in this laboratory. The Institute, which was opened in 1943, has car- ried out studies with models of different river projects in India and of many contemplated railway bridges. Following its findings, many changes have been made in the designs of various dams and barrages. Speaking on the occasion Dr. N. K. Bose, Director, River Research Institute, West Bengal said that after the partition of Bengal the Bhagirathi occupied the most important place among the rivers that had fallen in the State. In the olden days the Bhagirathi was one of the main courses of the Ganga. A number of prosperous towns had grown up on its banks, such as Berhampur, Ajimganj, Nawadwip, Katwa, Hooghly. With the diversion of the Ganga from Bhagi- rathi course, the importance and prosperity of these towns also decayed. During the British rule, said Dr. Bose, industrial centre grew up round about Calcutta. Ships full of merchandise sailed into the port up the Hooghly and delivered them at the docks. From there these mer- chandise spread over the whole of north, west and east of India and also beyond its borders into Nepal and Tibet. The importance and prosperity of Calcutta Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 478 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AN and for the matter of that, of the whole of West Bengal now depended principally on the Bhagirathi and its estuary the Hooghly. The Bhagirathi has been gradually drying out. It is now extremely difficult to keep this estuary in a living condition. It may be possible by artificial means to keep the Hooghly going 14 a few years but the ex- penses would be high and its repercussion on the health of the surrounding country would be difficult to fore- tell. Flowing rivers keep the countryside full of health, wealth and prosperity whereas artificial means may keep the estuary living but cannot maintain the health of the country. Explaining the problems of the rivers that were facing the State, Dr. Bose said that to study and solve them OD the same lines as were done in the West the idea of establishing the River Physics Laboratory in Bengal was first expressed by Dr. Meghnad Saha in Sir P.C. toy Commemoration Volume in 1932 and Sri S. C. Majmndar in the National Institute of Sciences of :India symposium lecture on river problems in Bengal. The selection of the site at Haringliata was due to the fact that it had the great advantage of an unlimited supply of clear water and cheap electricity. An area id. 320 acres had been set apart for the Institute. VETERINARY RESEARCH AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The tenth All India Veterinary Conference was held at Bombay from April 25-27, 1950. Dr. S. Datta, :Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Muk- teswar-1 zatnagar presided. In his presidential address Dr, .Datta made an earnest appeal to all veterinarians to vitalize the activities of the profession and empha- sized the essential unity underlying the vast problems confronting Veterinary Husbandry workers. He de- precated the tendency to separate the problem into loose compartments of Animal Husbandry and Veteri- nary Science, and pointed out that "Experience has repeatedly shown that whenever the problems have been separated into the loose compartments of Animal Hus- bandry and Veterinary Science, interests have clashed and improvements been retarded. After all, an animal forms (41e biological entity, and the ideal that its e volution can be brought about by divided adminis- trative units is irrational and mound". ReiaTing to the role played by livestock in the eic}tiorriv of the country, and how greater weatlh and wed_ being of the country are linked with animal hus- bandry improvement, Lr. Datta observed : "By providing transport for agricultural produce, it is estimated that cattle contribute annually approxima- mately 160 crores of rupees, while by way of cattle labour for agriculture, India gets about 300-400 crores of rupees every year. Our cattle produce about 1,000 i lion Ions of dung per annum, nearly 67% of which is burnt as thet whereas the rest is available as manure. Assuming a value of even Rs. 10/- per ton, the total worth comes to about 1,000 crores of rupees. India D CULTURE VOL 15, No: 12 provides 480 million maunds of milk per year, of which half is converted into ghee. The price of this amount of milk products may be conservatively estimated at 750 crores of rupees. The amount of meat consumed in India is about 216 lakh maunds. Its value may be put down at :130 crores of rupees. The number of eggs produced is over 300 crores per annum, so that they also bring about 30 crores of rupees. Annually 583 lakhs of hides and skins are produced in our country, whose value is over 40 crores of rupees. The annual production of wool is about six lakh maunds, whose wholesale price is about 3 crores of rupees". Comparing the income derived from livestock with that from several industrial commodities like coal, which yields only 500-600 crores and steel, which yields only 10 c,rores, over which much money is spent and a good deal of effort is being expended, Dr. Datta ob- served that they fall a large way behind the somewhat underdeveloped and neglected Animal Husbandry of the country, so far as national prosperity is concerned. Referring to the steps that are being taken to con- trol live-stock diseases and to the problems connected with animal nutrition, Dr. Datta remarked that while these short term policies can help to increase the effi- ciency of our animals to a great extent, maximum bene- fits can only accrue if scientific systems of breeding are taken recourse to bring about improvement in their genetical constitution, so that it will be feasible to re- duce the number and yet to produce greater efficiency. This will reduce the cost of the animals as well as of the commodities produced from them, so that it will be possible to bring milk, eggs and woolen articles within the reach of the common man. Any effort spent in this direction will be the surest means to safeguard the public health. In our Constitution it has been laid down said Dr. Datta that "the State shall endeavour to organize agri- culture and animal husbandry on modern and scienti- fic lines and shall in particular, take steps for preserv- ing and improving the breeds, of.. .cattle", but unfor- tunately the total amount spent on Veterinary and Animal Husbandry projects at present is only 0.08 per cent of the total budget grants. Laying before the country an ambitious progra- mine of all-round development of verterinary husbandry in all its aspects of conservation, improvement and uti- lization of livestock, so that. our country may be free from epizootic diseases, and the animal might be fed properly and we might have better and more efficient breeds, Dr. Datta spoke of the dearth of properly trained and equipped personnel for this gigantic task. India has about only 1.0 veterinary surgeons per million head of livestock compared to 35 and 248 respectively in the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Dr., Datta also referred to the need for reorganizing Veterinary education in the country and urged for the creation of an Indian Veterinary Council which should be a statutory body set up by Act of Parliament. This Council could enforce a certain high standard in all the Veterinary Colleges. It could interest the Central Go- vernment to create an All-India Service of Veterinarians Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 NOTES A from which the States could draw in times of emergen- cy. It could also act as the coordinating factor between the various State veterinary departments. Finally, it could put down all quackery in the veterinary profession. TERRAMYCIN Streptomyces ri,mosus, an actinomycete isolated from soil was found to produce an active agent effective against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. A team of scientists of Chas Pfizer & Co. Inc. U.S.A. spent several months to obtain a pure crys- tallin substance from the metabolic filtrate of this micro- organism and it is now coming to the world market as a medicine for whooping cough, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and amoebiasis. it is hopeful that the drug shows a very low degree of toxicity in experimental animals. The well known antibiotics streptomycin, aureomycin, chlorornycetin and neomycin are all products of differ- ent species of Streptomyces and this is a new addition to this. group of antibiotic agents. (Science, 85, 111, January 1950). CANCER STUDY ISOTOPES FREE OF CHARGE The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission has announced that it will make available without charge to qualified cancer research workers in the U. S. all radioisotopes now being sold. Under the program of the AEC, three radioisotopes?those of iodine, phosphorus, and sodium? were available free of production costs for use in cancer research: The new policy will make available on a free basis the radioisotopes of more than 50 additional elements. Notable among these are cobalt 60, which promises to become an effective substitute for radium, and the radio isotopes of gold and carbon. The new program has been made possible through the improvement of isotope production techniques at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., and at the Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, III. A sum of $450,000 has been set aside to defray the cost of the new program during its first year of operation. The free isotopes will be allocated for the following purposes : (1) cancer investigations involving animal subjects, (2) research programs studying basic cellular metabolism of cancerous cells, and (3) experimental programs designed to eva- luate the therapeutic use of radioactive materials. The only charge to be made will be a nominal $10 for handl- ing. In those eases where the isotopes are synthesized into a chemical compound, the user will be required to pay for the cost of synthesizing the compound but not for the radioisotopes. The same controls over distri- bution program now in effect will be continued. (Chemical and Engineering News, March 7, 1949). PALAEOBOTANY IN INDIA The Seventh report of the progress of Palaeobotany in India edited by Dr. R. V. Sitholey of the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany shows promising ND NEWS 479 achievements of our Palaeobotanists both in Pure and Applied Research. This is the first issue of the Bul- letin since the death of its greater Founder?Editor, late Prof. B. Sahni. It is encouraging that the publi- cation of the Bulletin is being continued for the bene- fit of the workers here and abroad. About eighty-one Abstracts and Reports of papers cover a wide range of plaeobotanicai investigations with collections from Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian to Pleistocene. There are a few additional notes and news mostly relating to the activities and organization of the newly created Institute of Pal aeobotany. The growing interest in microfossils among the workers in this country is a noteworthy feature. About one-third of the papers are devoted to this subject. This shows a strong bias to Applied Research specially with reference to the problems of dating, correlation of coal seams and geological rock successions for prospect- ing work. It is certainly a promising indication to- wards the development of other aspects of Applied Micropalaeobotany in India, namely exploration of coal seams in unproved area, determination of the na- ture of coal from its contained microflora as a part of physical and chemical survey of Indian coal, use of microflora in petroleum, approaching ecological prob- lems with news ideas, and the manifold prospects of Palynology as Outlined in one of the abstracts of the Bulletin by the Late Professor Birbal Sahni. The notable contributions to Micropalaeobotany include examination of. control rock samples from the Cambrian strata of the Salt Range with reference to further observations on the Age of the Saline Series problem, of dating Barmer sandstone, correlation of coal seams at Bokaro coal field and Tertiary succession in Assam, and some articles by Professor Sahni, on the possibilities of Microfossils in Applied Research with reference to India. Unfortunately the Convenor and the Editor of the Bulletin have overlooked a number of important papers on the correlation of coal seams, and problems relating to dating with special reference to the examination of control samples by workers in Calcutta. This type of ommission may obviously hamper the purpose of the Bulletin for which it is meant. The Abstracts of papers on impressions and petri- factions include important observations on the morpho- logy of 2 species of British Carboniferous ferns, the new group of Jurassic gymnoperms?Pentoxyleae (already published), further examination of the Pleis- tocene.flora of the Karewa, formations in Kashmir, and records of a number of petrified trunks, fruits and im- pressions from different beds and localities. A short report on a petrified forest in Central India appears to be very interesting. Such places should be maintained under protection as Field Museums. Apart from recording new facts as to the morpho- logy and evolutionary tendencies of our past floras, the Palaeobotanists in India are gradually exploring the great economic possibilities in our microfossils follow- ing the workers in England, Holland, Germany, Sweden, Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 480 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. Progress of such work here has been nicely presented in the Bulletin,. Pidatobotany has a great future in India, and this Bulletin, under review assumes the responsibility for playing an important and unprejudiced role in co-ordi- nating Palaeobotanical researches carried out at dif- ferent places of this country. (Jour. Ind. Bot. Soc. 29, 1-46, 1950). J.S. SYNTHETIC RUBBER FROM TURPENTINE A new type of high-quality synthetic rubber, made with a chemical derived from turpentine, has been developed at the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial. Chemistry. Under present conditions rubber from. tur- pentine is somewhat more costly than GR-S- rubber, stretches better, and generates less heat under stress. The resulting synthetic rubber has a tensile strength of about 3800 psi., will stretch to seven times its length, awl in standard tests develops to 18? F. less heat under stress than similarly produced and compounded GR-S rubber. Main ingredient of the new elastomer is isoprene, a compound that forms the basic molecular unit of natural rubber, it is obtained from turpentine by a special molecule-splitting process developed by Bureau scientists. Isoprene produced from petroleum is already used in some types of synthetic rubber now on the market. The Bureau's method of producing it from turpentine should be a valuable national asset in the event of emergency shortages of petroleum. (journal of the Franklin Institute, March, 1950). VERY THIN CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR PLATES The increasing interest in high frequencies for radio communication is accompanied by a demand for very thin quartz crystal oscillator plates having fundamental frequencies up to 100 megacycles or higher. In crystals whose frequency is in the higher range, the thickness of the quartz plate determines the frequency ; the higher the frequency the thinner the crystal must be. A crystal with a fundamental frequency of 100 Mc is about 0.001 in. thick, and its surfaces must be parallel within a few millionths of an inch. The usual crystal grinding methods and machinery have proven inadequate for producing plates of the re- quired thickness. The National Bureau of Standards has therefore developed improved equipment, capable of producing 0.001 in. thick quartz crystals with a high degree of parallelism and flatness. The apparatus can also be used to produce equally thin wafers from a variety of other materials, for example, extreimly thin dielectric plates for miniature radio condensers. (Journal of the Franklin Institute, March 1950) MICROFILM READER AND THE MICROFILM PROCESS A simple, inexpensive, and practical reader is avail- able hi the common box-type substage lamp used with a low power microscope. A piece of glass the size of CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 the top, fastened at the ends with adhesive tape and raised so as just to permit the film to slide through, will hold the film steadily in focus. A magnification of about 10 y affords a visual impression slightly smaller than the printed original, and with wide-field oculars will accommodate a -page at a time. With the substage viewer, perfect processing of the film is not important, because underexposed or overdeveloped films are still legible. The viewer may be used for perforated or non-perforated film as well as for 16-mm strips, which is not the ease with some commercial readers. Library equipment for microfilming is elaborate and expensive. For personal use 35-mm camera has proved satisfactory when provided with a supplemen- tary lens to shorten the focus and with a focussing attachment for centering the field. It is estimated that more than 25 billion records have been microfilmed during the twenty years that this process has been used. A useful directory of microfilm services in the iiited States and Canada is available from the Special Libraries Association, 31 East 10th Street, New York City, which lists institutions, commercial firms, costs, stipulations and-conditions concerning this important process. (Science, March 31, 1950). NEW ACETYLATING AGENT Isopropenyl acetate is a new chemical of great potential value in a number of syntheseli. Characteris- tie examples are acetylation , in which the mild and. easily controlled conditions associated with this reac- tion recommend the reagent's use with many compounds otherwise difficult to acetylate reaction with alcohols and amines to form new esters or amides ; reaction with acids to produce anhydrides of unsaturated and aromatic acids and polymerisation to form either low molecular weight, viscous liquids or when co-polymerised with other monomeric compounds, solid polymers. The acetate is prepared commercially by the reac- tion of ketone with acetone in the presence of an acid catalyst. This reaction is reversible and the original components may be readily obtained under the influ- ence of heat and a suitable catalyst. Tsopropenyl acetate is a water-white liquid, specific gravity 0.9202 and boiling point (748 mm.) 96.6?C. Flash point is 14.5?C (58.1?F.). Normally the commercial grade, has an ester content of approxi- mately 98-100 per cent. The most valuable property of this new Industrial chemical is its ability to act as acetylating, agent. Thus, from acetaldehyde and paraldehyde it is possible to prepare vinyl acetate ; from crotonaldehyde, Lacetoxy- I, 3-butadiene: from ethaerolein the monomeric subs- tance Lacetoxyisoprene and from acetophenone, a- acetoxystyrene. These are all polymerisable monomers which may be converted into commercially useful poly- mers, (The Chemical Age, April 15, 1950). Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 NOTES THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, INDIA SECTION The Inaugural Meeting of the Indian Section of the The Electrochemical Sociey, Inc. was held on March 23, 1950 at the Indian institute of Science, Bangalore, in the presence of a distinguished gathering of scientists, engineers, industrialists and others. Dr. B. K. Ram Prasad in his Inaugural Address on "Some Aspects of the Development of Electro-chemical industries in India", indicated that there were great possibilities for the development of these industries keeping in view the availability of raw materials, present output of electric power and future power development plans. The speaker felt glad that the Government of India had decided to es- tablish an Electro-Chemical ?Rosearch Institute at Karaikudi and expressed the hope that the Planning Commission recently set up by the Government would consider in detail the development of Electro-chemical Industries in India. The following were elected officers of the India Section : Chairman : Dr. B. K. Ram Prasad, Special Officer, Electric Grid Offices, Govt. of Bombay, Bombay; Secretary-Treasurer : Dr, T. L. Rama Char, Lecturer In Electro-chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The Electrochemical Society is an international organization founded in 1902 to promote the advance- ment of Electro-chemistry, Electro-metallurgy, Elec- trothermics, Electronics and allied subjects. The membership is well represented by scientists and engine- ers actively engaged in the various branches of Electro- chemistry. REWARDS FOR DISCOVERY OF URANIUM AND BERYL ORES Rewards upto Rs. 10,000/- may be given for the discovery in India of deposits of Uranium ore by the Government of India. In the case of Uranium, the new deposits would have to be not less than 100 miles, and in the case of Beryl 50 miles, from any other deposits of these ores the existence of which is already known to the Indian Atomic Energy Commission. The maximum value of this award is to be given for the discovery of deposits capable of producing 100 tons of Uranium Oxide in ore assaying not less than 0.4% U 308. A similar discovery capable of producing 100 tons of Beryl assaying not less than 12% Be0, or other Beryllium mineral in proportionate amount, may earn an award of up to Rs. 2,000. Should new deposits of both ores, though not suffi- cient to be of economic importance in themselves, justi- fy prospecting in the neighbourhood for further deposits, Government may grant funds for this purpose. Grants- in-aid for mine development are available to appli- cants wile produce and deliver not less than 20 tons of Uranium ore and 50 tons of Beryl ore from a con- AND NEWS 481 cession of mining lease not previously worked for these ores. In order to help prospectors, the Atomic Energy Commission will make without charge tests of samples submitted, and where necessary, further chemical and field tests for determination of ores. Applications for rewards should be addressed to the Secretary, Atomic Energy Commission, Central Secretariat, North Block, New Delhi. TWO HUNDRED RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS INSTITUTED In pursuance of the recommendations of the Scien- tific Manpower Committee, the Ministry of Education, Government of India, have instituted 50 Senior and 150 junior research training scholarships in universities and other educational and research institutions. The objective of the scheme is to enable deserving and talented students to engage in scientific and indus- trial research and to acquire, as a result of such training knowledge and experience for holding research positions. The scheme provides for two grades of scholarships tenable for a period of three years ? senior scholarships of Rs. 200 per month and junior scholarships of Rs. 100 per month. The Senior scholarships are available for advanced *research in basic science and for f ost graduate research in engineering and technological subjects. The scholar- ships are to be awarded to research workers who have taken at least a Master's degree in science or a good degree for advanced diploma in engineering or tech- nology. The junior scholarships are available for research of comparatively lower standards at post-graduate level, and are to be awarded generally to those who have taken at least a good Honours' degree in science or a degree in technology. In the terms and conditions governing the award of the scholarships, it is laid down that the heads of the institutions concerned shall make the award strictly on the basis of merit, subject to the approval of the Government of India. The grants on account of the scholarships will be given to the institutions concerned in quarterly instalments in advance, and the heads of the institutions w ill disburse the amount to the scho- lars at the end of every month. It is also laid down that the heads of the institutions will submit quarterly reports on the satisfactory progress of the work of the scholars to the Government of India. The continuance of the scholarships will depend upon the scholars mak- ing satisfactory progress with their work. DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR PUNJAB (1) The Punjab (1) Government is getting plans ready to absorb the Bhakra-Nangal electricity output of 310,000 kw. At present the State's entire industry can absorb little more than 55,000 k w. An additional output of 72,000 kw. to be generated next year by Nangal power Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 482 SCIENCE AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 s to be divertd to fllhi, Bikaner and U.P. At the -moment, Nandi supplies 30,000 kw. and local thermal sets 25,000 kw. Next year, thermal sets are to stop functioning, and, Mandi's newer will be diverted gra- dually to Punjab (P). Ferozepore will receive its elec- tricity from Mandi via Lahore. f the State had planned earlier, it could have ab- sorbed Nangal's energy in addition to that of Manch. The use of Nandi power for home industries would have been far more profitable. 'line Government has set lip a planning committee of secretaries and departmental heads to study the- report of the State's industrial commission. The committee will furnish. the National Planning Commis- sion with facts and figures regarding the State's agri- cultural and industrial potentialities. T hp Government wants a trained mineralogist to survey the State's resources. Later a, cabinet commi- ttee for the development of industry will be set up to consider a proposal to utilize -180;000 kw. from Bhakra. This will include the planning and creation of number of major and auxiliary industries within the State. The 0ot/unit-tee will devote its attention to the planned development of cottage industries using power machinery. It will also draw up plans for the expan- sion of textile, handloom. and sericulture industries. Th, State's supply of oilseeds would be used for manu- facturing edible oils. There is also scope for industries depending on raw products of agriculture. The sugarcane produce of Ike State could. be utilized if the number of mills was increased. This alone would consume over 20,000 kw. Means have yet to be devised to make trading condi- tions attractive to industrialists. Refugee industry is to be developed at the 12 industrial townships and ;kis() at the site of the capital ; the combined efforts NO I I consume about 55,00(1 kw. DR. H. K. NANDI 'Dr. H. X. Nandi, whose appointment as Director of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal was announ- ced earlier (see Science and Culture, 75, 396, 1950) is a distinguished alumnus of the Calcutta University. 1)r. Nandi graduated with Honours in Botany from the Presidency College, Calcutta in 1929 and later took his master's degree in Botany from the University College of Science. Calcutta in 1931. In his early years he worked tinder Prof. S. P. Agh.arkar, the then Ghosh Professor of Botany of the Calcutta University on the systematics and biology of the Podostemaceae. In I 933, Dr. Nandi proceeded abroad and joined the King's College, London where be worked under "Dr. R. Ruggles Gates F.R.S, and obtained his Ph.D. degree on his thesis on the origin of the cultivated rice. On his return to india? he was appointed Cytoge- neticist, at the Bose Research Institute, Calcutta in 1936 and where he continued investigations on the interspecitic hybridization of rice. In 1938 Dr. Nandi was appointed Economic Botanist to the Govt. of Assam and since 1945 he has been serv- ing as Deputy Director of Agriculture, Govt. of Orissa. He has thus acquired considerable experience on the crops of two contiguous provinces of West Bengal and it is hoped that agriculture in West Bengal will have a new orientation under his able leadership. Dr. Nandi has got 30 publications in different agricultural subjects to his credit some of which were published in the best scientific journals of the world. ANNOUNCEMENTS Prof. M. S. Thacker, Head of the Power Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Science, has been appointed 'Director, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Under the United States National Student Associa- tion's Foreign Student Summer Project at the " Massac- husetts Institute of Technology" the following have been awarded the studentship for 1950 tenable from June 6 to September 16, 1950. Sri G. Janaki Ram and Dr. S. Laha , Indian Institute of Science, 13angalorc ; Dr. A. N. Lahiri, Fuel Research Institute Digwadih ; Dr. M. S. Sinha, Bose Research Institute, Calcutta ; and Sri K. S. Venkatraman, College of Engineering, Trivan- drum. The M. I. T. has waived tuition costs for the students while expenses in U.S.A. such as room, board, books and incidental expenses will be borne by the Foreign Student Summer Project Committee. Air passage to U.S.A. and back for these "candidates will be provided through the Fullbright Foundation. Sri S. L. Tandon, Lecturer in Botany, Delhi Uni- versity, has been appointed research assistant in botany at the State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington. The 12th Annual Meeting of the British Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science will be held at Birmingham from August 30 to September 5, 1950, Sir Harold Hartley, President will deliver his address on Man's Use of Energy. The 12th International Congress of Pure and Ap- plied Chemistry will he held in New york City from September 10 to 13, 1951. On this occasion the Ame- rican Chemical Society will celebrate its 75th anniver- sary from September 4-7, 1951, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry will hold its 17th conference on September 8-9 and will close its conference in Washington where it will celebrate the fiftieti anniversary of the founding of the National Bureau of Standards. President James B. Conant of Harvard University is Honorary President of the Congress. Further de- tails may be had from Harry L Fisher, Division of Chemistry, National Research Council, 2101 Consti- tution Avenue, Washington 25, DC. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR The Second General Assembly and International Congress of the International Union of Crystallography will be held in Stockholm from June 27 to July 3, 1951. Further information may be had from Mr. R. C. Evans, General Secretary of the Union, Crystallography Laboratory, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, Eng- land. Dr. Ernest Zipkes, formerly head of the Depart- ment of Road Research, Federal Institute of Techno- logy, Zurich (Switzerland) has been appointed Director of the Central Road Research Institute, Delhi. The following research fellowships have been awarded by the National Institute of Sciences of India for 1950-52: NIS Senior Research Fellowships : Mr. S. P. Basu, to work on "Some Physico-Chemical factors affecting fresh water fish cultural practices in India" at the All-India Institute of Hygiene & Public Health, Cal- cutta (For a year only). Dr. Sukh Dov, for "Studies in Sesquiterpones" at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Dr. P. .B. Mathur, to work on 'Preventive Measures to eliminate the loss of vitamin C during storage in potato tubers" at the College of Agriculture, Banaras Hindu University, Banaras. Mr. V. R. Thiruvenkatachar, to work on "Compressible Fluid Flow" at the Central College, Bangalore. Imperial Chemical Industries (India) Research Fellowships : Mr. C. Balakrishnan, for "Study of Internal Conversion Co-efficients of Radio-isotopes" at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. Dr. I. M. Chak, to work on "Preparation of Haemostatics from oil-seeds" at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 483 Mr. A. G. K. Menon, for "Ichthyological Studies with Special reference to Zoogeography" at the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Dr. G. C. Mitre, for "Morphogenetic studies : The origin and development of the leaves and their parts at the shoot apices of Angiosperms" at tho Calcutta University. NIS Junior Research Fellowships: Mr. V. Chandrasekharan, to work on "The scattering of light in crystals and determination of elastic constant" at the Intian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Mr. A. K. Chaudhuri, to work on "Electron Optics of the Electron gun used in Electron Microscopy" at the Calcutta University. Dr. G. S. Deshmukh, to work on "Analytical aspect of Cerium and Thorium Chemistry" at Banaras Hindu Uni- versity, Banaras. Dr. B D. Mundkur, to work on "Heredity and Variation in Ascomycetes, particularly antibiotic yielding Fungi" at the Bombay University. Mr. N. SataPati, to work on "Petrology, Petrochemistry and Potrotectonics of Eastern Chats", at the Andhra University. Dr. G. Venkatachalam, to work on "Animal Breeding including Animal Genetics & Applied Statistics" at the Livestock Research Station, liosur. Dr. (Mrs.) Vidyavati, to work on "Problems in the Ana- tomy of Labeo re/vita" at the University of Delhi". ERRATA In May 1950 issue, p. 410, column 1, line 35, read Barber for Barbour; p. 411, column 1, line 45, read plot for plate; p. 446, column 2, line 36, read macroscopi- cally for microscopically ; p. 451, column 1, line 18, read pressure for presence. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR [The Editors are not responsible for the views expressed in the letters.] CALCIUM GLUCONATE FROM CANE SUGAR In the manufacture of calcium gluconate, a very important salt used in calcium therapy, pure crystal- line dextrose is almost always employed as the start- ing material. Only a passing mention is made by Losin.' of the production of calcium gluconate by the fermentation of cane sugar. The authors, using a modifi- cation of the electrolytic process originally developed by I sbell2 and studied by Fink3 successfully produced a few tons of calcium gluconate from cane sugar. The quality of the product was comparable to that from pure dextrose and the cost of production was no higher. This is of particular importance as practically no pure dextrose is at present produced in India at competitive rates. A 70% solution of cane sugar in warm water was hydrolysed by boiling with 2 gras. of conc, sulphuric acid per litre of solution for 10 to 15 minutes. The sulphu- ric acid was removed by precipitation as barium sul- phate and the electrolytic oxidation of the hydrolysate was carried out under the following conditions: Concentrations of glucose in the electrolysate 18 %-20 %, KBr 1%, NaCl 1% and calcium carbonate in suspension 5%. Cathodes and anodes of Acheson graphite were used and the approximate current density was 0.6-1.0 amp per sq. dm. The current efficiency under these conditions was about 90% and calcium gluconate cyrstallized out of the electrolysate when nearly all the glucose was oxidized. The fructose (as when cane sugar is used) somewhat contami- nates the final product. This is in fact one of the major difficulties in using cane sugar as starting material. The bulky nature of calcium gluconate renders its puri- fication from fructose all the more difficult. However on recrystallization and repeated washing yields of Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 484 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AN about 20%-25% on the weight of cane sugar could be obtained. The material so prepared conformed to the B. P. standard. Tt was possible to use the mother liquor from the crystallizations for electrolysis by adding more cane sugar nydrolysate, bromide-chloride mixture and cal- cium carbonate. But the repeated use of the mother liquors entails large accumulation of fructose and both the yield and quality of the calcium gluconate suffer ultimately. At this stage the syrup containing about 12% calcium gluconate and 400/,,-50% fructose may be used directly for oral consumption or the calcium glu- tamate recovered from the syrup as the basic salt. The commercial success of the process will depend largely upon the use to which this mother liquor is put to. However in our large scale production the mother liquor syrup was discharged. 20 porcelain cells of 5 gallons capacity were used and_ a daily semi-commercial scale manufacture of 30 lbs. of calcium gluconate was kept up for several months. K. krk LHUNDARAM R. K. HIRANT I3RAHMANY AN _Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 3, 1-11-1949 1 lain, Carlos L. Sugar news, 20, 467-470, 517-21, 1939. ? 2 :Isbell, H. S. et al. Industrial Eng. Chem 24. 375, 1932. 3 Fink C. G. and D. B. Summers. Trans, Electrochern. Soc., 74, 24, 1938. ON THE BIONOMICS OF THE CARP, THYNNICHTHYS 8 ANDKHOL (SYKES) Thynnichthys sand kiwi is one of the indigenous South Indian carps about the bionomies and environmental conditions of which much detailed information is not available. It is an interesting example of discontinu- ous distribution, and is regarded as an evidence of Malayan affinities in the freshwater fauna of peninsular India 1,2. The genus Thynnichthys Blocker is mostly confined to the Far East, T. tynnoides (Blkr.) and T. pokylepis Blkr. occurring in Borneo and Sumatra3, Malaya states4 and in Siam5,6. T. sandkhol Sykes, occurs in Malaya7 and in South India where it appears in the Godavari and Kristine and in theTunga- bhadra9. The elucidation of the natural breeding and nursery areas and of the food and feeding habits of this species is made in this note for the first time. This is of considerable importance, for the fish, though less commor than Calla catta (Cuv. & Val.) and Labe? fimbriatus (Bloch), can now be added to species that are propagated in the provincial waters of Madras. This medium sized carp may be easily recognized by its silvery sheen, minute scales and spindle-shaped body. :ft attains maturity when about 12 inches in size, and spawns during the S. W. monsoon (June- D CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 September) in the three major rivers, when they are Ii ighly turbid with water temperature ranging from 25.4-29.6?C. The waters are also alkaline and well saturated with oxygen (Table 1). TABLE I .Hydrological conditions Godavari Krishna Tungabhadra - - , - I ',ate 13-9-'49 15-7-'49 20-9-'49 Turbidity in ems. 3.0 3.5 7.5 Temperature 'V 29.6 28.4 28.6 PEI 8.0 8.2 8.0 Dissolved Oz (rogil) 4.2 5.2 5.879 Free CO2 (pp. 1(10,000) nil nil 0.253 Carbonates (pp. 100,000)- 0.308 0.775 nil Bicarbonates (pp. 100,000) 4.0 9.77 6.710 Chlorides as Cl. (pp.100,000) 0.8 2.0 (1.4 Silicates as Si?, (pp.100,000) 1.24 1.12 1.040 Plicsphates as P (pp.100,000) 0.046 0.051 nil Nitrates as N(pp.1.00,000 ) nil nil nil The hatchlings enter tanks, ponds and swamps connected with these rivers, and grow to a size of 18 to 24 inches and weight of 2 to 3 lbs. by the summer months of March, April and May, when they are netted. and marketed by the local people. As these waters get dry during summer, it is evident that the rate of growth of this fish is highly satisfactory. The following (Table II) are the hydrological conditions of three waters in which the species grows and .attains mar- ketable size within 8 to 10 months. -These conditions do not seem to differ much from those of spawning given in the previous table. ?drotogi cal conditions TABLE TT jallakalva Kankipadit Ednrur (E. (leda- tank swamp van) (Krishna cit.) (Kurnool dt.) Date 13-9-'49 16-7-'49 23-9.46 Turbidity in ems. 3.2 2.6 5.5 Temperature in ''C 29.6 31.0 33.2 Free CO. (pp. 100,000) nil 0.52 0.138 Carbonate (pp. 100,000) 0.308 nil nil Bicarbonate (pp. 100,000) 15.350 12.92 8.845 pH 8.0 7.8 7,9 Dissolved Oz (ecil) 4.100 4.680 5.400 Chlorides (pp. 100,000) 3.2 8.0 0.9 Phosphates (pp. 100,000) nil 0.03 nil Silicates (pp. 100,000) 1.20 0.8 1,04 Nitrates (pp.100,000) nil nil nil Over one hundred specimens of the fish were col- lected from these areas, for the determnation of the natural food. Both the young ones and -adults are predominantly plankton feeders. Sandgrains and mud also occurred in some of the guts examined. The fol- lowing is the composition, in average percentage volume; of the diet of the fish. Myxophyceae : Anabaena, Oleotrichia, Merismo- pedia, .Microcystis, Oscillatoria and Spirulina-25% ; Gh torophyeeae A nkistrodesinus, Ch,roocoecus, Closterium, Coplastrum, Cosmarium, Crucigenia, Eudo- rina, Gonatozygon, Mougeotia, Oedogonium, Oocystis, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 1950 LETTERS TO Pediastrum, Pleurococcus, Scenedesmus, Sphaerocystis, Spirogyra and Tribonema-40% ; Diatomaceae : Achnanthes, Amphora, Anomoencis, Cocconeis, Cyclotella, Cymbella, Eunotia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Gyrosigma, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Pinnularia, Rhopalodia, Surirella, Synedra and Tabel- laria-15% ; Protozoa: Chlamydomonas, Euglena, Trachelo- monas, Glenodenium, Phacus and Stylonichia--5% ; Rotifera : Conochilus, Diurella, Pedalion, Rotifer and Notholca-5%; and Crustacea : Alonella, Bosmina, Ceriodaphina, Diaphanosoma, Simosa, Stenocypris, Diantomus, Eucyclons and Microcyclons-10%. We are thankful to the Director of Fisheries, Madras, for according permission for the publication of this note. P. I. CHACK0 S. V. GANAPATI Freshwater Biological Station, Kilpauk, Madras, 29--11-1949. Hera, S. L., Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India., 10, 423-439, 1944. ^ Bhimachar, B. S. Curr. Sci., 14, 1216, 1945. ? Weber, M. .5.1; Beaufort, L. F. D., Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, Leiden, 3, 1916. 4 Herm, A. C. W. T. & Myers, G. S., Bull. Buff. Mus. Singapore., 13, 59, 1937. 9 Hera, S. L. Journ. Siam. Soc. NO. Hist. Suppl., 6, 143-184, 1923. G Smith, H. G., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 188, 209-210, 1945: ? Maxwell, C. N., Malayan Fishes, Singapore., 1921. ? Day, F., The Fauna of British India, Fishes, London., 1, 1889. 9 Chacko, P. I. and Kuriyan, G. K., Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci. 28, 166-176, 1948. THEORY OF THE CORONA DISC COLOURS The coronas are rainbow coloured concentric rings seen around a bright source of light, when viewed through a thin cloud or a fog. With monochromatic light, the corona consists of alternate bright and dark rings. The first, order dark ring, experimentally obser- vable, has angular aperture varying between 3? to 20? in the direction of observation. The central disc of the corona is illuminated with maximum intensity of light when monochromatic light is used. With white light, the central corona becomes intensely coloured, the colour depending on the size of the drops. The colour changes abruptly with the change in the size of the drops and can best be observed by allowing an artificial cloud formed in a flask to evaporate slowly. The corona formation is explained by the diffrac- tion theory due to Verdetl. , This theory explains the maximum intensity of the central corona disc with mo- nochromatic light, but fails to give a satisfactory account of the preponderance of one colour over the others, when white light is used. According to the diffraction theory the central disc colour should be white. Aitken?, Barus3 and others have studied the colouration of the corona discs, but no satisfactory explanation of this has been obtained. 5 THE tDITO'R In 1908, Mie4 had proposed a general theory of light scattering, which was used by the author5 and co-workers to study the scattering of light by large sized water drops. This required the evaluation of a number of scattering functions depending on Bessel functions of high order. These theoretical results explained the experimental observations of the scat- tering of light. These results are also found to be useful in explaining a number of optical phenomenon in the atmosphere. Meeke6 used the Mie's theory to explain the formation of the rainbow and the supernumery bows. The numerical results of Mie's scattering theory are capable of explaining not only the colours of the coro- na discs, but also of coronas, Broken Bows and trans- mission of light. In this note an explanation of the colours of the corona discs is given on the basis of ?Mie's theory. The angular apertures of the corona discs does not exceed by about 20? in the line of observation. It is therefore necessary to find the maxima of intensity for the angles of scattering lying between 71. and r -20?. The intensity of light depends mainly on a = 27rp/X , the ratio of the circumference of the drops of radius p to the wave length of light A. The results of the intensity of scattered light5 within these angular aper- tures for different values of a indicate that the intensity fluctuates with change in a and is a maximum for values of a =6, 8 or 15. Thus for a given wave length of light, there are three distinct sizes of the drops for which the intensity of light becomes a maximum. The following table shows relatively the experimental observations of Bartle and the results from Mie's theory. 485 Colour of the corona discs Radius of drops in it for different a a=8 a=8 a = 15 Mie Barus Mie Barus Mie Barus Rod (7000 AU.) 0.621 0.828 0.80 1.55 1.60 Croon (5000 A. U.) 0.470 0.637 0.65 1.19 1.15 Violet (4000 A.D.) 0.380 .. 0.509 0.55 0.955 0.95 The above table indicates that there is a fairly good agreement between theory and experiment. A fuller account of the applications of Mie's theory to other optical problems will be published elsewhere. Further experimental work in this direction is iia progress. Y. G. NAIK Gujarat College, Ahmedabad. 31-12-1949. 1 Verciot, Ann. chim. et. Phys. (3), 34, 137. Physics of the Air by ? Humphrey pp. 528 2 Aitken, Proc. Roy. Soc., 17, 135, 1890. 8 Barns, Carnegie institute of Washington, 3rd Report, p. 60, 1908 ? Mie, Ann. d. Phys., 25, 377, 1908. ? Paranjpe, Naik and Vaidya, Proc, Ind. Acad. Sci., 9, 353, 1939 ; ibid, 9, 352, 1939 ? Meoke, Ann. d. Phys., 61, 471, 1920; ibid, 62, 623 1920'; ibid, 65, 257, 1921. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 486 SCIENCE AND OUtTIrB VOL 15, No. 12 ENERGY OF HOMOPOLAR BONDS l'he object of this note is to present a simple method of calculating the purely covalent bond energy of homo- polar diatomic molecules. This energy is given by (it ) where e is the electronic charge; r 21.1./4(+2) the internuclear distance and ?In(n -I-2) is the spin factor of the shared electrons. The value of n is 1 for halogens and 2 for hydrogen and akali metals. The parely covalent energy is therefore I /3.46 of the Coulombie energy .for halogens and L5.66 in the case of hydrogen and alkali metals. The results are given in the following tables. Bond (A-A.) dist. 7"A TAM,F1 I ionic bond ohs. coy cal. coy. spin nature energy bond bond factor energy to tergy h ?P' p8 r I 2 / 4_ 2) -1-1, 1.7414e 0.05 103.4 81.4 F-10 1.448c 0.014 70 . OSp 66. Cl-C1 1.98P 0.024 56.9Sp 52.9 Br-Br 2.28T 0.032 45.2Sp 41.0 1-I 2.661' 0.043 35.611 30.0 Bond 0. -A ) Li- Li N Na Cs-Cs TAnkP, 1B distance ohs. bond energy 'A B 2.6711i 3.07Ri 3.91 Ri 4.50Ri 26.3 18.4 12.6 10.1 79.3 66.6 48.4 4.2.0 33.0 cal. bond energy tri(n 2) 2r v 22.0 19.1 15.0 13.0 V'nifl+2) 2.82 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 spin factor n(n+ 2) A/n(1742) 2.83 2.83 2.83 2.83 Herzberg-Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. Se Schomakor and Stevenson- ?tour. Amer. Chem. Soc., (1:, 47, 1941. P -Pauling- The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Rice., Electronic Structure and Chemical Binding. Sp Spektren. According to Pauline the bond in the hydrogen molecule is due to the resonance of two electrons between the two nuclei which contributes 80% to the total bond energy. The remaining energy should crime from the partial ionic binding.. An assumption of 5% total. ionic character i.e., 2.5% for each of the resonance structure .11. 11. and R H would be in agreement with the observed result. On this basis the ionic binding energy is 22 K. Cals. fhe balance of the observed bond energy and the ionic binding energy, 81.4 K Cal. compares favourably with the value 79.3 K Cal. calculated from the equation (1) and also is in full agreement with the calculation of James and Coolidge2, which are based upon a thoroughly satisfactory theoretical treatment. It is not therefore necessary to ascribe 15% of the bond energy of hydrogen to complex inter- action and deformation terms" (Pauline. Although the small ionic character of hydrogen has been indiea- ted by a moment 0.015 measured by Watson,2 this value is not enough to account for the observed value of 5% from bond energy data. The covalent bond energy calculated from equation (I) by taking the internuclear distance of hydrogen as 0.6' observed in ? all covalent bonds, is however in full agreement with the observed. In the case of halogens small electric moments of the order of 0.1 to 0.4 have been reported which would indicate definite partial ionic character, due to resonat- ing structures I -0 I., 01-C1, 01-Cl. These values are given in Table 1, column (3). The purely covalent bond energies, after correcting for the ionic binding, given in Table I. column (5) compare favourably with those calculated from the formula (1) and are within the uncertainties of the bond energy values. In the case of alkali metals the agreement between calculated and observed values is fair.The bond ener- gies are not known with any degree of accuracy. S. K. KFLK ARAI JATKAR, (Miss) S. B. KIMKARNI General Chemistry Section, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 3, 21-1-1950. Tattling., The Nature of the Chemical Bond. James and Coclidge., Jour. Chem. Phys., 1, 825, 1933. 8 Watson. H. E., Proc. Roy. Soc.., 132, 569, 1931. EFFECT OF REFINING AND DEODORIZATION OF COCONUT OIL ON CALCIUM UTILIZATION It has been shown by balance experiments on hu- man subjects' that the detrimental effect of coconut oil on calcium metabolism is aggravated when the oil is subjected to the processes of refining and deodori- zation. Since a large amount of coconut oil in the refined and deodorized conditions is consumed for die. trypurpose, further investigation dealing with the problem of nutritional importance of refined. and deo- dorized coconut oil using rats instead of human sub- jects as the experimental animals was carried out. Four adult rats were selected and they were first given the diet D-1 containing refined and deodorized coconut oil (cocogem of Tata oil Mills Ltd.) at 10 P.C. level of intake. After a preliminary period of four days on this diet the urine and faeces of the animals were collected for a further period of four consecutive days on the same diet. They were then given the diet D-11 in which the refined and deodorized coconut oil of D-I has been substituted by the crude coconut oil as sold in the market. The urine and faeces of the animals on this diet were also collected for a further period of four days after a preliminary period of equal days. Both the diets supplied high grade animal protein and utilizable calcium in the form of defatted milk powder. The diets were further enriched with calcium Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 487 and other minerals by the inclusion of Osborne and Mendel Salt Mixture at 5 p.c. level so as to counteract the detrimental effect of ordinary crude coconut oil on calcium utilization as observed by Basu and Nath2 and De, Karkun and Roy3 in their experiment with low calcium rice diet. The composition of the diets are shown in table I. The calcium contents of the daily diet consumed and of the urine and faeces were estimated according to the standard permanganate method as adopted in our previous communication'. TABLE I SHOWING TBE COMPOSITION OP THE TWO DIETS BASED ON CRUDE COCONUT OIL AND REFINED & DEODOBIZED COCONUT OIL. THE FIGURES ARE EXPRESSED IN GM. Name of the food stuff Experimental diet D-I D-II Rico 70 - 70 . Pulse 5 Defatted milk powder 10 10 Salt mixture (Osborne & Mendel) 5 5 Crude cbconut oil 10 Refined and deodorized coconut oil ('eocoume of Tata oil Mills) 10 The results of the balance experiments presented in Tabe II show that with almost an equal intake of calcium when the dietary fat of D-I is changed from the refined and deodorized variety to the ordinary crude variety as in diet D-II the daily calcium retention is improved from +55.0 mg. to +73.2 mg. The above low retention of calcium due to refined and deodorized variety of coconut oil is mostly due to higher excretion of this element in faeces and thus indicating that under the influence of the above variety of coconut oil the absorption of calcium through the intestine does not take place properly. The present results substantiate our previous observations to show that coconut oil produces highly detrimental effect on calcium utili- zation when the oil is subjected to the processes of refining and deodorization. TABLE II SHOWING THE INTAKE, EXCRETIONS AND RETENTION OF cALCIUM. IN RATS WHEN THEY ARE KEPT ON CRUDE AND REFINED COCONUT OIL DIET. THE FIGURES ARE EXPRESSED AS DAILY AVERAGE VALUES PER RAT IN MG. Diet Dietary Urinary Faecal Totsl Balance intake output output output Refined and deo- dorized coconut oil diet DJ Crude coconut oil diet D-II 146.4 4.8 86.6 91.4 -1?55.0 143.3 6.1 64.0 70.1 4.73.2 In consideration of the results of the present and previous experiments the authors are of opinion that the manufacture of refined and deodorised coconut oil for edible purpose should not be encouraged. Our thanks are due to the Indian Research Fund Association for a grant to the Nutrition Research Unit of this laboratory which enabled us to carry out these investigations. H. N. DE J. N. KARKUN Biochemistry and Nutrition Laboratories, Dacca University. Dacca, Pakistan. 4-2-1950. 1 De, H. N. and Karkun, J. N. Ind. Jour. Dair. Sci., 2, 114, 1949. Basu, K. P. and Nath, H. P. Ind Jour. Med. Res, 34,27,1946. De, H. N., Karkun, J. N. and Roy, J. K. Unpublished data. Thesis, 1949. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE OF ORYZA COARCTATA ROXB The archesporium, being hypodermal in origin is differentiated and distinguished in the second layer of the nucellar tissue as a polygonal cell of comparatively larger dimensions with thicker and denser cytoplasm and relatively large nucleus. It is strictly confined to a single cell, as was observed by Kuwada2 in 0. sativa. No parietal cell is observed to be cut off and the arches- porium acts and functions directly as a megaspore mother cell after proper nourishment and development. The m. m. cell then undergoes a period of rest be- fore meiosis starts. In the resting stage the nucleus contains one conspicuous nucleolus embedded in the chromatin network. The general cytoplasm is minutely vacuolated throughout at first but bigger vacuoles appear later in the general plasma along with the growth of the cell. Its apex is broader and the lower end is tapering. After the reduction division a cellplate is formed near about the central region, thus dividing it and thereby forming two dyads. The second divi- sions follow simultaneously in both the cells (upper as well as lower) resulting in a linear tetrad of four megas- pores. Kuwada2, Terada4, and Juliano and Aldama" observed similar type of development in 0. sativa. Some time after, the upper three megaspores show various types of contraction leading to the ultimate degeneration and the chalazal one alone functions. These three upper cells after complete degeneration and disintegration are observed as dark-staining shapeless masses covering and capping the functional and developing megaspore. This disintegrated cap lasts till the 4-nucleate stage of the sac. The development of the female gametophyte is of the usual monosporic eight-nucleate (Normal) type. 0D s :w .4 ? rei. abreebeA Fig. 1. The haploid chromosome number of 0. coarctata Roxb. X 2000 The haploid chromosome number is counted as 24 (Fig. 1) from the p.m. cells as was previously reported by Parthasarathy3. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 488 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE A Fuller details will be published elsewhere. Wd offer our sincere and grateful thanks to Sri il-yotirrpoy Datta, office of the Dictionary of Economic Products of India (C.S.I.R.), New Delhi for kindly helping with some literature references from his perso- nal library. A. K. PAUL It. M. DATTA ,-lute Agricultural Research Institute, 'Raikes House", Hooghly, 1.-4-1950. Juliano, J. B. and Aldama, M. J. Philippine Agric., 26,1-134, 1937. 2 ikuwada, Y. Bot. Mag. Tokyo. 24, 267-281, 1910. Parthasa,rathy, N Cytologia, 9, 307,1938 4 Teranda, S. Jour. Coll. Agri.. :Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Sapporo, japan. 19, 245-260, 1928. NEW REAGENTS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND PURIFICATION OF S-GUAIAZULENE During our work on some sesquiterpenes derived from S-guaiazulene, it was thought of interest to deve- lop a few new reagents, which should form sparingly soluble, stable, complexes with azulenes, and should possess high crystallizing power. It should also be possible to readily and easily regenerate the azulene in a pure form from such a compound. With this end in view a large number of polynitro compounds were tested for their capacity to form double complexes with S-guaiazulene. Picramide has been found to be superior to all the formerly known four reagents',2. which are being used for the identification of azulenes. Picryl chloride can also be used for the -purpose and is, in fact, Auperior to styphnic acid and possibly to pi- cric acid in this respect. Picramide readily forms a double compound with S-guaiazulene in alcohol-acetic acid solution. The compound crystallizes in black needles with a coppery red luster and is obtained in a very good yield in a more )17 less pure form from the crude azulene directly. The imp. of 163.5 is quite sharp. For the regeneration of pure S-guaiazulene from the picramide complex, three techniques have been developed. The compound is refluxed with cyclohexane containing a small percen- tage of dry benzene, when the azulene is regenerated and the picramide precipitates out. On cooling the picramide is filtered off and the .filtrate after dilution with petroleum ether is passed through a column of alumina to remove the last traces of picramide. For larger quantities the addition compound is mixed with an equal amount of an inert material, like alumina, and placed in the thimble of a soxhlet, apparatus and extracted with cyclohexane, till the ext met, is no longer coloured blue. The third method makes use of the decomposition of picramide with alkali, Pieryl chloride also gives a complex, crystallizing in black crystals with a coppery hue, m.p. 97-98?, from alcohol. The azulene can be liberated from this com- pound by treatment with alkali. ND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 12 All these methods have been described for S-guai- azulene, but it is hoped that these reagents may also prove to be equally useful for other azulenes. Full details will be published elsewhere. K. B. DuTT -imsH DEV P. C. GUTIA Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Indian Instit ate of Science, Bangalore 3. 3-4-19150. ' Ituzicka and Ruddolph. Hely. Chim Acta., 9, 118, 132, 1926, ' Pfan and PlOtnor, /bid.. 19, 858, 1936, NEED FOR INVESTIGATION ON SYNTHETIC MOTOR AND AVIATION FUEL FOR INDIA Financial value of loss being sustained by owners of motor cars and transport vehicles year after year since the commencement of restricted supply of petrol, can hardly be over estimated. Two projects' relating to the poSsibility of produc- ing synthetic petrol, from Indian coal, one costing Rs.23 erores and the other Rs.40 crores are under consideration of the Government of India. In course of a symposium held in Allahabad in 1949, Dutta Roy2 correctly adduced statistical support for the establishment of Research Institute on the subject. Stuart3 discussed the need for synthetic liquid fuel to replace natural petroleum, which is limited, and the two chief alternative processes now in use in U. S.A. are economically unsound. The Minister of Fuel and Power, U. Ic4 stated that the Fuel Research Station of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research are carrying out researches for several years, but re- sults so far obtained do not yet justify .plans for opera- hon on commercial scale in that country. We have, however, now before us the "Report on the Petroleum and synthetic Oil industry of Germany"?by a Mis- sion from the Ministry of Fuel and Power, Published. by His Majesty's Stationary Office, London. This publication offers very little hope for economically successful production of petrol from Indian coal. -Instead of depending too much on mere reproduction of what Germany was economically unsuccessful ins- pite of persistent efforts for years, it seems quite worth while for India to take up the problem on independent lines, based on abundant cheap raw materials which are either available or may be developed with planned long term policy. Berthelot4 eighty one years ago combined carbon and hydrogen in his research laboratory at high tem- perature and produced acetylene: The subject is therefore an absolutely old one, and has been extensively investigated in different scientifically advanced countries for over 80 years so far with no commercial success. Let the fuel technologists imitate one of the plants for defence purpose exclusively. Such step however should Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 'LETTERS TO THE EDITOR not console private motor car and transport vehicle owners and industrialists of the country. Just now molasses has again become surplus in India and undoubtedly will continue to be so. Fuel technologists do not usually get training in high level researches in organic synthesis, therefore, co-ordinated efforts headed by synthetic organic chemists seem to be reasonable to research for production of motor and aviation fuel. Amongst possibilities, (1) ethyl alcohol from molasses and mohua, awl (2) products of wood distillation from forest wood need careful consi- deration. Long term policies have to be thought out and worked up step by step. By organized and planned developments molasses may be developed easily as a bye-product from sugar factories, and mohua may be grown in course of grossly neglected forest regenera- t.ion. Cost price of ethyl alcohol was about four annas per gallon before, and it can be easily brought down to that level by normal efforts. Having based on the production of ethyl alcohol at normal cost, experiments have to be varied, for example, ethylene produced from it may be polymerized and thereafter different processes of cracking have to be adopted to get ulti- mately some molecules as effective as iso-octane. Wasteful? methods of wood distillation was done in Mysore. If however, the entire process is done cor- rectly, then ingredients necessary for production of synthetic petrol are all plentifully obtainable from Wood distillation, quite similarly as those from coal. By making use of wood tar and a suitable catalyst, it is reasonable to expect usual hydrogention of carbon atom from wood or charcoal. Ford Motor Company of Ameri- ca get about 20 percent by weight of inflammable gas at no additional cost. This gas is quite rich in methane, and its production is expected to increase by suitable variation of technique of wood distillation. Our whole country is full of unlimited forest area though grossly neglected. Bye products of wood distillation may be converted with advantage into motor and avia- tion fuel. Research laboratories in organic chemistry may now think on similar lines as above and formulate probable avenues of commercial success, leaving aloof fuel technologists to reproduce hyrogenation of coal for defence purposes, irrespective of cost of production and normal trade competition. It is quite serious that owners of private cars and transport vehicles and industrialists need not expect any relief from Indian coal under the planned arrangement for production of oil from coal, from economic aspects. 1 Calcutta, 3-4-1950. 4 J. N. RAKSR1T SOIENCE AND CULTURE 15, 64, 1949. Dutta Roy, R. K. Ind. New. End. Jour. Ind. Chem. Soc., 28, 1949. Stuart, E. R. Journal & Proceedings, Royal Institute of Chemis- try, Feb. 1949, 29. Gaitskell, ibid. p. 15. M. Berthelot, Compt. Rend. 67, 1868. 489 SEARCH FOR NEW ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING FUNGI FOR CONTROLLING PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS The recent discovery of a large number of antibio- tic substances from the metabolic products of micro- organisms tends to support the view that it is quite possible to search for newer types of antibiotic-produc- ing organisms from their natural habitat. Extensive work on this line has been carried out in U.S.A. and Great Britain and an enormous array of literature have accumulated during the last decade. These have been reviewed by Duemling et al', Waksman2, Benedict and Langlykke3, and Bailey and Cavallito4. Already there are more than hundred different compounds isolated from micro-organisms, and there is sufficient evidence to believe that a great many others can be obtained, if the organisms are studibd in greater detail. There are various methods of approach to this problem and the method suggested by Waksman2 has been followed in the present investigation. Cultures of fungi were isolated from various sources, viz, soil, compost and vegetable waste by plating with Waksman's acid-agar medium. The isolates were grown in subculture and were subjected to rapid screen- ing tests as suggested by Raper et (115 and a primary selection of the positive antibiotic-producing strains was made. Of 540 isolated fungi, 139 were found to be capable of producing inhibitory substances. These are mostly species of Penicillium or Aspergillus and a few strains of Fungi Imperfecti. The activity of 20 better antibiotic-producing strains are reported in the present communication. TABLE Diameter of inhibition zones (mm.) of test organisms Cultures Staph. aureus E. coli V. cholerae Rb. typhosa --- P, 28 ,- 20 o 0 136 30 30 30 30 F, (10) 16 17 0 16 F2(20) 20 20 0 17 F? (43) 12 16 o 17 IF, (54) 23 18 12.5 14 FX, (63) 16 14 o 17 F, (64) 18 13 15 17 FX, (64) 25 13 13 13 F, (66) 21 0 o o FX,(68) 15 15 0 21.5 F2(69) F, (70) . 24 26 o 10 o o o o F, (71) 24 0 o 0 F, (71) 30 9.5 0 0 FY, (71) 30 10 o o F, (82) 25 o o 0 FX, (82) 28 o o 0 F, (83) 23' o o 0 F, (83) 19 11.5 9 9 Phenol(5%) 26 22 20 22 Mercuric Chloride (1:500) 30 22 25 24 The cultures were grown in modified Czapek-Dox solution with 0,2% malt extract for 10 days at 24?C. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 490 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULTURE The culture fluids were assayed according to the agar- cup method using 4 test organisms?Staph. aureus, E. cob:, V. cholerae and Eb. typhosa and the results are given in Table 1. The selected test organisms were all human patho- gens, of which only Staph, aureus is Gram-positive and tire remaining three are Gram-negative. It will be seen from the table that the antibiotic-producing organisms used in the above experiment, show a wide specificity in their antagonistic activities. It is remarkable that Fibrin cholerae is the least sensitive amongst all the test organisms as in this case the inhibition zone was observed only in 5 instances. Eb. typhosa and E. coli were inhi- led in 10 and 14 cases respectively while Staph. aureus was inhibited in every case. One strain of Penicillium (No. 136't was found to be effeetive equally against Gram-positive and Grain- negative . test organisms, and the zones of inhibition produced here were highest amongst all the active cul- hires employed in this experiment. Arrangements are now in progress to test the toxic effect of the purified preparation of the .active substances in experimental annuals and a detailed investigation on the Method of un provement of production of the antibiotic agents will be reported in future. S. K. MUKHERJEE S. hN P. N. NANIJI Section of Microbiology, Bose Institute, Calcutta, 19-5-1950. nuemtinT,W W. Vi. et. at. Ann. New York Acad. Sci, 48, 31-228, 1946. Wilkarnan. 8. A., Microbial Antagonism and Antibiotic Sulistences, 1947. Benedict, R. G. and Langlykke A. F., Ann. Rev. Microbiol., I. 193-236. 1947 Bailey, . H. and Cavanita, C. J. ibid, 2, 143-182, 1948. 1,'?,ipor it al. dour. Bact., 48, 644-45, 1944. SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AND COSMIC RAY DISTURBANCES It was reported in Nature' that "a big group of sunspot Urought into view by the sun's rotation on the 14th February will cross out of sight on Feb. 21. In Northern latitude 11?, the centre of the complex group (Tossed the meridian on February 20.2 U.T This roup will probably have not been exceeded in size since 1947 (the peak year of the present 11 years suns- pot cycle) when the outstanding group had an area nearly oamble the present. Judging from the size alone the present group is likely to be associated with geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances". 17he results of cosmic ray intensity measurements during the period February 17, to March 2, 1950, carried out in the premises of Bose institute, Calcutta by one of us (i.L.C.) is a continuation of the investi- gations reported earlier by Chakraborty and Chatterjee 015 eosnne ray intensity measurements by means of a pressure ionization chamber. The apparatus used is Vol. 15, No. 12 the same as described in the latter communication2 and the results are given in Curve I.; one of us (P.K.S.C.) while engaged in an investigation on the nature of secondary radiation produced by cosmic rays in different thickness of lead, noticed on 28.2.50 an increase by almost one hundred per cent in the frequency of coin- cidences in a counter telescope placed under 10 ems. of lead. The curve representing the variation in fre- quency of coincidences with time on 28.2.50 is given in Curve IL The counts were taken for one hour in. tervals. In table I. appended herewith we have collected together all data available for the present on (i) the number of sunspots visible on different dates at Kodai- kanal and the position on the sun's disc of the large group of sunspots as reported in Nature; (ii) solar flare observed at different places; (iii) radio fade out observed by A. in Delhi ; (iv) magnetic storm as recorded at, Kodaikanal and (v) variation in cosmic ray intensity as recorded at the Bose Institute, Calcutta. It may be mentioned that the pressure ionization chamber was installed in an air conditioned room on the roof of the main building of the Bose Institute and the coin- cidence counter arrangement was housed in a hut in the garden at a distance of over 100 yds. from the former, Table I 12 14 10 10 17 IS II 20 21 21 03 OS 24 27 NU779ER Or SUNS m.r.s, 74 11., Jodi. Of Pa 071 IS 130 070000 Mr.. ..... 1.52 ASO - , SOLAR FLARE Ai. .r? RAMO MOE OUT ' 014017lETIC:7: STORM LIAM, SIP. , ,,,,,,,,,,, , CAL .".... ..........e 4 COSMIC RAY UNIENSITY trr. r ?a'. ? " The principal points of interest elucidated from Table I are discussed below : (i) The relative number of sunspots which were observed at Kodaikanal increased from 74 on 13th Feb. to 116 on 14th, the date on which the large group of sunspots mentioned in Nature appeared on the sur- face of the sun's disc; on the 15th the number increased to 139 which coincided with a complete radio fade out observed at Delhi between 11.55 to 12.55 hrs. I.S.T. On the 15th a slight disturbed magnetic storm was also observed at Kodaikanal. (ii) On the 17th a solar flare of intensity 2 was observed at Kodiakanal between 02.10 to 02.44 hrs. I.S.T. In curve I, there is an indi- cation of diminution in cosmic ray intensity with a minimum of about 1.82% at 16 hrs.. I.S.T. There was however, no magnetic storm; the Kodaikanal report states calm from 16th to 18th Feb. and on the 19th it was slightly disturbed. (iii) According to Nature the centre of the complex group of spots crossed the meri- dian on Feb. 20.2. U.T. In our record there is a sudden Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 June, 1050 tt'kElIS O TIM MITOR increase of intensity from 6 to 20 hrs. with a maximum of 7.9% at 12 hours. A magnetic storm of the sudden commencement type began at 23.40 hrs. I .S.T . The storm was followed by a sudden decrease in cosmic ray inten- sity with a minimum of 4.82% at 0.0 hours on 21st Feb. At Delhi a partial severe type of radio fade out was observed on 21st between 15.40 to 16.20 hrs. I.S.T. On the 22nd there was another rise in intensity of about 3.7% at llhrs. .I.S.T., following which there was a drop in intensity below the mean value which continued till the 25th, during which period the magnetic storm, as reported from Kodaikanal, persisted. On the 26th it was slightly disturbed and on 27th and 28th it was calm. No solar flare up was observed during 20th -22nd Feb. at Kodaikanal, probably due to bad weather. There was, however, a newspaper report of observation of such an occurrence on 22nd Feb. from Japan. The group of phenomenon found usually associated with an intense solar flare up was thus observed during the Period 20th-25th Feb. The cosmic ray intensity attained Curves I and II wAriaa ? Mil. KAM. PM 14.100eNee :It 3I ii 1., 6 1, .4. AR 111111 NI 1111r # 14, 71 I -molt confirm MOM AT Alla' uocaN 141./flIC t 0/7 0/0 0/9020 0 21 0 77 2 2 - rie-Rd0- ?Al? -MARCO the normal value from early 26th Feb. (iv) On the 28th. Feb., the ionization chamber record showed an increase in cosmic ray intensity with a maximum of about 7.3% at about 16 hrs. I.S.T. and the counter telescope arrangement recorded an increase about 100% at 13.30 hrs. approximately (Curve II). The higher percentage increase in counter telescope arrangement seems to indicate that the increase was mainly due to particles of higher energy which also arrived earlier. The increase recorded on Feb. 28 was of a simple nature, neither accompanied by radio fade out nor followed by any decrease in intensity indicating, thereby, the absence of any ionospheric and magnetic disturbances. As this increase could not be correlated with an increase in the number and activity of sunspots or magnetic storm and radio fade out, the question arises whether it could be attributed to solar flare up. According to the report in Nature the group of large sunspots went out of sight on the 27th February. Several observa- tions have also been recorded by Ehmert3 (1941-43) in 491 which increase in cosmic ray intensities could not be correlated with any sunspot activities or radio fade outs: Our thanks are due to Dr. A. K. Das, Director, Solar Physics observatory, Kodaikanal and to the Re- search Engineer, All India Radio, Delhi for supplying us with information used in preparing the present note. One of us (P.K,S.C.) is indebted to the National Institute of Sciences of India for the award of an I.C.I. Research Fellowship. We are also indebted to Dr. D. M. Bose, Director, Bose Institute for many helpful discussions. I. L. CHAKRABORTY P. K. SEN CHOWDHTIRY Bose Institute, Calcutta, 12-5-1950. 1 'A Eig Sunspot'---Nature, 165, 301, February 25, 190. 2 Chakraborty, I. L. & Chatterjee, S. D., Ind. Jour. Physics, 23, 525, 1949. 0 Ehrnert, A. Zeit F. Naturforschung, 3a, 264, 1948. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING, III. The population to be sampled is a p-dimensional 'rectangular' field consisting of H n, strata, each of II le, cells. Let (x1, x2,...xy) be the co-ordinate of a cell 11 in the field. Along xi-direction, there are ni sets, each containing k, 'rectangles' of (p-1) dimensions. Then systematic sampling may be defined as follows:-from a stratum v cells are taken at random and every kith cell along x, direction from every chosen cell is taken, comprising a systematic sample of size v ni (c.f. Das2). Under stratified sampling v cells are taken at random from each stratum and under random sampling v Uni cells are taken at random out of all the cells in the population. This population is considered to be a sample from an infinite population in which the expectation and variance of the yield of each cell is constant and the correlation between the yield of two cells is a function of the gap between them (c.f. Cochran') Let cri.2, o-st2 and crsy2 be the variances of the sample-mean under random, stratified and systematic sampling as in Das (1949), p , u2,...up) be the cor- relation between two points of gap (u,, u2,...up) and p (u1, 1 u2, u?) is such that for p=3 p (u,, u2, u3) p (u,, U2, u3) p (u,,?u2, u,) + p (u1,-112, u3) P ud). Let 41 and Si are the usual difference notations with tnpo(tued1, bly and 8,2 rosPee- respect to ui, anbde 8,2 P (111) u2, "? UP) ??? up) and Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 42 SCIENCE AND CULTI7RE Vol, 15, No. 12 Then rri.2, rrst 2 and (7"2 have been calculated and the following theorems proved giving sufficient condi- tions for all infinite populations : Theorem 1. if (i) 0, and (ii) 2> 0 for j = 1,2, ... p, and j then stratified sampling with strips r = const. is more efficient than random sa,rnpling. Theorem. 2. If (i) A, 0, (ii) < 0 and (iii) 0 for i = 1, 2, p; then stratified, sampling with strips x, const. and x const. is more effi- cient than random sampling. We can state more general theorems equivalent to theorem 2 for stratification by stripes. Theorem 3. If (i) < 0 and (ii) 812 > 0, both for i = 1, 2, ... p ; then stratified sampling in general is, more efficient than random sampling. , Theorem 4. If 8,2 0 for = I, 2, ... p, syste- matic sampling defined here is more efficient than stratified sampling. [N.B. This theorem is true even if the strata have got different expected means and variances.] Theorem 5. Under conditions of theorem 3, stated above, systematic, stratified and random sampling methods are in decreasing order of efficiency; o-?.2 < o-,2 < 0r2. s Department of statistics, Calcutta University, 21-2-1950. coolman. W. 11., Ann. Math. Stat; 17, 164-177, 1946. Das, A. C. Two dimensional systematic sampling, SCIENCE AND CULTURE, 15, 157-158, 1949. BOOK REVIEWS The Characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Field?By A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakening. Published by McGraw Hill Book Inc. ,\I". V. Price $3.50. "The characteristics of electrical discharges in magnetic -fields" by Guthrie and Wakening published by McGraw Hill Book Company in their Manhattan Project Technical section series supplies a book in a field where there were previously none. In the rapidly growing fields of mass spectroscopy and ion accelerators the conditions under which, the sources of ions operate. have not received that attention it deserved until the growth. .of the American Manhattan project. The present volume describes the work on characteristics of ion sources produced by discharges in magnetic fields by ilte group at Radiation la,rboratory, at the (lniversity of California, in connection with the magne- tic separation of Uranium isotopes and related fields. The book is comprehensive and lacking only in certain technical and engineering details which have perhaps been omitted for obvious reasons. The practical ex- perience embodied. in the book will make it an obliga- tory reading and reference book for all those who wish I o work on mass spectroscope and ion accelerators. 1' here is a last and useful chapter on the Phillips Toni. Aation gauge for measuring high vacua which works on the principle of ionization by collision in magnetic iields. This chapter though not quite related to the i'est, of the book is an. Useful addition and is the most .orriplete description of the Philips type gauge that the: i:oviewer has seen. In printing and the diagrams -the conformity with previous volumes of the series has been maintained and the price has been kept low. B. D. N. Vaccum Equipment and Techniques?By A. Guthrie and R,. K. Wakerling. Published by McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. N. Y. Price $2.50. The publication of the volume on vacuum equip- ment and techniques in the Manhattan Technical series is welcome addition to the inadequate literature On this subject. The first chapter on basic designs of vacuum systems is not usually met with in most books on vacuum technique. It is well 'written and will be use- ful to all who want to design vacuum systems for any purpose. The description of the conventional pumps in the second chapter is useful although, incomplete and is not meant to be used as a guide to marketed mechanical and diffusion pumps. Vacuum gauges have been fairly completely described. Vacuum materials and equipment are also quite comprehensively treated as far as metal systems are concerned. Glass systems, however, have not been dealt with and the omission 1 suppose has been purposely made, although the matter of insulated leads into vacuum systems, glass seals, and certain types of metal and glass systems are of importance in certain types of vacuum work. The chapter on detection is again something of great usefulness to all workers in the field. It is regretted that the palladium tube hydrogen ion gauge for detec- tion of leaks which is of general interest and usefulness in this field has been overlooked, As a handbook to all those who work with evacua- ted systems this book will be indispensable. As a manual that one can turn over at any page and use as reference it will be useful in any laboratory bookshelf. The printing is good and the diagrams are clear and in eomformitv with the other books of the series. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 B. D. N. June, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 BOOK Bengal Famine (1943)?By Tarak Chandra Das, University of Calcutta, 1949. pp.154, Price Es. 6/-. The report under review is a survey of the socio- economic condition of the destitutes who were driven from the villages to the city of Calcutta for food. The survey was carried out by the teachers and students of the department of Anthropology of the UniAersity of Calcutta. The report consists of two parts, in the first of which the destitutes have been described, in. detail and the second part consists of a test survey of the famine condition in a few Bengal villages. The destitutes were studied mostly in the free kitchens under the jurisdiction of District IV of Cal- cutta Corporation. They numbered 2537. persons of which 1200 were males and. 1337 females. The majority (81.24%)of the. above number hailed from the distinct of 24-Parganas, because of its close proximity and the railway system by which it is connected with the city. Thanks to the railway authorities who carried. these destitutes free of cost to the city and back. This free railway transport was a fillip to the influx of the desti- tutes and its largest number from the district of 24- Parganas. Mr. Das has very rightly gone into the details of the methodology of the survey and claims that the data collected by the present survey are not comparable with one of the earlier surveys on this famine. It is high time therefore that all such surveys are based. on an approved scientific method so that their results are comparable and show a composite picture. Chap. ELI of the report shows the ago, sex and community distri- bution of. the destitutes. Mr. Das has laboured very much to explain the high preponderance of males over females in the lower age groups (0-10) and that of female over males in the higher age groups. He is of opinion: "Aparently, it is not duo to biological causes but appears to be the result of socio-economic factors pro- duced by the famine". To the reviewer, however it appears that the biological factor is the chief cause. The male sex-ratio is always high in the younger ages and as it is accompanied by higher male mortality than the females it is almost balanced during the reproductive periods. In India we have high female mortality towards the fall of their reproductive period and the same has been found in the present destitute samples (p.46). The sex distribution found among the destitutes is entirely in conformity with our present biological knowledge and they are stronger than the socio-economic reasons put forth by Mr. Das. The present report also shows a high male mortality (p.93) and one is reminded of Prof. Crew's apt remark? "the true recipe for longevity is to be born a girl". The destitutes have been grouped into four commu- nities?" Caste Hindus", "Scheduled Castes", "Muslims" and "Christians". A further subdivision of the first two groups into the different castes would have been better for purposes of indentification and understand- ing. The reviewer is a native of a village (28 miles from Ballygunge) in 24-Parganas, which sent out a number of such destitutes and the majority of them 1-1,1W110,,V8' 43 belong to the Bagdis. This caste was probably the hardest hit in this district and quite a large number of these Bagdis used to come to the town daily in the morning and go back to their villages in the evening. Mr. Das has mentioned (P. 72) that 55.47% of the units did not possess any homestead land. This is rather peculiar in a village and it is doubtful that the destitutes told the truth. There are few public shelters in a vil- lage and the communal ways of livlihood among the scheduled castes of 24-Parganas are rare. The desti- tutes have not always told the truth as the reviev, er personally knows the Bagdis of his village and quite a few of them roamed about the free kitchens of Bally- gunge. They have posed to be destitutes in a largo number of cases and came to the city owing to the high price of food-stuffs, etc. in the village. Mr. Das has discussed at length the causes of the famine in Chap. XI. The most important point of Mr. Das, contributory causes is the moral de- generation of the people. It is doubtful how far the destitute sample were real destitutes. Further, the report has not mentioned anything of the efforts in the villages to help the poor. The rcviewer is aware of two such benefactors in his own village ? one giving dry doles and another giving kich,uri and quite a few of the Bagdis took advantage of these and of the town as well. The report concludes with some useful suggestions in the form of long term and immediate measures in order to combat famine. It appears that the primary necessity for the benefit of agriculture lies in the resus- citation of tho old irrigation channels. This will not involve the State into an enormous expenditure. As an agriculturist the reviewer feels this to be the prime importance than the other suggestions of Mr. Das which will involve a lot of social change. /.9. 8. 13. Artificial Radioactivity?By P. B. Moon, F.R.S. Published by Cambridge Monographs on Physics. Cambridge University Press 1949. Pp. 102. Price 12s. 6d. This Monograph on Artificial Radioactivity is a timely publication embodying our present state of knowledge on this branch of Nuclear Physics. In recent years the advancement of Nuclear Physics has been so enormous and rapid that such monographs are particularly welcome by those engaged in the study of Nuclear Physics, as more comprehensive treatment of individual subjects is obtainable than available in in standard text books. T his monograph gives an outline of the main pheno- mena and techniques of radioactivity as observed in the study of artificially radioactive nuclei. A great variety of artificial radioactive nuclei has been produced in recent years and more data are pouring in. At present more than 500 artificially radioactive nuclei are known. The inclusion of such a large amount of nuclear data has not boon attempted in a small volume like this. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 -1-94 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CTILTURE, Vol. 15, No. 12 Bather it is intended to provide a basic conception of the main radioactive processes viz., electron and positron activity, IC-capture and gamma emission, and the ex- perimental data of some typical nuclei are elaborately discussed to illustrate the processes involved. The first chapter develops an introductory concep- Lien of the formation and different modes of decay of euelei produced. by artificial transmutation. In chapter 11 the main experimental methods for detection in it teriry measurements of electrons, positrons and gamma- rays are briefly discussed. The third chapter is devoted to electron and positron emissions from nuclei. comprehensive discussion of the beta-decay theory including the K-capture process has been given and -Apical experimental results of a few nuclei are discussed -.o bring out the corelation with the theory. The last ihapter deals with the process of gamma-emission from ,mclei. After a concise introduction to the theoretical .tspect of gamma-emission process, follows a compre- iensive discussion of some interesting gamma-emitting cclei including those exhibiting isomeric transition. As the author has limited the discussion to light (1(1 medium-heavy nuclei, the process of alpha-emission from artificially radioactive nuclei such as the transur- ale elements has not been included. The book includes. Ire references of recent literature on the subject from itittil earlier references may be obtained This mono- raph will be much helpful to those interested in the study of this branch of physics. Proceedings of the National Conference on Industrial Hydraulics Vol. II, 1948. Confer- ence Secretary, Armour Research Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology, Technology Center, Chicago Ili, Illinois, U.S.A. Paper cover, 6" >< 9", pp. xxi--i--154, 1949. Price $3.00, The Proceedings of the 1947 conference were re- viewed in this journal some time back, (S(;ience, and ;altam. Jan, 1950, p. 228). This second volume contains 'fillers presented during Oct. 20-21. 1948, and maintains the- same high standard evidenced in the first volume aiei anticipated in the present one. As compared with ten papers in Vol. I, this volume eentains 13 papers which can he classified into five Ic rant groiips comprising of servomechanisms, hydraulic equipment standards, pumps and turbines, hydraulic components and recent applications. The subject of ser- vomechanisms is dealt with in two papers, one dealing with the general history and industrial applications and the other with the prediction, design and test of hydrau- lic mechanisms by mathematical, mechanical and elec- tronic tools. As in other fields of engineering, standardi- zation of hydraulic equipment is now recognised as aiming towards the advancement of the art of hydraulics, and promoting safety of personnel , uninterrupted produc- tion and a long life for machine or other equipment. These aspects are covered in two general papers present- ing a clear explanation of the first hydraulic standards for industrial equipment. Pumps and turbines which - form the veritable nerve centres of industrial hydrau- lics are covered in three papers. They deal with the subject of hydraulic surges in pump discharge lines, prediction of liquid jet pump performance and the most recent developments in large hydraulic turbines. This last subject is dealt with in a very illuminating manner wherein the advances in materials for turbine construc- tion are surveyed. These newer developments are characterized by the use of welded plate steel structures, and increased applications of strainless steel a,nd new types of bearings and seal rings. Three papers cover the field of hydraulic components. The paper on flanged joints,- their deve- lopment and testing will interest many technologists as their - applications stretch over a very wide field. The two other papers survey hydraulic paekings and seals and gasket design and selection. The applications of hydraulics are dealt with in two papers. one on polyphase torque converter and the other on hydrau- lic circuits for farm tractors. A very unusual paper for a subject like this comes from the pen of R. E. Gilmor, Vice-Chairman of the U.S. National Security Resources Board. Entitled "Our Economic Missions in Europe", the paper surveys very lucidly the purposes, benefits, difficulties and the modulus operandi of the Marshall-aid Plan. It is no doubt a very good paper presented in an authoritative, intelligent and clear way and would form ideal for pre- sentation in a journal on economics and management. Its relation however in this volume especially among the teelmical papers is a little stray and although the reviewer throughly enjoyed reading and appreciating its contents the reason for its inclusion here has left him wondering. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 K (J. 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FRIIIIIIIII11111111111111111II11111111111111111111111111I11111111111111111111H1111111111DIIIIIIIII11111111111111110 Wiley" replying to the advertisers,- please mention have seen the advertisement in Science. and Culture., Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Axil, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 MIENOZ AND CULTURE - isilEv==a) 01,_,G11;zMgMEEDteSa) PUT IT IN WRITING Because Paper Remembers What You Can Forget SAVE TIME PREVENT ERRORS gat rut Papat aat wtiting & ?tinting atom: Raghunath Dun & Sons Ltd.. "BHOLANATH DHAM" 33-2 BEADON STREET, CALCUTTA Phone : B. B. 4175 'Grams : "NOTEPAPER" CALCUTTA : 20, Synagogue Street. DACCA : 31-1, Patuato BRANCHES: la Street. (9 (')1???.0)(a=e)(a=====G)e*---5)(-' immomminimaimmimmummimmummirminnumuuminnummumiumminummiummimmounimiimmimminimminummumiummutimminiimmilimumuminiiiis a = = == I ? COMPLETE? == F.. = :1 1 X-Ray Plants a == a a _= =? _= =? FOR DIFFRACTION AND RADIOGRAPHY = =? = =? a = == E. = = a =? a = a TRANSFORMERS OF VARIOUS VOLTAGE .RATIO _= a == a UP TO 150 K. V. == a =? = _= LI == g. IMPORTED X-RAY TUBES AND KENOTRON I .I. -.4 a VALVES (MACHLETT) 1 a a _ a= a I l'W A 1113 0 NI 1[11 0 ti S 11E i E == E _= =.7, SIRDAR SANKAR ROAD, KALIGHAT.. =? = a CALCUTTA.26. E= = == a .-.: Phone :?South 1773. I = E: iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiminiumitimmim I When replyingje the advertisers, please trientiork that yo h have span the aciverti?ehhh4 ih P(depep and CutuFe, ? 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III 15 Screen analysis with the In- in clyno is accurate and obviously III better than hand sieving. The praticles of the material under III test are rapidly and accurately III segregated by this instrument. Ili 111 The machine is operated III by a 1/6 h.p. motor, and, HI when fitted with an auto- Hi matic time switch, tests can III be carried out over periods III III I up to 60 minutes. III I III I111 I III I SOLE AGENTS: III I III I III 1 GlIOVANIII & CO. 1 Hi I PEOPLE'S BUILDING IiI iIII I SIR PHEROZESHAH MEI-ITA ROAD, FORT, BOMBAY Iti I 111 Iii 1 = E = ===E======E= BI5 When replying to the advertisers, please mention that yon have seen the advertiseinent in Feigns@ and Culture. ? Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950. 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L-- rt- CO-OPERATIVE INSURANCE SOCIETY LTD. g. .. = = HINDUSTHAN BUILDINGS = a = CALCUTTA _ Ei = :111111111111111111111111,111111111111111111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIII1111111111117 DUST] A 1.41 11111111111113111111.1111i11111:11111111.111(111111 Iii III Ill III Iii iii III III III ill Iii ill iii hl Iii III III III III Iii hi hl iii III iii III THE ARYAN PATH Editor: SOPHIA WADIA Principal Contents for April WHAT IS PERSONAL GREATNESS, AND HOW IS IT ACHIEVED? Arthur E. : 'Morgan IDEALS OF MARRIAGE M. A. Venkata Rao SOME PRINCIPLES OF MAHAYANA BUDDHISM Christmas Humphreys THE INDIVIDUAL IN SOCIAL REGENERA- TION C. R. K. Murti WORLD WITHOUT WAR Hannah Torr Annual Subscription Rs. 6/? Single Copy -/12/- Editorial Office: "ARYASANGHA", MALABAR HILL, BOMBAY 6. lktana'gerial Office: GANPULE BUILDING, RAOPU RA, BARODA. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 ii II ii ii ii II II II II II II II II II ii II II II II ii II II II II ii II ii Ii II II II II II II II II =-=----;E:151MMEMMMEMF-Flit : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 .Aprii,.iOSt. AND, tptittrDit IIIMMICON IMMO 111 1111111 VIIV111111111111111111111111111711113 "P[1.1911111IR :411111111M 11111111111111111:11111 111[111111111111!111111111iEll 1:1:1111111111111113111?1110111:11111:11111 HIM a Ica matImal toomm at least twice and find it quite invigorating. I am not aware that it has produced any harmful effect on my health. On the contrary, the morning cup makes me ch rf for starting the day's work." Dr. Meghnad Saha, D.Sc., FRS, Pali! Professor and Head of the Department of Physics, Calcutta University, is one of the most eminent scientists of India and is famous internationally for his work on Nuclear Physics, especially on the Theory of Stellarspectra which brought him the Fellowship of the Royal Society, lie represented India at the 220th Anniversary of the foundation of the Russian Academy of Sciences La 1945. U1E /64 eq-laWiaticit INSERTED BY THE CENTRAL TEA BOARD 117 326 ANINME____1111k MMU111?11 1111311r1111111111111111111111111111111111111VM11111111111I1?111q IMO 11111 111111 fihlOULi5U15 U1 ii When replying to the advertisers please mention that you have seen the advertisement in Science and Culture. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 25X1 C Approved For Release 2001/09/06 :CIA-RDp834/415R006100050001-7 Published bu the . ? INDIAN SCIENCE NEWS ASSOCIATION Editor. - D. M. Bose S. K. Mitra A. C. Ukil P. Ray S. N. Sen Associate Editors A. K. Gliosh R. Chatterjee B. Mukherjee Cotlaboratar. S P. Agharkar Atmaram G C Mitra K. G. Bagchi A. C. Banerjee K. Banerjee S. K. Banerjee K. P. Basis D. N. Wadia K. V Giri H. P. Bhaumik K. Biswas N. N. Chatterjee N. K. Bose D. Chakravarti N. R. Dhar 3. C. Chatterjee J C. Saha S. P. Chatterjr e A. C. Joshi N. N Dasgupta S L. Hora G. J. Fowler N. R. Seri S. S. Bhatnagar 1tP. Malty P. C. Nlahaliti B. Mukerji S. C. Mitra S. R. Palit J. N. Mukherjee N. C. Saha Kamalesh Ray B. B Sarkar S. K. Ghaswala J. M. Sen V. Subrahmanyan S. N. Sen B. C. Kundu S. C. Sirkar S. S. Sokhey J. N. Bhar Maneck B. Pithawdlla K. P. Chattopadhy.iy S. P. Ray Chaudhtiry H K. Mookherjee Surendra Nath Sen editorial 45 Pubbcation Office, 92, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta 9. Aduertiong Offla 92, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta 9. Approved For APRIL 1950 No. 10 NEM) OF A ('OM-PEET] EN SIVE PLANNING 'FOR )1t1V ELOPMENT 0 le AO EEC LILT ORE IN INDIA 309 371 374 370 379 384 389 Agricultural Extension Service in the United State:, ?J. C. Saha Technical Assistance to Under-Developed. Countrie- -J. C. Ohosh The Soil and the Engineer?B. Chattcri,e Paper Making in India- -D. C. To/aider A Method for Comparing the Relative Quality of .1 'rte Yarns?K. R. Son MOTES ANI) NEWS LETTERS TO'Ill E EDITOR : The Talik-t1alcha Origin of .Parsis --Alaneck B. .Pithawalla ct S. F. Desai ? -Shankkherjee 390 ti? Ionic Antagonism in Cation Exchange Reacticsll i;raninda Ma 0:ilehicine-induced, Polyploidy in .--lmaranty,4 Nitum ? S. L. Tandon and J. J. Chino?' 398 Optical Specificity of Protein Hydrolysates? A. Ray 399 -Double Staining with Aceto-Carmine and other Rapid Techniques -IV N. K. Tiwary and Shankarji Shrivastava. 399 A simple Method of obtaining Difference Equations of Probability Generating Functions of Certain Distributions?P. V. Krishna lyer... 400 Bond Energy and ionic Nature of Bonds in Polyatoinic Molecules -S. K. Kalkurni Jatkar and (Miss) S. B. Kulkarni. 400 The Food of Rona. Hexadactyla Lesson, in Relation to Fisheries P. Chacko and B. Krishnamurthi. 401 Abnormalities in the Flowers of !Lima Rosea Linn?G. A. Kapadia 402 Structure 4)f Zingiberene-8. M. Mukherjee 403 REV I ENV'- 404 - 397 The annual subscription to the journal is Rs. 10f- (inland), ? 1 or $4.00 (Foreign). Ordi- nary Membership fee for the Association is Rs. 15/. (? 1. 10s. or $ 5.00) per year which covers I he subscription of the journal. A person or a Corporation paying Rs. 150f- (? 12 or $ 48.00) shall be eligible for a Lie Membership of the Association and will ho entitled to a copy of the journal every month. The Indian Science News Association and the Editors of -SCIENCE AND CULTURE" assume no responsibility or statements and opinions advanced by contributors to this Journal. All MANUSCRIPTS should be legible and typewritten. The Editors reserve to themselves I he right to accept or reject the whole or portions of the matter sent for publication. The rejected contributions are not returned to authors, if postage is not prepaid. Remittances for membership dues, subscription aim advertisement costs should be 1,ddressed to the TRPASURER, INDIAN SCIENCE NEWS ASSOCIATION, at 92, Upper Circular load, Calcutta, 9. Editorial communications are to be addressed t the Editor and other communications to the Secretary, Indian Sc onco News Association, both at 92,Upper Circular Road, Calcutta, 9 Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 APIA 1950. Xii SCIENCE AND CULTURE MMMMMMMMMMMMMENEEMMMMKOMMMMMMMMMMMMEEMMMMEEM M ? M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M LET US HELP YOU . . . . . 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Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE AND CULTURE A Monthly Journal of Natural and Cultural Sciences Vol. 15 APRIL 1950 No. 10 NEED OF A COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA TT may have appeared to our readers that we have, of late, devoted a considerable space to the publication of topics dealing with agricultural and food situation in the country. We did it consciously and purposely, because We feel that the Government and the people should think and act more creatively on the grave situation the country is faced with. Production of enough food for the people and sufficient agricultural commodities for Indian industries is the most impor- tant; single problem before the country to-day. And the degree of its solution and the speed with which we can achieve it will determine the future course?econo- mic and political?of our country for many years to come. We are already beginning to see the repercussions of the deficit food and cash crop production on the over all economy of the whole country. Importation of cereals alone is currently draining off the country -130 owes of rupees every ? year; and in aggregate it has al- ready depleted the country of several hundred crores of rupees during the past few years. Paucity of the supply of raw materials is gradually leading two of India's most important and biggest industries, viz., jute and cotton, to a path of major crisis. This may have been of recent origin especially due to devaluation and non- devaluation, and Pakistan's policy, but the country has got to ensure measures to produce enough of these raw materials to meet the requirements of industry or else to buy supplies from outside; but India at present has no surplus foreign exchanges to do so. The loss of such stupendous sums of money due to food importation is beginning to jeopardize all our post-War nation-building schemes. Multipurpose river- valley schemes; which our leaders displayed so much and on which common people placed so much trust, are being affected due to cuts in financial appropria- tions. Apart from supplying cheap electricity for industrial uses, these multipurpose river-valleys were meant to provide irrigation to millions of acres and to aid in the prevention of soil erosion and control of floods?so harmful to men and crops. Ex- penditure on food importation is, therefore, retarding execution of the food production schemes of the country. The deficit economy of the country is also beginning to have repercussions ou large scale reclamation pro- jects. It now appears that against an original esti- mate of 4,000 heavy tractors required to perform the projected reclamation of cultivable fallow land, India can now pay for 375 tractors only. Originally India planned to import 500,000 tons of chemical fer- tilizer, hut lack of foreign exchange is putting an im- pediment to such a large-scale importation. The above are only a few of the many similar ins- tances that can be cited to show how India's deficit production of agricultural commodities is jeopardizing most of our nation-building schemes. But these d?ficit food productions are not of yesterday's origin. The frequent food scarcities have demonstrated it very painfully, and it has now assumed a chronic aspect. Years have passed by, reins of Government of the country has passed from alien hands to people's representatives, but unfortunately almost the same situation exists to-day as it existed a few years ago. Apart from Government claims that the country will be turned self-sufficient (in food production) by December 31, 1951 (now the target date is changed to March 31, 1052), the common man does not find any signs that the situation is gradually improving in that direction nor it can be comprehended how the 4-million- ton deficit in food production be met. To become self-sufficient in production of food commodities should not be considered an impossible task. ? To increase the current food production by 10 to 15 per cent, by which amount the country is running short, is not an impossible task. Agricultural knowledgd and technological methods of production has improvee Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 370 8oto n AlstD CittttfItt Vol- 15, No. 10 so much during the past few decades that stepping up present yield by 10 to 15 per cent is not at all difficult and Can be done within reasonable time provided there be, proper planning and conscientious execution of the Saint. Since 1940, the United States of America has increased her agricultural production by 33 per cent, the United Kingdom could during the same period step up her food production by 30 per cent. So, why not we in India ? Scientific agricultural know-how is no close preserve of ally one nation; What has been possible elsewhere can surelybe achieved here also, provi- ded there is the WILL, and unflinching resolution to carry out the WILL. Apart from having spent a few hundred crores of rupees in foreign exchanges to buy imported foodgrains since War 11, the Centre and the Provinces have ex- pended so far about 50 crores of rupees on Grow-More- Food campaign and a like amount in subsidizing sale of rationed food commodities at the statutory fixed prices. Even then the food supply position in the country continues to be the same and no substantial teerease in production seems to have been achieved. It, therefore, becomes apparent that there is some- thing basically wrong in the agricultural set-up in the country. The existing defects in the system need be remedied, the agricultural departments at the Centre arid at Provincial level are required to be revitalized and thoroughly reorganized -before the desired target of agricultural production can be reached. The existing set up has already proved its uselessness. We, therefore, especially arranged for the publi- cation of a series of articles' embodying the results of a comprehensive study of the different aspects of agriculture of U.S.A., admittedly the most agriculturally advanced country in the world to-day. Those articles dealt with all the major aspects id agriculture, viz., (i) organization, (ii) agricultural finance and credit, (iii) industrialization of cash crop production, (iv) agricultural research and(v) how labora- tory findings are placed in the hands of the farmers who can put them into practical uses. A perusal of those accounts of that dynamic Department of Agricul- ture will in itself stimulate fresh thinking and will provide with many a lesson as to how we in India can revitalize our own agriculture. While publishing those articles we, on our part, reviewed the present position of those specific aspects of Indian agriculture and provi- ded in the accompanied editorials2 expert advice as to how our existing agricultural departments can be reor- ganized, bow several of the science departments of hid Ianuniversities can be harnessed for the purpose of agricultural teaching and research on the model of land-grant agricultural colleges and agricultural experiment stations in the United States. We have .,-----,- 1 J. C. Saha. Sd. & Cu/. 74 : 441-448, 488-494; 15 : 48-49, 127-134, 1949. 2 (Editorial.q) & Cul. 14: .139-441, 485-488; Z-5; 43-48, 125-127, 1949. shown how agricultural credit system can be reconstruc- ted and what organization is needed for the purpose. We suggested ways as to how to help industrialization of a few major commercial crops. Lastly we have shown how research can help us to better our agricul- tural output and the ways in which laboratory know- ledge can be placed in the hands of farmers for applica- tion in farming practices. We believe our endeavour will not fail to draw the attention of the authorities and the people of the land. We feel convinced that one-sided measures will not materially improve the situation. The different problems are so much interlinked that they require si- multaneous attacks from several aspects, at times ap- parently unconventional actions. We need research to gather new knowledge on several phases of agricul- ture, to harvest bigger yield and better quality. It needs adequate financial appropriations to finance research of both short and long term projects ; but more especially do we need to provide the farmers with loans to pay for improved seed, manure and approved farm implements. We need to do away with, or appre- ciably cut short, the official red tape to ensure that loan amounts, seed and fertilizer reach the cultivator in time and not after the season is over. .Above all, we need adequate personnel to carry modern agricul- tural knowledge to the farmers for their uses. Know- ledge confined, within the laboratory walls is useless ; it becomes productive only when placed at the hands of the actual tiller of the land to grow two blades of grass where he grew only one before. Whatever organization we may have on other aspects of agriculture, we find a complete absence of any set-up in the country comparable to the very se,rviceful Extension Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or the National Agricultural Advisory Service of the United Kingdom established as late as 1946. Howe ver meagre the country's research. set- up be, it has to credit several breeds of high yielding crop plants and dairy stock. Several strains of Pusa wheat, a few strains of Coimbatore sugarcane, etc., are known to yield twice or thrice the amount compared with the farmers' own varieties. But we still see that the farmers, even adjoining the Government farms yet sow their own unimproved strains and harvest one half or even less quantity than the Government farms although there is no physical reason for this dis- parity. Country's economy can hardly afford to spend money to raise high yielding strains or stock on cne hand and not to utilize them for the common good of the country and the people. Proper organization should, therefore, be created to ensure that these high yielders are grown widely over the country. Two things are necessary to achieve this (i) the setting up of large seed multiplication farms so that there be enough supplies available to the farmers and (ii) th.e organization of an agricultural extension service on the, model of the one in U.S.A. or U.K. to popu- larize improved breeds of crops and livestock and to aid in other ways farmers who only can collectively help to produce more food in the country. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE IN THE 'UNITED STATES But by past failures and unfulfilled .promises, the Department of Agriculture of the Centre as well as of the States has lost faith and trust of the common cultivator. Often he was pursuaded to sow Government supplied seeds only to find to his miseries that they failed to perform upto the promises. Often he received his quota of fertilizer after the season passed by; when he was given agricultural loan, he received it far too late to be of any productive use to him. These and countless other not-too-pleasant past experiences in his dealings with Government agricultural departments have male him suspect even the honest and most sincere intentions of the agricultural departments. 371 However apathetic he may have grown during the course of the past generations, his goodwill must be earned by persistent efforts?not by empty promises but by sure deeds. This requires a complete change in the outlook of the officials of the agricultural departments and a new spirit down the ranks, a habit of demonstrating with their hands what they want the farmers to adopt and an extensive organization of ex- tension staff to carry to every village knowledge regarding improved agricultural practices. But they can be achieved only after a thorough reorganizat on has been effected in the agricultural structure of the country. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES J. C. SAHA THE prosperity that is enjoyed by the farmers in the United States of America has been made possible by the rapid practical application to farming practices of the new knowledge gained in the labora- tories and experimental farms of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and of the many agricultural experiment stations of the land-grant (agricultural) colleges and universities of the 48 individual States. One who has spent any length of time in U.S.A. or made a study of the causes behind the agricultural advancement in the North America becomes at once amazed how quickly, effectively and efficiently the results of labora- tory findings are placed in the hands of farmers for their use. Some of the areas and ways in which the U.S. Extension Service has achieved magnificent results during the past few decades include: "Counselling on farm problems; securing application of the findings of research on the whole range of farm operations from land use, soil treatment, crop and livestock production to better farm management and business methods, better homes and better farm and community living ; working with rural youth; helping farmers solve problems through group action: mobilizing rural people to meet emergencies ; develop. jag an understanding of the economic and social factors affecting family living and agriculture in general". (p.1) ORIGIN The Extension Service was established under terms of the Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act of May 8, 1914, as an agency under the organizational set-up of the U.S. _Department of Agriculture2. The Act stipulated personal contact teaching methods among farmers to be financed by Federal grants and conducted co-operatively through the land-grant col- leges of the individual States. The Extension Service 1 Joint Committee Report on Extension Programs, Policies and Goals. U.S. Department of Agriculture and Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities, 1948. 2 J. C. Saha. Rci. CM. 14, 4417448, 1949, is entrusted with the responsibilities of making thus available throughout the country the findings of investi- gations in agriculture and home economies to those who can put the information into practical uses. Scam OF OPERATION The Extension Service aims to improve the econo- mic welfare, health, family and community life of the rural population by making the results of agricultural research available to the farmers, Its sphere of' activities includes co-ordination of the agricultural and home economics co-operative extension work of the U.S. .Department of Agriculture and the land-grant colleges and experiment stations of the individual States ; it directs the country agricul- tural agents, home demonstration agents (women) and 4-H Clubs work. It helps to organize county committees to render advisory assistance to war vet- erans and others wishing to take up agricultural pur- suits as means of livelihood. Although the major items of extension programs are particularly directed towards farm and rural fami- lies, its effect is all-pervading, as practical application of new technological development of more efficient methods of production cannot but contribute to the general welfare of he consumers at large and the country as a whole. MODE OF OPERATION The modus operandi of the Extension Service in agriculture and home economics are to help farmers and rural families to help themselves by acquainting- them with latest utilitarian developments relative ? to pro- blems facing the farm families or rural communities. It aims to help people to attain, through their own initiative, a higher and more satisfying standard of living. Nothing is done that may appear to be forced from the top, Historically, the extension staff has Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 372 SCIENCE AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 1 recognized the propriety of, and necessity for, the co- operation of the people themselves in determining problem emphasis in extension programs of the indivi- dual counties : the methods employed for extension activities depend upon the nature of the problem in question. More important of the extension methods used are : Individual Counselling. The extension workers visit individual homes or farms, aid the farmers or homes to analyze their problems and counsel them as to the best ? way of solving specific problems. Although a limited number of families can thus be attended to within any given time, its outstanding merit lies in its effectiveness. Personal counsels are widely sought by farmers ; multitudes of farmers and rural homes that possess telephones freely use that facilities to dis- cuss their problems with extension personnel and get the required advices. Demonstrations on Farmers' Estates. The practical demonstration method is effectively used to teach home and farm practices with effective results. The nature of demonstration varies according to the major problems of a locality. Where soil conservation is the pressing problem of a locality, a badly eroded farm is selected for demonstration work. The extension personnel, aided by local volunteers and if necessary strengthened by a working party of the U.S. or State Soil Conserva- tion Service personnel, help the farmer to put his farm into shape. If pest or disease is the problem in a loca- lity, the extension worker will stage an Ellective method of spraying or dusting. By such means the Extension Service helps farmers in a locality to get acquainted with the technique of operation and explain to them the benefit resulting from the application of such modern practices. Meetings and Group Discussions. This method of carrying extension information to farmers or rural communities is being extensively used for the last seve- ral years. A great advantage of this method is that a large group of peoyie can be served at a given time. Liberal uses are made of films, photographic slides and other kinds of visual aids. One of the essential features that distinguishes these meetings is their informality. The farmers are encouraged to raise for discussion any points they might want information on. This yermits an ex- change of views and pooling of information with the feeling that the extension personnel is not there to bes- tow on them good sermons only. It is the human touch in -understanding the farm communities' daily problems that has endeared these meetings to them and the love with which the extension works are received all over the United States. Leaflets and Bulletins. Because of high percentage of literacy published teaching devices such as leaflets, letters and bulletins, often nicely illustrated, ran{ high among the various extension methods used. Depending whether the problem is of local or national importance, the States land-grant colleges or the U.S. Department of Agriculture publish such informative materials and are distributed free to any one on request. These publications deal with any conceiveable phases of farm and rural community life from practi- cal farming instructions to how to iron a shirt or how to be happy in family life. The following figures will speak of the great popularity of such bulle- tins. As of June 30, 1948, the number of copies (Lis.. tributed on requests are : Home canning of fruits and vegetables?'7.4 million copies; Removal of stains from fabric--3.0 million copies ; Farm poultry raising-1.7 injlion copies; Roses for the home ?1.6 million copies, the Farm home garden-1.2 million copies ; Home-made jellies, jams and preserves-1.8 million copies; Growing annual flowers-1.1 million copies3. One thing that has enabled ,such wide distribution of the bulletins, criculars, etc., is the provision in the act establishing the States agricultural experiment stations that" Such bulletins or reports and the annual reports of said stations should be transmitted in the mails of the United States free of Charge for the postage"2 Radio. Possession of radio receiving sets is a com- mon thing with average -U.S. farmers. Several of the land-grant colleges maintain their own radio stations, others have specified time allotted to them by com- mercial radio stations. Hundreds of county extension workers utilize radio facilities to carry extension know- ledge to the farm and rural communities. OPERATION AL UNITS The activities of the Extension Service are carried on county (the opposite number of a district in adminis- trative status and usually equivalent to a sub-division of au Indian province) basis. Each county has usually one County Agricultural Agent, one Home 'Demonstration Agent (woman) and one 4-H Club Agent?indicating that each group specializes in one aspect of a mutually complementary programs of extension work. These categories of agents, though paid from the joint Federal, States and Counties funds, are under the administrative charge of the States _extension services with headquarters at the land-grant colleges. The extension service at the States level is a department of the land-grant college. Besides their official extension duties, the county extension personnel are actively encouraged to ener- getically co-operate with other activities of the farm and rural community life. County Agricultural Agent. The County Agricul- tural Agent is the central figure in all agricultural acti- v ities in a county. He acts as the representative of the State and the Federal governments in all agricul- tural matters. He acts as a clearing house of agricul- tural information, takes active part in organizing meetings mid discussion groups, directs the farmer as to the best way of doing a thing or how to proceed USDA. August 30, 1948. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE IN THE 'UNITED STATES 373 with in receiving benefits from various State and Federal ing?local or national, is devoted to recreational agricultural upliftment funds. He is usually tt graduate activities. in agriculture 'with extensive training in extension methods. As of June 30, 1946, there were 4,624 County Agricultural Agents and Assistant County Agricul- tural Agents on the roll in U.S.A. County Proms Demonstration, Agent. - Through group meetings, dismission circles, practical demons- trations (such as jelly making, food .dressing, sewing, etc.), house to house visits, the Home Demonstration Agent helps housewives to understand how to save time and energy through application of modern ,devices, how to clothe their families suitably and. economically,. how to furnish and decorate their houses decently with- in their own income, how to beautify their home pre- mises. Such activities assist housewives to develop confidence, to enjoy and pride in their cemtribution to family living. The County Home Demonstration Agent is a woman and is ordinarily a college graduate majoring in home economics. There were 3,077 County Home Demonstra- tion Agents and Assistant County Home Demonstra- tion Agents in employment on June 30, 1946. County 4-H Club Agent. ? The 4-H Club activities are designed to develop the agricultural, homemaking and citizenship abilities of the rural youth. Through 4-H Clubs* over 10 million rural boys and girls (of the age group 10 to 21) have been taught the habit of group actions and helped to acquire information or gain skills valuable to them as future farmers and home- makers. The programs of work of the members of 4-H Clubs include undertaking responsibility for field crops and livestock production and their marketing, soil improvement or wild life conservation, food preparation, and serving, making and caring for clothings, home gardening, etc. Boys and girls, individually or in groups of a few, undertake one or more work projects of their own choice, work on them at leisure at their houses or parents' farms. In the meetings held once a month or so the boys and girls report on the results they have obtained and compare with those obtained by the other groups. The boys and girls discuss their own experiences, arrive at a decision as to the best way of doing a thins.. The 4-H Club agents or other non-paid local leaders that are present in the Club meetings act as mere advisers and help the members arrive at right conslusions. Besides local meetings, the 4-H Clubs meet once a year on State-wise and in all?U.S.A. gathering. Besides reporting and discussion, a part of each meet *the membership pledge is: "I pledge my head to clearer thinking, I pledge my heart to greater loyalty, I pledge my hands to larger service, and I pledge my health to better living, for my club, my com- munity and ray country", - ? On July 1, 1947, there were 558 paid workers em- ployed as county 4-H Club workers, known either as County 4-H Club Agents or Assistant Extension Agents. Specialist Extension TV ?ricers. The personnel are training specialists in their own subjects and are expected to keep abreast with latest knowledge in their fields of specialization. They keep the county exten. sion workers advised of the latest developments ? of new scientific methods and help their application to local problems. The specialist extension staff consists of Extension Plant Pathlogists, Extension Entomologists, Extension Horticulturists and several specialists in other subjects; they are usually located at the headquarters of the land-grant college of the State and are placed with the divisions of Plant Pathology, Entomology, etc, as the case may be of the land-grant college. Their constant association with the research workers in the land-grant college helps -them to keep up with the latest knowledge in their respective fields. - In 1947, there were in U.S.A. 1,827 extension specialists in various agricultural subjects. They work Under the directions of States dierctors of extension Work. " FINANCING EXTENSION ACTIVITIES In 1948, appropriations for extension work in U.S.A.' totalled 58.5 million dollars (i.e., about 292 million of devalued Indian rupee) : 47 per cent of the total funds came from Federal appropriations, 29.3 per cent from individual State appropriations, and 2.7 per cent from other local sources. Extension funds were used in 1946 as follows: 3.4 per cent on administration, 1.4 per cent on publications of bulletins and circulars, 17.8 per cent on specialist work, 47.2 per cent on county agent work, 24.0 per cent on home demonstration agent work, and 6.1 per cent on 4-H Club work. Federal Appropriations. The methods of deter- mining allotments of Federal funds to the various States for extension work vary with specific provisions made in the several acts of the U.S. Congress. The allotments to the States are made on the basis of (a) specified amounts for each State, (b) rural population, and (c) . farm population. ? States Appropriations. Most of the States legis- latures appropiate funds for extension work biennially for the succeeding two-year period. Be- quests for extension funds are submitted as separate items in an integrated budget request for all divisions of the land-grant colleges?teaching, research, and exten- sion. Connty A?)propriations. 'County appropriations are made by local (county) bodies on annual basis, and are usually ear-marked for speCifin work projects on the basis' of local needs. Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 374 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 OROANIZATION SCIENCE AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 10 Aericultural extension work in the United States is under the charge of the Extension Service, an agency under the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Extension Service is headed by a Director, who is res- ponsible to the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. Since extension activities deal with work among farm and rural communities, the organization at the Federal headquarters is concerned primarily to aid in the evolution of suitable programs of extension work, evaluation of the results obtained, co-ordination of States and local activities where necessary and to exert an over all supervisory function. At the head- quarters at Washington, D.C., the Extension Service has the following divisions Division Division Div ision Division Division Division of Business Administration ; of Extension information; of Extension Studies and Training; of Subject Matter ; of Agricultural Economics; of Field Co-ordination? Organization at State Level. Administration : Each State has an Extension Director, jointly responsible to the President of the and-grant college of agriculture and the Director of Extension Service of the U.S. De, parement of Agriculture. The State Extension Director administers all extension funds, is responsible for all extension projects and programs of work within his State. Supervi8ion. Located at the land-grant college also is a staff of State-wide extension workers includ- ing Supervisors and State Extension Leaders who re- present the State Director of Extension in dealing with county agricultural agents, county home demons- tration agents and 4-H Club agents, and assist in organiz- ing county work. Subject Matter. Subject-matter Extension Specia- lists located also at the land-grant college of the State serve as contact officers between the research workers of the agricultural college and the county extension per- senile incorporating the latest knowledge in their res- pective subjects into the county extension programs. Organization at County Level. The county extension personnel are representatives of the land-grant and the U.S. Department of Agriculture and are jointly resoensible to these anencies. Stallone at headquarters are ordinarily a County Agent, a County Home Domonstration Agent and a county 4-H Club Agent. They work as public officials and are directly in charge of the respective branch of the extension program of the county. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO UNDER-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES* A few months ago the problem of underdeveloped ' countries loomed large at a Conference on the Utilisation of World's Resources at Lake Success. The delegates to that Conference were told that the population of the world had increased by 1,000 million in 4 generations, and the forecasts are that by the end of the century it would be increased by another 1.000 it is in this context of a rapidly increasing and not a static population that the problems of better living have to be tackled, In the more advanced countries, where knowledge ur modern science and technology has been applied to resource development, production of the necessi- eiee of life has grown much faster than the increase in population; and men have been assured freedom from hunger from the cradle to the grave and also a reason- able expectation of freedom from want as a reward of teirmal work, where such knowledge has been little iitilized for the enrichment of human life, as in the ease of under-developed countries, the standard of liv ing for the common man has remained stationary and even gone down. There men have to live even cow in constant fear of untimely death by hunger .and iscase. For example in India, about 75% of the pee- _ ? '13a,sed. on a speech by Dr. J. C. Ghosh at the Unesco Conference ;r1 Paris on "Technical Assistance to Under-developed countries" itslcl in autumn, 1949. pie live as medieval peasants often in a family of five rarely cultivating more than 3 acres of land. The average per capita income is no more than 36 dollars a year with its inevitable incidence of malnutrition, famine, disease and ignorance. The seven hundred and fifty delegates and obser- vers from many lands who attended the U.N.O. Confer- ence and surveyed the world's resources in food, water, power, fuel, and other essential raw materials were not daunted by these facts and ca-me to the conclusion that there was every prospect of guaranteeing an abundant life to every man and woman, if these resour- ces were integrated and developed -with vision and enter- prises, on the basis of maximum production and maxi- mum utilization of existing knowledge. There is, in fact, no real reason to be pessimistic in our outlook of the future. They were, however, very conscious of the great gap that existed between what could be done and what was being done? and could only hope that by the united efforts of' men of good will, public opinion all the world over will be enlightened and this gap would be bridged at an early date. It is not the business of the Unesco to prepare project reports or detailed plans for the deve- lopment of the resources of the under-developed coun- tries ; that is the business of Governments of those Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 10M TtOlIVICAL ASSt8TAVOR TO trXDIDIrt DIWIttOPM OOTTNTIttn countries or of the U.N.O. But it is the special res- ponsibility of the Unesco to spread far and wide the know-how for developing such resources and to focus world's attention on the problem as to how to remove all obstacles that stand in the way of the application of such knowledge. Knowledge often remains impri- soned in secret documents or buried in printed litera- ture; there are often vested interests which would even prevent its use for economic progress. It is the busi- ness of the Unesco to make knowledge visible in action, or as the leader of the British delegation stated the other day, allay thoughts with the doing of things. The Mayor of New York in welcoming us said that the store of scientific and practical knowledge was itself the world's greatest resource. It is a resource that grows with use and enlarged by sharing. It is the special task of ?Unesco to make possible such sharing of knowledge. How can this be done? First and foremost, by provid- ing able teachers of technology to institutions in under- developed countries. A vigorous search should be made for such men who would take up these responsible positions as a vocation and not as a career. May be, there are among the rank of technologists, men of abi- lity, who feel that science must have a moral basis in order to prevent the unlimited power which it offers to man from annihilating himself. May be, there are men of science who feel such anguish in their souls because of evil use of science, that they interpret their duties in terms of humanity as a whole?who feel that they may bring peace to this world by .fighting the evils of hunger and ignorance wherever they occur, howsoever remote from their own homes. In my recent travels in middle Europe, I have come across many technologists of high ability who have been uprooted from their homes, or who wish to settle down in a new congenial environ- ment, because of unsettled and extremely hard condi- tions in their own countries. Many of them have sought help from the International ReIngee Organization. I am glad that the Secretary of that organization is here with us to-day and I would. request him to give us fuller information about the possibility of engaging such refugee technologists in useful -work in under-deve- loped countries. If men of real talent and high purpose can be discovered in sufficient numbers and given the fullest facilities to teach the nationals of back- ward countries how they can also develop their resources, the paradox of rich countries inhabited by poor people can be solved at no distant future. The facilities that they would require in order to be effective teachers are abundant supplies of cheap books in science and technology and adequate labora- tory and pilot plant equipment. It is difficult to make 'suggestions off hand how this could be quickly done. Publications of cheap editions of standard books on science and technology say, on the model of Tauchnitz Editions which were so popular in Germany?under the auspices of the Unesco for exclusive use in under- developed countries will be a great boon to their poor students. It is desirable that a small section of the Unesco Secretariat should prepare detailed plans for quickly achieving this end, 375 Next in importance, comes the provision of fellow- sips which will enable talented young man from back- ward areas to receive advanced specialized training in foreign institutions which enjoy high reputations as seats of such learning. But it is not enough to acquire such theoretical knowledge from academic institutions. In order to be successful one must learn technology as a science, and also practice it as an art, must acquire the skill for the making of things which are the products of a modern industrial system. Such skill can be acquired in the industry itself; and to-day the enlightened management of many industries do not hesitate to train their young nationals fresh from a technical college in such skills. But if the student is a foreigner, the doors of such practical training is rarely opened to him. To open such doors will not be an easy task. History shows that interdependence follows industrialization?that a country in the course of its industrial development becomes continously the better customer of another country which is ahead of it. This lesson of history mut be brought home to industrial magnates who are not accustomed to look at things from such a long range view point. There is no reason why a determined effort by Unesco should not be crowned with success. We are thankful that in these International Confer- ences, the countries that did not matter much before are being given greater attention; that the UNO and Unesco are seized with the determination to give these countries such technical assistance as would quickly enrich the life of their people. The funds provided in the budget however, are not commensurate with the great task that is being undertaken. I do feel, however, that is the beginning ef good work. I agree with the Bri'dsh delegadon that more money does not always mean more effective work. A bird may refuse to sing in big case. But if experience shows, as we hope it will, that limited funds have been used for effective work, then I believe, lack of funds will not stand in the way of the wider application of such effective work. But however generous may be the help that comes from, the real progress of a country must come from within. The leader of the Burmese delegation referred to the saying of Lord Budelha---`work out your own salvation'. This is true not enly in the spiritual world but also in the material world. After all the worth of a State is the collective worth of the citizens of the country who constitute the State. Men in high places are not wanting who emphasize the right of primitive communities to live in their own ways. Scholars in the lands of old civilizations, who have inherited the traditional wisdom of their ancestors, are reluctant that the faith of their people in such ancient wisdom should be shaken. They generally do not recognize that science is something more than mere discovery of the facts and forces of nature, and the principles and laws which correlate them. I maintain, that to its votaries science also is a method, a confidence and a faith. It is a method of controlled observations and experiments recorded with absolute Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 376 8CIVICE AND CULTVItt honesty. It is a confidence that truth can he discovered. it is a faith that truth is worth discovering. It is the i.sexice of the whole process of discovering truth, that new crucial experiments should be continuously per- inriried, and new facts continuously, gathered and that mon of science should always maintain complete intel- lectual honesty and re-examine the existing views in the light of new facts. In a world swayed by passions, ei.entific attitude stands for suspension of judgement, Ili I evidence has been properly weighed. The contri- bution which this aspect of science can make to the solution of human problem has often been overlooked. it is high time that every effort is made to propagate is cultural mission of science all the world over, special- - among people of the older civilization. Again for under-developed countries, if science and technology were to play their part in promoting human .welfare, considerable change in the outlook Of life may be necessary. For example, it will not do if pee- pie there continue to believe that the world of today is the degenerated product of a golden age of an earlier period. It will not do if they decry pursuit of happi- Vol. 15, No. 10 ness in this world for the sake of securing happiness in Heaven. It will not do if they harbour mental inertia under the guise of conservation of old ideas. It will not do if they say that children are the gifts of God and are welcome in any number. Rather should man in these lands learn and feel that he can be master of his own environment, that he need not be the vic- tim of fate or of the forces of nature, supposed to be subject only to the will of the Gods. The Director- General of the Unesco in his opening address referred to the famous saying?"I believe in the future because make it." He and the Unesco will have done their jobs very well to the old countries, if they could inspire their people with faith in the fertility of free will and self-decision. The transformation of helpless masses of men, submissive by long tradition to the vagaries of so called fate Into self- reliant communities of people who are conscious that they are masters of their dr stiny is an achievement worth struggling for. We, who re- present under-developed countries in the conference, on our part promise all assistance, and wish Unesco success in this struggle. THE SOIL AND THE ENGINEER . CH ATTERJ EE E N %AL ENGINEERING ( 'OLLEOR, ROWRAII 'RE soil is the oldest and perhaps the most used of engineering materials. It is the upper weathering layer of the solid earth crust. It is never in a state of equilibrium and is changing from one state to another, with consequent changes in its properties, due to physical, chemical and biological prooesses operating on the mass. The engineer is primarily' interested in the physical, mechanical and structural properties of soils. The size and arrangement of dif- ferent particles and their behaviour under load with ysriations with moisture content, temperature and air supply are of particular interest to him. It is impera- tive, therefore, that he should be well acquainted ,h these properties of soils so that he will be in a posi- tien to apply successfully the acquired knowledge to ciieineeriilg problems. Important contributions in this field have emanated fr no the geologist, the soil scientist, the industrial chemist, the hig,hway engineer and the structural engine- er. Prom systematic examinations of soils in the labo- ratory and fields they have furnished valuable inform.a- tion on the mechanical and physical properties of soils in relation to their suitability for practical purposes. This has resulted in our knowledge being crystallized iloo definite form, and tests of an engineering nature are now available for comparing the relative merits different soils. The important physical and mechanical characteris- sies which control the behaviour of a soil are : Internal :Friction ; Cohesion; Compressibility ; Elasticity; and Capillarity. The engineer must be in a position to re- cognize the effect of the above characteristics on a soil and whether these are primarily due to the structure of the soil, to the constituents or to field conditions, on the basis of information gained from a number of tests. For engineering work, tests are performed on both disturbed as also on undisturbed samples. When information is required on foundation for dams, bridges, buildings, ete, undisturbed samples should preferably he used ; but for earth dams fills or highway subgrades disturbed samples give satisfactory data. SELECTION OF SITE AND METHODS OF TAKING SAMPLE The selection, of the site for taking samples for routine tests is also of importance. For purposes of making, a preliminary survey nod selection of site, penetration test with a probing rod, such as Mackin- tosh one man bore-hole outfit, is extremely useful. It can be quickly assembled and exploration to a depth of sidft. performed in less than an hour. ODCO the site is located, the most satisfactory method for the examination of the soil strata con.ditions is by sinking a trial pit. The various strata can be studied in their normal state and the ground water conditions exactly determined. A record of examination must be made at the actual time of excavation of the trial pit, as the eonditioos of the soil change on exposure to the air or on contact with water. Di.sturbed sampl,?..9 from the chosen site are often obtained by shovelling the soil directly into a sack or Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ' April, 1950 THE SOIL AND 'can. Soil augers are used for greater depths when only a small quantity of the soil is required for explora- tion or routine work. When large sa,mples are required, pita are ? sunk. ' Many ingenious methods have been devised for ,collecting undisturbed sampie8. The apparatus most suitable for this purpose consists of a catting-edge slightly smaller in .diameter than the interior of the retaining cylinder about 5" in diameter and 2'6" long. The adapter head is provided with a reducer to 1--I /2" -boring rods and a non-return valve for retaining the sa,mple. After sampling, the cutting nose and the head can be removed and end caps fitted in place, which prevents drying out of the sample during transport. The samples may also be sent to the laboratory in water- tight containers. The undisturbed samples are kept in a special humid room nntil actually ready for testing. For taking undisturbed samples of granular material at shallow depths, steel boxes about 12" on a side are used. With the top removed, the box is inverted over the soil and carefully forced into it while excavating around the edge by any suitable device. When the container is full, the sample is cut from the original material, the box is turned right and the top is replaced, SOIL TESTS In interpreting the results of soil tests, the condi- tions . of the soil in the field, its formations, history, location and natural environment are taken into con- sideration as all these factors contribute to the per- formance of a soil a.s an engineering material. The tests which furnish many of the important soil constants and serve to indicate the presence of constituents having dominant influence upon engineering practices, are de- tailed in the following table. The types of samples to be used as also the information gained on particular properties are also indicated. Test 1. Moisture Content 2. Specific Gravity 3. Apparent' Sp. Gravity 4. Mechanical Analysis 5. Liquid Limit 6. Plasticity Index 7. Centrifuge Moisture - Equivalent TABLE 1. Type of samples Disturbed samples from criginal location without stones & gravels. Undisturbed samples from the original loca- tion. Disturbed sample; mate- rial passing sieve No. 10; stones and gravels remo- ved and weighed. Disturbed samples ; mate. Properties Adsorption capacity; Capillarity; drainage conditions; etc. Void-ratio; porosity; moisture ccntent. ft Pt Grading (relative pro- portion of sands, silts and clays). Capillary capacity. rials passing through sieve No. 40 f It Cohesion. Combined effect of Compressibility, capillarity and perFneOility- THE ENGINEER Test 8. Shrinkage Limit 9. Field Mois- ture Equi- valent 10. Volumetric and Linear Shrinkages Type of samples Disturbed samples; mate- rials passing through sieve No. 40 If 11. Electroche, " mieal Analysis .12. Chemical Analysis 13. Maximum Density* 14. Shear* 15. Consolida- tion* 16. Permeabili- ty* Disturbed sample; mate- rials passing sieve No. 10 f /I ft Undisturbed samples; on materials without stones and gravels. Undisturbed saturated samples. Undisturbed samples for soils in natural state; or compacted soil for fill 377 Properties Combined effect of cohesion and resis- tance to consolida- tion. Combined effect of capillarity and cohe- sion. Combined effect of capillarity, cohesion and resistance to con- solidation. Adsorption and base exchange properties. Absence or otherwise . of deleterious mate- rials. Consolidation and op- timum moisture con- tent. Combined effect of internal friction and cohesion. Compression of satu- rated strata. Grading; pore-size distribution; presence of impermeable strata. and embankment materials. *Required in special cases. TESTS HELP IN SOIL CLASSIFICATION Limited space does not allow me to deal with the procedures for various tests. It is, however, of interest to describe as to how the results of soil tests have helped in the classification of soils for engineering purposes. Sods have been classified into eight groups based upon the presence of soil constituents, physical properties and performance. These are: A-1 : Excellent binder; contains proper propor- tion of coarse and fine material; high internal frIction; high cohesion ; absence of detrimental shrinkage, ex- pansion, capillarity or elasticity. A-2: Improper grading or inferior binding; may be stable in dry weather and soft in wet weather (plastic type) or highly stable when moist but becomes loose and dusty in dry weather (friable type). A-3: Almost pure sand; high internal fric- tion; no cohesion; no detrimental capillarity or elas- ticity; flows under wheel loads but furnishes excellent support when loads are distributed. A-4 ; Predominance of silt; internal friction variable; practically no cohesion; no elasticity ; may form stable road when dry but will soften in wet weather. - A-5: Predominance of silt but with highly elastic properties even when -dry; will not retain com- pacted density but will rebound on removal of load. A-6: Predominance of clay; low internal fric- tion; no elasticity; high expansion and shrinkage pro- perties; can be compacted to permanent dtinsity..; often interferes with macadam bond ? deformpitioli Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 378 SCIENCE AND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 10 occurs slowly under load and very little rebound on the removal of load. A-7: Similar to group A-6 excepting that it is elastic at certain moisture contents; may have considerable volume change and cause concrete pave- ments ti crack. A-8 : Contains very large amounts of peat Or muck ; no internal friction ; low cohesion ; high capil- larity and elasticity ; will settle under load. In laboratory examinations, the percentage of each soil fraction i.e., grading, is first determined. Then such tests, as liquid limit, plasticity index, shrink- age 1:mit, shrinkage ratio, field moisture equivalent, etc., are performed. The range of the numerical value's of these physical constants for the above eight groups have been shown in the following chart : SOIL IDENTIFICAT/ON CHART. _ - _ _ A 62 A 1 Ill II . ( ' Ea 4111 II 1. TER CENT COARSE SAND illillilli A4 62 . _ ? PER CENT TOTAL SAND IV. Al A 62 6 S NO N. ill glig 3 PER LW ILT - CLA MI MI Al 1111 A2 4 IIA6 I A7 illiNni . 0 It. Q A 4,* _ . LIQUID LIMIT, PER IN IIIIII MIll AT ';',4 Ai mi II!I III! ill , .0=6- , ? ?,--- a . 5. PLASTICITY MEI. r Al+ 4 IUII III __AI A MINIM MINI mono= 2.? A7mumsA5 SI a stun 1111111111 IIIIIII ll _ _ IPI ) ill o ONITMENNI . -6 . III MI _ N. FIELD MOISTURE req31IYAt.rEL CENT IIII Ro,vir and Streets, vol. Al no. 3. Map. 19i8 A soils belongs to A-1 group if this is indicated to every chart. if both A?I and A--2 are indicated although neither is indicated by every chart, the soil should be classed as A-i; and so on. SELECTION OF SOILS AS ENOINEERINO MATERIAL ' The next point of interest is to see as to how the clasSifleation of soils into groups has helped in the selec-, tibrCbf sdiii as.enginetring Inirtetial and an -suggesting' soil amendments is specific cases. This point has been discussed under the following three heads : Soil for Footings , Abutments and .E mtnnkments : An examination of the properties of the different groups of soils indicates that the soils belonging to A -1 to A-4 groups are best suited for foundation work. Next come the less plastic varieties of the A-6 and A-7 groups. It is important to note that soils of the A-5, A-8, and the more plastic varieties of the A-6 and A -7 groups should never be used without special treat- ment (discussed under treatment of soils for highway and airport construction). Soil for Fill and Dam Materials: Soils of the A-1 to A-3 groups and the better varieties of A-4 are suitable for use as flu materials either in rolling or hydraulic method of construction. Moder- ately plastic varieties of A-4, A-6, and A-7 groups can be used for this purpose after stabilization by densi- fication. If possible, soils of the A-5 and A.8 groups and the more plastic varieties of the A-4, A-6 and A -7 groups should not be used in lill construction. If unavoidable, they must oe adequately densified as per specification laid down by soil tests. In earth-darn construction, groups A -1 , A-2(plastic), A-4 (plastic) and the better varieties of A-6 and A-7 are quite suitable. Friable A-2 and A-4 can be used in the core-wall. If possible, soils belonging to the A-3, A-5, and A-8 group and the more plastic varieties of the A-6 and .4-7 classes should not be used in dam construc- tion. ? When soils of undesirable qualities are used' the densification method -of construction should be used or recourse should be taken to compact the soils by rolling or placement by the hydraulic method, Soil for Highway and Airport Construction: The soils to be used for these purposes need special attention due to the live loads usually exceeding consi- derably dead loads. Even soils of A-1 group need some treatment. The requirements of soils of dfferent groups have been ably summarized by Ifogentogleri. These are as follows : A-1 : Drainage when ground water level is high ; treatment with deliquescent chemicals for stabilized soil roads. A-2 (friable) : Moist condition for use as stabilized road material, bituminous surface treatment for use as base course ; thin wearing course -in pavement ; A-2 (plastic) : Drainage to prevent softening of binder from below ; treatment with deli q uescent chemicals ; dry condition for use as base for thin wearing courses. A -3 Subgrade treatment by admixture of binder or light tars and substantial wearing courses in the absence of binder treatinent? thick non-rigid or thin rigid courses. 4-4 7 When drainage possible, thick macadam or concrete pavement of medium thickness -; .stibgraile treatment by 'admixture with coarse constituents ? oil- ing improves When drainage not pos6ible, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 PAPER MAKING IN INDIA thick concrete pavement, crack control and reinforce- ment, A-5: Same as A-4, wet; conditions worse. A-6: When homogeneous, thick macadam Or rigid pavement for ample load distribution ; surface treatment by oiling and screening; crack control. Permeable but drainage possible, Macadam or rigid type-; mechanical treatment under- traffic increases stability. Permeable but drainage not possible. very strong macadam or rigid type with crack control ; ?reinforeement ; subgrade treatment by admixture of coarse material. 4-7 : Same as A -6-homogeneorts ; in addition, surface treatment by mean.s Of tar-paper for preventing expansion beneath fresh concrete. HISTORY 379 A-8: Ample crack control and reinforcement for pavement. In conclusion, it may be safely said that any engine- ering enterprise employing soil should be .preceded by an elaborate testing of the soil in qnestion, because the construction is either made with the soil or the structure is built on it.. It is, therefore, needless to emphasize that any institution where Civil Engineering is included in the curriculum of studies, should have a well-equipped soil research laboratory. REFERENCES Ilogentogler, C. A. Engineering Properties of Soils; McGraw- PIM Book Company, 1937. PAPER MAKING IN INDIA D. C. TAPADAR PirnA PAPER PULP CO., NATHATI, BENGAL THE ancient Hindus used palm leaves, Bhurja, patra and Sachipat (barks of Hinialyan Silver Birch and Agaru) for writing. The paper was introduced by the Chinese in the early Hindu period or perhaps still earlier. The cultural relation which is as old as the history of the two countries took shape in the interchange of ideas, arts and sciences. The art of paper making was well established in the border provinces, of India before it spread to Arabia and Turkistan. At Nowshera near Srinagar (Kashmir), the industry is said to be of at least 1300 year oldl. Some of the samples of Nepalese paper collected by the Indus- trial Section of the Indian Museum are still in excellent . condition after about 1000 years of their manufacture. There are sonic samples collected from Manipore and are supposed to have been made several centuries ago. The secret of the art appears to have been kept within the sphere of limited communities. Its growth at any rate, must have beeii very slow and it was only in the Mohammedan period that it developed into an industry. In the middle of the fifteenth century Zainul Abedin brought into Kashmir some experts from Samarkand who intrcd iced an improved technique of softening and bcating rags, hemp and cotton-waste into pulp, sizing paper with rice starch and polishing with agate. A sort of standardization of the process was thus set up ? and the quality of the paper so made has been main- tained there ever since. The Kagzis, a class of Moha- medans engaged in the trade spread the industry throughout the country. New raw materials like jute, barks of trees, leaves of date palm were gradually intoduced and the process of manufature was modified accordingly. At the time of the introduction of the modern paper making process, the industry was more or less established in Bengal, the United Provinces, Madras, Trichinopoly and Cochin, Sind and other places. The quality of paper ranged from ordinary Tulat' to fairly strong writing papers for account book and strong wrapping papers. The name 'Bally paper' attached to a class of cheap writing paper of brown to reddish brown colour perhaps originated with the mill-made paper of a similar quality produced by the Bally mills, in order to distinguish it from the hand made paper of the `Kagzis'. In 1812, William Carey engaged a few native paper makers to make paper in their own way. Gradually the process was modernised and it was in this mill at Serampore, Bengal, that the first steam engine erected in India was installed in 1820 for operating the beating engine. The first Fourdrinier type continuous making machine was also introduced here in 1832. But owing mainly to lack of support, if not definite discouragement on the part of the then Government, the mill was not a success and the machine was eventually trasferred to Bally. The Royal Paper Mills at Bally was started in 1867 and was run on a commercial scale for a number of years and finally absorbed by the Titaghur Paper Mills in 1905 . The Upper India Couper Paper Mills, the third of the series of modern paper mills, was started at Lucknow in 1879 and is now the oldest of the existing mills in this country. In 1913 there were in all seven mills producing 24,000-25,000 tons of paper from Sabai- grass, rags, hemp, jute and imported spruce wood pulp. In this year R.S. Pearson of the Forest Research Insti- tute, Dehra-Dun, published a comprehensive report on the avilability and utilization of bamboo for the manu- facture of paper, but the process of boiling with caustie soda suggested by him could be applied to bamboo only if the knots were excluded from the charge. The first paper mill designed to work entirely on bamboo and Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 380 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCE A using the entire stem was started at. Naihati in 1918. The process, based on cooking the material with a solution of magnesium bi-sulphite, and modified in details, is now one of the most efficient method of pulping bamboo. The Pearson process was also modi- fied by William Raitt by way of cooking in stages and was soon adopted by the Titaghur Paper Mills, followed by various others. There are at present about twenty mills with a total rated capacity of 1,00,000 tons per annum. ItAw MATERTALS Paper is composed chiefly- of plant fibres collected and formed into a sheet from a watery suspension. The quality of the paper is determined by the nature of the fibres. The method of treatment and the finish and its durability depends mainly on the. degree of purity of the fibres, i.e. the extent of isolation from the non-cellulosic substance. Cellulose may be defined as the structural basis of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohy- drate of a very high molecular weight, being .composed of a large number of an hydro-dextrose. units arranged end to end to form a sort of chain structure. The degree of resistance to chemicals is a function of this chain length, or the degree of polymerisation. The lower forms of cellulose which are soluble in mild acids and alkalis are called hemicellulose. A portion of hemieellulose yield pentose sugars on hydrolysis and is called pentosan. The celluloses and hemicelluloses are held in position by a sort of cementing substance called lignin which is insoluble in water, acids and di- lute alkalis but are soluble in. strong alkalis and sulphur- ? is acid, sulphites, chlorine and. hypochlorites. Besides these there are starches, gum, sugar, resins, fats, waxes, colouring matter and mineral matters -in various proportions. The main constituents of some of the more important fibre-yielding materials are as shown in Table T. For fine papers like bank, TAT3I,F. T (!OMPOSITION Or FIBROUS RAW MATRRIALS Material t !otton Cellulose % 91.2 Lign in Pentosans % hemp 79.3 5.2 5.5 Sisal 77.0 6.00 13.00 I tam boo 50.0 25.0 15.0 Sabi grass 46.0 5.5 12.0 Barley Straw 48.6 16.4 31.9 oath 43.8 18.6 22.8 Rico 45.5 10.9 21.5 Wheat 56.7 16.3 28.4 [ye 36.3 11.3 20.4 Flax 82.0 2.7 2.0 Ramie 85.0 1.0 2.0 ute 64.0 21.0 15.0 Spruce 57.44 28.29 11-3 Ptne 54.25 26.35 11.02 Beech 53.46 22.40 24.86 limb 45.30 19.50 27.07 Poplar 47.11 18.24 23.75 bond, ledger etc., the fibre should he long, strong, ight in colour and durable. The length and the strue- 1,are are characteristics of the parent substance hut ND CULTURE Vol. 15, No. 10 the colour and the durability depend, as has already been explained, on the purity of the isolated fibres. Generally the substances containing .high percentages of cellulose yield fibres of good quality. As the propor- tions of non-cellulosic matters increase, the method of isolation of celluloses also becomes more and more complex and often the product is degraded due to the fragmentation of the cellulose chains and other chemical changes. For cheap news print and boards, on the ether hand, any fibrous raw material is good enough if it. can be converted into pulp at a reasonably low cost. Between these two extreme types there are various grades of paper and the choice of the raw materials is determined by the suitability and the cost Of ,conver- sion to pulp. The raw material if suitable otherwise, should he available in sufficient quantities and at a reasonable price, in other words, it should have little value or should be available in such quantities that the requirements for a paper mill may not interfere with the local demand and prices. MAN UFACTURE OF PAPER PULP Pulping processes can be broadly divided into two classes-mechanical and chemical. The mechanical process consists in grinding the fibrous material with water to a soft workable pulp. The fibres so obtained are weak, impure and subject to rapid deterioration and are suitable only for low grade papers and boards. The mechanical pulp retains about 80% of the raw material and is the cheapest of all commercial pulp. Soft woods of fairly light 'colour and low resin content; are best smted for making news print. If before grind- ing the logs of wood are softened with steam for a few hours at a pressure of about 45 pounds per sq. inch, a more flexible, strong and durable fibre can be obtained which although dark in colour, is suitable for wrappers and leather boards. The colour can be improved hy washing the steamed logs with hot water containing up to -2% of oxalic acid on the weight of the wood. Such and. other processes in which the raw materials are reduced to suitable sizes by chipping or crushing and then subjected to a chemical treatment so as to remove a portion of the cementing substances and then ground or otherwise disintegrated to pulp are called semi-chemical processes. The chemical pulp is obtained by gradual elimina- tion of the non-cellulosic materials and the process usually involves a series of mechanical and chemical treatments. The :\rield of fibre is low, the process is complicated and costly, but the fibre is stronger and. more durable and hence better suited for fine papers than the corresponding mechanical pulp from the same type of raw materials. The, impurities of fi hrous materials can he removed by boiling with a. caustic soda solution of suitable strength and under a moderately high pressure. As the proportion of the impurities increases, the strength of the solution, the percentage of caustic s;a1a, the boiling pressure and the cooking time are all increased proportionately. The caustic soda is largely reclaimed from the spent liquor and re-used. in the pro- cess, After the digestion is over, the liquor is collee- Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 ' Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950 PAPER MAKT ted together with one or more washes and concentrated to a fairly thick consistency. The concentrated liquor usually contains sufficient organic materials to support its own combustion in a suitably designed furnace whereby soda ash or a crude Carbonate of soda -is ob- tained. This is dissolved in water and the green liquor so obtained is then causticised with lime so as to convert the carbonate of soda into hydroxide and thus the white liquor after causticising is a solution of caustic soda, ready for use once more, in the cooking process. Any loss of caustic Soda in the process is made up with an equivalent quantity of fresh soda ash added to the green liquor. At high temperatures and pressures a strong solution of caustic soda can dissolve a consider- able portion of the isolated fibres, especially the lower forms of cellulose and consequently the quality and the yield of commercial soda pulp is often adversely affected. By a partial replacement of the caustic soda with an equivalent amount of sodium sulphide, the concert- NG IN 381 tant pulping process -Called the acid or the sulphite pro- cess. In practice the sulphurous acid is used in con- junction with a certain proportion of suitable base so as to neutralise a portion of the lignosulphoric a cid .formed during the process of delignification, other- wise, under the condition of high temperature, pressure and concentration existing in the digesters the fibre is weakened due to hydrolysis and is often so hard and deeply coloured that it becomes unbleachable and prac- tically useless. Resins are unaffected by the sulphite liquor and always appear in the pulp in a higher con- centration than in the raw material. Subject only to these limitations the sulphite process is applicable to any type of wood or other plants but it is mianly Used for pulping coniferous wood. The comparative figures for the requirements of the fibrous and non-fibrous raw materials required for making pulp by the. more important commercial pro- cesses are given in the Table 11. TABLE II RAW MATERIALS FOR PAPER PULP Mechanical Sulphite Soda Sulphate Wood 1-1.25 Tons 2.25 Tons 1.5-2.0 Tons 1. 5-2 .0 Tosns Bamboo, Grass Straw 2 . 25-3. 0 Tons 2 . 5-3 . 0 Tons 2 . 5-3 . 0 Tons Lime 150-250 lbs. 500-600 lbs. 300-400 lbs. Sulphur 190-300 lbs. Soda Ash 250 lbs. Salt cake 400--500 Steam 5000-6000 lbs, 12000-13000 lbs. 9000-12000 lbs. Water gall 40,000-50,000 100,000-150,000 100,000-150,000 100,000-120,000 Electricity 70-100 kw 200-300 kw 200-300 kw 200-300 kw tration of the active alkali can be kept sufficiently low, the rest remaining in reserve to make up the loss due to the combination with pectin and lignin as the cooking proceeds. In practice a calculated quantity of sodium sulphate is added to the concentrated spent liquor be- fore burning, the sulphate is thereby reduced to the sul- phide and acts: as the buffer in the finished white liquor. The loss of chemicals incurred in the boiling and washing of the raw materials may be partially or wholly made up with sodium sulphate and this modified process is called the sulphate process to differentiate it from the straight soda process. The sulphate pulp is generally -stronger than the corresponding ? soda pulp and the yield is also higher. The general principle of the alkaline cooking process as outlined above can be applied to all plant substances and with proper adjustments of the cooking conditions, vegetable fibres can be isolated in grades of strength and purity suitable for a variety of purposes. Cotton, flax, hemp, jute, deciduous wood, grasses, straws, bamboo, -reeds and various type of agricultural wastes are reduced to pulp by this process. The sulphate process is applied to coniferous wood also. Some varieties of specially made sulphate pulps are very strong and durable and are called Kraft pulp. The action of sulphurous acid on lignin to form lignosulphoric acid is the basis of another very impor- BLEACHING The raw pulp whether produced by mechanical or chemical process always retains some impurities including lignin, colouring matters which are removed or otherwise altered in a fashion so as to cause the pulp to reflect more true white light by a process of treatment technically called Bleaching. The chemicals in the process are:. (1) Reducing agents like sulphur dioxide, sodi- um sulphite, caicium-bi-sulphite, zinc hydrosulphite etc., which improve the colour of the mechanical pulp by reducing the colouring matter to a white or colour- less material ; the action is not permanent, the colour reappears on oxidation or even exposure to light and air. (2) Chlorine or chloride dioxide, sodium chlorite, calcium hypochlorite and bleaching powder are used for bleaching chemical pulps by way of oxidation and solubilization of the colouring matters which are subse- quently removed by washing. The effect is more or less permanent depending on the partcular process and the extent of bleaching. Various novel processes of bleaching mechanical and semi-mechanical pulps have recently been developed. so that fibres of very excellent colour and durability are now produced by quite unorthodox methods. The princi- ple of chlorination process introduced by Cross & B an Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 382 SCIENCE AND for isolation of cellulose from plant substances is now widely followed in the manufacture of chemical pulps. HERI F.7...?.76,74.0 1 Ce, T. t OPP., V.v. IL? rm.,. will._ JAM t HEAT .1 1 On01.1. SCA Pt.., V r,o0Era, I , IcooKon LIque '[ 1??"".1.'"f7-7-1 ?LIAC.f.a 13L.,1,11 lemma. Er? HACH., 1 F-4 I ??-a[ STARCH* PRE I Ok SPX,. [10SIN,C.IL-Ve UM.% r11.14.1 ALI/A- k process devised orininally by De-Vain in -Holland for ImIping straw has been modified by Dr. Umberto I )1.1M no, an Italian chemical engineer for a continuous 4)peration of pulping grasses, straws, bamboo, bagasse etc. - The removal of lignin and other impurities pro- eaeds in stages and the pulp may be obtained in any state of purity from crude pulp for boards to bleached twee for fine printings. The outstanding advantage of the process is the great saving of steam and the conti- nuity of operation. STOCK PREPARATION The first sten in the preparation of the stock for making paper is to soften or refine the fibres so as to make an eniformiy felted sheet when the diluted stock is filtered through a fine wire cloth. The simplest way to do so is eo pound the pulp with a mortar and pestle or on stones with wooden stampers (e.g. with a Dheki). In modern mills handling a large quantity of materials, the stuff is treated in socially designed beating engines or refiners. The individual fibres are thereby cut macerated and hydrated i.e., allowed to absorb water on the exposed surface of the fine fibrils. By a proper adjustment of conditions the desired characteristics can be developed durieg the beating Tirocess, so that a long fibred stuff can be used for various grades of paper. The process of hydration can be great- ly enhanced by using external mucilages like starch and cellulose esters instead of disintegrating the fibres into lThrils. In fact a certain proportion of lower forms of. cellulose is essential for the . development of Are/1gal and feLing quality of the fibres, the highly purified fibre like alpha pulp, and regenerated celluloses. like viscose silk are of little use in paper making. Mot of the common grades of paper are furnished with a suitable proportion of different kinds of fibre mixed together and refined in the beaters or treated severally and mixed later on in a mixing chest. In writing CULTURE Vol. 16, No. 10 papers, water-repellant matters like rosin, wax, casein etc. are added in the form of emulsion and precipitated back by means of alum, so that the finished paper may take a neat impression of inks on the surface without getting wet through. Starch, sodium silicate and various other chemicals are also added to impart special qualities like rattle, handle etc. A suitable proportion of mineral fillers like china clay is also added in common grades of writing and printing papers in order to render the texture close., flat and the surface smooth and even. These auxilliary mate- rials as well as the dyes are usually added in the beater and throughly mixed with the pulp. Parkft Matifsel The stock so prepared goes next to the machine where it is uniformly spread on the machine wire at La suitable dilution, and a sheet of paper is formed after gradual abstraction of water. The machine wire is an endless band of wiremesh spread flat on the supporting table rolls in Fordrinier type of machine or round the circumference of a skeleton cylinder drum in a cylinder machine. Water is drained out through the wire assisted in the process by the capillary action of the supporting rolls as well as the suction applied by means of suitably designed vacuum boxes placed underneath. The process of conversion of the stock to paper on the machine wire and the subsequent pressing, drying, calendering and reeling are all con- tinuous. The paper after leaving the press section is dried over a number of steam-heated cylinders arran- ged in two tiers and passed through two or three -stacks of chilled cast iron rolls whereby the surface of the sheet is cidendered smooth. The paper is then removed in. the form of reels and finally cut to proper sizes in a cutter machine and finished ready for the market. THE PRESENT CONDITION AND THE FUTURE The chief raw materials used for paper making in India are bamboo and grass. Although 85% of Worlds' paper is made from wood its use in this country is very limited, mainly due to the scarcity of the common pulp woods, the minimum requirement for an economic unit producing soda, sulphate sulphite or mechanical pulp being about 20,000 tons on dry basis. Some of the softer deciduous woods like Simul (Salmalla alabarica), Pituli (Trewia Nudiflora), Gewa (Excae- caria, Agallcha), Salai (Boswellia Serrata) etc are easily reduceable to pulp by the soda as well as the sulphite process. The fibres are short but can still be used as fillers in common grades of paper. Paper Mulberry (Broussoletia Papyrifera), Pula (Kydia Calycina), Chir (Pings LonyVolia) Salai etc. can be. pulped mechanically and used for newsprint with about 30% chemical bamboo pulp or 25% chemical s,prilee 2,3. The search for a pulp wood among rather unorthodox varie- ties has resulted in a project for a large news print mill in the C.P. Most of the Indian mills were designed and:cons- tructed by British firma who had specialised in making Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1050 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 PAPIM MAIttNet I1 fistinA. 383 paper from rags and grasses, and consegnently the cho- ice and the method of pulping raw materials have also been greatly influenced by foreign interest and practice. But in reality any pulping process can be modified to suit a particular type of raw material and if one material iE found suitable otherwise, the particular method of pulping to be followed is a matter of convenience. Sabai grass and bamboo are usually cooked by the modi- fied soda or sulphate process, but in one mill bamboo is pulped very successfully by a modified sulphite pro- cess. The cooking conditions in the latter may be con- trolled so as to widen the range of pulp quality suited for strong wrappers to fine printings. When bleached under standard conditions the sufphite bcanboo pulp may be purified to answer the requirements of rayon. The process can be applied to straw and grasses as well. The waste salphite liquor is an important source of tanning agent, lignin plastics, green bond, power al- cohol, and yeast. Moreover at a consistency of 60/70% dry substance, the concentrated sulphite liquor can be easily burnt in a suitably designed furnace and the heat of combustion utilised to raise steam sufficient for the entire process of pulping and concentration, and under properly controlled conditions about 50% of the total sulphur and 70% of the magnesia can be recovered from the products of combustion. A similar course of ex- periments on wood has resulted in the erection ofla large pulp mill in Canada very recently. 425 There are seve- ral board mills in this country using straw? bagasse and waste paper pulped by very crude processes whereas a modern semi chemical process like the Asplaund would be much more efficient. Extensive researches are necessary in the various branches of the pulp and paper industry. The forest resources in India are not inconsiderable but the materials required for paper are scattered and the transport facilities are not adequate and. consequent- ly the mills are finding great difficulties in procuring suitable raw materials at reasonable prices. The areas rich in bamboo and grass are being exploited without a systematic replacement and thus the source of supplies are gradually receding from the place of manufacture and market. The situation has further deteriorated due to the partition, because an additional quantity, roughly 40,000 tons, of raw materials are now wanted from the forests in the Indian Union. Under these circumstances, the production target fixed by the Paper Panel (2,64,000 tons for 1951-52 and 4,71,000 tons for 1956-57) can hardly be reached by simply erecting more machines. The forest resources have to be more systematically surveyed and the search for new raw materials greatly intensified. Under favourable conditions bamboo grows faster than wood and the average yield per acre from cultivated forest may be as high as 4 tons against .26----.3 tons in ca-se of coniferous woods?. Pearson described the occurrence, the nafare of growth, and the availability of several types of bamboo in Bengal, Bombay and Madras. On waste land bamboo may be a profitable crop. Some quick growing trees like Sabad, Paper mulberry and Shimul can be cultivated to boost the production of paper pulp. Some of these trees can be raised in bam- boo plantations with advantage. The waste wood from timber works and plywood factories can be con- verted to pulp for lower grades of paper. There are several types of wild grasses and reeds which have riot been exploited for paper making. Savana, grass and Na! reeds (Arundo Donax) yield fibres not mach inferior to that from bamboo. An elaborate method of treatment and complicated machineries are out of consideration for small scale industries. So. the use of bamboo and other fibrous plant is not practicable for making hand made paper, the choice being often limited within cotton and linen rags, waste cotton, hemp, waste papers and imported wood pulp. The bast fibre from paper mulberry may readily augment this list. It is extensively used in Japan and Siam. In Burma it is also made into card board blackened for use as slates for writing purposes in schools. The wood is white and can be pulped by mechanical as well as chemical process. The tree grows in various types of soils and spreads by seeds and root suckers, out-growing other species7. If the villages are properly instructed arid encouraged this plant can be raised in this country and exploited for paper making. Three fundamental needs for the healthy growth of the industry are materials, machines and men. Materials we have got, if not enough, more can be grown; machines can be constructed when there is a sufficient demand; but technicians and skilled labour have to be raised from amongst ourselves, and it is a strong policy of the Government that is wanted to correlate or orient the three. Training of the men for the industry should be sufficiently encouraged. The courses of studies in technical institutions should include Paper Techno- logy preferably as a separate subject. An association of the technical men in this and. allied industries should be organised and meeting arranged in important loca- lities whereby the technicians may discuss various problems and share one another's experience and know- ledge for the betterment of the industry. REFERENCES a A. T. Gills, Paper & Print, Spring 1046. Forest 'Utilization Publication?B 108. a Indian Print and Paper?March, 1942. 4 G. H. Tomlinson and R. S. Wilcoxson?The Economic Disposal of Waste Sulphite liquor?Paper Trade Journal?April 11, 1940. 8 Paper Trade Journal?Nov. 11, 1948. 8 Indian Pulp and Paper ?July, 1947. 7 Sylviculture of Indian Trees---Troup, Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 384 it AD C1711TVRE Vol. 15, No. 10 A METHOD FOR COMPARING THE RELATIVE QUALITY OF JUTE YARNS K. R. SEN TECHNOLOGICAL REsEARce LABORATORIES, INDIAN CENTRAL JUTE COMMITTEE, CALCUTTA I NTRODTJCI ION predominate in subscribing to the quality of a yarn le therefore attempted here. DISCUSSION ON QUALITY OF JUTE YARN It has been noted that the qualities of a jute yarn of specified grist (or fineness) with which a spinner is most often concerned, are, as in the case of any other spun-yarn manufacture, (i) the thread strength and (ii) the regularity. The regularity of a yarn depends partly on the characteristics of the fibre such as, fric- tion, multiplicity and length of each of the adhering filamentous units which compose the material during the different stages of processing, and also, quite largely, on the distribution of the varying individuals before and during processing. All spun yarns, whatever the textile fibre used, are more or less irregular, consisting of thick and thin places. The irregularity is very high in the case of jute yarn, and the smallest in the case of the man-made staple fibre. The individuals of staple fibre are more or less uniform in external features so that the effect of distribution is minimum. The variations of thick- ness are introduced during the drafting operation as a reaction between the fibre characters as distributed in the body of the material under draft, and the drafting treatment and the machinery. There is of course no process yet known, such as can altogether eliminate this effect, particularly in the case of the natural textile fibres. However, this may be reduced in the case of jute in two ways : (i) by ensuring perfect and complete splitting of the meshy fibre-complex into single filamen- tous units prior to drafting ; or. (ii) by blending suitably-matched fibres. Both these methods have however got very great practical difficulties lying in the way of consummation. Between the two again, action (i) is more difficult to carry out. Now, if not for any other reason, simply due to the existence of the thick and the thin places, a gradient of strength exists along the length of the yarn. The strength of the single thread, we measure is actually the strength of the weakest point of the yarn within the specified test length. Variation of the strength of jute yarn with test length has already heen studied3.. So, it is clear that apart from any direct effect on dyeing, finishing etc., the irregularity of jute yarn also . affects the strength of a Specified yarn. This effect of irregularity in fact merges in the "quality number" estimate of the yarn. This fact seems to reduce the items of measurement for quality estimation of jute yarn to merely one variable, viz., the strength of a specified yarn. Now, it is a matter of practical THE Indian Standards Institution has undertaken the task of specifying the standard methods of estimat- ing the testing and performance of the fibre, yarn and fabric of jute. There are powerful factors which ope- rate as hurdles in the way of devising easy testing etandards in the case of jute fibre. These have already la en discussed'. It is proposed now to examine the factors which affect the basis of comparing the spinning qualities of different varieties. The technique at present in vogue for a standard method, is a two-pronged one. In the first place, a yarn Is spun from a jute under constant conditions of draft, Jwist arid the mass of roving per unit length. This yarn which thus possesses a specified grist, is tested for the breaking load, as well as the coefficient of varia- tion of the mass of pieces having a specified short length by a procedure which is fixeci2. Hence, along with -the eoellicient of variation, which is used to indicate the degree of regularity of the yarn, the tensile strength or the quality number (or quality ratio) is employed to represent the bases for comparison of the spinning quality. Between these two measures of quality, the latter (quality number) is considered as of prin- cipal importance, for the effect of the former estima- tion generally merges into that of the latter, and also ehows, numerically, a much shorter range of variation than the latter. While the quality number expressed as percentage, has been known to vary from about 40 to 1_20, the irregularity coefficient ranges from about 21% to 38%. Usually, therefore the yarns from different fibres are compared by their values of the quality number when spun practically to the same grist and twist. In other words, it is considered that the relative test values giving the quality numbers of a set of standard yarns indicate the relative spinning quality of the fibres. As a standard method for start i.e., until sufficient knowledge has been foregathered, the method des- cribed above seems the only way of solving the problem. however, within the last decade or so, much scienti- fic information about the physical characters of jute fibre and yarn, as well as about the procedure of yarn making, have been accumulated. It is now known that when spun from one particular fibre, the quality number at one grist may be relatively higher than that of another similar yarn from a different fibre, while the relative order of superiority may become inverted at another grist. This knowledge has necessarily- warranted a revision of the standard method for comparing the spinning quality of different yarns. A scrutiny of the fundamental factors which Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 April, 1950 Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 A METIIOD POR COMPARING l'Isth RELATIVE QtAttlrit OF ..tint YARNS experience that the quality of a material is usually determined by the amount of work done on it to effect disintegration or rupture.. So, the quality of a speci- fied jute yarn should be a function of not merely of its strength (for a specified test length) but also of its ex- tension at the point of break under pull. Thus for the study of the quality of a jute yarn under specified conditions of testing, one must consider the grist of the yarn, its breaking strength under tension and the ex- tension at the breaking point. These three factors may be reduced to two by considering the tensile, or intrin- sic, strength of the yarn specirnen.This tensile strength expressed as the percentage ratio of the breaking load in pounds to the grist in pounds per spyndle (=s14,400 yards), has been nominated the quality ratio or quality number of the yarn. In addition to these two factors which, except for the application of draft, admit of very little personal control, being mainly dependent on the physical pro- perties of the fibre vis-a-vis the yarn structure, there is another variable factor which can to some extent modify, through the structural medium, either of these two quality determinants of the yarn. This variable, however, is almost totally under human control. It is the "twist" applied to the spun yarn. The published methods so far available regarding the assesment of quality of jute yarn, relyon the mea- surement of the quality number of the yarn spun with a specified draft and twist from a roving of fixed mass per unit length. Such study is only supplemented by measuring irregularity of the yarn as the coefficient of variation of the mass of short pieces of specified length. The factor of extension which, for the whole range of jute yarn formation, varies from 1% to 3% nearly, is disregarded. On the basis of these considerations, leaving aside the question of irregularity which affects the yarn quality number through its breaking load, and also neglecting the very small effect of extension, it is now proposed to examine the validity of the quality number of a specified yarn as a standard measure for comparing the relative spinning qualities of jute yarns. BASIS OF QUALITY NUMBER OF YARN There is little doubt now that the quality of a spun (unsized and otherwise unfinished) yarn, is a com- plex function involving several factors broadly of the two following categories? (i) physical nature of the material; (ii) spinning treatment. The most relevant physical characters of a textile material, known from experience in the sphere of vari- ous other fibres to vitally affect yarn quality number are (i) the staple length (1); (ii) the mass per unit length or gravimetric fineness (m) ; (iii) the frictional resistance (0) ; and (iv) the breaking load (p).. In the case of jute, there is one special character which plays no mean part in determining the quality of the yarn spun. It is? (v) the splittability of the meshy complex(#). Considering these five physical characters to be the principal "material" factors for the production of the resulting yarn quality number in the case of jute, it may be understood that these fibre characters act on the quality number through a quantity, B, which is an involved function of 1, m,cb,p, and tr.. In other words, 11-4(/, m, 0, 2), II) Now, if yarns are spun from different varieties of jute having different physical qualities of fibre, to a speci- fied grist (0), using a constant draft (D), and a fixed twist (T) from roves of the same mass per unit length (I?), the Quality Number, Q., of each yarn will naturally be a function of its B. That is to say? . (20=-BAB)=---Mi (1, m,0):1), tt) This is the basis of the present quality-number tech- nique of comparing the qualities of yarn from different varieties of jute. The practice in vogue is to spin "standard" yarns under specified spinning conditions from the different jute varieties, find the value of Qo's for the products, and compare their relative order. However, before proceeding to adjudge the value and the width of applicability of this technique, it is neces- sary to scrutinise the function, M1, the fundamental and dominant element in the study of yarn quality. The Function, M1: It is definite that so far as jute is concerned, the staple length (1) remains a mystery until the yarn is spun. Although the jute strands which ultimately go to form a yarn, are, most of them, not small like cotton or any similar fibre, the length nevertheless has an important function in the determination of yarn quality. It was shown4 how the quality number for the "standard" 10 lb. hessian weft yarn, which bears a curvilinear relation with p/ m i.e., the tensile or intrin- sic strength of the fibre concerned, happens to assume a rectilinear form of relationship with ip/m. (This is also a clear indication that the strength-reducing "slippage"-factor which operates as a result of yarn structure, for a j ate yarn spun under constant spinning conditions, is insignificantly small i.e., practically "zero', just as for long staple cotton fibres5 .) The importance of /' in the case of the yarn quality of jute, and the fact that '1' cannot be known prior to actual spinning of the fibre, make it necessary to find Some measureable characters of jute, which should influence the generation of the staple lengths during processing and spinning so strongly, that '1' may be re- placed in any estimation of yarn quality from fibre characters. No doubt much fundamental work is re- quired to be done before such characters, relevant Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 386 Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP83-00415R006100050001-7 SCIENCA AND CULTURE beyond any pale of doubt, can be found. However, as a Working hypothesis, in absence of requisite know- ledge, one may proceed with chaiacters which seem nn)st probable from a priori consideration of facts no far known. Thus it seems possible that the eplittability, or complexity - co-efficient, it, as defined earlier6, the dp strength gradient of a filament, ' where X is the dA, t eetolength corresponding to a filament strength., p, nad the cross-sectional area of the filament, A (=rat)), the area beiner assumed to be elliptical7 with the esmi-axes 'a' and 'h' may prove to be such measures. The reasons are :?'I7he complexity determines the probability of transverse break down of the mesh- work of a jute into single filaments as well as into filaments of different degrees of multiplicity, in course of yarn making. So, this factor indicates the possibiiity of longitudinal break down of an ele- ment by the drafting force. The strength gradient well show up the minimum drafting force necessary to break-down a iflament longitudinally; and the cross section will indicate the weakest point within a filament, where such minimum force will be likely to break the filament,and so determine the length of the parts. There is of course one definitely known fact in this connection. It is that the maximum. pos- sible length of a filament in the yarn cannot exceed the "grip-to-grip' distance (L) between the feed and the delivery rollers. So, always, l