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1 RIMO/FlorRelease,2002/01/04:CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 CLASSIFICATION SELLeT/GONTROL CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE A i INFORMATION R -r 111 COUNTRY USSR (Ukrainian SS ? SUBJECT Ukrainian Undergr 25X1A The Road to Freed PLACE ACQUIRED 25X1X DATE OF INFO. tbook: (19.13.N.PIlactiacP1-h ET0E14 THIS REPOLT IS NOT 'I Ca T :La LU Ah LoiI.) V. enieLter IACPUSS aileiSSION O1' TIlE CD NO. YE DISTR. NO. OF PAGES NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. 25X1A 10 Aura, 1951 26 The material contained in this report was written in the 25X1X liestern Ukraine by and specifically for members of the underground and not for the benefit of foreign consumption. Neither format nor content have been altered in the editing process. THE ROAD TO m IOU hat'ils for Initial Ideological-Political Training of OUN Members Part III Brief Information on the Ideology, Policy. and History of Ukrainian Revolutionary Nationalism Underground, 1949 Preface The following is a manual for elementary ideological-political training. The necessity for such a manual has become urgent for several reasons, First of all, since 1941 our organization has made great progress in its ideological development. Our movement has revised and much better sub- stantiated a great many of its previous viewpoints0 kany new advanced ideas have also been introduced. At the same time, all these new ideological developments could not be conveyed to the rank and file of the OUN, since the conditions of underground struggle discouraged meetings on a big scale among members of the organization. Besides, the members were overloaded with practical assignments, due to the development of mass insurrectional warfare, In many cases such conditions may be observed at present, but they cannot be tolerated any further, Every member of the OUN must become familiar with all our ideas, and must be CLASSIFICATION s'appwminoTer 1-11-A7" ?1710-NS16?. DISTR181JTIO [ARMY 1.2 1 AIR 1 2 FBIH LT Approved For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A Hi ? ApproveligrVeTeNaTskie?08/(130001-3 Ce;NTRAL INTLUJCLeACE AGJeNCY theoretically prepared in the best way; otherwise he will not be able to perform properly assignments given to him by the Command of the organization. It is clear to everyone that the compilation of the proper inetruetion book is the first and most important measure for the correction of existing conditions? Second, the treining courses lately organized by various celle of our organization are not always satisfactory; as a result, ideolegieal errors and freeeintereretation of vtrious problems are frequent, Such a situation can only be revIsed by making a single manual obligatory for the entire organization. A third reason for issuing this book is its possible value As a self- training manual- The fourth reason is constituted by a great demand for theoretically: prepared personnelsitce the basic form of our struggle, under present conditions, is political-propagandietic activity. Therefore, the necessity of ideological-political training Of members of the underground Move- ment is very great. Aithout this training, the instruction of the OLIN that every- member of the OUN and every underground Worker or insurrectionist must be a eropagandist cannot be practically fulfilled? All this requires us to consider publication of the groper manual aS not only essential but imperative, Only the difficult conditions of our struggle delayeo. its earlier issuance. The manual Road to?Freeoom comprises four farts: le Catechism of the Ukrainian nationalist 2. Stuey of the Ukraine 3, grief information on ireeoloey, policy, and rdtoxr of Ukrainian revoiutionary nationalism 4. Lrief information on the Bolenevist system of oppression and exploitation The manual gives all the most necessary information which must be known to every member of the OUN? ee offer this manual to our frienee with a reenest Raise our ideological-political level Raise our ideological-political preparedness2 Having our weapons ready, let Us use every spare minui.e for training oueeelves. This ie required of us today by the needs of our revolutionary etruggle; this is reeuired of us todny by. the Ukraine! The higher our ideological level, and the more friends aoeuire this brief manual, the more certain will be our victory. November 1949 BRIEF INFORIATION ON 1W IDEOLOGY, roucr AND HIST9R OF UKRAINIAN REVOLUTIONARY NAT1ONAL15ie The OUN is a political organization which unites us, its members, on the basis of our common viewpoints regarding the moet essential forms of social life, the objectives of our etrugrle, and the methods to be em- ployed in this struggle, These views, taken jointly, usually form an ideology. Conseouently, our ideology is the principal factor which binds us, membere of the OUN, into a sinjle fighting association, if only on a voluntary beeis, but, nevertheless, tightly drawn together. Our ideology is also the decisive factor due to which we accepted the name of nationaliste; it is the eistinction wFAch creates our ideological-political difference from other Ukrainian anc foreign par tics This ideology has also another ery imeortant significance; it is our tneoretical weapon in the struoje against all our enemies and adversaries., In order to defeat our enemies physically in armed streggle, we have preliminarily to overcome them iaeologicallyi we must undermine the in- fluence of their ideology among the Ukrainian masses and implant our own ideas. This may be done only if we, members of the OUN, and all rarticipants in the underground movement, are well prepared ideologically SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 111.1.11111MM00130001C -2- 25X1A 25X1A SECRET/CONTROL US Approved For RedgismA2901201414icaliAeciM90415R00841111111M Therefore, ideological preparedness of the cadres of our movement has a paramount significance for our organization. By improving our ideological preparedness, that is, by increasing the knowledge of our ideas, our program, our policy and history, we strengthen still further the monolithic nature and ideological unification of our organization and prepare ourselves for still more successful participation in our political-propagandistic activity. Therefore, the slogan: "Raise our ideological preparednessP1 must be realized to its full extent. WHY DO V.E CALL OURSELVES NATIONALISTS? Our movement is a nationalistic movement, and our organization is the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists0 ae call ourselves nationalists because, first of all, the basis,. the cornerstone of our ideology is our conception of the nation and national state. In the second place, we call ourselves nationalists because, in our strugele for the Ukrainian Independent United State as well as in our everyday life, we are guided by a single most important slogan: "The welfare of the Ukrainian nation is the supreme law." The most characteristic feature of our conception of the world is the fact that we consider the nations in it as a natural phenomenon of man- kind, the highest form of human society, and we recognize their historical significance. The most characteristic feature of our activity, our way of thinking, and our harts and souls is the subordination of everything, and primarily our personal life, to the interests of the Ukrainian sesople the etruagle- for their freedom, happiness, and glory. Here we briefly describe : (1) our concept of the nation, (2) our con- cept of the national state and (3) our interpretation or the slogen "The -welfare of the Ukrainian nation is the eulreme law," 1, Our Concsat of the Nation Our concept . of the nation in the shortest form was interpreted in the ideological thee e of the First Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists, which took place in Vienna in 1929. The fourth parasraeh of one of these theses states: "The nation is the nighest type of organic human community which, in spite of its greatest psychological and social diversity, has its Own inner form created on the basis of similar natural positiOn, common historical destiny, and an incessant tendency to realize this form by all means Here, we will try to clarify better this brief definition by answering the folloWtng questions: I. Why is the retion not an ordinary but a special community, the highest form of orsanic human association? II How have nations been created? III.. Psychological and social differences inside of the nation. ?IV. Who is embraced by the concert of nation? V, ;Alen May the people be annihilated? I, Why is the nation not an ordinary but a aliaala ,cpmrhnit7a the higyest form of oreanic human aesd'ciati.on? tt ??. Aso:or:sing to the accepted definition of the nation, the latter is the highest form of organic human aseociation.. An association is a certain group of people who are united by certain relatipns, There are various associations in existence Lembers of sport fellowships, youth organi- zations or political parties, soldiers of armies also form associations because they are united by certain organizational relations, certain common aims, and certain interests and viewpoints. It is quite clear that a great difference exists between an association established by the members of a sport fellowship and an association which represents a whole people, a nation SECRET/CONTROL 25X1C Approved For Release 2002/01/04 : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A 25X1A nECRETSCONTRui US Approved For Release 2002/01/CMIIIIIIIIIIIIII001-3 CalTRAI. MITEL,IGENCE AGENCY Firsts these differences are determined by number, intensity, permanence, and quality of relations which unite the members of each organiza- tion. vempareummwtne organizatimnImmma as the nations the nadber of relations among the numbers of a sport fellowship are considerably less; they are much weaker, less permanent,and, in many cases, of an entirely different nature. HO; Second, each of these organizations originated differently. For instance, the sport fellowship was formed as the result of a voluntary decision by its members. By a similar decision, it may be dissolved at any time. But a nation, obviously, was not created by this or that voluntary deeision of the people; it was formed independently from the people, as a result of historical development during many hundreds or thousands of years, No. decision can dissolve the nation as a people's association. At present, all individuals are born, irrespective of their wish, as sons of a certain people; and even if someone renounces his nationality and joins people of another nation, just the same his origin will be a con- stant reminder to himself and to 'others that he is the son of a strange people and that he is a renegade, Therefore, the nation is not any ordinary human organization hut it is a special-tyre of human association Taking into consideration the number, intensity, rermanence, and eualities of relations which bind the members of a people together, and also eon- sidering the conditions of the people's origin, we define nations as organic associations. The word "organic" implies that nations are or- ganizations powerfully eelded together, organizations which in many cases merely represent a single undivided living organism, and that they are formed naturally. In contrast with this, such organizations as, for instance,a sport fellowship, are artificial associations. What are those bonds or relations which bind the people so tightly into the highest type of organic human association? 1.1Nlaras, The importance of the language is extremely great for a eeonle. The Ukrainian language is the feature which remits' one to identify a Ukrainian among.strangers in the easiest way, the feature which zest of all distinguishes Ukrainians from other nationalities. It is the most clearly expressed feature which unifies us Ukrainians into a eiresle commonwealth. Common language was the first means by which Ukrainian tribes recognized each other as related peoples and by which they identified Poles as foreigners. Each individual learns to talk in his native language and the native speech is the easiest to understand. Songs, legends. and literature, created in the netive language of the peosle, also contribute greatly to their unification. It is true that in certain cases entire peoples lose their language or have no language of their own at all but, nevertheless, con- sider themselves as separate nations. Ireland and the ILSolL are examples of such nations. Sometimes the Irish language was almost entirely extinct in Ireland; howevelalrishmen always considered themselves as a separate people and always vigorously struggled for their independence. Americans also consider themselves as a nation, although they represent a mixture of emigrants from various European countries and speak English. But such cases are exceptional. The general rule is that there cannot be a people without its own language. Therefore, our present effort to convince all Ukrainians to use only the Ukrainian lansuaee actually is a struggle for the existence of the Ukrainain seople. 2? Territory. The territory is also of nreat importance to the people. It plays an imnortant role as a. uniting factor because it makes it possible for the people to live. together in a single unseparated mass. Such an environment is a .certain preliminary condition for the people to form a separate nation. Living in the same territory for a long time, individuals become attached to it and begin to love it. Thus,. the initial form of patriotism arisee. Love for a native land, hence the concept of fatherland, originates; the native country is more beautiful and more beloved than any other country. The consciousness that we have our own native land, our attachment to this land, to 4aCh&T/CONThUL Approved For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 -4- 25X1C APINi444"6416"eleV6?111111111111111111111111111/400130001-3 CENTI-W, INTELLIGAiCE AGBNCY its fields, forests, rivers, mountains, to its nature, the love for our fatherland?art they not those feelings which tightly bind individuals together, thus unifying them into a single people? Are they not those feelings without which the existence of the Ukrainian people cannot even be imagined today? Having their own territory, the people always strive to control it, and endeavor to be master over this territory. Thus, originates the desire for an independent state. Upon building their own state, the people attain the possibility for the development of their national features, and for the realization of their talents and creative forces. Then, the process of national formation, the feeling of national con- sciousness and unification reach the highest level, Without the territory, however, all these factors would be very weak. The nature of the native country has a strong effect on the character of the people. It is eenerally known that the people of each country have certain features peculiar to their (eel group, These characteristic features distinguish peoples of various groups and, at the same time, bring closer the members Of the same group. Finally; the territory is a basis for the biological existence of the people, the foundation of our life as human beings: it feeds us, we build our dwellings and settlements on it, we owe our clothes to it, aria we use its various natural resources. A group of people deprived of its territory is in danger of complete national annihilation, ttimilarity of character. Certain attributes of character are common to each people, as, example, in their peyenological oiseosition, These attributes are peculiar only to a particular people, They are revealed in, the culture of this people, in national establishments, in every national custom. These attributes distinguish one people from another, but on the other hand, they draw together the members of the same national aesociation. izychologioal features are so deeply implanted in members of the same national group that they are transmitted through heredity The oombieation of these psychological traits, inherent in the majority of a given people, is exactly what we define as a national. attribute, The well-known French in- - vestigator of this subject, Le Bon, makes the following, up- doubtedly correct, statement in his work Psychelea of raues1 Del-slaras.,nt: "AS a result of my numerous journeys in various countries, I have aceuired a very clear conviction that each people has its Own intellectual frame, as its anatomical; this frame is revealed in its feelings, thoughts, institutions, beliefs, and art.0 And further: "Moral and intellectual features, creating by their combination the people's soul, represent a synthesis of the entire past of the people, the inheritance of its ancestors,, It seems that certain cieviations sometimes happee in individual representatives of the same people, but more attentive observations show that the majority of this very same people always have a certain number of coemon psychic traits, as permanent as are the anatomical. features, which are transmitted always and invariably from generation to generation, "The combination of psychic traits comhion to all individuals of a given people determines the so-called national character and also outlines an average type which is peculiar to this people. A thousand French= men, a thousand Lnelishmen, and a thousand Chinese taken at random will have certain considerable SEClin/GONTROL 25X1C Approved For Release 2002/01/94 : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A 25X1A A?roveW8P1UPATea96.0k10001-3 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY differences, but, nevertheless, they reveal hereditary features which permit one to describe the types of French, English,and Chinese peoples...," TO illustrate how people's traits differ in the eyes of a foreigner, the following are the characteristics ascribed to Ukrainians by a Polish ethnoerapher: "The Ukrainians are the most intelligentepeople among all Eastern Slavic peoples. They are more individual than the Russians and stubbornly strive for economic independence..... "One of the characteristic traits of the Ukrainians is their determination, which often turns into obstinacy and persistence A Ukrainian likes to live alone, although he mostly lives in villages The Ukrainians are naturally gifted with artistic taste and musical talents.... "Ukrainian villages differ from those of Russians to such an extent that it seems that thousands of kilometers separate these two peoples. A clean tidy room and a flower-garden in front of the windows are the pride of each Ukrainian house- wife,..." (Land andeetelpels; edited by Professor G. Loscicki, 6arsaw, 1933). Differences in the national characters of various peoples sometimes are so fine that they are very difficult for an inexperienced observer to detect, but they always exist, and are revealed in various forms. Neither physical separation from onegs own people nor conscious re- nunciation remove or change these traits. They may disappear only after a sufficiently long absence from the native country, for example, several centuries of continuous association with foreigners on a friendly basis. The following example may illustrate some of the above statements: It is well-known that N, Gogol was a Ukrainian only in origin; otherwise he was a Russian; he wrote in Russian, was a Russian patriot, and a Russian in all his consciousness. Nevertheless, his Ukrainian extraction caused all his masterpieces to be saturated with Ukrainian spirit, and hie creative power reflects the nature of a Ukrainian individual. Ivan Franko characterized the creative trend of N. Gogol by comparing him with M. Saltykov Shchedrin: "The first satirist after Gogol in Russian literature, he differs by the nature of his humor and pattern of his satire se radically as only the nature of the Ukrainian is different hem the nature of the Russian. Lore humane, the Russian humor remains sad and tart even when filled with loud laughing, and anger is shown in Russian humor when in the Ukrainian tears are seen through the laurhter.-," 4. National habits and customs. In the course of living together for long periods, sometimes thousands of years, a people creates a great many habits and customs which are peculiar only to them. Various social and religious events and rites, methods for their celebration, customs of family, society and community life: these elements of life are firmly established in many nations. A great many of such habits and cuatsms have been created by us, the Ukrainians, be, spite of the fact that We did not enjoy a common life for centuries because of our defeat by invadere. These habits and customs tightly bind us together. 5, Common historical destinyeecommon historical traditiens, Let us imagine that we, Ukrainains, have no past history of the Ukrainian State with its struggle for unification of the Ukrainian tribes, its struggle against nomads and neighbors; that we have no past history of the Cossacks and the struggle for liberation of the Ukraine, and for the independent Ukrainian State, with its glorious insurrection under the leadership of B, Khmelnitski; that we have no past account of the 1917,1920 liberation struggle, the liberation struggle against the occupants after 1920 until Approved For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 . 25X1C SECRET/CONTROL 383M APPIWN@ItirctEtfiftMei 00130001-3 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY the present time. In that case, how faint would be the feeling that we Ukrainians are a separate people! We may even have doubts that such a consciousness would exist at all, since only the struggle for a common cause, common efforts, common en- deavors tie together a people and its generations with strong, although invisible at first sight, threads. The historical tradition, the history of common endeavors, unify people into a nation in the same way as a common language and a jointly inhabited territory.. To an extent no less than is done by political history, people are tied together by their culture. It is generally known how greatly important for us Ukrainians are our folk songs, what a great role T. Shevchenko's Kobzar and, for that matter, all Ukrainian literature have in our life, Without them, OUT ties as a single people would be considerably less than they are at the present, 60 National consciousness. There is one certain prerenuisite for making our historical, political, and cultural traditions serve as a binding national faetor: our people must know their political history and culture. People who possess such a knowledge can be said to be nationally conseious. Rational consciousness has a decisive significance for the existenceof the peeplen Without national consciousness the people, in the actual meaning of the term, cannot exist. Well aware of this, conquerors always try to withhold from the people the knowledge of its history; they always attempt to distort, by all means, this history to prevent the penetra- tion of the truth about the people's past to the popular masses This is exactly what the Bolsheviks are doing now in regard to the history of the Ukrainian people T National ideals and the struegle for their realization_ Such ideals, such efforts always convert people into a single united association, bring the people onto an historical stage, and make an historical subject out of this people. In striving for the realization of their ideals, the people always desire advancement, always have certain national aims, and find enough power for active struggle to reach these aims, Only then, the people live; only then is it a real people. These are the principal relations or ties which bind people into a single organic association, Some of these ties are not solely factors which bind the members of a given people, but also appear in the role of factors which do form the people. This refers, for example, to the territory, national idealsaand struggle for them, and to the political and cultural history in general. For instance,, the territory, as was briefly mentioned before, has a certain effect on the people's spiritual life, Our historical past not only binds us, the Ukrainians, together, but also has left a considerable trace on our national face and our con- temporary ideals, The same may be also said about our national ideals they are not only a binding factor, but also have a certain effect on our formation as a separate people, Besides the above described relations, each people may he recognized by certain peculiar traits of physical build and physical appearance, Scientifically it has been proved that, for instance, the Ukrainians have certain characteristic traits in their physical appearance, the Russians have other traits and the Germans still different ones, According to data of anthropology (the science of human physical features), most Ukrainians have dark hair and eyes, a straight and narrow nose, an oblong face, the highest skull among the neighboring peoples, great stature, short arms, and long legs ? This racial-anthropological differentiation of mankind, differentiation due to physical features, has resulted from the fact that human beings are subject to variability and heredity similarly to animals and plants, A Soviet anthropologist discusses this phenomenon in the Small Soviet ?paysIIETAJA as follows: App '84001j-3 7-- 25X1A 25X1A 3EcRy9/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/0001-3 (CENTRAL INTELLIGEN' CE AGENCY HO; 1...Similar1y to other animals, a human ls eubject to variabilimy which ie revealed, first of all, in the existenee of the various types of mankind. The formation of the main racial categories of mankind took place very long ago, in contrast to other animals, human beings have developed in respect to their adaptability to environment,. However,- the adaptability itself is under the influence of deliberately guided working activity based on helpful use of implements nvented and developed by man. This self-adjustment ol human beings brought mankind to a particularvariability, resulting in wide racial diversity, A certain similarity to these conditions may be observed among domestic animals which are also under the influence of an artificial environment created by man. 1/Separate races are arising among themselves all the time thus creating new descendants. This racial merging is always on the increase, because of the development of communications between separate parts of the world, resulting in commercial intercourse between distant regions and migration of their population. Thus, new racial formations appear ane new complex racial features originate.,.." Listing the most essential. physical features which may characterize human races, the above-mentioned anthropologist points out the hereditary nature of these features example, descendants of the Chinese in general reproduce the type of their progenitors, even when transferred into different environments. The same is true of the Negroes, the estern Europeans, the Australians, and other definitely established types." Thus, .the nations, as we see them, are really a particular type of human association. No other organization is united by the relations and ties which characterize nations. Owing to such numerous, powerful, and permanent relations among its members, a nation is considered as the highest type of organic human association, There is no organizatioe in the whole world welded together more vigorously than a nation. How have nations been created? First, it should be noticed that in most cases we are dealing with peoples who originated: and were properly organized long ago, The only exception appears to be the peoples of the countries of so-called new colonization, particularly, the peoples of America. There, the process of forming new peoples now continues; this process is based on the mixture of imMigrants of various nationalities. This formation process is usually characterized by the predominance of a single people, as for instance, the English in North America, and the Spanish and the Fortugese in South and Central America; by the mixture of immigrants with natives (mostly in South America); and by common political and economic interests, This process, entirely peculiar to the newer countries, takes place under specific conditions. The formation process of so-called-old nations, as for example, the peoples of Europe, Asia.. and Africa, was somewhat different. Because of the fact that old nations represent the overwhelming majority of the world's peoples, we consider this process as a typical one. The following is a simplified representation of the process. kany thousands of years ago the world's population, owing to its numerical growth, had to migrate and settle down in new geographical areas, under new natural-geographical conditions, These new conditions caused considerable, sometimes hardly noticeable, changes in the physical features and character traits of the people, but at the same time these features and traits became common and peculiar to those people who lived together under similar conditions, and, in the course of thousands of years, became hereditary. Furthemthose groups of. people wno lived most closely together created a common language and common customs, developed affections towards their land and similar people, and required certain common interests. In the case of the conouest of one tribe by another stronger tribe, either complete physical annihilation of the conouered people took,place or their assimilation with the conoueror occurred, and, as a. result, new Alysica SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/111.11.113-0041 5W130001-85X1 C -8- Approved reitRiiliAtM011210dti 001-3 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY and psychic features appeared and new complexes of !Inman features were created. This was the manner in which the various tribes originated. Neighboring tribes, in the presence of certain conditions (especially when one of the tribes attained A proper stage of political and economic development), usually united, and thus created a people, Further historical development continued to strengthen relations among the tribes within a group of people.. It must be noticed that for the unification of separate tribes into a single people the most essential, decisive significance was attached to the fact that all these tribes had many things in common, such as language, customs, and affection for their land. All other factors, as for example, the attainment of a proper level in political and civilized development and a proper level of economic life, had only a secondary significance. Quite a few historical cases show that even though, for eertain reasons, similar tribes could not unite all at once, even though they were forced to live separately under different political and often even different economic and cultural conditions, they remained a definite part of the people to which they actually belonged. The following examples illustrate such cases the Transcarpathian Ukrainians and the rest of the Ukrainian people; the Austrian Germane together with the rest of the German people; the Germans of various German and Austrian countries be- fore the unification of Germany; and the Germans, French, and Italians in Switzerland. Thus, in the initial stage of their development, peoples and nations Are the products of the process of the differentiation of mankind, One may observe from the two foregoing paragraphs that national groups have originated naturally regardless of people and their conscious activity. Some of their common traits, such as language, customs, and habits, appear to result from a people's creative ability. Others, as for example, affection for one's own land and own people and the dislike of anything strange, have to be considered as natural human qualities. Consequently, here we deal, on the one hand, with laws of human society, since people may develoe affection towards similar people only in common life; and, on the other hand, with natural qualities of human character and the human soul Still other features, such as common traits in human character, akpear, first of all, eue to the fact that a constant influence of natural environments work, and trend of life leaves its impression not only on the physical appearance of human beings, but also on their intellectual structure; and, second, due to the biological capacity of humans to transfer these traits hereditarily. Here we see the effect of biologica/epsychic laws. Finally, specific traits of physical structure and appearance result from the subordination of mankind, as a constituent of living nature, to such biological laws as variability and inheritance. Therefore, it may be concluded that the process of differentiation continues regardless of human will or action. It proceeds exclusively from certain law of human society, specific features of human character, and from biological laws peculiar to the entire living world. The process of human differentiation on the principle of intellectual and racialeanthropological unification is very slow and, therefore, unnoticeable by human beings. Holsever, this process, proceeding constantly and con- tinuously, is as perpetual as mankind itself,, koreoyer, this process stands above the people. Separate nations may perish or in some other way disappear from the historical stage, but the process of differentiation continues to function during all periods of mankind's history. The process 'of .formation of peoples in the countries of so-called new colonization, which still continues, is nothing other than the result of this constantly proceeding psychic and racial-anthropological differentiation of mankind. However, all the attributes which characterize a people are not sufficient. to consider a given people as a nation, as a people in the full sense of this word. In the course of historical development, the concept of a people acouired a certain definite meaning. Only that people is considered as a mature people, for example, which has struggled for, its national aims in the past, which has a certain political and historical background, and which at present has certain political ideal's and conducts a struggle .for their realization. Otherwise, a people is not considered as a nation, but only as a certain ethnographic group, Thuss as we see, in order for a certain human association to become a nation, it must have 0130001-3 ApproaM9rAM?,1111111.11Mir 25X1C 25X1A 25X1A A p p rovgslarseiftittrata 0130001-3 25X1A CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 25X1A historical, politicalaand cultural traditions, national consciousness, national idealv,and must have struggled for their realization. We nationalists consider them as most essential for the existence of our people. As has already been explained, the nation is a result of the natural process oltepiritual. and physical differentiation of mankind, the process which proceeds independently of the .people; and, on the other hand, it is a product of historical development in which human beings take a conscious part. It is very important to understand correctly the relation between these two forms or,stages of a people's existence. As the people cannot exist as a nation without historical traditions, national consciousness, and the struggle for national ideals; eo no national consciousness or ideals may be originated without an ethnographic mass, for example, the people in the initial stage. of its development. First, the people must he formed as an ethnographic association, and the origin, of this association does not depend on humans, being a result of the natural process of human differentiation. The combinationof all relations which bind members of the name people into a single organic association is defined, in our concept of a nation, as a single inner form, which is created on the basis of similar natural location, common historical destiny, and incessant striving for existence with all possible efforts; the latter activity being denoted as a constant struggle of thd people for the realization of its ideals, whereas these ideals usually correspond to the possibilities and strength of the people and reflect the peoples desires. III? fissEhsIng.ical and social differences within the nation. it would be erroneous to accept a nation as something absolutely uniform and whole. Considerable differences usually occur within the same people. First of all, there are psychological differences. It is well known that there are no two individuals entirely similar in character. It is . known, for example, how different are phlegmatic and sanguine types of humans. Obviously, the phlegmatic and sanguine types of individuals occur among the members of the same people. There are also certain psychological differences between a farmer and a city dweller, a laborer and an intellectual worker. However, in spite of all these differences, the majority of the members of a given people posses certain common traits in their nature, which comprise a comPon national. character. Regardless of existing differences in their temperaments and nature, the members of a given people, for the most part, occupy a similar position towards problems of national significance and attempt to solve these problems in the spirit of common national interests. Further, in every nation social differences arise owing to the existence of separate social classes and groups which actually have separate aims and interests. This differentiation takes place especially among these peoples which have such classes as landlords, large-scale industrialists, bankers, and merchants. Peasants, workmen, and intellectual workers may have their own interests too.. However, in comparison with the national interests of the whole people, these separate class interests have only secondary significance. The strongest feeling, which has always united and now unites individuals among themselves, is the national feeling. The same ideals for.shich a great many people in the whole world are ready to fight and die are the national ieeals: the freedom and in- dependence of peoples, their happiness, their might, their glory: In case of a menace to the independence of a people, all social classes and groups rise jointly for its defense. Isychological and social differences, thus, are considerably weaker than the ties and relations which unite people into a nation, and that is again why a nation is the highest type of human association. IV. Who is embraced by the concut of_anation? The concept of a nation includes not only people' presently living, but also past and future generations. A nation must be considered on the basis of its history. The members of a nation are even those people who, for certain reasons, have to live abroad far away from their native country and their own people. This is the way a nation was considered by Shevchenko, who addressed the Ukrainian people in his immortal ApOga9019010!4111111111111111111111111111111840014J9R1 -3 Approved ForiRel*emitflp,g/qt/C0001-3 CeETRAL INTULICENCE AGENCY Message as follows: "To my countrymen in the Ukraine and outside of the Ukraine, dead and living and not born yet, my message is intended," V. when main,at.ipfople be annihilated? it is not difficult to answer this ouestinn after everything that has been said about a people In the political sense of this word, a people ceases its existence when a) it has no national ideals and does not struggle actively for them and b) its national consciousness has disappeared, in thie case, a people is representative only of a weak-willed, passive ethnoloRical mass, However, even under these circumstances it is possible that, given certain favorable conditions, a people will revive l it will recover its national consciousness, will establish certain national ideals, and will begin an active struggle for their realization. In other words, there are always possibilities for a people to be re-established in active political life, On th whole, a people ceases its existence when its members are completely exterminated physically or entirely assimilated under the influence of another people. Therefore, all occupants strive not only for the elimination of the national inhabitants in a political sense, but also attempt to completely annihilate them, as,for example, by complete physical extermination or complete assimilation, This is exactly what the Bolshevik plunderers from Moscow are trying to achieve. Thus, our liberation struggle against the Bolsheviks is not only a struggle for the existence of the Ukrainian people in the political sense, but also a struggle for our very physical existence. Our doctrine of a nation has been formed, first of all, in a struggle against imperialistic, antinationalistic views on a nation declared by. ruling groat naticns, and, on the other hand, in a struggle against a false, antiscientific Marxist approach to this subject. Both viewpoints are directed against the interests of the people, especially against the interests of an enslaved people. Both viewpoints on a nation are also antiscientific and conflict with historical reality, The main pureose of major world powers is to maintain their dominance over ether weaker nations, while in the case of the Marxists it is to decrease the significance of national problems, thus facilitating the realization of their Utonian vision of a world state without national subdivisions, In the hones of the Russian Bolsheviks, the Marxist theories of nations and socialistic revolution became solely a cover for their imperialistic predatory policy, According to the views of the representatives of major world states, the national principle, division into nations, and the existence of various nations have no significance in the establishment of national loundaries. Before the first imperialistic war, such views prevailed among "scientists" of Germany, Austro-Hungarv, and other great powers. They considered as nations only those peolles who had their own states. Stateless peoples under the rule of areat powers were not nations at all, according to their ieterpretation, but merely ethnic groups. Peoples who lost their state- hood long ago were defined as "nonhistorical" peoples and they were con- sidered as incapable of organizing an independent state, They classify us, the Ukrainians, among these peoples contrary to our whole history. In the eyes of the Russian-Tsarist imperialists, we Ukrainiane never haTe been a separate people, but only a "Southern-Russian tribe" of a single Great Russian people, a tribe which has no right to state independence, The Auateo-Hungarian imperialists tried to substantiate a necessity for the existence of the multinatinal Austro-Hungarian empire by the economic interests of the peoples of Central. Europe, In their opinion, the disintegration of Austro-Hungary would mean a catastrophe for all. of Europe, All the falseness of these theories is clear today. In such countries as France, England. and the USA, national problems were almost of no interest, These countries, especially France and England, except for their colonies, have been in existence for many centuries as national states and there was simply no necessity for these countries to deal with national eroblems. Besides, these countries,subjugating under their rule numerous colonial peoples, obviously were against sincere recognition of the right of nations to independence, against recognition 25X1C SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 -11- MIA Approved; igdfdif2002/)130001-3 CENTRaL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY - of the national principle as a basis for international order, and they also were and aie now in favor or verious imierialistic concepts beneficial to rreat powers, The other enemy of the national principle is karxiam, "Proletarian-6 have no country of their own"; "nationality, patriotism, and national interests are prejudices and superstitions," assert Marx and all his adherents. Thus, Marxiem denies the right of nations to existence and proclaims a struggle agoinst national sentiments and patriotism. according to Marx, the history of mankind does not reflect any struggle of peoples, but solely the struggle of classes. The working masses must get rid of their "national superstitions", and, by all means, devote themselves to the interests of a struggle against the wealthy- exploiting classes, for social liberation. The aim of this struggle is the creation of the universal internationel state, in which division into separate peoples will be eliminated, and a single human community with a single language will be established, "Nations," according to Marxism, "are a ?historically transitional 3 phenomenon,. They even originated during a transitional period, when feudalism gave way to capitalism, Conseouentlya just as nations did not exist in the past, they will not exist forever and will disappear in the future," Mankind itself in its development advances in this direction, according to Marx, and this factor is corroborated by a steady increase in the elimination of differences among separate peoples and a growth of closer relations among them, The Marxist-Bolshevist concept of a nation is entirely false and nuite contradictory to historical reality, We know about the existence of peoples since the very beginn5ns of the written history of mankind. The ancient Egyftians, the fersians, the Greeks, and the Romans obviously were separate peoples. Nobody can deny this fact. True, they were not similar to contemporary peoples, being in a Very low stage of historical development, but nevertheless, they participated in historical events as separate intellectual and racial associations, and therefore must be considered as separate peoples. Se observe the peoples 'also during the period of feunalism, The "theory" that nations originated during the disintearation of feudalism and tee beginning of capitalism is entirely groundless. In our discourse on the concept of a nation, we have already described the process of the formation of peoples and outlined conditions for this process. Lconomics, or any social-econoeic formation, have no decisive significance in this process. What really happened during this transitional. period Was that the process of inner cementation took place among the asiropean peoples, which were strongly and permanently settled in their territories, close to the state in which they are at the present time. World history is, first of all, the history of a etrunoie of the peoples with each other. (We nationalists do not support such a situation and consider it as a negative circumstance; but, unfortunately, this situation has always existed, and we have to recognize it for the sake of objective truth.) Peoples, not social classes, appear as the actors on the stage of world history. Class problems always have played and play now a secondary role in respect to national problems. The contemporary proletariat reveals national feelings in the same way as do all other social classes. Class contradictions always have been settled within separate groups of people. If the elimination of differences among peorles takes place, as indiceted by Marx, it must be emphasized that during the last centuries the national consciousness of all peoples in the world has risen to a lseel where it has never been. before. At present, there is no nation in the whole world which would voluntarily renounce the freedom of national development, which would not endeavor to secure the best conditions for a national existence, and which would willingly accept a national yoke. The idea of the European Union or word superstate, which has been widely accepted lately, does not lead us to a fusion of nations at all, It solely signifies that certain nations, those of Western Europe particularly, are attempting with the aid of such political conceet to preserve the best conditions for their national existence. In short, the whole past histosy as well as 'the events of our days entirely deny the Marxist-Bolshevist theory of a. nation and, at the same time, coMeletely substantiate our nationalistic theory. The most evident denial of Marxist Bolshevist views on the nation may be seen in the results of all previoss Bolshevist policy in the U66h. The Bolsheviks 25X1C Ap p roiteiBLEOffettiefas0 '0130001-3 25X1A 25X1A 25X1C 25X1A SECRET/CONTROL 111M11111111111 25X1A Approved For Release 2002/ . - CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 1111111= did not achieve any essential success in creating a nationless society, On the contrary, in the attempt to secure the sympathies of the largest group in the USSR, the Russian people, they adopted the principles of Russian imperialism. Class slogans and socialistic ideas happened to be unsucceesful, and the Bolsheviks were forced to promote their policy under Russian national slogans, A certain success achieved by the Bolsheviks, seemingly on the basis of creating a new "Soviet individual", actually is nothing else but a success- ful Russification of the peoples subjugated by Moscow. Although the Marxist theory is Utopian and unacceptable fpr the national idea, a considerable number of Ukrainian intellectual people fell under its influenee at the end of the nineteenth century and during the first decades of the twentieth century. This influence prevailed with insignificant changes until the be- ginning of the thirties of our century, and still exists among the Ukrainian Bolsheviks and among people raised under Soviet conditions. This was chiefly owing to the fact that the Marxists promoted their antiscientific international concepts of nationalism together with the ideas of social-economic reconstruction of the hitherto existing capitalistic system, simultaneously with the ideas of the new socialistic eocial-economic order. Being enchanted by the social economic ideas of socialism, the Ukrainian intellectual people accepted also all the false antinationalistie viewpoints of Marxism in respect to the problem of the nation and national state. Contributing to this situation were such factors as the weakness of the Ukrainian liberation movement during that period and the absence of Ukrainian nationalism among a considerable number of the Ukrainian intellectual people. All this was possibly- owing to the stateless existence of the Ukrainian people for a long period. In addition, this group of the Ukrainian intelligentsia failed inthe beginning to recognise that all international slogans in the mouths of the Russian Bolsheviks are merely phrases designated to cover their imperialistic plans, Obviously, in order to attract this segment of the Ukrainian popu- lation to the struggle for the independent Ukraine, it has been necessary first of all, to indoctrinate them in the proper concept of a nation. However important, this was not the only problem which had to be solved_ In general it was also imperative to give a strong theoretical basis to the Ukrainian Nationalist Movement, Only a proper objective concept of the nation and the national state could he considered as a basis for Ukrainian revolutionary nationalism, The Ukrainian Nationalist Movement properly understood the historical reouirements, and, standing on a correct objective podtion in re- spect to the problem of the nation and the national state, created a strong and sound theoretical basis for its ideological and political development. Our Conce t of the National State Our concept of the nation and national state has been formed in a struggle on two frontsg against various imperialistic views declared by representatives of great powers and against a Marxist approach to the problem of the state. The views of the representatives of great leading nations were based on open. denial of trio right of small ?ples to maintain their own indeendent states, Marxists have a different approach, trying to substantiate scientifically their antagonistic relation to a state. According to their views, a state always has been only a means of oppression in the hanas of wealthy social classes. They have tome to the conclusion that states must be destroyed; only then will mankind enjoy real happiness and freedom, This concept of a state is entirely wrong. Their notion that, in the future, peoples will be able to exist without states is Utopian, fantastic, and has no realistic basis. The entire Marxiet theory of a state is an attempt to consider history solely as a struggle of classes, an attempt to deny any significance of a state for the people and for mankind in general, The state originated as a natural form of organization of clans in the beginning, tribes later, and peoples still later. A clan or a tribal organization is a prototype of the initial form of the state But during the period of clans and sometimes of tribes, there was no division of population into classes of exploiters and exploited. This is not denied even by the Marxists. There- fore, it may be concluded that the state did not originate as a tool for the oppression of the economically weak classes by those of great wealth, hut it is a result of a natural need to regulate life inside the community and to defend this community against outside enemies. SECRET/CONTROL 11111,11111111111111,30001-3 . - Approved For Release 20 3bh3lenT/CON TEC lt U:; Approved For Release 2002/0 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 130001-3 Hence, it was considerably later that the subdivision of the population into classes took place, and only from the time when a class society ie formed may we consider the state as a means of class oppression- Ruling classes use the state organization not only for oppressing the working- class masses, but to a still reater extent they utilize it for conouering strange territories and for subjugation of other peoples. As a result or the predatory policy of the imperialists, multinational states were created. A multinational state together with simultaneously existing class subdiVision of population, serves as a double means of oppression,. First, it is used for social oppression of the working masses of its own people, and, second, the multinational state is an instrument for national oppression and exploitation of subjugated peoples, Obviously, such states should not exist; they must be reconstructed first of all,. Single-nation states must also be reconstructed if they serve in the hands of the ruling classes, for oepressine and exploiting the workine masses. In order to live and progress, mankind must be organized and must develop a certain type of organization. There is no: doubt of this. Only a system of free national states may be considered as a proper answer to this problem. Any other system, being in contradiction to the natural desires of mankind, would be impractical. A system of free national states of all peoples is not only the most fair solution of the problem of international relations, but also the most worldly, most,realietic answer to this problem. The establishment of free. national states will eliminate, first of all, multinational states; hence, it will stop national oppressionl Further, for taking the state out of the hands of ruling exploiting classes, the present social order must be reconstructed on the principles of a class- less society. Then the nation will cease to be an instrument of oppression and become again what it was at the beginning of its existence, that is, a form of organization for the economic and cultural life of the people and for defense against outside enemies e This latter function might be Completely eliminated, if an order could be established in the world abolishing the menace of attack of one country by another and at the same time establish- ing an international organization built on the principles of justice to repel such an attack if it should occur As an organization of the intetnal economic and cultural life of the people, the nation cannot vanish and cannot be replaced by any other form of organization. The compulsory apparatus within the state might be brought to a minimum, being used only for securing an internal order. The national bud et would not require any considerable sacrifice from the population, and all material and mental resources of the people could be utilized for its economic and cultural progress... However, all this ispossible only in case the nation has cemplete assurance of its safety in 'respect to attacks from without. Unfortunately, at the present time we are far away from such conditions, he nationalists assume that the independent national state is the only fort of political organization which provides a people with the best conditions for the development of all its inteilectual and material resources. Without its own national state, namely, a state created on the ethnographical territory .of a given peoole, this people cannot progress universally. Moreover, without its own-national state, a people is destined to perish. A stateless people is always forced to suffer hardships and exploitation from its enslavers, who, disregarding the slogans they use for self-coverage, always attempt the political,- cultural, and Sometises even physical elimination of subjugated peoples, This is an exact situation which may be illustrated by the whole Ukrainian history and also by the history of other enslaved peoples. We Ukrainians were, oppressed by Poland from the 14th to the 18th centuries, and by Tsarist Russia from the 18th to the 20t4 centuries, After 1920 we suffered at the hands of the Moscow Bolsheviks, the Poles, Rumanians, Czechs, Hungarians, and Germans, and now again, the Moscow Bolsheviks strive for our annihilation, We nationalists, taking into consideration all the previous historical ex- perience of the Ukrainian and other enslaved peoples, assume the independent national state to be the most eseential condition for the existence and proper development of our people. We definitely reject and oppose the form of a state such as the Bolshevist USSR, which is merely a cover for Moscow- Bolshevist imperialism. lee also reject all forms of the multinational state based on national oppression. 25X1C AppiICR1J?100130001-3 383M 25X1A :eECRET/CONTheL Us 25X1A Approved For RelstmR28,0i012,14.3;01-EDAPG9-a0415R008400130 The idea of an independent national state also has its source in the deepest desires and national feelings of each people. Peoples desire to be masters of their own land and wish to be free, Such are the demands of their feelings of national honor, national pride, and patriotism. Peoples hate Slavery and always strive for freedom.. Real and full freedom may be obtained only through independent national states, which not only satisfy the interests and desires of separate peoples, but also, in the best way, serve the interests of all peoples together and all mankind. We nationalists assume that the highest destination of all peoples of the world, taken together or separately, must be the widest possible development of the intellectual and material culture. The progress of mankind is really a sum of achievements of separate peoples. Contemporary culture would be higher and richer if all peoples, including those who have been or are now oppressed and subjugated, participated in the development of culture. This participation in the cultural process may give good results only when all peoples enjoy conditions for the maximum development of their ambitions end talents within their own countries, that is to say, when they live in their own independent national states. Thus, the system of free national states serves the interests of all mankind in respect to its cultural progress. As we see, peoples and nations, being the products of the natural differentiation process as well as the products of historical developments are those precious values that mankind must protect by all means. The progress of mankind can be achLved neither through artificial forcible unification of peoples nor through the policy of recasting and fusing separate peoples into one whole, but solely by giving the peoples full freedom for their creative activity and development. Such conditions are possible only within the system of independent national states. Those who oppress and annihilate other peoples destroy the basis for the progress of mankind in general, and are not only the enemies of enslaved peoples but they are the enemies of all mankind. The USSR of today is just such a furious enemy of separate enslaved peoples and of all mankind. We nationalists struggle for the system of free national states for all peoples of the world. The immediate task of our struggle is the realization of the everlasting dream of the Ukrainian people establishment of the Ukrainian independent state on the Ukrainian ethnographic lands. * The greatest obstacle to the liberation of the Ukrainian and other enslaved peoples and to the establishment of the system of free national states is imperialism. Strong countries always try to extend their influence, develop their significance in the world, and reveal,their power by means of predatory imperialistic wars, occupation of foreign territories, and subjugation of other peoples. Imperialism and imperialistic wars are the greatest shame and evil of contemporary mankind. Obviously, imperialism causes small and weak peoples to suffer to a very great extent. Imperialism is not only a political and cultural menace for small peoples, but it also endangers their very physical existence. The tragic. fate of the Ukrainian people, in the course of its entire history, is a direct result of the imperialistic policy of stronger neighboring peoples Therefore, small and weak peoples must strive for elimination of materialism from international life and for establishing such conditions which would not permit strong nations to conduct imperialistic tars and predatory policies. Imperialiatie and predatory wars are a great misfortune even for imperialistic peoples themselves, since they always claim enormous sacrifices in human life and materials from the population. Sometimes a single war destroys the achievements of entire generations and whole centuries. Contemporary wars are very bloody because of great technical progress and because of a high national conscientiousness of all, including, small and weak peoples. For several decades attempts have been made by advanced intellectual people in every nation toward eliminating imperialistic wars and creating prevontk_ guarantees against them. But, because of the camouflaged opposition oi imperialistic countries to the realization of such ideas, theee attempts have so far produced no results and now, as always before, imperialism rules Un' 25X1C SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/45:SIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1C ei.,;.CHIST/Ckilnlisee Approved For Release 2002/ CENTRAL INTSLLIGENCE AGSACY HO; In the name of international justice, in the name of human progress, for the well-being of the Ukrainian and other peoples, we nationalists strive for the complete destruction of imperialism. First of all, we try to eliminate the most negative and malicious manifestations of imperialions-spredatory wars and enslavement of small and weak peoples by large and strong nations. Human beings differ from the rest of the organic world by their knowledge and by their reasoning ability. Knowledge and reason have made it possible for mankind to reach a high level of intellectual and material culture, Knowledge and reason have helped human beings create highly developed forms of social. life and forced them to make laws against thieves, banditsand. other anti- social elements. Because of their criminal nature bandits are not permitted to act freely. Reason and human consciousness must also lead to creating the proper cultural forms of international life and relations, This can and must be achieved, especially at the present, when relations among peoples are closer than ever before,. Lately, more and more people are coming to the conclusion that imperialistic predatory wars must be disposed of as criminal and antisocial, as nothing but international banditism. We nationalists endeavor to eliminate completely this international banditism and consider as necessary initial measures for this purpose: a) the destruc- tion of the USSR as the most terrible jail of peoples, and the formation of independent national states by all peoples of the world; b) the creation of an international organization which would protect the system of free national states and which would have the ability and power to stop immediately any aggressive attempt of one nation against any other people, Such an inter- national order would satisfy fully the interestiof the Ukrainian people as well as the. interests of all other peoples in the whole world, and also would serve the interests of international justice. Mankind, in the course of its further progress, will arrive at this point sooner or later, However, we are in full understanding that the moment for establishing sucn an order in the world is still far away, We nationalists see ahead of us a long and persistent struggle for this order against imperialists of various kinds, and, first of all, an unyielding struggle against the Loscow-Bolshevist imperialism, 4e, with our just and advanced ideas, will triumph in this struggle, Today, as well as twenty years ago, our concept of the nation and the national State is our most essential ideological-theoretical weapon, At present, as in the past, the representatives of the leading great nations develop various theories which are directed against the idea of free national states. Among such theories, not devoid in many cases of imperialistic meaning, may be considered, for example, the ieea of a European Union, as it is propagated by West European countries, and the theory of a world superstate supported by the USA. Proceeding from the argument that economic cooperation among all peoples has become an urgent necessity in this day and ane, the represen- tatives of leading nstione suggest theories for political organization of the world which are first and foremost advantageous to themselves, theories which permit them to preserve, at least to a certain degree, their previous dominating political and eseeomic positions. Though, recognizing a necessity for close cooperation among peoples, we Ukrainian nationalists are opposed to such .conmeAtou of a world order which would ceuse enslaved peoples and countries to be further dependeot politically and.900nOmioaper., We Ukrainian nationalists 'consider that objectively there are no obstacles for establish- ing closest cooperation among peoples within the limits of the system or free national states. This system, realizing a desire of peoples for their national independence, would be the most stable system which, with the aid of a strong and just international organization, will be able to eliminate any international conflict, Some of the Ukrainian intellectuals, mainly those among the Ukrainian Bolsheviks, are still under the influence of antiscientific Marxist-Bolshevist theories on the nation and national states, Besides corrupt elements, therd are also honest individuals among the Ukrainian Bolsheviks. They still re- main in the ranks of the Bolshevik Party only because, some time ago, they succumbed to the Bolshevist propaganda and accepted their false theories. Obviously, it is our task to open the eyes of these people to the false antiscientific character of Bolshevist theories in general, and particularly to their ideas on the national state, Our first step in this direction will be to snatch these people away from the Bolshevist class. ApprovecffigURTAagritiO30001-3 -16- SECS.e,T/CONTISSL US Approved For Release 2002/ CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE aGENCY 001-3 Thus, we, the Ukrainian nationalists must carry out an ideological struggle on two fronts: against antinational theories often promoted by the repreeentatjees of leading great countries, and against false Marxist- Bolshevist theories, Armed with the right and sound ideology, we will con- tinue this struggle coureeeously. Our Slogan: "Prosperitytfor the Ukrainian Nation is the Supreme Law." Our slogan "Prosperity for the Ukrainian nation is the supremo law" has a double meaning: ideological-political and ideolosicalemoral. The ideological- political meaning of this slogan is seen by the fact that we, the nationalists, consider the. Ukrainian people and their prosperity as the most essential of our national. values. The prosperity of the Ukrainian people is the highest aim of our hopes, our struggle, and our life. To the srosperity of the Ukrainian people we subordinate the interests of every Ukrainian individual and also the interests of social groups and classes, since the wealth and happiness of individuals and groups hinge entirely upon the conditions in which the Ukrainian people live. The people and their prosperity are even more important than a state per se. The state by itself has no value for us; it is but a means for the betterment of the people. We struggle for an independent Ukrainian State, inasmuch as only an independent national state can provide the conditions required by the people for their universal development. If another form of political organization would take better care of the interests of our people, then,naturally, we would struggle for that other form of national organization. However, as long as there is no other form, andundoubtedly there never will be, we struggle for an inde- pendent Ukrainian State. Practically, we define the "prosperity of the people" as follows: a) physical health of population; b) high, heroic morals of the Ukrainians; c) high level of the Ukrainian culture, and a high cultural level of the Ukrainian masses; d) the revelation of and development of the people's creative talents; e) high economic and cultural level of the country, together with high living standard of the popular masses; f) constant maximum readiness for defending the national independence. Under our present ccnditions of enslavement we consider the struggle for cur national liberation as our im- mediate mission; to it we subordinate everything else, The ideological-moral meaning of the slogan demands that we the nationalists, always work only for the prosperity of the Ukrainian people, that we do nothing which could detract from their wellebeing, Every nationalist must adjust his everyday life to conform with this principle. Every nationalist must always determine for himself at the beginning of his work whether or not his action will serve to benefit his people. No difficulties can stop a real nationalist in work which is directed to the tnterests of the Ukrainian people and our struggle for national liberation. He must proceed with his task even under the threat of death.. Our slogan "Prosperity for the Ukrainian nation is the supreme law" does not threaten any other nation since we attempt neither to conouer foreign territories nor to enslave other peoples. ae, the Ukrainian nationalists, catesorically reject imperialism? We aleo struggle against chauvinism. While loving our own people and striving, first of all, after their prosperity, power, and glory, we, at the same time, praise and respect all other peoples of the world.. We believe that the peoples of each nation must love and serve, first of all, their own people. In doing this, cerery individual not only fulfills his duties toward his own people, but also contributes, in the best manner, to the principle of mans progress. Thus, our slogan contains no trace of chauvinism or imperialism., THE IDEA OF THE UKRAINIAN INDLIENDIZT UNITED STATEts: THE HIGHEST AND FUNDAMENTAL IDEA OF UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM. WHAT IS ITS MEANING? The First Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists stated in its ideological decisions: "The primary task of the Ukrainians under their present conditions of political enslavement is the creation of such a political-lawful organiza- tion as the Ukrainian Independent Unified State," Realization of this idea is the most essential and fundamental aim of the OUN and the entire Ukrainian Nationalistic Movement,, All other ideas have only secondary significance, 25X1 C SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/074 : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A 25X1A 25X1C Approved For Release 2002/01/ ca,TfiAL Tull G.:14 Oh; AGbZiC Y 01-3 Vie, the Ukrainian nationalists, are struggling for the creation of a Ukrainian Independent Unified State because we understand that only in such a state can the Ukrainian people develop their intellectual and material resources to the fullest extent and live as really free, prosperoue, and happy people, Under foreign rule the Ukrainian people always will suffer from oppression, humiliation, and economic exploitation, and will be annihilated in jails, concentration camps, and in exile, The idea of the Ukrainian State means that we nationalists struggle for an order in which the Ukrainian people would be sole master in Ukrainian territory and our future independent state would serve only the interests of the Ukrainian neople, Our future independent state will be Ukrainian not only in form but also in content, in domestic as well as foreign policy.: We struggle. against all forms of dependence of the Ukraine upon any other country, At the present time we struggle for seperation and complete independence of the Ukraine from Bolshevist Russia, ae know that stronger states always try to exploit other countries, Se do not wish to be downtrodden by anybody and, therefere, struggle for the freedom and total independence of the Ukrainian State, se do not oppose cooperation with other nations, but are against forced relations, such as, for example, our union with escow forced on us by the Bolsheviks who have occupied our country with their treens, we wish to cooperate with other peoples, to enter into alliances with them, and to establish mutual understanding; but only on the basis of the entirely voluntary decision of the free Ukrainian people, on the basis of equality of peonies, and in conformity with the interests of the Ukrainian people, Cooperation on such a basis is possible only when the people have their own entirely independent national state, Our idea of a united state would include all ethnographical Ukrainian lands, that is to sayo those territories which are new or have recently been inhabited entirely or for the most part, by Ukrainians, Each Ukrainian has a right to live in his national state, No part of the Ukrainian territory must remain outside of the Ukrainian State, 4e will always endeavor to unite all Ukrainian people and territories within the boundaries of the national Ukrainian State, Wily OUR LOVEUFAT IS L5aVOLUTIONAEY The word "revolutionary" is generally used to define a movement which struggles for A basic change of the existing political and social order, and the establishment in its place of a new order based on entirely different principles, Such a movement, using the most effective methods which usually contradict existing laws, has often to be conducted through an underground 'orcible armed struggle, Our nationalistic movement is a truly revolutionesy movement in regard to its purposes as well as its methods, Why is our nationalistic mcvemeat a revolutionary aovement in regard to its purposes? I. We nationalists struggle for building the Ukrainian Independent United State on Ukrainian ethnogranhic territories. This means a radical change in the political arrangement which has hitherto existed in Eastern Europe, .For many centuries the ruling poser in the East has been represented by Poland or gussia. Today this role is played by Bolshevist oscow, in the case of the formation of the Ukrainian Independent States the oscow imperialists will be thrown back from the Carpathian kountains and northern shores of the Black Sea far tosthe northeast, beyond the line of the present southwest boundaries of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic), The Polish imperialists will be re- pulsed to the wests on the line of the Wieprz and San Rivers, In Eastern Europe, on the site of former 'Russian and Polish im- perialism, instead of the present imperialistic USSR, a new political entity will arise--a Ukrainian State, With respect to the political system which has existed in Eastern Europe for so many centuries, this event will be really a deep radical revolution, 2 ;Ale nationalists struggle for creating in the future Ukrainian State a social-economic order which will be entirely different from SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 11,111/1"1? 0130001-3 ?MI A 25X1C & '0130001-3 CENThal, IliTsjeLiCeNCe, AGe.NCY 25X1A 25X1A anything existing in other countries. In the great majority of esintemporary states the capitalist system is definitely established, This system is based on the principle of freedoaiof economic aa- .tivity and on .the principle of private ownership of land, factories and plants, in trade and other enterprises. The organization of economic life along these lines brought into being,on the one hand, a Wealthy clasp of large landlords, industrialists, bankers, and Merchants; and, on the other hand, a large small-landed and landless peasantry and worker class (proletariat). There is a constant struggle between these two groups, and this internal strugrle considerably weakens the whole nation, Contemporary France is an example of such a situation.: We nationalists stand for the greatest possible unification of a people, We also stand for just distribution. of the national wealth among all people, Since the capitalist system unavoidably leads a nation to great in- equality in the wealth of individuals and, as a result, to an internal class struggle, we nationalists are against capitalism. We, are also against the political regime which exists now in the ussa Under this regime the members of the Bolshevik Party actually form a new bourgeoisie. They may have everything they like, where- as the workers and members of collective farms live in grasping need, 4e nationalists struggle for establishing such a social order in Which there will be neither landlords, nor bourgeoisie, nor such parasites as contemporary Bolshevist magnates who enjoy their life while millions of people perish from starvation and tremble in fear of the MU and MGI. 6e struggle for the greatest possible equality between peasants, workers, and the intelligentsia; for a claeslese society, that ia for a society which will know neither wealthy nor poor members. This may be achieved only when; a) all \, mines, factories, plants, banks-, railroads, and wholesale trade will, be not in private hands but in the possession of all the people, under the control, of the state, and b) real democracy is established in the state, namely, when the people through their representatives will, be able to control the Ukrainian government. Because of the lack of control by the people over the Bolshevist government, the Bolsheviks are able to exploit the peasants and workers. We strive after conditions in the Ukrainian State under which the people would have real control over the distribution of the national wealth and over the material position of all social groups. Thus, our nationalist movement is also a revolutionary movement in respect- to the social-economic objects of our struggle, 3, We nationalists also struggle for a spiritual regeneration of the Ukrainian people, that is for elimination of all those bad qualities which have been developed in our national nature because of a long existence in bondage, under the yoke of other nations" There are &till a great many such negative traits in our national character, A considerable portion of the Ukrainian people consider the whole Soviet Union, not just the Ukraine, as their native country and, therefore, they are ready to fight and die not for the Ukraine firs% of all, but for the Soviet Union. Lost of such people are from the eastern regions. Thousands of the Ukrainians from the eastern reginne died during the last war with the cry, For our country, for Stalin" Many eastern Ukrainians, being under the cultural in- fluence of their oppressors, the hussians, despise the Ukrainian culture and consider it as A culture of low value. These people have no Ukrainian national pride. Often, some of the Ukrainians are indifferent to national affairs, being interested only in their private lives. The Ukrainians, having been enslaved for hundreds of years, sometimes lose entirely their sense of national dignity and are ready to serve their enemies. In short, there are still many slavish features in the nature of the Ukrainians, These negative .features must be rooted completely out of the character of the Ukrainian? if we wish to be a real people like other great nations. Instead of slavish inclinations we have to shape in the Ukrainian people the character of a free peoele with high national Sa;RET/CONTRC.L. Approved For Release 2002/01ft : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1C SECLET/C01\ITROj, t16 Approved Foal;ItilaitSelt0Wilit041CCIAMe133-00415 consciousnesst ready to fight and die only for the Ukrainea freedom-loving character, firm against enemies, active, full of faith in their own strength and in the might of their own people, Regeneration of the character of the Ukrainian people is considered by the Ukrainian nationalists as a most essential problem. Ukrainian nationalists will always strive for this, another revolutionary feature of our movement. Why is our movement a revolutionary movement in regard to its methods of struggle? We believe that our task of Wilding a Ukrainian Independent United State may be realized only by forcibly driving the occupants from our lands, by taking up arms against our enemies. We are constantly and thoroughly preparing ourselves for such an armed struggle with the occupants We understand that to shorten the time of the occupation and to bring nearer the moment of our liberation, we must use every means to harass our enemy, and we must try constantly to destroy the occupants, manpower and material resources; to undermine their might. Thus, we use violence, physical battles with the enemy, as our basic method for strugaling against the occupants, disregarding entirely the part that this method obviously contradicts the laws of the occupying country, We may temporarily restrict our violence or even bring it to a eom- plete halt as the exigencies of the moment may demand, but, basically, we stand on the principle of an armed struggle against the occupants. eince the enemy subjugated us by force and keeps us enslaved by force, we can achieve our liberation only be rorce. In order to inflict the greatest damage on the enemy and avoid, at the same time, his repressive measures, se employ the method of the underground movement; we form an underground organization and act in strictest secrecy, The GUN rejects legal aethods as a basis for waging a liberation struggle. We know that success in our movement is impossible if we keep our activities solely within the limits of the laws established by the occupants, since these laws have been drawn up solely to benefit them, and not the enslaved people. Besides, if we were to attain some success by legal activity, those achieve- ments would be known to our enemies and could be easily eliminated by them, The OUN rejects the viewpoint that the Ukrainian people must use only legal possibilities and try to develop peacefully in the fields of public education, economy, and culture, Several political parties in Galicia supported this viewpoint some time ago. However, nobody ever has obtained freedom without violent struggle and nobody ever will. There is no practical possibility in the USSR for a liberating struggle other than the underground movement. If a strwrgle by legal methods could be imagined formerly in Poland, such a struggle is absolutely out of question today in the USSR, The historical merit of the OUN is thA it has created a powerful underground organization which may successfully withstand Bolshevist imperialists, We nationalists consider the Ukrainian people on Ukrainian territories as a basic force necessary for building the Ukrainian State, and therefore our main hope in a struggle for liberation is the power of the Ukrainian eeoale iteelf. Nobody else will give real freedom to a subjugated people. Other countries will begin a war against the USSR only when this war will serve their own interests. Such a war may take place aossibly only several decades from now, What would happen then to the Ukrainian cause, if we should not have con- ducted our present struggle? During that period the Bolsheviks would completely subjugate and assimilate the Ukrainians, and at the proper moment there simply would be nobody who would care for the dkraine. SWIRT/CONTROL Approved For For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A 25X1A ? 25X1C nLCRET/CONTROL U3 Approved For Release 2002/0 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY i83k1A Emigrants from the Ukraine are not taken seriously abroad, unless they are backed up in their activity by the struggle of their own people at home. This struggle facilitates the efforts of emigrants for the liberation of the Ukraine and may interest other countries which might even agree to help, under proper conditions, a nation actively struggling for its freedom? The active struggle for liberation also contributes considerably to the development of national consciousness and revolutionary spirit in the people. This may be illustrated by the successful results which were at- tained from 1943 to 1945 by our movement in such backward parts of the Ukrainian territory as Polesie and LemkiVshchina (Lemkivtsi?), On the other hand, the lack of an active struggle weakens and even destroys national consciousness, as May be ob- served in villages and districts where our struggle is less active. For the enslaved people, national consciousness is a most essential fetor n it is a basis for the existence of the people, a hope for a better future of the nation, We nationalists organize and conduct a liberation struggle on the Ukrainian territory under any circumstances, disregarding such factors as who the occunants of our country are and whether the conditions for a struggle are easy or difficult. For instance, the conditions for an active liberation struggle in the Bolshevist USSR are most difficult. There are no worse conditions in the whole world. But disregarding these conditions, we stay in the Ukrainian territory with our people in order to struggle actively for our liberation. We nationalists and our organization never leave the Ukrainian people. and territory, no matter what difficulties we en- counter. Since 1939, when the Western Ukraine was occupied by the Bolsheviks, our organization has remained in the Ukraine as a single organized and active independent force.. All other Ukrainian political parties had no ability to continue a struggle under such difficult conditions and were scattered. The leaders and members of these parties conducted no struggle or national activity at all during either the first Bolshevik or the first German occupation. Many of them were arrested by the Bolsheviks and were sent into exile or perished in jails, Before the second Bolshevist occupation, almost all of them escaped abroad, We nationalists do not retreat before the occupants: we fight them instead? We are committed to this fight by our national honor and pridet Each Ukrainian patriot must consider a struggle against the enemies of our national freedom as his duty and must not flee before these enemies. If today, in the sixth year of occupation of our country by the Bolsheviks, the Ukraine J_s far away as yet from complete subjugation by the enemy, if the strong and wide Ukrainian revolutionary movement still exists in the Ukrainian lands?all this is a result Of the decision of our organi- zation to continue an active liberation war on Ukrainian territory under any circumstances,, In outlining the objectives of our struggle,: and in planning the future political orderin the Ukrainian State, we nationalists take into consideration all the latest and advanced achievements of human thought and practice? We do not cormit ourselves to the preservation of everything established before, but, on the contrary, we are ready to discard old forms of life, if they have proved to be imperfect and out of date, in order to make room for the newest, most advanced forms, Such, for example, is our view concerning a capitalistic social-economic order which is already outdated in Europe, In its place, we wish to build a new social-economic order, a classless society However, before accenting any new idea, we thoroughly verify its usefulness for the Ukrainian people. We nationalists decisively reject ideas which contradict the interests of the Ukrainian people and state, their prosperity, and their sound development. 5. Our organization establishee very high moral renuirements for its members., Only selected individuals may become members of the OUN. We nationalists assume that the success of any struggle is decided by the people, and is based primarily upon the ability of these people SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/043:-CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1C SECR/sT/CONTaGi, US Approved For Release 2002/0 CATI'LL INMLLIG.62?16GNCY i83k1A to withstand and overcome any difficulty, by their courage, persistence, fanaticism, and idealism,. Only individuals with such qualities are accepted as members of the OUN, There is no place in our er- ganization for cowards or unstable people who are not ready for a sacrificial struggle for the liberation 0.17,the Ukraine, The OUN demands from its members an absolute obedience to the orders and instructions of all leaders, A strict military diecipline is maintained within the organization, We nationalists understand that discipline is a basic condition for the existence of any sound organization, in urgent prereouisite for the success of any struggle, and therefore we accept the strict discipline in our organization voluntarily ane readily. WHY DO WE DEFEND IN OUR STRUGGLE ON THE FORCES OF THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE ITSELF? There is nothing in the world that might be obtained easily, without work or effort. As we work to obtain all necessities in our everyday life, we have to exert certain efforts to attain the liberation of our people. There is no historical example of any people who has been liberated without a struggle, The Greeks, the Serbians, and the Bulgariansattained their freedom from the Turkish yoke only after an active and heroic struggle. The Irish obtained their independence only an a result of a very long and stubborn struggle against England, a struggle which exacted great sacrifices from the little Irish people, India also staged an obstinate struggle for her liberations Today the Jewish people have restored their own state after two thousand years of stateless existence,. This restoration was possible solely because the Jews have recently adopted a method of active struggle for building their own state. They would never have succeeded in establishing the Jewish State in Palestine if they had continued to be inactive, as they were during many centuries. Obviously, a struggle for liberation proceeds differently for various peoples. Certain peoples struggle longer than others; the conditions of struggle are much easier in some eases than in others. All depends upon the fighting power of the struggling peoples and their enemies,. However, disregarding the form, duration, and intensity of a struggle, we have to recognize one thing as an inevitable factor: the necessity to struggle. Thus, we rely on the power of the Ukrainian people itself, since we realize that freedom will not be achieved by itself, but that our people must struggle for it. This is the law of ljfe: that only through a struggle may subjugated peoples obtain their freedom. Besides, only in a struggle does the nation grow and become stronger; only a struggle produces and increases the proper forces which are so necessary for obtaining freedom. With the proper forces, we consider a nationalistically conscious and politically developed people ready for the greatest sacrifices united by a strong and sound political organization capable of guiding a people's struggle for liberetion, capable of leading the people to victory. Obviously, various cases of struggle for freedom reouire different degrees of national consciousness and. Political development, Sometimes less conscious peoples and those with a weak political organization may attain liberation,, whereas more conscious and better organized peoples fail in their attempts, Here, success depends also on the enemy's forces, to which corresponding forces of the struggling people must be opposed. A defeat results when a peoples forces are insufficient, or when their introduction into a decisive struggle was not properly timed. .A victory by leas conscious peoples means that the forces of these peoples were sufficient for success under the prevailing con- ditions, Conversely, if more conscious peoples fail to succeed in their struggle, it follows that the forces of these peoples were not sufficiently large for the given conditions. From 1918 to 1920, such small countries as Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland obtained independence mainly because of the fact that the people of these countries had national consciousness, were politically developed, and had an organization of political forces higher than ours,. At that time, SECRET/CONTROL Approved For Release 2002/01/04-?CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1C Approved For Release 2002/ 001-3 eneq-eneL itenanniataiNCia aGieNCY we relied very little on our own forces and did not lay much attention to, their development; thie was the chief cause of our defeat,, nli other factors, though eometimee eesennial, had no basic eieenificance. We must etruggie today, when our most cruel enemies, the Ruesian-Holshevik oppressors, try to suffocate, by all means, our national consciousness; attempt to root out any asfiration for independence; and ruthlessly suppress any manifestation of national-rolitical life. Absence of a struggle would mean postponement of the movement of our liberation for many years, since in that ease we would lose the possessions without which no liberation is possible, namely, our naticnal-political consciousness and organized nolitical forces. Thus, we rely- on our own forces because only these forces decide and assure the liberation or an enslaved people, and because. this is derianded by present conditions,. As a result of all previous hard experience, the Ukrainian people Is convinced that liberation will not be given by somebody else, and we have to struggle for its realization. Crientation on foreign outside rorces and/er a hope that freedom mae be brought to us by other countries without our own struggle constitute a very poor basis for clannine our liberation: First, many countries may be entirely indifferent to the cause of our liberation. For example, ngland anu the USA during the 1918 te 1921 period remained wholly indifferent to our liberation attempts, Second, other countries may sacrifice us to their own interests,. It must be always kept in mind that certain peonies are geidec in their behavior solely by their own interests. Sometieee a certain country helps another country not because it sincerely wishes to help, but just with the purpose of reating an obstacle to the growth of its enemy. Unfortunately, such is the present situation in the whole world and its misinterpretation is a very poor policy. We must have a sober view of reality, rejecting any hope of help from other countries:, The attitude of France toward 0117 liberation attempts from 1918 to 1921 may serve as a good exakOe of a nation which sacrifices another people to further its own interests, At that time, France was standing for a strong hussia as her peseinie ally againat Germany. But at the same time, tiying to insure herself' against the possibility of an alliance between hussia- and Germany, France supported, by all means, the idea of creating a strong l'oland as a counterpoise to that alliance, and therefore was in strong opposition to an independent Ukraine, whjch, her 1Jans, would weaken both hussia and Poland. This attitude on the cart of France toward our struggle for freedom greatly contributed to our defeat from 1918 to 1921, and, later, France dearly paid for her blundering in the twenties by losing her independence during the period from 1940 to 1944 and her position as a great power among other countries. nometiees, relying on other countries merely results in changine the kind of enslavement, Thus, for example, in 1941, as a coesequence of Hitler's so-called "liberation", only the oppressors .and forms of oppression were changed in the Ukraine In 1943-1944, as a result of Bolsheviet "liberation" frOM the Hitlerites, the erevioue Russian-Bolshevist oppressor came back, Thus we rely on the forces of the Ukrainian people itself because we are convinced that nobody else will give us our freedom. We know that relying on forcesefron without predestines the cause of our liberation to failure, since other countries may use us to further their own interests and also may enslave us again. But this attitude of ours does not mean at all that we reject any help by any ally; it does not signify that help to enslaved peoples from other nations is never poseible, 6uch help is quite possibleand has a great significance for enslaveo peoples. For example, because of the aid of France, .npland, and the USa in 1918, the ineeche obtained their freedom after centuries or enslavement. Because of the same aid, 'Poland also attainen her independence, ne reject no allies; on the contrary, we look for them, However, in our seareh for allies we do not rely exclusively upon them. We do not expect any favor;- but seek aid which would stem from the mutual interests of both parties. Mile looking for allies, we eimulteneously organize our own struggle, which facilitates our search for allies- and our efforts to obtain necessary ne develop our own forces, since our strength to find real 61T/c"TR(114111111111111111111111111111 Approved For Release . - 8400130001-3 -23- ?MI A 25X1C Approved NO3f4iFt6RALOR/9001-3 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 383M allies, not protectors. Strong peoples always have allies; weak peoples have only protectors. 4e know very well the meaning of a protectorate over the people. The people hardly can expect any outside help without their own struggle for liberation. Without a struggle, the people may even be unknown abroad, The fact that before 1917 our struggle for liberation was very weakconstituted a reason why other nations knew very little about us from 1917 to 1921, when we began a struggle for building our own state. At the same time, the other nations readily accepted fables issued by our enemies denying the existence of the Ukraine and Ukrainian people, and declaring the Ukraine to be an Austrian or German invention. Obviously under such conditions other countries did not consider aiding us; meanwhile, however, they helped the Poles, whose liberation insurrection was widely known. It was our struggle during the 1917-1921 eeriou that disclosed the Ukraine to ,the whole world and led the Ukrainian people onto the international stage, Thus, we rely on the forces of the Ukrainian people itself because this per- mits us to find real allies and Obtain necessary aid. Favorable conditions appear to be a very essential factor in the struggle of enslaved peoples. They may considerably facilitate a struggle and make its successful conclusion possible. In 1917 the Ukrainian people received? because of the revolution in Russia, very favorable conditions for libera- tion but did not utilize them at the proper time, The leaders of that period did not bring the national consciousness and political development of the popular masses to a proper level and did not organize an army; in other words, they did not develop the forces of the people itself, and the Ukrainian State fell before the enemy's superior forces. On the other hand, in 1648 the Ukrainian people under the leadership of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, in spite of extremely unfavorable conditions, defeated powerful Poland and established its own state, the Cossack Republic. This success was achieved by the Ukrainian people solely because its own forces were properly developed at that time. Thus, we rely on our own forces in order to be able to utilize each opportunity for the realization of our Aiberation endeavors, since we know that even the most favorable conditions are not sufficient for success without proper action. In the course cf history, the Ukrainian people has revealed unusual vitality. Even during the darkest period of its history, in the lath and 19t1- centuries, the Ukrainian people not only did not cease to exist as a nation, but greatly increased in numbers and territory. At the present time, the Ukratnian people, in respect to its population, territory, and resources, belongs among the largest and most wealthy peoples of Lurope. In the course of its entire history, the Ukrainian people teas revealed great creative talents and freedom-loving sentiments and still reveals them today, The Ukrainians belong to the family of most cultural peoples. Thus, we rely on the forces of the Ukrainian people itself because we are convinced that our people possess all the prerequisites for obtaining its freedom and for oceueying a proper place among other free and equal peoples. W1TH WBOi4 DO WE WISH TO GOOPEfLATE? We may cooperate only with those who do not deny our right to a free and in- dependent state, who have no predatory intentions, and who do not force us to accept their "protectorate", which actually means another enslavement. We wish to go along with all freedom-loving peoples of the world, because we strive for the closest collaboration based on volition, equality, and mutual respect. We wish to live in friendship with all free peoples and cooperate with them because we assume that free national states and close friendship and cooperation among all peoples are the most just and power- ful bases for a world order which may secure the conditions necessary for the further progress of all mankind. We wish to go along with all enslaved peoples of the USSR: the Belorussians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Loldavians, Georgians, the people of Azerbaidzhan, of the Northern Caucasus and of the Volga River area, and the peoples of the North, Siberia, and Central Asia. All these peoples share our fate; all of us have the same enemy and similar aims. Cm the basis of our similar conditions of life and full understanding of our mutual interests, we are developing today a real friendship for one another, which will become a basis for a common anti-Bolshevik front and a cornerstone of our relations after ApprekddiRorallaktaetei.2602/01/04 : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 ? jLeht3/CONT1UL ??? S 25X1C Approve6gRagi9609 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 001-3 We wish to go along also with the Russian people; however, only on condition that the Rusaian people cease to be an instrument in the hands of the Bolshevist ueUrpers, that the Russian people conduct a struggle against the Bolshevist enslavers, and that the hussians build their state only in their own lands. These are all prerequisites for the closest cooperation, today and in the future, between us and the Russian working people. We wish to go along with all peolles just recently subjugated, such as the peoples of Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, and Yugoslavia. These peoples have already understood the real nature of Bolshevist niiberation", and their most anxious desire now is to shake off the Bolshevist yoke, At have always been in favor of organizing a common struggle of all peoples of the USSR and of nations recently occupied by Bolshevist imperialists.. During the German occupation we tried to organize a unified front of struggle Against the Hitlerite and Bolshevist enslavers, both enemies of all freedom,- loving peoples S We worked hard toward this goal: a wide political campaign was conducted, national detachments of the peoples of the USSR were organised in the UfA, and during the period of 21 to 23 November 1943 we called a Cen- forence of Enslaved Peoples of Eastern Europe and Asia. As a result of this activity, the Anti-Bolshevist Bloc of Peoples (ABN) was organized in 1946. Peoples of the USSR as well as the peoples of recently occupied countries are represented in this organization, We also wish to cooperate with all peoples beyond the boundaries of the USSR and its influence. Today, the peoples of Aestern Europe, Ameriea, Asia, and the Whole world face the same peril which affected all peoples of the USSR thirty years Ago: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1940; and the peoples of Central and Southeastern Europe after the last ware We warn them against this denser and call them to a struggle against the Russian-Bolshevist imperialists, We know that this struggle is inevitable, and any delay will only result in increasing the sacrifices. The only proper action today is the creation.?of a common front of all peoples enslaved and threatened by Russian-Bolshevist imperialism. WHO IS A REAL REVOLUTIONARY-NATIONALIST? The Ukrainian Nationalist levement (RUN) was initiated at the end of the nine- teenth century. The program of the RUN already included many ideas which we may find now in' the program of the OUN. However, the Ukrainian Nationalist kovement received its fundamental substantiation at the First Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists which took place in Vienna in 1929. Then, the Ukrainian Nationalist Lovement was finally converted into an organized movement by the creation of the OUN. Since then, the Ukrainian Nationalist isovement has been developee in the Ukraine in two respects: as an ideological-political movement and as a revolutionary organized force. The period from 1929 to the present time has been characterized by the rapid growth of Ukrainian nationalism. During these years, the ideas of Ukrainian nationalism have received wide recognition and a great many followers have joined the movement. Who is a real revolutionary-nationalist? A real revoletionary-nationalist is an individual who recognizes all the ideas of Ukrainian nationalism, ac- cepts its program, and struggles for the realization of these ideas in the ranks of the OUNe We do not consider as real revolutionary-nationalists such indLviduals who, accepting our idees, do not participate actively in the struggle for their realization. An organization with such members would represent only an ideological movement, not a political fighting force, capable of threatening our enemy and leading the people to victory. ;es do not tolerate separate attempts of individuals to carry out a struggle of their own, Every real nationalist understands perfectly that a disorganized struggle never yields. very good results, and, therefore, he willingly joins 4.,1xrcET/cuNTISOI Approved For Release 2002/.021404 : CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 MIA APPr?"5kWR40""t49(4111111111111111111111111111111) 130001-3 C'TTRAL iN fEILICNCE. AGNCY the (JUN, readily submits himself to organizational discipline, and pladi:y executes all orders of the leaders. The concept of Ukrainian nationalism embraces also those nationalists who only accept the ideas of nationalism, but do not fight for them However, the highest type of nationalist is represented by those who actively struggle for the realization of the ideas of Ukrainian nationalism as members of the OUI'L Each member of the OUN must be proud of himself, because he is the highest type of nationalist, and must try by all means to increase the membership of his organization 25X1C 6ECRET/CONTROL Approved For For Release 2002/01/04: CIA-RDP83-00415R008400130001-3 25X1A 25X1A