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CENTRAL, I,NTE'E IGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT ECT Political Publications 25X1A PLACE ACQUIRED REPORT NO. CD NO. DATE DISTR. 16 NO. OF PAGES, NO. OF ENCLS (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. The I following unclassified documents are being sent to you on loan. Inasmuch as only one copy is available and other offices are on the circulation list, it. is requested that these documents be returned as promptly as possible. Enei Soviet Land Vol. IV No. 2+,.25 December 1951 ar y 1952 vol. V No,,. 2,, 25 Janu Vol. V No. 3,:10 February 1952 Vol. V No. 16) 25 August 1952 Vol. V No. 17, 10 September 1952 o~ gt2~~ - 00A tiot? aR~ akstl . Goa L*,a?~?" ~ ~0~3 M~R1 LASSIFICATIQN C FTI I~T`ftT. e.-: L IJ 25X1X NCIPYRGHT fil Feb. -10, 1952 proved F elease 2002/011 11 15R( Approved For Release 2002/01/17: CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Automatics shop of the Moscow Ordzhonikidze A3achzne building plant. In this picture deputy jorenuo; S. R itin (lejt), Stalin Prize holder. acquaints representatives of the ILulaisi motor works-engineers G. kaba.ladce and t Lunin-wish (1, highly productive automatic machine line far the manufacture of cylinder blocks. 1. New Achievement, of the Na.- taasal Economy of the USSR 2, M.al_ostic Prwn'a.mme of Com- munlst Construction 'Faking (Zeal Shape 2. Production of Soviet Union's ,'O.ricuhure and Food Indus- try on Vicw at the Inter- CONTENT S Page national i xhibiiion in Bombay P. Yhvnynik 4. 1~. `What Makes th.e National lneome in. the USSR 1Rise and what Does it Mean to the People Y. I ronrad S [1. I'a.cts Only A. ~Surov fi ii. hnreigu Guests in the USSR 11. I uthyavise1 7 i. Young Soviet Workers g '. Glimpses From the USSR J. `3=10 i1f1U College Students in Moscow 1u1, '1`r-easure House of the Art of the Eastern Peoples I. 13arashko 14 Now 1)cvelopmentts in the Study of the Species and Spe- Page 12. Ncnv Soviet Colony Film Taros Shevchcnko V. SYtalutnoc;ky 18 12. At the Construction itcs of People's Poland 20 14. 7'he First Montle (Sim, v) F. Ititorre21 15. Results of 19th Chess, ;Icsm- pionship of USSR 41. li'oluv rd cover Supplement : On th'. results of the fidli meat of the state plan kw the development of the National Economy of the USSR in 1951. Report of the Ccn ; cal St lti ;tical Board of the Council of Ministers of the IJ.S.S.R. Cover : Students in the laboratory of ceotr I block- ing; system at the `Italin Railway Ess inecring Iustihito in 1\-Tosc...Al. PRICE As. 2 Edited, printed and published by 1'. Matvecv for 'PASS in India, Travancore House, Cwzon Road. New Delhi, at the Roxy Printing Press, New Delhi. Only cover printed at the Punjabi Press. s~dat Jiazar Delhi. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 SOVIET LAND V..)1. V No. An Illustrated Fortnightly Journal Published by TASS in India February 10, 1952. New Achievements of the Nationa Economy of the USSR THE Soviet people, inspired and directed by the Party of Lenin and Stalin, are successfully im- plementing the magnificent Stalin programme for building the material and technical foundation of Communism. Nature is being transformed in vast territories of the Land of Soviets ; the world's biggest hydro-electric stations and irrigation systems are being built. The economic might of.the Sccialist power is rising year after year ; the culture of the peoples of the USSR is being advanced and the living standard of the working people is improving. The past year has witnessed new, outstanding. vic- tories on every sector of Communist construction. Vivid and convincing evidence of this is contained in the report of the Central Statistical Board of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the fulfilment of the state plan and development of the national economy of the USSR in 1f51. The uninterrupted and rapid development of eco- nomy and culture in the Soviet country is a result of the wise direction of all Communist construction by the Party of Lenin and Stalin, a result of the enthusiastic labour of the Soviet people. The gross production plan fixed by the government for 1951 has been fulfilled by all industry of the USSR to the extent of 103.5 per cent. As compared with 1.950, gross output of Soviet industry has grown in 1951 by 16 per cent. The provisions of the 1951 state plan have been surpassed in a number of most important industries, as, for example, in the production of iron and steel, coal, oil, electric power, electric motors, metal cutting lathes, tractors and harvester combines, automobiles, steam locomotives and diesel engines, ex- cavators, etc. Thanks to the unrelaxing attention devoted by the Communist Party, the Soviet Government and the great Stalin to the technical progress, major successes have been achieved last year oving in imprthe tchnical equipment of all branches of national economy, in rais- ing the level of mechanization in all the arduous and laborious processes. The Soviet machine-building in- dustry has produced about 500 very important types and models of machines and equipment. The use of new highly efficient technological processes has been steadily promoted in all the branches of national eco- nomy and automatization of production has been ad- vanced. About 700,000 inventions and rationalizing proposals have been adopted in production last year. Labour productivity in all branches of national economy has been growing steadily as a result of im- provements in technical equipment, in the skill of the workers and in the organization of production. A 10 per cent increase in labour productivity was registered in industry last year as compared with 1950. An index of the quality of work in industry, one of the most important sources of accumulation in national economy, and a condition for improvements in the living standard of the working people are contained in the systematic cuts of production costs. The plan for lowering production costs in industry was improved upon this year, with a result that a saving of more than 26,000 million rubles was effected in industry alone, apart from the saving resulting from the reduction in wholesale prices for raw and other materials. The past year has witnessed further progress in socialist agriculture. Notwithstanding the unfavourable weather in the Volga area, in Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and in some other districts, the gross crop of cereals last year amounted to 7,400 million poods. Moreover the crop of food grain-wheal: and rye-was higher than in 1950. The gross cotton. and sugar beet crops have increased substantially as compared with 1950. There has been a continuous increase in livestock of the collective and state farms. The total stock in the country increased by nearly 14 million heads in 1951. The successful development of industry and increase Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 in the production of agricultural raw materials made it possible to effect a considerable increase in general consumer goods. Government orders for extra produc- tion of a number of very important manufactured goods and foodstuffs over and above the annual plan, have been surpassed. The progress of transport goes hand in hand with that of industry and agriculture. The workers of railway, water and motor transport have considerably increased freight shipments. Engrossed in peaceful pursuits, the Soviet people are at work on the realization of a colossal construction programme. State capital investments last year were 112 per cent of the 1950 amount. A special place be- longs to the titanic hydro-electric system now being built on the Volga, Don, Dnieper and Amu-Darya rivers. The government plans for all these great works in 1051 have been successfully accomplished. The rapid advancement of economy of the produc- tivity of labour brings with it an increase in the national income, reductions in prices for food.ar_d manufactured goods and the systematic growth of wages, salaries and peasant incomes. The national income of the USSR Majestic Programme of S IX years ago, in his address to the voters, on February 9, 1946, the head of the Soviet Government,.]. V. Stalin outlined a majestic programme of postwar peaceful development, the pro- gramme for building Communism in the USSR. This was only a few months after the war, when many Soviet cities and villages wrecked by the fascist barbarians, were still lying in ruins. The hard conse- querces of the war were still felt in many ways. Many an American and British newspaper in those days main- tained that a long period of economic decline was inevitable in the USSR, and that the Soviet Union would not be able to overcome the postwar hardships with its own forces. And at that very moment, Stalin's genius like a power- ful searchlight illumined. to the Soviet people magnifi- cent prospects of Communist construction. The inspiring words of the beloved leader roused the Soviet people to new feats of heroic labour for the sake of furthering the progress and raising the might of their own Socia list State. J. V. Stalin formulated the principal tasks of the in .1951 was 20 per cent above the 1950 income, in first postwar five-year plan as that of restoring industry comparable prices. and agriculture to the prewar level and then to exceed The Communist Party and the Soviet Government are constantly working for the advancement of the cultural level of the working people. There has been a substantial increase last year in the attendance of all the schools of the country ; the network of rest homes, cinemas and other cultural and educational institutions has been expanded. Major achievements have been registered in Soviet science, letters and the arts. The working people of the USSR are enjoying all the benefits of the world's most advanced socialist culture. -From I Z V ESTIA, January 29, 1952. this level to a more or less considerable degree. J.V. Stalin outlined the plan also for a longer period. He spoke of the intention of the Communist Party of the USSR to organize another powerful upsurge of the national economy which would make it possible within the next 15 years to raise the level of Soviet industry to a point approximately treble the prewar level, so as to enable it to produce annually up to 50 million tons of pig iron, up to 60 million tons of steel, up to 50+) million tons of coal and up to 60 million tons of oil. The Soviet people accepted tl:.is plan as a programme in accord with their vital interests. The great airs embodied in this programme-the building of Commu- nism, engendered the titanic energy of the masses. Production of Soviet Union's Agriculture and Food Industry on View at Inter- national Exhibition in Bombay (Continued fram page 4) qualities are well represented at the exhibition. More than 250 varieties offish used for commercial purposes are found in the seas, rivers, and lakes of the USSR. For the wealth and variety of fish the USSR heads the world list ; moreover the most valuable varieties, such as salmons, sturgeon, etc., predominate among tl e fish used for processing. The 1950 catch was 27 per cent higher than before the war. The fish processing industry of the USSR is highly mechanized. For example, crabs are tinned at special floating plants right in the sea. Soviet scientists have developed a new method of tinning black caviar, namely, pasteurization, which makes it possible to preserve tl e high qualities of caviar for a very long time. 7'lic exhibits in the agricultural section of the Soviet Pavilion at the Exhibition in Bombay, as well as the exhibits of any other section of this Pavilion, afford striking evidence of the fruitful results of the peaceful labour of the Soviet people. The socialist emulation movement for the fulfilment of the postwar live-year plan (1946---1950) ahead of schedule attained nation-wide proportions. It sup- plied a still more powerful impact to the initiative of the Soviet people. And it is known that the postwar five-year plan was accomplished ahead of schedule. 'The USSR achieved still greater progress in every field of socialist economy and culture. In vain did the imperialists hope that the Soviet Union, which made Colossal sacrifices for the victory over the forces of black reaction ,would not cope with the difficulties of postwar construction. In 1950,the last year of the quinquennium, d-c output of Soviet industry was 73 per cent above the volume produced in the prewar year of 1940. The area under cereals was expanded by more than 20 per cent durir g these five years. The gross grain crop in 1950 was 245 million poods in excess of the 1940 crop. The rational income of the USSR in 1950 was 64 per cent 1_igl er than in 1940. The living and cultural standards of tl.e Soviet people were greatly advanced. 1'he year 1951 brought still greater victories to the peoples of the USSR. Industrial production in 1951 was double the 1.940 figure. A considerable increase Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Communist Construction Taking Real Shape By Nikolai Loginov in output was registered in all the branches of the heavy All the wealth of the USSR belongs to its people. and light industries. The production plans were sur- The powerful progress of national economy advances passed in the iron and steel, coal mining and oil indus- the living and cultural standards of the working people. tries ; rich oil deposits were discovered in new areas, The national income of the USSR is steadily rising, and, and big trunk oil and gas pipelines were built. Output incidentally, it is used entirely for the benefit of the in the machine-building industry rose by 21 per cent in working people. Prices of food and general consumer 1951, when more than 400 new models of machines and goods were reduced on four occasions in the last fine equipment were turned out. Noteworthy headway years ; wages, salaries and the incomes of the collective was made in electrification. The annual power pro- farms are growing. Science, culture, literature and the duction in the USSR is greater than the combined arts are flourishing in the USSR. power production of Britain and France. The provisions of the 1.951 plan were over-fulfilled in the chemical Improvements in the life of the people and the pro- industry and in railway transport. gress of Soviet health protection brought about a 50 The Soviet Government does everything to promote per cent decline in the mortality rate as compared with the mechanization of agriculture. In the last six years the prewar year of 1940, and a still greater decline the collective and state farms received 673,000 tractors was registered in child mortality. The natural (in terms of 15-hp tractors), 147,000 harvester combines increase ih the population of the USSR amounts to and millions of other agricultural machines. The me- more than 3,000,000 a year. chanization of agriculture together with the employ- ment of advanced agrotechnical methods assist in raising The Soviet Union is free from economic crises and the crop yields. The gross grain crop in the last few years unemployment. The socialist system of economy has been exceeding 7,000 million poods annually. ensures the planned and uninterrupted development New construction has been launched on a gigantic of the productive forces. The workers, collective iar- scale in the vast expanses of the great Land of Soviets, mers and intellectuals know that they are working for from the Baltic to the Pacific shores, from the snow- their own benefit, for the benefit of all the people. covered Arctic to the sun-baked districts of Central Consciousness of the social significance of labour in the Asia. socialist society stimulates the heroic efforts of the A special place in this construction belongs to the masses. Labour in the USSR has become a matter of colossal. hydro-technical systems being erected on the honour, valour and heroism. In the Soviet society the Volga, Don, Dnieper and Amu-Darya rivers-the working masses are the conscious makers of their Stalin construction undertakings of Communism, which history, the builders of the new world. have no equals in the world for their dimensions and pace of construction. The most powerful machines The achievements of the Soviet people in the post- ever built by man are employed on these jobs. This war years afford a still more vivid illustration of mighty technique is operated by Soviet people. inexhaustible possibilities inherent in the Soviet social One of the great construction undertakings-the and state system. For the first time in history the Volga-Don Shipping Canal is to be put into commis- Soviet system has unfettered and released the titanic sion next spring. With the opening of this waterway, energy of the people and awakened the powerful activity all the seas of the European section of the USSR-the and inexhaustible initiative of the masses. Every (lay White, Baltic, Caspian, Black and Azov seas-will the life and labour of the workers, peasants and intel- have been linked into a single shipping system. ligentsia of the Soviet Union affords fresh and more vivid manifestations of the moral and political unity of The new power stations will supply annually 22,500 peoples Soviet society and million kwh of cheap electric power, and the hydro- the USSR, Thanks the friendship of the will and d a technical systems will make it possible to irrigate more asppiratins of all the e to the unanimity of the country, f than 28 million hectares of land. The new irrigated the Soviet State is in a peoples inhabiting the croplands will yield a quantity of produce sufficient to aims dreamed position by the the minds great reamed of for many ages by the finest minds of supply the requirements of tens of millions of people. mankind. mnThe Soviet people are subjugating the forces of nature for their benefit ; they are linking rivers and The great plans. mapped out by the leader of the seas, reclaiming swamps, lifeless deserts and sun scorch- Soviet people are being steadily carried into life. The ed steppes and converting them into fertile fields and successes achieved by the Soviet people under the blossoming orchards, planting forests and creating an guidance of the Communist Party and of their great abundance of products. leader, J. V. Stalin, constitute a most weighty contr:- The construction of the gigantic hydro-electric bution to the struggle for peace and friendship among stations, canals and irrigation systems which will tran.s- nations. The peace policy of the Soviet State stems from form the climate of vast areas, will enable the USSR the very essense of the socialist system which has nothing to raise the productive forces of the Soviet society to a in common with any. aggressive ambitions, with any higher level, and to take a long step forward in building plans of conquest. Engrossed in peaceful construction, up the material and technical foundation of the Soviet Union is conducting an indefatigable..struggle Communism. for' stable and lasting peace in the, whole world, Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Production of Soviet Union's Agriculture and Food Industry on View at International Exhibition in Bombay By P. Khvoynik 1 THE: produce of agriculture represented in the Soviet Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Bombay is illustrative of the colossal advance- ment of agriculture and the food industry in the Soviet Union, of the abundance of food in the Land of Socialism. The outstanding successes of Soviet agriculture have been achieved as a result of the collective labour of the Soviet peasants and the high level of mechanization of farming processes. The titanic construction works of Communism launched on the initiative of the great Stalin, the colossal hydro-electric stations and irrigation systems being built on the Volga, Don, Dnieper and Amu Darya rivers, will bring about a still greater increase in agricultural production in the USSR. The expansion of the irrigated and watered areas alone will make it possible to produce annually an extra 3 million tons of raw cotton, 500,000 poods of wheat, 30 million poods of rice and 6 million tons of sugar beet. The cattle herds will be immensely increased. Large-scale planting of shelter belts, construction of reservoirs and the introduction of the proper travopolye system of farming are being promoted in the Soviet Union on a vast scale. The realization of these under- takings in accordance with Stalin's plan for remaking nature will forever do away with drought and crop failure and secure high and stable crop yields in the and districts of the USSR. All the achievements of the Michurin agro-biology, the most advanced in the world, are being utilized on a vast scale in Soviet agriculture. Working in close co-operation with the practical workers of Socialist agriculture, the Michurinist scientists of the Soviet Union are discovering new laws governing the develop- ment of nature and new ways of raising the efficiency of agriculture. The steady advancement of agriculture makes it possible to increase output and broaden the assortment of foodstuffs. The Soviet Government is systematically reducing prices for food and general consumer goods, and this leads to further improvements in the living standard of the working people. It is impossible to describe in a brief article all the exhibits of Soviet farm products and food items on view in the Soviet Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Bombay. There are many varieties of cereals, flour, groats, tinned fish, vegetables and fruit, confectionery products, wines, caviar and many other items. A prominent place belongs to the samples of cereals and allied products on display. The Soviet Union is the biggest producer of cereals, and in the last few years its annual grain crop has been exceeding 7,000 million poods. The rising efficiency of agriculture has brought about a steady increase in the grain yields in the USSR. The crops garnered by the collective farms from vast areas average 2-3 tons and more per hectare. Domestic consumption of cereals and grain prochicts is steadily growing in the USSR. But the Soviet Union is also a traditional exporter of grain to the foreign markets : the foreign trade of the Soviet Union is based on the principles of its peace policy and international economic co-operation. The Indian public knows of the Soviet wheat deliveries to India dictated by the sincere desire of the Soviet Union to relieve the food difficulties in India. Not only the production of grain, but of all farm pro- duce has grown immensely in Soviet years. Gardening, horticulture and viticulture have been well advanced. The achievements of the Michuriin agro-biology, have made it possible to push the planting of orchards, berries, vineyards, citrus fruit and tea to districts where their cultivation was considered impossible in the past. The USSR now ranks fourth in the world for the size of its vineyards. About 2,000 varieties of grapes are grown in the USSR, moreover their yields have reached the record figure of 45-60 tons per hectare. The vineyards and orchards are cultivated with machinery supplied by special machine and tractor stati.on.s. There is a wide network of scientific research institutes and experimental stations. The abundance of farm produce furrisl-ed the basis for a powerful food industry. Hundreds of highly me- chanized enterprises have been built in the USSR in a brief period of time. It is enough to say that more than 100 mechanized bakeries, 38 modern creameries, 45 dairy plants, 47 canneries, 10 sugar refineries, 25 tea packing factories and many other enterprises were built and put into operation in the second Five-Year Plan period (1933-1937) alone. The enterprises of the food industry are provided with improved automatic equipment and instruments made in the USSR. Only the best, first-class raw materials are selected for pro- cessing in the Soviet food industry. Thanks to the excellent technical equipment of the food enterprises, the improved recipes and technological processes and the implicit observance of all the rules of sanitation and hygiene, the Soviet corsumer receives foodstuffs of superior quality only. Evidence of this is contained in the samples of confectionery, wine, chocolate, jam, preserved fruit and other products on display at the Soviet Pavilion. Despite the colossal damage caused to Soviet na- tional econcmy by the war, output in the food industry had grown far in excess of the pre-war level as a result of the successful accomplishment of the first post-war Five-Year Plan (1946-1950) production of butter has grown by 57 per cent, tinned goods--48 per cent, sugar --17 per cent, confectionery products-23 per cent, etc. As compared with the pre-war figures, the output of dietetic products has grown five-fold, of special pro- ducts for children--5.7 times and of vitamins-10.4 times over. The Soviet fish products known. for their excellent (Continued on page 2) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 WHAT MAKES THE NATIONAL INCOME IN THE USSR RISE AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO THE PEOPLE ? By Y. Kronrod Candidate of Economic Science T HE term " national income " is often encountered in newspapers, magazines and books. When- ever a country's national economy is dealt with, or the standard of living of its people, or what possibili- ties there are for its economic development, the national income is always taken into account : the actual figure, whether it is going up or down, and how it is distributed. What, then, is this national income ? In the follow- ing lines we shall try to answer the question briefly. Every country produces material wealth that is es- sential to life--articles of consumption and means of production. The total amount of products produced in a particular country is in the terminology of economists, the aggregate annual product. The production of this material wealth requires different expenditures such as raw material, auxiliary material, fuel, machinery, and so on. Obviously, to be able to continue production society has to make good those expenditures by setting aside a certain portion of the annual aggregate product. The remainder is the national income, which society uses, on the one hand, for consumption, and on the other, for new construction and expansion of production, that is, for accumulation. Let us give an illustration. Let us assume that the value of the material wealth (the aggregate product) produced in a year is 20,000 million rupees, and to produce this material wealth,4,000 million rupees worth of instruments and means of production are used up. In that case the national income will equal 16,000 million rupees. It follows from this that the national income is created solely by the working people, by those who pro- duce the material and cultural values. True, one may come across another definition of national income, namely the total income of all people in a country. But that is an altogether unscientific definition, for in that case it would mean that persons who do nothing but just live on dividends, for instance, are also taking part in the production of the national income. Now, let us go back and see how the national income is produced in the USSR and how it is used. The pro- gressive nature of the Soviet Union's economy is reflected particularly strikingly in the rapid growth of the country's national. income. The rate of growth of the national income of the USSR is without parallel in any other country. Before the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia the national income was quite low, due to the country's technical and economic backwardness. In 1913 it was but 21,000 million rubles. But there has been a radical change in the situation since the victory gained by Soviet power ; the USSR has become a mighty industrial power and agriculture has been transformed into mechanized collective farming on a big scale. Thanks to this, production of the national income has grown many times over, amounting to 128,300 million rubles in 1940, or more than six times as high as in 1913. In 1950 it was 64 per cent above 1940, and in 1951 it was up 12 per cent over the year before. What gives the USSR an exceptionally high rate of growth of the national income is the Socialist character of its economy, which knows no crises, is operated ac- cording to plan in the interest of the people. There is no unemployment in the, USSR, where work is guaranteed to everyone. This fact, alone affords the country of Soviets tremendous opportunities of develop- ing its economy and of increasing the national income in proportion. At the same time, every branch of the national economy-industry, transport, agriculture, and so on-gets immense quantities of up-to-date highly- productive machinery year after year. It is enough to cite one example, in 1950, the number of machine tools used in industry was more than double the pre-war number and a great many of them were new and im- proved. Agriculture received in the 1946-1950 period 536,000 tractors, 93,000 grain combines and millions of other agricultural machinery and implements. Thanks to the rapid progress made in technically arming labour and in improving production methods, labour productivity has been increasing steadily and at a rapid rate. Productivity of labour in industry in 1950 was 37 per cent above the 1940 level. This increase in labour productivity, the basis of which is technical progress, is the chief source of the great annual rise in the national income of the USSR. What do the Soviet people then get out of the grow- ing national income ? The higher the national income the more do the Soviet people get for consumption and for accumula- tion. It should be borne in mind that there are no exploiting classes in the USSR. Soviet society is com- prised of working people, and the entire national income belongs to the people and is used in the interest of all of society. That is why growth of the national income leads to greater wellbeing of the people. . Distribution of the national income in the USSR makes for systematic improvement in the material condition of the workers and peasants and expansion of Socialist production in town and country. The working people of the USSR receive approxi- mately three-fourths of the national income to meet their personal material and cultural needs. Since the national income of the USSR in 1950 was, as has been stated before, 64 per cent above that of 1940, it is not difficult to see that the material welfare of the people has risen substantially. And, indeed, statistics show that the income of Soviet people---workers, peasants and office. employees-in 1950 was 62 per cent (in compar- able prices) above that of 1940. It is altogether natural, therefore, that there should be ,a rapid increase in the (Continued on third cover.) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 ~e~ts PKIy By Anatoli Surov, Soviet Writer and Playwright W E can often feel what the pulse of a nation, any nation, was yesterday, what it, is today and what it is going to be tomorrow by reading the newspapers. It makes no difference that the life of a newspaper is short-it's life is but a day - the daily Press enables us above all to judge what is the chief thing, and not only today but also tomorrow. X X X And so let us take a look at newspapers published on one and the same day in the two worlds. Lying before us are newspapers which came out on the same Sunday, October 14, 1951, in the USSR and the US. In the USSR Before us are 50 Soviet newspapers of that day. They come from every part of the country, from different republics and regions, industrial centres and rural areas. But they all have one thing in common, something that makes them kindred and unites them-they are Soviet newspapers. Facts speak for themselves, and they are stubborn things. It will be enough, therefore, to reproduce some newspaper items to understand the trend of the Soviet Press, which truthfully mirrors the thoughts and hopes, the peaceful labour and heroic deeds, of the people living in the Soviet country. The most captious reader will not find in it even a single line calling for war. " Uralsky Rabochi " a newspaper published in Sverdlovsk, reports on the results obtained in an emulation pact entered into between three Ural cities : Sverdlovsk, Molotov and Chelyabinsk. The Sverdlovsk City Soviet has accepted after inspection :0 new apartment houses and spent over 25,)00,000 rubles on city improvements. Molotov is building a children's home to accommodate 120 children ; it will have regular classrooms and shops for manual training. And Chelyabinsk reported 26,000 trees and 110,000 shrubs planted last spring. On page two under the heading " My Contribution to the Cause of Peace," the paper carries statements by readers, men and women in all walks of life, telling what they are doing for peace. " Stalingradskaya Pravda " under the heading " Yesterda% in Stalin- grad " writes : " The State Architectural and Building Inspection Commission has okayed 20 new residential buildings. "A group of members of the Stalingrad Philharmonic Society left for the City of Kalach to conduct a musical and literary programme for the Volga-Don Canal builders. The programme includes, the literary- musical compositions "Peace Will Triumph Over War," "The Life of P.I. Chaikovsky," and "The Paths of Development of Soviet Music." " Leningradskaya. Pravda " re- ported a decision taken by the Regional Committee of the Party and the City Soviet Executive Committee to lay out big orchards along highways and railway tracks. Along sidings, fruit trees will extend to a width of 1:5(1 metres on each side of the track, which means that for every kilometre of track there will he 30 hectares of orchard. " Pravda Severa," published in Arkhangelsk, carries a story on a readers' conference held in the Nenets Area school to discuss T. Syomushkin's book " Alitet Goes to the Mountains." Vanyuta, a rein- deer breeder, said that before the Revolution darkness and igr_orance were to be found not merely in Chukotka, the book's locale, but all over the Far North. But now even in the depths of the tundra new settlements have cropped up, schools and hospitals are functioning, and Nenets youths and girls are studying at higher educational establishments in Moscow and Leningrad. In the USA now here are a few Ameri- Sunday can newspapers, the usual 6 papers, 1951. Here is the a newspaper considers "solid." " New York Times," the bourgeois world respectable " and A headline on page one reads: " Dewey Denounces Civil Defence Lag, Rebukes 15 Cities." And the text under it reads. "' Governor Dewey called cn the carpet today the officials of 16 counties and 15 cities that he said were ' shockingly delinquent' in preparing local civil defence plans... " Dewey demanded of those present " to explain the reasons for their failure to obey the Defence Emergency Act of the State of New York." " Waves to Train in Maryland," is the headline on another page. The text reads : " The Navy an- nounced today that its training centre in Bainbridge, Md. would begin receiving Wave recruits, October 31." And another item under the headline : " Eisenhower Going to Naples," tells of the general's leav- ing "to watch manoeuvres by the US Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean." In their attempt to screen their aggressive plans the warmongers are trying to make the ordinary Ameri- can citizen believe that he is threat- ened with the danger of attack, that America may be attacked. And the "respectable "newspaper puts up a scareheadline : " Food Stocks Urged in Case of Bomb- ing. Defence Chief Also Advises a Household Water Supply as Emer- gency Step." To " becalm " its readers, the paper advises every family to stock food for three to five days. This advice, as a matter of Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 On the Results of the Fulfilment of the State Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the USSR in 1951 Report of the Central Statistical Board of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. SUPPLEMENT TO SOVIET LAND NO. 3, FEBRUARY 10, 1952 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 On the Results of the Fulfilment of the State Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the USSR in 1951 Report of the Central Statistical Board of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. THE development of it.dusts y, agriculture and transport, capital cor_structior, expansion of trade and rise in the material and cultural stand- ards of the people in 1051 are characterised by the following data : 1. Fulfilment of Industrial Output Plan The annual production programme of gross ou/piu/ for 1951 was fulfilled by the industry as a wl.o.le by 103.5 per cent. Separate Ministries fulfilled their an:tirual industrial gross output programmes as follows : Percentage of fulfilment of annual plan for 1951 Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy ... ... 104 Ministry of the Non-Ferrous Metallurgy ... 102 Ministry of the Coal Industry ... ... ... 100.7 Ministry of the Oil Industry ... ... ... 1.03 Ministry of Power Stations ... ... ... 102 Ministry of the Chemical Industry ... ... 104 Ministry of the Electrical Industry ... 103 Ministry of the Communications Equipment Industry ... ... ... ... ... 102 Ministry of the Heavy Machine-Building Industry ... 100 Ministry of the Automobile and Tractor Industry ... ... ... ... ... 100.6 Ministry of the Machine-Tool Industry ... 100 Ministry of the Machine and Instrumer_t- Making Industry ... ... ... 100.9 Ministry of the Building and Road-Building Machinery Industry ... ... ... ... 106 Ministry of the Transport Machinery Industry 100.9 Ministry of the Agricultural Machinery Industry ... ... ... ... ... 104 Ministry of the Building Materials Industry of the USSR ... ... ... ... ... 102 Ministry of the Timber Industry of the USSR ... V4 Ministry of the Paper and Wood-Processing Industry ... ... ... ... ... 103 Ministry of the Light Industry of the USSR ... 102 Ministry of the Fish Industry of the USSR ... 109 Ministry of the Meat and Dairy Industry of the USSR ... ... ... ... ... ... 10'3 Ministry of the Food Industry of the USSR ... 107 Industrial Enterprises of the Ministry of Cotton-Growing of the USSR ... 99.7 Industrial Enterprises of the Ministry of Railways ... ... ... ... ... 99.1 Industrial Enterprises of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR ... ... ... 106 Industrial Enterprises of the Ministry of Cinematography of the USSR 10:3 Ministeries of Local Industry and Ministries of the Local Fuel Industry of the Union Republics ... ... ... ... ... 106 Producers' Co-operatives ... ... ... 106 In 1951 the production programme was overfulfilled for certain items of ferrous metals, certain non-ferrous metals, iron piping, coal, coke, oil, natural gas, petrol, ligroine, diesel fuel, peat, electric power, electric motors, electric vacuum apparatus, metal-cutting machine-tools, spinning machines, looms, roving machines, tractors, grain combines, flax combines, complex thresh?rs, flax pullers, tree plr nting machines, lorries and motor- cars, autobuses, trunk line locomotives, diesel loco- motives, excavators, graders, bulldozers, motor rollers, cranes mounted on automobiles, automatic loaders, ball bearings, synthetic rubber, automobile tyres, synthetic ammonia, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, mineral fertilizers, chemicals for combatting agricultural pests and weeds, dyes and ether chemicals, roofing felt, roofing slate, window glass, paper,alcohol, and other items of indus- trial products. The government assignment for an additional out- put of manufactured goods and foodstuffs above the established annual plan was overfulfilled. In 1951 there was produced above plan a big quantity of cotton, woollen and silk fabrics, clothing, hosiery, rubber footwear, sewing machines, clocks and watches, cameras Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 sausage, condensed milk, cheese, vegetahie oil, sugar, confectionery, canned goods, macaroni products, tea, 12;1ape wines, champagne, beer, soap, cigarettes, macthcs, and other goods for the population. While fulfilling and overfulfilling the annual pro- sranune as regards gross output and the output of the majority of principal industrial products in kind certain Ministries did not fulfil.the plan for certain items of out- put; with separate enterprises' overfulfilling the pro- gramme of gross output through a greater production r,F secondary items, not fulfilling at the same time the programme for the production of items envisaged in the state plan. In 1951 a further improvement of the quality and extension of assortment of the industrial products con- tinued. Not all bralrches ` of industry, however, fully Iirlfilled the state plan assignments as regards production and delivery of certain items in. the established assort- ment and quality. T :us, for example. the Ministry of the Iron and Steel It dustry did rot fully fulfil the plan for certain items of rolled ferrous metal, the .Ministry of the Heavy Machii_e-Building Industry did not fulfil the production programme for steam boilers and steam turbines, the Ministry of the Machine and Instrument- Making,Industry-for certain types of chemical equip- meqt,,, compressors and calculating machines, the IMiriistry of the Agricultural Machir_ery' Industry for Tractor-Drawn seed drills, grain clearers, sorters and certain other agricultural machines, d- e Ministry of the Building Materials Industry of tl-e USSR for certain kinds of cement aid tl e Ministry of the Timber Industry of-the USSR did not fulfil the plan for ftc haulage of the main kinds ofmcrcli.ant timber. 2. Growth of Industrial Output The output of the major manufactures in 1951 1951 Compared with ]950 in Percentage Pig iron ... 114 ,Steel ... 115 It olled metal ... 115 Iron piping ... 114 Copper ... ... 114 I eacf ... ... ... 125 Zinc ... 115 Coat ... .. 108 t)il ... 112 Natural gas ... ... ... 108 Petrol 120 Kerosene ... ... ... 103 Diesel fuel ... ... ... 145 Electric power ... 114 Steam turbines ... ... ... I10 I arge hydro-turbine, ... 245 Turbo-generators ... 211 Hydro-generators ... ... 193 Large electrical machines 137 Electric motors ... ... ... 124 Electric bulbs ... 120 Large, heavy and special machinery... 111 Chemical equipment ... 138 Agricultural machinery 115 Tractor-drawn sowers ... ... 115 Tractor-drawn cultivators ... 1.17 Grain combines... 115 Main-line electric locomotives 1]] Buses 134 Motor-cycles ... 102 Excavators ... 105 Calculating machines ... 201 Bail bearings 1311 Calcined soda 1tf9 Caustic soda ... 108 Dyes ... ... 115 Mineral fertilizers . 107 Chemicals for combatting agricultural .r~,d weeds ... 185 synthetic rubber 120 changed as follows compared 1951 Compared with 1950 in Percentage Cement ... 119 Bricks ... ... ... 120 Roofing felt 113 Roofing state . 127 Prefabricated houses 116 Haulage of dressed 1 amber ... ... H7 Paper ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 2 Bicycles ... ... ... 178 Sewing machines ... 133 Watches ... 127 Cameras... ... ... 137 Radios ... l lfi Gramophones . , . ... 124 Pianos 121 Cotton fiber ... ... 133 Cotton fabrics ... 122 Linen fabrics 111 Woollen fabrics ... 11:3 Silk fabrics ... ... 134 Socks and stockings ... 126 Leather footwear ... 117 Rubber footwear ... If) Fish ... 122 Meat ... ... ... 112 Sausage ... ... ... 1.17 Butter ... ... ... 106 Dairy products ... ... 144 Condensed milk ... ... 144 Cheese ... ... ... ... 120 Vegetable oil ... ... 112 Confectionery ... ... Sugar ... Alcohol ... ill Wine ... ... ... ... ... 124 Champagne ... ... 1.21 Beer ... ... I [(,I Canned goods ... ... Its Matches ... ... 106 Cigarettes ... ... ... 113 Tea ... ... 1;,1 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Cross output of the entire industry of the USSR in 1951. increased 16 per cent compared with 1950. Last year the national economy of the USSR, in conformity with the state plan of supply, received con- siderably more raw materials, supplies, fuel,. electric power, and equipment than in 1950.. Further improvement in the utilisation of equip- ment in industry continued in 1951. In the iron and steel industry utilisation of useful volume of blast furnaces increased last year more than five per cent as against 1950. Production of steel per square metre of furnace hearth increased almost five per cent. Exploitation drill- ing speed increased at the enterprises of the Ministry of the Oil Industry. The proportion of light fractions rose. At the enterprises of the Ministry of the Coal Industry productivity of coal combines increased 19 per cent last year. There was an improvement in the utilisation of capacities for the production of synthetic rubber and synthetic ammonia at the plants of the Ministry of the Chemical Industry and in the utilisa- tion of equipment in the cotton goods industry and cement industry. Expenditure of raw materials, supplies, fuel, and electric power per unit of output in 1951 was lower than in 1.950, and in many industries was also below the planned rates. The plan for reduction of industrial production costs set for 1951 was overfulfilled. The economy effected through reduction of industrial pro- duction costs amounted to more than 26,000 million rubles in 1951, not counting savings at the expense of reduction of wholesale prices for raw materials and supplies. On the basis of successes in the development of industry, rise of labour productivity and reduction of production costs attained in 1951 effected, as of January 1, 1952, a new reduction of wholesale prices of metals, machinery and equipment, fuel, chemicals, building materials, and paper, as well as a reduction of rates for electric power and heat and freight carriage. 3. Introduction of New Techniques in the National Economy Further achievements in mastery of new types of machinery, equipment and materials were attained in 1951. Soviet machine building industry developed in 1951. about 500 highly important new types and models of machinery and equipment ensuring a further techni- cal progress of the national economy. There were developed new types of powerful steam turbines and high pressure boilers, hydro-turbines and hydro-generators, aerial switches, high tension discon- nectors and arresters for long distance transmission of electric power. Powerful suction dredges and dredgers, highly efficient single-bucket walking and multi bucketed excavators, powerful concrete mixers for automatized concrete making plants and 25 ton lorries were produced for mechanising labour-consuming jobs at the construc- tion of big hydro-technical installations. The machine-tool industry mastered. close to 150 new types of highly efficient metal-cutting machine tools and forge and stamping machinery and a con- siderable number of new kinds of hard-alloy tools. New types of equipment.. were put out for the oil, chemical, light, food, and other industries and transport. New types of machine and implements for soil culti- vation, sowing, planting, harvesting and processing of grain and industrial crops and vegetables were manufactured for a further mechanisation of agricultural field work . Besides, a number of new machines was produced for the. mechanisation of fodder preparation as well as for shelter belt planting. The level of mechanisation rose considerably in all branches of the national economy. In the coal industry mechanisation "of processes of hewing, breaking and the delivery of coal and. the under- ground transport was completed as early as, in 1950. In 1951 introduction of new types of combines for working thin and steep-sloping seams was started thus making it possible. to raise the level of mechanisation in coal loading. More than 1,500 combines and coal cutting machines and 1,350 conveyor lines were trans- ferred to remote control operation. The volume of mechanised work at the enterprises of the Ministry of the Timber Industry of the USSR increased in felling and bringing up of timber L7 times compared with 1.950, loading of timber 2.2.. times and haulage of timber 1.2 times Introduction of new highly efficient technological processes was continued in all branches of the national economy in 1951 and work for the further automati- sation of production was carried on. At the mills of the Ministry of the Iron and Steel Industry 87 per cent of the entire product ion. of steel was melted in. open hearth furnaces outfitted with automatic regulators of the heat regime. There was an increase in production of special shapes of rolled metal which make for a considerable reduction in the expenditure of metal during further treatment. New methods and per-fected technology of concen- trat ion and comprehensive processing of ores, concent- rates and slime which make for fuller, extraction of non-ferrous and rare metals were introduced in non- ferrous metals industry Application of turbine drilling was expanded subs- tantially in the oil industry. Oil production 'applying the method of maintaining strata pressure which make for a fuller extraction of oil was further developed. New technological processes of oil refining employing Soviet- made machinery were introduced, which made it pos- sible to increase the yield of oil products and raise their quality. Advanced methods of metal working-high-speed cutting, new electric and thermal methods of treating metal-were further applied in machine-building. Automatic and semi-automatic devices were introduced to control the size of parts produced on a mass scale. Work has been carried on for a comprehensive auto- matisation of hydro-electric stations and automatisation of the thermal procsses in boiler units of the power stations. More than 90 per cent of the district hydro- electric stations have automatised operation of units. Introduction of close to 700 ,000 inventions and rationalisation proposals of workers and engineering and technical personnel designed to perfect and radically improve production processes were applied in 1951; Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 4. Agriculture In 19.r1 socialist agricultur, attained new successe; in the development of farming and livestock raising as well as in the organisational economic consolidation of the collective farms. T1, _e. total grain harvest, according to the figures of the chief harvest assessment inspection of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, notwithstanding unfavourable weather conditions in districts of the Volga valley, )Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and certain other dis- tricts, amounted to 7,400 million ponds in 1951 . The harvest of food grains-wheat and rye--was higher than in 1950. Tne total Crop of unginned cotton was above NiO and higher than in the preceding years. The sugar beet harvest was above 1950 and exceeded 27 million tons. The area sown to all crops in 1951 was 6.7 million hectares above 1950. The area under cotton, sugar beet, sunflower , and other industrial crops expanded. Sowing of perennial and annual grasses. fodder root crops and silo crops increased considerably. The collective farms and state (aims successfully fulfilled the plan for sowing winter crops for the 19f2 harvest. T .e area p'ougacd in autumn for sowing of spring crops in 1952 was 5.4 million hectares above that ploughed in the autumn (& 1950. The technical foundation of agriculture grew still stronger in 11951. Last year agriculture received 137,000 tractors in terms of 15 It. p. units, 53,000 grain combines, including 29,000 self-propelled, 59,000 lorries as well as two million soil cultivating implements, sowing, harvesting and other agricultural machines. The increase in technical facilities of agriculture made it possible still further to mechanise agricultural work in the collective farms and state farms. The agricultural work done by the machine and tractor stations for tlhe collective farms in 19,51 was 19 per cent above 11150. Last year the machire ana tractor stations did more than two-thirds of all the field work in the collective farms. Almost the entire ploughing and three-quarters of the sowing in the collective farms were .mechanised ; more than 60 per cent of the entire grain area in the collective farms was harvested by combines. In state farms the main agricultural work is almost completely mechanised. Simultaneously with the mechanisation of agricul- ture much work was accomplished for its electrifica- tion. The use of electric power in the treatment of grain, preparation of fodder, water supply, milking of cows and shearing of sheep in the collective farms, increased considerably in 1951. The growth of the commonly-ownea livestock in the collective farms and state farms continued in 1951. The commonly-owned collective farm animal husbandry together with that of the state farms has become predominant in the total livestock head. The head of commonly-owned livestock in the collective farms increased as fellows in 1951 : beef and dairy cattle 12 per cent. (cows 15 per cent) ; hogs 26 per cent ; sheep and goats 8 per cent and horses 8 per cent. The amount of poultry in the collective farms increased one kind a half times. Last year the head of beef and dairy cattle in the ,tate farms of the Ministry of State Farms of the USSR increased 15 per cent. (cows 1.1 per cent) ; hogs 21 per rent ; sheep and goats I I per cent and horses 14 per cent. The amount of poultry in the state farms increased 27 per cent. The total head of livestock in all categories of eco- nomies--in collective farms and state farms, of collec- tive farmers and factory and factory and office workers increased in 1951 almost by 14 million head, including more than 1,600,000 head of beef and dairy cattle, 2,600,000 hogs, 3,500,000 sheep and goats and almost 1,000,000 head of horses. The amount of poultry increased by more than 60 million during the year. The collective farms, forestries, machine and tractor and afforestations, as well as state farms in the steppe and foreststeppe areas of the European part of the USSR planted shelter belts on an area of 745,000 hectares in 1951. 5. Growth of Railway, Water and Road Traffic hail freight carriage plan for 1951 was overfulfilled and was 12 per cent higher than in 1950. The general plan for average daily carloadings was fulfilled 103 per cent. The target set by the state plan for accelerating out aid return time of cars was overfulfrlled in the past year. Fuel expcrditure per ton-km. on the railways was 3 per cent less than in 1950. However, the target to improve exploitation of railways was rot fully accom- plished.. The annual plan of freigl_t carriage by inland water transport was fulfilled in 1951 by 100.6 percent and freight carriage was 13 per cent higher than in I950. The marine freight carriage plan in 1951 was fulfilled 102 per cent and freight carriage was S per cent higher than in 1950. Automobile height carriage was 20 per cent higher thar, in 1950. 6. Increase of Capital Investments in National Economy In 1951 a broad construction programme was ac- complished. The volume of state capital investments in the past year was 112 per cent of 1950. The volume of state capital investments in construction of electric stations was 140 per cent of 1950, in iron and steel and non-ferrous metals industry-120 per cent, in coal and oil industry-112 per cent, in building materials in- dustry-135 per cent, in machine and tractor stations and state farms- 106 per cent, in transport--103 per cent, in housing construction-120 per cent. The 1951 assignments for building of large hydro- technical installations on the Volga, Don and Dnieper and also for building of the Main Turkmen Canal were successfully fulfilled. In 1951 the building organisations received a large quantity-of highly productive machinery and equip- ment. The existing fleet of excavators increased almost 40 per cent as against. 1950, scrapers---more than 30 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 per cent and bulldozers-more than 80 per cent, and the fleet of other building machinery and equipment was also considerably augmented. All-round mecha- nisation of building work is being ever more widely introduced on construction projects. Supply of build- ing materials improved. In 1951 the building organisations reduced cost of construction and curtailed time of construction as com- pared with 1950. However, many organisations did not fully secure the fulfilment of the targets set by the state for the reduction of cost of construction. State enterprises, institutions and local Soviets as well as the population of cities and workers' settlements with the help of state credits built dwelling houses of a total floor space of 27,000,000 square metres. Besides, about 400,000 houses were built in rural localities. 7. Expansion of Soviet Trade Further expansion of Soviet trade continued in 1051. Owing to the new successes attained in 1050 in the development of industry and agriculture, the rise of labour productivity and lowering of production costs, beginning with March 1, 1951 the government carried through a new, the fourth successive reduction in state prices of goods of general consumption, since the aboli- tion of rationing. The new reduction of prices resulted in a further strengthening of the Soviet ruble, in raising its purchasing power and in further increasing sales of goods to the population. In the course of 1951, state and co-operative retail sales to the population, measured in comparative prices, were 15 per cent higher than in 1950. Sale of individual items increased as follows : meat-32 per cent, sausage ---29 per cent, fish products-14 per cent, butter-10 per cent, vegetable oil--40 per cent, milk and dairy products-35 per cent, eggs-20 per cent, sugar-29 per cent, confectionery-13 per cent, tea--29 per cent, fruit 33-per cent, cotton fabrics-18 per cent, silk fabrics-26 per cent, garments-14 per cent, leather footwear-11 per cent, furniture.-50 per cent, build- ing materials :for the population-45 per cent, house- hold and toilet soap-13 per cent, radio sets---26 per cent, clocks and watches-15 per cent, sewing machines -29 per cent, cameras-38 per cent, bicycles-86 per cent. Sales of frigidaires, washing machines and vacuum cleaners increased several times over. The network of state and co-operative trade ex- panded. In 1951 about 8,000 new shops opened. In 1951 sale to the population of agricultural pro- duce in the collective farm markets, especially of flour, cereals, lard, :fowl, eggs, fruit and honey, increased appreciably as against 1950. 4. Increase in Number of Factory and Office Workers and in Labour Productivity The number of factory and office workers in the national economy of the USSR amounted to 40.8 million at the end of 1951 and was 1,600,000 above the level at the end of 1950. The number of workers and office employees in industry, agriculture and forestry, construction and transport services increased during the year by 1,250,000, in educational, scientific re- search and medical institutions almost 250,000, in trade, housing and public utilities more than 100,000. As in previous years there was no unemployment in the country in 1951. Last year, 365,000 young persons graduated as skilled workers from trade, railway, mining and factory schools and were given jobs in industry, building cons- truction and on the transport. With the help of individual or brigade instruction or training courses on the job 7,000,000 workers and other employees acquired skills or improved their qualifica- tions. The prductivity of labour of industrial workers was 10 per cent higher in 1951 than in 1950-it was 14 per cent higher in the machine-building industry, 9 per cent in the iron and steel industry, 6 per cent in the non-ferrous metals industry, 8 per cent in the coal in- dustry, 9 per cent in the oil industry and 9 per cent in the chemical industry. The productivity of labour in construction was 9.5 per cent higher in 1951 than in 1950. 9. Cultural Development, Public Health and City Improvement In 1951 further achievements were attained in all fields of socialist culture. Last year, the number of people studying in the USSR, including all forms of study, amounted to 57,000,000. The number of seven-year and secondary schools increased by almost 5,000 during the year. The number of students in the 5th-10th grades of these schools in- creased 2,500,000. In 1951, 887 higher educational establishments (including correspondence institutions, had a student body of 1,356,000 or 108,000 more t ian in 1950. Three thousand five hundred forty-three technical and other specialised secondary schools (including correspondence institutions) had 1,384,000 students, 86,000 more than in 1950. In 1951, higher educational establishments graduat- ed 201,000 and technical schools 262,000 young special. ists. The number of graduates of higher educational es- tablishments and technical schools engaged as specialists in the national economy increased in 1.951, 8 per cent compared with 1950. In 1951 more than 24,000 people were doing post- graduate work in higher educational establishments and scientific institutions. For outstanding works in science, invention, litera- ture and art Stalin prizes were merited in 1951 by 2,694 scientists, engineers, agronomists, writers and artists, workers and foremost agriculturists. In 1951 the country had more than 350,000 libraries of all types maintained by the state and public organi- sations, their number of books exceeding 700 million. Approved For Release 2002/01/11: CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 l'he.nurnber of cinema installations in 1951 increas- cd by 4,000 compared with the preceding year. The attendance of theatres and cinemas in 1951 was 12 per cent above 1950. In the summer of 1951 more than 5,000,000 children and juveniles stayed in Pioneer camps, children's sana- toria, excursion and tourist centres or were taken in an organised way for the entire summer period to country places bykindergartens, children's homes and nurseries. The network of hospitals, maternity homes, dispen- siaries and other health institutions as well as sanatoria and rest homes was further expanded in 1951. The number of beds in hospitals and maternity homes in- creased by almost 50,000 compared with 1950. The number of places in sanatoria and rest homes increased by 18,001). In 1951 there was over 6 per cent more physicians than in 1950. The production of medicines, medical instruments and equipment increased by 36 per cent compared with 1950, which made possible: a substantial improvement in the supply and outfitting of medical institutions with medicines, latest apparatus, laboratory equipment and medical instruments. In 1951, like in preceding year, considerable work was done to build public utilities and improve towns ar_d workers' settlements, to construct water works and sewage, extend tram and trolley bus services, provide gas and heat to more homes, plant greenery, pave and asphalt city streets and squares, lay out parks, gardens and boulevards. 10. Growth of National Income and Incomes of Population In 19511 the national income of the USSR, measured in comparable prices, increased by 12 per cent com- pared with 1950. In the Soviet Union the entire national ncome be- longsto the working people. Like in the preceding year the working people of the USSR received about three- quarters of the national income to meet their personal material and cultural requirements, while the other part of the national income remained at the disposal of the state, collective farms and co-operative organisa- tions for expanding socialist production and for other needs of the state as a whole and society. The growth of the national income made it possible substantially to improve the material position of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia and to ensure the further expansion of' socialist production in town and countryside. The improvement of the material position of the USSR population was expressed in the growth of the monetary and real wages of the factory and office workers and in the increase of the incomes of the peasants both from commonly conducted collective farming and from their household plots and personal husbandry. Besides, in 1951, as in preceding years the popula tion received at the expense of the state allowances and grants from social insurance funds for the factory and office workers; pensions from the social maintenance fund ; accommodations in sanatoria, rest homes and children's institutions free of charge or at reduced rates ; allowances to mothers of large families and lone mothers ; free medical aid ; free education and pro- fessional and trade instruction ; students' stipends and a number of other benefits and privileges. Further, all factory and office workers, i.e., about 41,000,000 people, received paid vacations of not less than two weeks, and more in case of workers in a number of professions. In 1951, these benefits and privileges received by the population at the expense of the state amounted to 125,000 million rubles. As a result of the reduction of prices of consumer goods, the growth in monetary wages of the factory and office workers, increased incomes of the peasants in money and in kind and growth in the benefits and pri- vileges received by the population at the expense of the state-the incomes of factory and office workers and incomes of the peasants, measured in comparable prices, were 10 per cent greater in 1951 than in 1950. Central Statistical Board of the Council of Ministers of the U. S. S. R. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 fact, is given not by the paper but as stated in the story, f' Lt.-Uenera.l Clarence R. Huebner, state defence director, advised yesterday." And further : "the city civil defence staff was preparing yesterday for the first city-wide air raid test. The defence workers will assume that the enemy has dropped an atom bomb on the Lower Bronx arid another in Brook- lyn or Queens. Rescues, clearing of debris, fire-fighting, and so on, will be simulated." That is the way a war psychosis is being deliberately produced in the tJnited States for no good purpose. One gets the impression that the newspaper has written up a "he nih game " played by crack- brained but living Forrestalls. insane, American newspapers admit Incidentally, another newspaper, that no fewer than 17,000,000 per- New York Herald Tribune," con- sons are in need of psychiatric treat- tinues printing instalments of " For- meat, restall's Diary." Fear is taking root in the heart of What absurd and monstrous items the man in the street in America, one finds in these newspapers ! From fear of' today and of' tomorrow, other items, however, that find their Stripped by war taxes and frightened way on the pages of those news- by war propaganda he flo rnders papers one learns of work curtail- about in the foul stream of news- merrts and mounting taxes, increas- paper lies, seeking a way of t and big unemployment and soaring salvation. prices, and a drop in the sale of And the day will come when he articles of prime necessity. will find the way out, as it has been The war psychosis, the hysteria found by the progressive people in whipped up by the US ruling circles, the United States who have begun the unbridled anti-Soviet propaganda their heroic struggle for peace, for and propaganda of war against the the salvation of their country and Soviet Union, are driving people their people. It is not possible to review in one article even a fraction of the papers we have looked over. The Soviet newspapers differ from one another in their own way, but there is also a certain similarity between them. They are similar in one respect--all of them tell of the constructive labour Soviet men and women are engaged in and call. upon them to work even more energetically for peace, for the speediest upbuilding of Communism. Yes, the Soviet people are busy at their peaceful pursuits. And what are the US rulers busy doing ? The citations given furnish a clear answer----arming, preparing war and preaching war. Days turn into weeks and weeks into months, and the months merge into years. This year the people the world around have united as never before in the history of` mankind to combat the warmongers. And this mighty union is invincible. Foreign Guests in the U.S.S.R. By Anatoly Kudryavtsev Assistant Chief of the Internatinal Department of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. Women's delegation. form Holland in Moscow. On photo : Delegates in St. George's Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace. Chinese youth delegation in Moscow. en photo : rcung delegates frem China greeting the Moscow Youth, SOVIET trade union organisations continue to expand and strengthen their international contacts. In the year before last the land of Socialism was visited by 54 trade union and workers' delegations from different parts of the world, while in 19:11 there were more than seventy such delegations. Soviet people wholeheartedly welcomed the guests from abroad, affording them every opportunity and all facilities to acquaint themselves with life in the USSR. The delegates drew up tht;ir own tra,yel Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 routes through the USSR. They visited Moscow, many capitals of the !Trion republics, r.- rinerad, Odessa, ~st.alinp?rad, thrr industrial centres of 'of k'', Sverdlovsk, Laporozhye, r itrtruo, Karasanda, 1)r,iepropet- rov~,k, Krivoi. Rerg. 'Tula, arid seaside health resorts, including Sochi, Siukhumi, Yalta arid Ga.lrry. Tare rnrtjority of the delegations visited the city of Gori, where great Stalin m.vraduatc: as skilled workers. Usua ly upon finishing school they are rated in the fourth or fifth ategorv. The Noun; workers sui erosfully apply Elie theoretical and practical knowlr elge they have received duriup~ their two years at school and iu;rke rapid prog -ss on their jobs. All vi-cationa1 school trainees are ph ced on jobs s! rictly irk accordan rc %."ith their Ii ides. Engineers ;c ld liu?e- men and skilled old workers, readily give them assistance and useful .~Ldvice. Tie young workers are paiu1 oil the same rrsis as adult workers, in accordat ce with the a.niount arid quality of labour perlornrcd. J redo- his stiinor f /sussed Vocational School No. 2 ser coal yeas ago mid is noris a oclciut5 a. section chief at the automatic tsorning lathes sholr of Ilse Ball Bearing /hunt. 7orlar he i.s teasnaly pteelini school graduates who will ruork in this sho(u js/s(S s Iris di,ation. d lie first.from the ri,{ht is l)aicheslrr, `I eu.cor. fre~,e clothing, fee rascals. free, textbooks aed note hooks. All t spices of all. Labour Reserve Vocational Schools arc 1 1 cwisc provide(. The school r> ryes a two-year course . During the first year the hit ore work cis train in the workshops of their own school, and in the last six months receive work practice in the shops of t'.e plant. The school's spacious and airy workshops are equipped with the most. upto-date Machines. And the trainees in pram lice learn the most advanced methods of labour used by Soviet wssrkcrs- At the same time they are given theoretical instruc- tur;i. in such subjects as technology, metallography and drrught- in ,and also a full junior-secondary school course. h~ i! d~lant li.brarv.."Vikolai Khrenov (foreground left ), h ssassction inslrrictor id J'ocational School No. 2, is seers here cosrr'ersiug with his boomer t i/ i/s. Valenti;, Krechet and Nadezhda Usenkova. "Their ferrr~.er leacher is interested in hotel, they are snaking out on their jobs. 7dse your!:; turner tyaciseslav 7iusoc, ocational school ,actuate, i.s seers here at tvoci in the 125/s itic turning lathe ds:rlu of rho Ball Bearotg Phut. Vya.s i. reslav-.'I'rusov wit!, "seat entlrusi;rsm took up his jol as a. full-fled m;ed worker of the phi it. He knew that his work would always receive due merit. 'I'i-rim, Pyotr Popov, who graduated school the year beftlre has become one of the best setters-up of complex, semi- automatic ni clrirre tools aid has been advanced to the sixth category.. Victor Chernobrovkin, setter-up of Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Q'1impiaS dtam t`t Soviet 11nion diverse climatic conditions, the new chemical rncl:od has proved highly effective. Practice has shown that chemical weeding of train fields holds out a promise of raising the crop yiclc s by 3fi per cent to the hectare. Millions of hectares will be switched to the t:se of chemical weeding in the near future. 111:MISTRY has been added to the arscual of Soviet agrotechnical methods used in combating weeds. Tested in the Soviet fields in the post Chemical Weeding of Grain Fields : t'erruadi tasrlyerr, a graduate of the vocational school, is attenrlirrt' er enang junior errgineerrng college. Here we see hive in one of the laboratories. autornatie, mac'nine tools, who finished school in 1147, and Vera Borisova who finished school a year before that and i5now working in the tool shops, have achieved such 'performance that their photographs are displayed ou tire plant Honour Board among the lorcinost wnrr kers, 1'he yowl; workers of the Ball Bearing Plant. live the full life of their plant's close-knit working family. Most of them continue their education attending re i various courses givers at the plant ; many attend Ii ,junior er_ginecring college at the plant. '.There is at the plant also an evening branch of' the Automotive E gi- rrec i irg Institute where many young workers are re- ceiving a higher education and the professor of engineer, coml,rrrirg work and study. 'Hie burner school mates frequently meet in their pi>rr is Ilouse of Culture. Here one can have a good t.itnc, dance, read an interesting book in the library, tints a. lecture, see a film or show, play chess, etc. The young workers take an active part in the diflcrent sp? rts sections of the House of Gultu ~ I ove for sports is inculcated in the lads and girls } ' en they are yet in tire: vocational school. At each Lab Qt r Reserves school Owl(, is a branch of' the Labour Reserves Sports Society winch holds a prominent place in thh Soviet sports world. 1)rrr?ing the eleven years of its existence, Vocational School No. 2 has trained many thousands of skilled workers for the socialist industry. Services for Moscow's Tramway Workers: An additional dwelling space of b,hrIt) wire metres will be made available Iirr _Mo:xow's trait way workers in new or rebuilt ap:n tment }a_eru,ses before the end of this year. The best health resorts ,use at the service of the workers. This year alone, the regional cotnrnittr .e of' the ntwticipal workers' union secured a.ccotnrnoda ions, [sir 2,2Su workers in sanatoriums and tine a further : ,7I:x Ill rest homes. 2,540 children of the stir eet car wo (tiers spent the school holidays in srrnrmer ca.rnos, and I,U(1(i children of pre-school age wcrc taken to country ph: cc s. The city transport worker., of the capital burr ' at their service a polyclinic with hospitalization facilities ct1uippcd according to the latest word in medicine. and dispcr,saries in all the depot . and shops. finis y .ar`s social insurance budget of the regional comniittec r I' the union approximates fiti million rubles. Artificial Climate Laboratory: Art artificial climate labour gory with automatic i real: ing, cooling, and air conditioning installations w11 be equipped in the Main Botanical Garden of the Acac enry of Sciences of the USSR by the Timiryazcv Institute of' Plant Pi;ysiology. Specially equipped chambers will have facilities for testing the action of the wind, rain and other sharp meteorological changes on plant development. The green-}rouses will have various climatic conditions cor- responding to all the climatic zones - front wat rles'; deserts and humid subtropical regions to the regions of the extreme North. 'l'ire problems connected with the establislunc it of this laboratory, unprecedented in world practice 1,)i- its scope, were discussed at a meeting of the Presidiurn of the Academy of Sciences cf the USSR. In its de(isiorn the Presidium emphasized the special significance c f tire new laboratory in connection with the Stalin phi i for remaking nature and the extensive work of the Soviet scientists oil changing the nature of plants. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 240,000 College Students in Moscow T HERE is not a section in the alpha- betical index of the Guide to Moscow that does not contain one or several names of higher schools of the capital. Avia- tion Institute, Automobile Engineering, Automobile and Road Construction Engi- neering, Architectural... Mechanical Engi- neering, Medical, Metallurgical Mechaniza- tion of Agriculture, Music Teachers' Insti- tutes, Meat Packing Industrial Institute... Institutes of Economic Statistics, Economy, Electrical Engineering, International Re- lations, etc. Moscow is one of the biggest educational centres. It is hard to find a branch of technology or of the hi is itiec that is not -resented the __ p__.,_....,.. programmes of its colleges, Slightly less than a quarter of a million-z?o,ooo students are attending the c89 higher schools of the Soviet capital. Moscow alone has a greater college epic!n'_cnt than Eiitain, Italy. Belgium and Sweden taken together. Admission to the higher schools of Moscow is open to applicants from all parts of the Soviet Union. All the numerous nationalities of the USSR are represented among the students of the university and institutes of the capital. The Soviet higher school equips the students with well grounded knowledge in general and special subjects, knowledge based on the materialistic, scientific world concept, and fosters in the young generation the lofty feelings of love for the Motherland, educating energetic The higher schools of Moscow have a staff of 12,000 professors and lecturer's, They include outstanding authorities and celebrated Academicians. The higher schools have excellently equipped labora- tories the students are given every possibility for practical training, and they have at their disposal all the libraries of the capital with their rich collec- tions of books, museums, theatres, days. The num rous laboratori-s and science rooms of this school are equipped in accordance with the late t word in technology-with motor,. mr.c"irre tools, instruments and research ann_ Titus of the latest m_aei.s. T,e staff of the school ir- cluaes about 30 Stalin Prize \Vinners. The graduates of his institri e now employ(d as specialists on internal combustion engines, locomotive designees. mechanical engineers, or metallurgical en~,incers, think with gratitude of their student years at the BHST, one of till be't hig')er schools In L "e factories and mills. Practically all the students receive state stipends, and those who make out- standing pgress in their studies are warded Stalin Scholarships. There is the Bauman Higher School of Technology which will observe its 12t1dh anniversary in 1952. The Soviet system has enabled this school to raise the education of young engineers to a high plane which was unthinkable in the old Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 in the Soviet Union. Then there is the Molotov Electrical Engineering Institute of Moscow, known in er the ab breviat.erl name of MEL Ti, numerous buildings, extending in blocks in the neighbourhood of the Yauza River, make up a veritable town. Its eight faculties are training several thousand future builders of hydro-electric stations, transmission lines, turbines, automatic machinery, specialists in telemechanics and electronic technology. In the laboratories which occupy several buildings one may see a Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 rr:a,t power plant, a heat and power plant with the latest models oh Fury h. pressure boilers, trans- transmission systems, etc., in it word, everytiiirig iii which the SpccialiOI, in coustructiorr and opera- iiou ohinodcrn power svstcnis must fry.'wised. 1,itualed in a picturesque locality ern the outskirts of 'iIoscow, is the 'I'imitvazev Agricultural Academy. Its forest tracts, ex pcrirnental fields and gardens, orchards, green houses, ii inseties, farms, apiaries, gazing Kurd a.ncl ponds occupy au area of 670 lu'ctares. Flower beds are conspi- a uous on the (mounds around the Ii nautifizl btrildins;s where :3,500 Iil lure agroil Jrrrists, Sc Icctio 1, fists, iigiocheinists, livestock specialists, vit:icultur ists and horticttltur7sts live uar.l tudy. " Timiryazcvka, " as he lludents lovingly call their alma ma,icr, ins i):) chairs aud200 lafiora- iOr7eS. 'Fill, ( )!_jonikidze Geological Pros- trecturg Institui:e, the AIendeleycv I hcmical 'Icchnologv I1;ztitutc, the litailwa.y I:rtgiuccring Insti- I uta', the Lenin Pedagi1L a iii insti- tute a.nd other higher schools of, the apita.l also attract lariie numbers ii rr.[)pli;h ilts.. The doyen of the higher schools of the capital is the Lomonosov State University of Moscow. This oldest educational centre was the alma mater of Radishchev, Griboycdov, Lermontov, Belinsky, Iierzen, Ogarev, '1'urgenev, Chekhov, Iliedikltin, Granovsky, Carebyshcv, Pirogov, Sechenov, Timiiya e,v, Stoletov, Zhukovsky and othci luminaries of Russian science and letters who studied, lec- tured and conducted research in the laboratories and scientific so- cieties of this university. The University has a staff of 1,000 prolcssors and lecturers, and ten thousand students who have dedicated themselves to mathematics, philology, history, jurisprudence, chemistry, geology and physics. There are 12 faculties with more than I60 chairs, more than 190 laboratories and 11 research iirstitutcs. Ucsigrtcd by the celebrated Kazakov, the old building of the university with its cupola-shaped main section which faces one of Moscow's central square is an asset to the architecture of the capital. Xformted on a granite pedestal at the campus is a mnuwnent to the, launder of this university, the great Russia!! scientist: M. Louionosov. His arm resting on a globe, he is engro....d in reading a scroll held in his otter r hand...... But III(- Inajestic: blocks oh the new buildirr."s of the university already tower !,]()It over Moscow, on the Lenin lips. '('heir constrt ctiorr is rlearinw completion. On if c ioitia- tivc of 11. V. Stalin, every provision has b(( 11 ntade for successful studies and wutific res.earc.h. It planned to allocate the co- lossal f ,~!ildirrgs, which have to equal in Olt ; orld for their rnagni ride and equipr?rertt, tohe natural science lacatlt i( ,. Construction i, under- way n,;trby on cornfortal>Ic apart- ment -nrscs for 6,001) stud~ail.s and proli,;.,-,rs. `ihcrc will be a theatre, gymn.c iums, it shorts stad urn and shops. lining halls and c1iik nurser- ies. 'I fin university will haw its own astron, inical ob,scrvatnry, netcoro- logicai ratio n, powerful acrd-hydro- dyuannu? tubes, a geological ouscum, fundaurntLal Iil,rary, a botanical gmrdrii with greenhouses, ae, uariusrrs and unounous Iaboratories c quipped according to the latest sword in Lccl,1II,1 igy? Arn11ng those who will s( on work Goidi used os Page '_2-1) 1 "reasure-House of the Art of the Eastern Peoples By 1. Barashko I ill-(,;,t ill Moscow ! at bears, 0 Iint darn) of the Rsrssiau plrysi(iar, Olnakli stands a bnd,tiiId in Vvirielr are 'ollected monuurcnts c:fthc art and 1 ilture oh the I. ! .1., of I?r it landlord, servitude that. left. him with boundless hatred for the oppress,+rrs of the working folk. Outstanding mere of P ussian arts and letters played an important role in Slung-chenko's life, among them the noted painter K. Bryullwv and the poet V. %,hukovsky, 18 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 When Shevchenko was twenty-tour his freedom was bought for him by his Russian [fiends and, a painter of talent, he was enrolled a+ the Academy of Arts in St. 1 eters- burg. 'I'kr.e him covers twenty years of Shevchenko's life, beginning with 1841., after his graduation, from the Academy of Arts and return to the Ukraine. His activity in the Ukraine is shown against the background of important events of the time, and brings out the close, inviolable tics that bound the universally-- recognized national poet of the IJkraisn.e with the toiling masses. In poetry reflecting the feelings of the serf peasantry crushed by bondage to the landlord and reduced to the position of` slaves, Shcvchenko preached merciless hatred for opres- sors--- from the tsar to the landlords- and called upon the people forcibly to overthrow despotism. Passionate and impetuous, hating tyranny with all his heart and soul, ready at any moment to take up arms against the oppressors of the corn- l inrnz people----such was Slievchenkro in real life, and thu. do we see him on the screen. For his literary activity and his participation in a secret political society Slievchcnko aroused the hatred. of the tsar satraps and the re- actionary landowners of the Ukraine. Tlrc: film prescnts the poet's chief enemy, sting, arrogant ts,sr Nikolai I, who passed a frighlfi.tl, a mmrls- troitsly brutal serltc ncc upon lurn : exile as a rank-and-file. soldier for an n.nliinited term, st.rictl.y Ior!ndden either to write or to paint. (Continued on [cage 24 Inp ; I still ./rom the flrn. 1 aras Shearhenko has a talk with serf peasants. f;~rrtri. . lnrns ,sbr';rhenG, ;~al,d I, .1'. Ha's/os Inrd protects to !ht Irrnrlorrwr Bar rrbrrsh. Ti iltuur 7 he tsa sf. ;ucerrunexf. unio"o it i, exiled 11 e i,enple s poet to it bleak ,fart*ess en the east mast ')/ the Caspian, rerhere lie zrwasforeed to sen?e as a snldicr and forbidden fo write or (Iran'. 'I hese ,rrerc the hmdesl 7%ears of Sheacherrko'.s life. .Everything passible was done to break his militant spirit, to degrade and humiliate him. But in the fortress, too, he drew his strength from the people t--, n. his .friendship with his Jelloss' soldiers, l~les.; Russians, In !Iris -still wv see Tara, . Yrerthess1 s (acted by S. Bondarc/sul) and soldier ,4kobeler (nod bT ,1 1. Kuznetson). Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 At the Construction .sites of People's Poland .Al\'Y districts of Lode, a city with a,. 700,00(1 population, did not Lave running water before the war. On der Olt J5hotn (tom tug, to lollom) ..'VeCy (I nato? wm il) I', Iitoru, fhi+ls rq,hnl he rewker's s,lllement in 'Ggo?ellce looks like today, A workers' louse of rulturc woo recently opened in this building near the " Odre " rement,factory in Opal, outskirts the sewage drifted. along the gutters and sidewalks, and it is there that tubercular and rickety children place, f. The death rate ii; Lodz was twice as Thigh as in Poland's other cities. The dirtiest ant most horrible place in Lodz was Baloty districr, which became a synonym for poverty, crime and prostitution. 'today new houses for 60- -70,000 people are being hnilt in this district. 'i'went:y- five buildings with lour thousand coml )rtahlc, airy and sunny rooms have already been built for the weavers. By the end of the current year another 30 such buildings will he b rilt for the Lodz workers. Much building wni k is going on in BAoty in these days. One has to wander quite a bt along this remarkable landscape in order to realize what tremendous construction work is going on here... . We can already feel today wh it that day in Lodz will be like when the old textile workers will gaze won new Baloty," writes Trybuna Ludu." Socialist cities an also appearing in other districts of Poland ground the newly built factories. A steel plant, Poland's pri le has recently been put into operation in Czens- toclow. -Tow unlike t .is plant is to the small dirty little factory that belonged to Mgr. Gandtke ! 'flee workers' settlement I(m) has changed. Nev' dwel- ling houses are being erected : all the old houses have running water, lir,ht and a sewage sys.ern. A new Socialist city, of* 'I'ychy is rapidh rising; in Silesia. '[he wall . of 15 blocks apa rtment houses are rising ill one district and the foundalions have Ircii laid for another !,1 build- urgs. Pa.'/ of them he ready by the ~nd of this year. Tall, exam'(,; table and sparic;us hou=,cs for workers are. appr:u-ing in place of If e tiny oiic-storey houses. In capitalist Poland ball' of the citier were built ofwood. Accordi;ig to statistical data t; cii.y houses out of 10 ha'l neither a sewage nor running water. Six ?tit of ten city houses were lit by kerosene lamps. Today People's Pohuid is building 23( new settlements, 15) central districts of cities an being repaired and 7 old ei st.ric''s ale being r -,con.s- tructed. In all these settlements school: and clubs, hospitals and kindergartens, creche; and cinema theatres are ):king built simultaneously with apartment houses. 1'lni.s means that hwcdreds of thousands of plain people are today living better and in greater comfort in Poland than befog e. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 t /Hont{~ A Short Story By F. KNORRE (Concluded) The first part of this short story "The First Month" by F. Knorre appeared in our issue No. 1, 1952. The story depicts an event in the life of a common worker. ti Stankus, an unemployed worker met near a way side station a young lad Laonas who was going to Ozerno for a job. Stankus was very sceptical about the whole idea, but when Laonas showed him the post card giving informa- tion about jobs he jumped up and rushed with the lad to get into a train going to Ozerno. Stanku's one worry s was that they would arrive too late and what ever jobs were there would be taken up by the first corners. All his past experience of jobs lost, casual work, long periods of un- employment, humiliations and insults warned him against being sure of getting a job easily. In the course of conversation Laonas tells Stankus of what be had heard about the new times where there would be no unemployment. Stankus did not believe that there could be any place in the world without unemploy- ment. Laonas told him about the law in Soviet Union where the `The right to work' was guaranteed. He also told him about their country Lithuania which had joined the Soviet Union and as such had the same laws applicable to them. When they reached Ozerno, Stankus rushed out like mad to reach the construction works. In the way he saw a placard asking for hands in the construction works. L hi th t St ku i w aonas sa s amazement a an to s was tear ng down the placard and when he asked for an explanation Stankus told him that he did not want a crowd of workers to follow on their tracks for the same jobs. They both got jobs and started working. Stankus had never specialized in any job and he could do a little of everything, but nothing well. Now read on : This was simply because for years he had been shifted from one conveyor to another against his will, working on a machine in a rubber factory and then on a semi- automatic lathe in a plant producing farm machinery, and in the months between washing the windows of skyscrapers, taking care of mules or picking strawberries. The foreman, old man Zhukauskas, under whom Stankus worked as assistant repair mechanic, realized the sort of man he had under him, but kept him on the job, handing in a satisfactory report on his work. This he did partially through weakness of character and partially he was sorry for this mature, thirty-five-year-old worker who tried and hurried with all his might, endeavouring to use his sharp wits to conceal his lack of skill and evidently fearing that it would be discovered. They had just taken apart a' defective engine. Each time Stankus bent. down to lay the greasy, worn-out parts in order on a. board, his head swam oddly. He had caught cold in the freight car and had felt limp and giddy several times. The queer feeling had grown worse in the last two days, so that all he wanted to do was to sit down and cover his eyes. More than anything else Stankus feared that the foreman would notice it. Bad luck like this had pursued him all his life. No sooner did he get a decent job than something happened. He realized very well that Zhukauskas had been very displeased with his work the first few days and he had kept waiting for the old devil to go and tell the boss and then fire him. And now, when things seemed to be going much better; he had to start running a temperature. Clenching his teeth, he walked out to the gate, hoping that the fresh air would make him feel better. He lit a cigarette but after holding it in his hand he threw it away in disgust. It was painfully hot in the sun, the wall against which Stankus leaned was hot, and the grass with the fresh chips scattered over it looked hot in the sun. The old devil (he liked Zhukauskas, but Stankus always called him " old devil " because he was, all the same the foreman, the boss, and that meant sooner or later you could expect something dirty from him) . . . the old devil would notice that he was ill and would send him to the office, and Stankus wouldn't make it to the end of the week and pay- day ! Then, worse luck, he'd be in bed a few days and . . . goodbye job ! Another man would take his place ! No, he'd hold out through tomorrow if he busted. And tomorrow was Saturday. He'd hold out another day, and on Sunday he'd be able to lie in bed the whole day. He'd ask Laonas to pour pailfuls of cold water over his head. He shook himself and returned to the shop, where he sat down on the floor, his legs crossed. Looks like something's the matter with you," remarked the foreman. "Lobster-eyed devil," Stankus muttered to himself. To the foreman he said hurriedly in a loud voice : " Nothing at all, foreman, nothing at all ! It's nothing, just the heat and those chips, maybe ! " " Chips, did you say ? " asked Zhukauskas in amazement. Stankus himself realized he'd said something silly. He laughed. " No," he said with a laugh. " What have chips to do with it ? " " Listen, you didn't have too much to drink, did you ? " the foreman asked anxiously. That seemed like a wonderful idea to Stankus. " Please forgive me, foreman," he said. " I did. My head's still aching from last night." He even tried to wink. 64 It'll go away in a minute. There's nothing to it." He bent over the dismantled engine, stooping lower than he had intended, picked up the wrench and silently got down to work. But the foreman kept standing over him, looking at him, the devil. " And your face is red," he persisted. " You're not ill, are you ? " "Everything's all right, foreman, thank you, everything's all right," Stankus pleaded, simmering with rage. " Nothing's all right. Here now, go over to the dis- pensary, do you hear ? Go and have a doctor look at you." Stankus bent his head and went on working stubbornly. He did not answer until the old man shook him by the shoulder and forced him to rise. Then he stood up, flung the wrench onto the ground, and gazed with hatred into Zhukauskas' worried face. " That's not honest on your part, foreman ! " he ex- claimed. " Honest to God, it's not honest to act like that. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 What are you driving me out for ? What business is it of yours what my face looks like ? Did I refuse to work ? I'm working, and you leave me alone ! " He was in a bad state ; his mouth was dry, and a heavy hand seemed to be pressing against the insides of his eyes. M-. turned aside and walked off, picking up his feet with difficulty. Suddenly he bumped against something with his shoulder so that he staggered, and of course after that there was no sense arguing any longer. " All right," he said roughly'. " I'll go to the doc, and he'll tell you I can work. Who are you, foreman or doc ? Don't stick your nose in what isn't your business." As he was crossing the construction site where the car- penters were squaring logs, he was struck with revulsion at the thought that they were making still more chips like those ,tattered all around. Halfway across he turned around, returned and shouted defiantly : " Hey there, foreman ! Don't forget to mark down half a day's work to me. I did work half a day ! Don't you go playing any tricks on me ! He talked and argued about something in the dispensary, although it was hard for him to sit up and he ceased to nnnderstand what lie was arguing about or what. he wanted. IIt- vaguely felt that things were very bad ; he was in for it, his illness couldn't be concealed... His temperature proved to be extremely high. He was taken by the arm and led off somewhere. Only after several days of delirium and black periods when his memory was a blank, did Stankus come to himself, weak and completely indifferent to everything His cheeks pale and s. unken, Stankus sat on the hospital veranda with the other convalescents, absorbed in a game of dominoes. Through the leaves of the wild gravevine half covering the window the little hospital courtyard was visible flooded with bright sunshine. Senior nurse Lily, erect and graceful in her starched white uniform, crossed the courtyard from the dressing station. A long-eared puppy sleeping in the shade rose and lazily followed her across the hot stones. The whole scene was familiar, an everyday scene. But now it was coming to an end, all of it-the clean linen., the regular meals, the doctor listening attentively through his stethescope as though some precious instrument were hidden in Stankus' breast, the domino games and the long hours of rest in an armchair on the veranda. All this would soon be coming to an end. The thought of it sent cold shivers down Stankus' back. After such a life of luxury +pz;ain freight cars or sleeping in the park ? It did not bear chinking of! Nurse Lily again crossed. the courtyard and suddenly turned to the veranda. He slapped down a domino and crew tense, not turning around. Oh, Stankus," she said. " You haven't forgotten we're (i hchargi ig you today, have you ? " She smiled as she said this, and the three who were playing dominoes with him also smiled and looked at him AS if it was his birthday, the fools " No, of course I haven't," he exclaimed cheerfully. Can't wait to get back home ! " If they thought he should be glad then he'd show them lcce was. damn them ! " Perhaps you'd like to come along with me now? Or tb you prefer to wait till dinner ? " " Why, it's all the same to me whether it's now or in an !anon." - He shrugged his shoulders. " Certainly, if it is more convenient for you now. . . I'll be glad to. We'll just finish this game. , . " When Stankus received his washed linen, jacket and trousers, and put on clumsy, hard boots instead of the soft house slippers he had worn in the hospital, he suddenly felt weak, miserable and alone. " I've given you a lot of trouble ! " he said to Nurse Lily in parting. " That's our work," the nurse replied kindly. " It wasn't any trouble at all. Keep well, Stankus," Stankus felt the most gratitude toward her for the fact that she did not immediately slam the door after him. He reached the house where he lived. The old witch stared at him in surprise but let him in. Laonas' cot was covered with a new blanket. " Making a home for him- self," Stankus thought ironically as he flung himself onto the cot. When Laonas returned from work he found his friend in a black mood. As he entered the door his face broke into a smile, shook Stankus' hand joyfully, and sat down on the edge of the bed at his feet. " Well, how are you feeling ? All :right ? " Not bad. Well enough for the coming trip, at any rate." " Have you really decided to leave ? That's too bad Laonas said. " There's nothing for it... That's the way it is with rne, and that's all. Horrible habit. Want a change of impres- sions, don't you see ! Beautiful scenery, interesting people, and so on and so forth ! " " Yes, I see," agreed Laonas in a puzzled, despondent voice. " But I'm used to'our being together... " "; You. are ? . . You're a good fellow, and we ought to say goodbye properly. Here, take this and run down to the corner. My treat. Take it! " Laonas stared at the money irresolutely, took it un- willingly and went out. The money that Stankus had given, him for vodka was almost the last he had, and drinking vodka right after the hospital was probably no good. That's what urged him on. It didn't matter if there was no money and drinking was bad for him. Let it be bad ! Laonas drank in the country fashion ; the full glass of the stuff went down slowly, like water, without disgust and without the slightest bravado-without grunting, pounding on the table, or exclamations. In a burning stream the vodka flowed through his body, reached his heart, and Laonas gave a sigh. Then it reached his tongue, and he started talking. "' There won't be another comrade like you . . . who understands everything... and who's seen everything." He gave a deep sigh. " And who sympathizes.... "' Things are bad with me, my lad," said Stankus. " Old age is approaching. What ? You think old age comes with a bent back ? Nonsense ! Old age is when a man begins to think and meditate, and suddenly he realizes that he doesn't feel that real rage which makes him fight with all and everyone for his piece of bread. Then it's the end for him, even though he still has the strength, the way I have. Do you understand ? " Laonas nodded with such sympathy that the curls on his forehead bobbed. " Of course I do ! " " You don't understand anything. But listen and Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 answer. Who's working in my place now ... for that old turnip Zhukauskas, iri the repair shop ? " " Who ? " Laonas tried to remember. " Ah-a fellow with a moustache, he's from Panevezhis. I don't know his name, but he has a little moustache.... " All right, the hell with him and his moustache. Now, what would a real man do in my place ? He'd wait for that fellow with the moustache after work in the evening, and have a talk with him. A sincere, frank talk with him. He'd explain to him that the place was already taken, it wasn't his. And that the fellow could go to hell. And if lie got stubborn, he'd let him have it on the chin. And then he'd go to the foreman and say : ' Mr. Foreman, your repairman, the old polecat, isn't coming to work, so take me back." Laonas opened his mouth wide. " Really ? " he ex- claimed. " Absolutely ! I remember an instance in Pennsylvania, or maybe Oklahoma, can't say for sure, but the guy was called Boogy. Something like a boxer, he was. When he was fired and they took someone else in his place, he waited for his happy successor every evenirg and beat him up. The other fellow was pretty puny, but he held out six days, although he was all covered with bruises. Until finally Boogy sprained his wrist for him. Then the foreman turned him out in 24 seconds, and Boogy was right there on the spot. Everything seemed to be fine. But the nextday the nephew of the foreman's wife was working in the place of the fellow ? with the sprained wrist. Boogy went home, his huge fists clenched, and he kept repeating words that made the truck drivers shudder, and a policeman whom he passed turned his back and started admiring the flowers in a window. Finally Boogy ran into the man whose wrist he had sprained just as the latter was moving some household goods and his wife and two kids out of their apartment into a vacant lot. Then Boogy realized instantly why he'd endured those beatings for six days, and something began to turn over inside him. The man with the sprained wrist saw him and said : ` Look here, don't you see that I'm walking with my wife and my wrist's sprained ? ' " It's a little bit late but I see ! " Boogy answered, and he said : " Honest to God, I'd smash in the mug of the one who gave you that sprained wrist if I could, but you know why I can't.' " ` I know, only get away from me ! ' said the guy with the wife. " ` All I can say is that if I got work now,' said Boogy, ` I'd give all my pay to your family.' " ` Maybe I believe you,' said the puny fellow, `but now get away from me quick ! ' " And Boog.y said : `All right, I'm off,' and he gave the man's wife a low blow and went home, right down the middle of the street. And his eyes flashed white. He was thinking of how to find the one who was really to blame and kill him or at least cripple him ! " Anci'that's the end for a man. If you start thinking whether the fellow who shoved you out of a job has a children or an anemic, pregnant wife or a wrinkled old grandmother then your'e done for ! You won't have that rage. There was a time when my cars flapped, and I ran along with my tail between my legs, ready to lick any hand that didn't have a stick in it. And I imagined that I would work as hard as I could and I would find a boss who would be touched by my industry. Then everything would be perfectly wonderful ! " Stankus threw himself back in his chair. Laughter and a fit of coughing shook him to such a degree that he could not strike a match for his cigarette. " It can't be you never found a kind boss ! " the lad ex- claimed apprehensively. " A kind boss ? " Stankus repeated between coughs. Finally he got his cigarette lit, raised it to his eyes, and studied it attentively. " There are no kind bosses. No, my boy, there aren't ! " Stankus shouted bitterly, dropping his cigarette onto the table, then picking it up mechanically and sticking it into his mouth unlit, but forgetting to puff on it. " It's true that some bosses are kind men. But there's no such thing as a kind boss. What is a boss? To you, as long as you work for him-one of he tl.ousar_ds in his factory or the dozens on his farm-he's everth.ing, Le's God! But to other bosses., the bigger ones, he himself is only a pawn. See ? He also needs all his rage and fear and hard- heartedness so that others won't crush him, won't eat him up, the ones that are more cruel and bad than he is." Laonas shook his head gloomily, agreeing and doubting at the same time. Realizing that he wasn't smoking, Stankus started to_, puff hard on his cigarette. Laonas kept sighing as he con- centrated on smearing a bit of split vodka over the table with his finger. Suddenly he smiled, his artless face lit up with a kind of cunning joy. ,.., "Oh ! " he exclaimed as Le raised his finger. " That means it's fine. That means it's really . . . It's really fine that we don't have any bosses any more. No bosses at all, neither kind ones nor bad ones. .. Right ? " Right... But still, there are chiefs just the same " Chiefs ! But how can you do without a chief ? You've got to have one. Hill, a chief ! But he is an engineer. Of course he's got to be over me, since he understands and I don't ! " " That's right, he's an engineer. And you're not an engineer. And you'll never be an engineer. That's what it's all about, booby." " All right, maybe I'm a booby. But I'm going to study and then maybe I won't be a booby any more." " That's the thing-study. You said it. But how ? " "Well, I'm studying a little already," And Laonas smiled shyly. Stankus waved his hand in front of his eyes to drive away the smoke so he could get a better look at his comrade's face.. " You ? But who needs your studying ? What are they teaching you rabbits ? Read soul-saving pamphlets to you, do they ? Or teach you to sing psalms in chorus ?" " Why no, I want to learn to be a machine operator. To tell the truth, I didn't dare think about it, but then I got so worked up I went and asked. It turned out I could study. It turns out that they need as many operators as possible. Machine operators get much better pay. And if you. have a head on your shoulders you can go on studying further." " Is your head clear ? Not seeing double, are you ? No, I'm serious. Maybe you're not used to drinking ? " "Well, maybe I did have a drop, but my copybooks are lying over there. I didn't dream them." " Well, let's . see. " Star kus distrustfully picked up a copybook and opened it. He held it out at arm's length, screwed up his eyes and began to read suspiciously. " The work cycle of the engine. Internal combustion engine," he read aloud, and then continued to read to himself, grin- ning craftily as much as to say, We'll soon find out where the trick is ! Just wait ! . Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Ile leafed through the copybook for a long time. He looked at the very end. Then he carefully closed it and put it. back. " So. That's fine. If it weren't, Stankus wouldn't say it was. You've been damned lucky and I'm glad for you." Maybe you'll change your mind about going? What do you want to keep travelling for?" Laonas exclaimed with new energy. " And what am I going to do here if I stay, if you're so clever ? " " What do you want new scenery for ? The hell with scenery ! What do you want to leave a good job for just because of some kind of scenery ? Honestly, I'm asking you like a friend... " " What are you talking about ? You yourself said some- one else was working in my place, a fellow with a moustache." " So what ? You weren't fired ! There's a job waiting for you. No, nothing of the sort, I'm not drunk. No matter how much you shake me I'm still not drunk and I know I'm not. There's a law like that: if a man's sick he can't be fired. He's even paid something for the time he's ,fut. I know what I'm saying. Stop shaking me. I myself couldn't believe it at first ! " " What are you trying to tell me ? That I can go over there tomorrow just as though 1 hadn't been out a month and say, ` Hello, foreman, I feel better. Let's have some work? ' And he won't think they' ve let me out of a mad- house ? " Yes, that's what you have to say. Only a little more politely. Where are you going ? " Without paying any attention to him, Stankus rose. " Come on out into the yard ! " he said pulling him by the arm. As always, Laonas obediently followed his comrade, 1.!;rinning, a little anxiously. Stankus moved a big wash-tub over to the edge of the well and poured in two pailfuls of water. " Now then together ! " he ordered, preparing to plunge his head into the tub. " But I'll sober up right away," Laonas protested. " It's a pity to waste all that vodka. Let's stay drunk an- other half hour at least ! " Stankus imperiously took him by the collar and they thrice plunged their heads into the water, the first time separately and the next two times together. Snorting and puffing, they rose and faced each other, wiping off the water on their necks and shaking off the water running down their collars. " Has it passed ? " asked Stankus, looking at his friend closely. " All gone, just as though it had never been ! " declared Laonas regretfully. They sat down on a log, leaned back against the edge of the well, and lit up. " Well, how is it row ? " asked Stankus. " Let's get the thing clear. You have copybooks. That means it's a fact, doesn't it ? Yes, it does. And do you remember what else you said ? " " Of course I do." " That I wasn't fired and that I have a job ? That I'm sitting here and it's waiting for me ? " It's a fact ! " Stankus again looked him closely in the face. Then he propped up his chin in his hands and sat silent for a long time. Finally he said slowly and thoughtfully. ' " I've travelled a long time, my lad, a hell of a long time . . . And not always by the shortest route, it seems. But it looks like I've finally come exactly where I want to. I do believe this is the very spot I looked for all over the world. I swear it is ! " (Continued from Page 14) in these laboratories-bend over the microscopes and re- torts, watch the complex instruments or fill their notebooks with elaborate formulas, we are certain to meet many of the builders employed on the construction of this bright palace of science. x x x x x x x x The higher schools of Moscow are so organized as t afford to the greatest possible number of working people the possibility for a college education. 't'his is facilitated by the large network of correspondence institutes and correspondence courses offered by the higher ',drools. About 100,000 people are taking correspondence co _rrses in Moscow. There are several academies in Moscow with a two-year course for leading engineering and technical workers employed in national economy who already received a college training, as, for example the Academy of the Coal Mining :Industry, Academy of the Aviation Industry arid Academy of the Oil Industry. These academies offer possibilities for improving the ideological and theoretical 'revel, for studying the latest achievements of science and ineerin g in the given branch of industry. ti-n g l'he Timirya.zev Agricultural Academy has a special laculty for collective farm chairmen. The course is based on a special programme, which includes laboratory and f rrn ractice under the guidance of eminent authorities. a secondary schools training school teachers, librarians, medical workers, industrial specialists, etc. The 144 speciali- zed secondary schools of the capital are attended by 96,000 students. X X x x x x x X About 30,000 college trained specialists and about 0,000 graduates of the specialized secondary schools receive their diplomas in Moscow every year along with appointments to different cities and villages of the country. And tens of thousands of young men- and women come to Moscow every autumn to begin their college education. (Continued from page 19) Shevcherrko's story is the story of the finest represen- tatives of advanced public thought, men who lived, worked and fought during one of the darkest periods in Russian history. His years as a soldier strongly affected Shevcherrko's health. He went into exile at the age of thirtythree, healthy and strong, and emerged prematurely aged and. broken in health. Nothing, however, could crush his powerful spirit, his tremendous, unyielding will, his hatred of the people's enslavers. Of himself Shevchenko wrote : " All that inexpressible suffering, all those years of humiliation and profanation have passed as though they had not touched me... I am. the same: as I was ten years ago. Not a single feature of my inner self p Furthermore, Moscow has a wide network of specialized has changed. " Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Shevchenko returned to St. Petersburg from exile filled with profound faith in the lofty spiritual qualities of the toiler and an indomitable desire to struggle actively for a better future for the common people. The film ends with a short epilogue; high above the broad river Dnieper that Shevchenko glorified a tall, majestic monument has been erected over his grave. The Soviet people cherish the memory of their great countryman. His grave is covered with flowers laid there by the tens and hundreds of men and women who come to pay their respects to the true son of the Ukrainian people, great poet and ardent revolutionary. Shcvchenko's immortal poetry has become a part of the treasure-store of world literature. In the Soviet Union his poems and verses are published in huge editions in 35 languages of the peoples of the USSR and are read by millions. Children recite them in schools and many of them have been set to music and have, become favourite folk songs. (continued , from page 5.) consumption of the great variety of food products and manufactures by the masses of the people in the USSR. We have shown before how great is the increase in the national income of the USSR, and, in consequence, the part used for expanding Socialist production and for meeting the needs of the government and other public services. This makes it possible to undertake huge capital construction works. It has been reported be- fore that in the 1946--50 five-year period there have been rehabilitated, built anew and put into operation over 6,000 big industrial establishments, more than 100,000?000 square metres of floor space for residential purposes in cities and many other construction develop- ments, and the scale of capital work is growing from year to year. Attesting to this, in particular, are the gigantic electric stations and irrigation systems now under cons- truction in the USSR, (Continued from page 18) the crop of branched wheat. There are numerous facts proving that grains of wild oats, the most pernicious weed of oats, are formed in the panicle of the latter. On being sown the seeds gave rise to wild oats. This important discovery of Michurin science throws new light on the problem of weed control. Not only mechanical admixtures should be had in mind but also biological admixtures arising from the formation of separate weed seeds in the ears of cultivated plants. This is primarily the result of poor agrotechnique and of particularly unfavourable conditions for the growth and development of cultivated plants. If the soil is cultivated well, if there is a sufficient amount of fertiliz- ers and the seeds are carefully selected then the varied qualities of the cultivated plants are improved and their productivity is increased. On the contrary, if the con- dition.s of the plant's growth are poor, cells and tissues are formed in the organism which give rise to seeds of another species better adapted to the poor conditions of growth than the cultivated plants. New developments in the teachings about the biolo- gical species, the discoveries of Michurin science, are of great significance for the development of socialist agri- culture. Results of 19th Chess Championship of USSR By Grandmaster Alexander Kotov THE 19th chess championship of the USSR which took place i t Moscow and lasted over a month has conic to a close. It stood cut for the unusually high calibre of its participants and for the ken battles which lasted to the very last round of the tournament. First place in the tournament was taken by Grandmaster P tu] Keres, who scored 12 points out of a possible 17. Keres has proven I is skill in this unusually keen tournament, giving a number of excellc it combi- national games. Ile displayed his readiness to meet his opponet is in com- plicated games, not fearing keen combinational battles. And that has gained him the country's chess championship for the second year in ;uccession. Second and third places, with 112 points, was shared by mass ers Yelim Geller (Odessa University student) and Tigran Petrosyan, the youngest participant, and holder of Moscow's chess title. Each of them has scored a wonderful success. Geller strived for a keen battle in every game, bringing abou veritable combinational storms on the chess board, in which he always tr anaged to gain the upper hand. Petrosyan's style is more solid. llis games are planned better. His youth promises big successes in the future. This is Petrosyan's third out- standing achievement in 1951. Fourth place was taken by Grandmaster Vasily Smyslov. This talent- ed and world famous chess player committed a tactical error t,wards the close of the competition. In striving for victories, he resorted to risky play, as a result of which he dropped two consecutive games. However, notwithstanding that setback, Smyslov achieved considerable results and demonstrated outstanding creative achievements. Especial note should be made here of the unsuccessful pc?formances of the world champion, Grandmaster Mikhail Botvinnik, and (1: andmaster David Bronstein. Botvinnik placed ]]ft It (10 points i, and Bronst in shared si-,-tight places with masters Averbakh and Taimanov (92 points). Botvinnik and Bronstein have rarely participated in USSR- tournaments ,luring the postwar years, and this has told on their play. Such long breaks in practical play and contact: with the talc] ited Soviet youth could not but have a negative effect on their creative performance. The underlying power of the Soviet chess players, as of the So% iet people as a whole, follows from their constant and strict self-criticism and Iheir ability to overcome shortcomings in (heir creative efforts. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release R013000010013-2 Approved For Release-2002/01/17 CIA-R?P83-00415R01300001.0003-2 "In Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 SOVIET LAND Vol. V No. 2 An Illustrated Fortnightly Journal Published by TASS in India January, 25 1952. Under the Banner of Lenin, Under the Leadership of Stalin By S. Titarenko T HE greater the distance separating us from the date of the death of V. I. Lenin; the great leader and teacher of the working people, the more evident is the grandeur of, Lenin's immortal cause, the titanic transformative power of the ideas of Leninism. The name of V. I. Lenin is inseparably associated with the new era in the liberation struggle :of the peoples, the radical turn in world history from the old, capital- ist world to the new, socialist world. V. I. Lenin was the founder and leader of the heroic Party of the Communists, the builders of the new, Com- munist society. V. I. Lenin was the organizer of the victorious Socialist Revolution in Russia, the founder and leader of the world's first Socialist State. V. I. Lenin rendered an immense service by elabo- rating the most important questions of strategy and tactics of the liberation struggle of the international pro- letariat. There is not a more or less significant problem of the international revolutionary movement on which Lenin did not leave most valuable directives which serve as a guiding star for the Communist and workers' parties. of all countries. Lenin's genius illumined to all working mankind the path of struggle for the victory of the ideals of Com- munism. The theory of Leninism has been developed and advanced by the great continuator of Lenin's cause, J.V. Stalin. The practical realisation of Lenin's behests is associated with Stalin's name. In 1924 in the name of the Bolshevik Party J.V. Stalin made the sacred vow over the bier of the un- forgettable leader and teacher : to, hold high and guard the purity of the great title of member of the Commu- nist Party ;.to guard the unity of the' Party as the apple of one's-eye to guard and strengthen the dictatorship of the working class. to strengthen with all might the alliance. of the workers and the peasants to promote the fraternal cooperation of the peoples of the Land of .Soviets to consolidate and extend the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ; to strengthen the armed forces of the Land of Socialism which stand on guard of the peaceful constructive labour of the Soviet people ; to strengthen and extend the union of the working people of the whole world. The heroic struggle of the Communist Party and of all the Soviet people for the fulfilment of this vow has been the keynote of all the years that have elapsed since the death of V. I. Lenin. J. V. Stalin raised-high the banner of Lenin and inspired the Party and ?all the working people of the USSR to the successful construe- Lion of Socialism. Inspired by the great ideals of Lenin and Stalin, the Soviet people have successfully coped with all the difficulties in the construction of Socialism: Within a brief historical period Socialism broi ht about unprecedented progress-of:the productive forces, science and culture in the Soviet Union. It has stirred up the initiative of millions of working people . and awakened them to the conscious creative effort of build- ing new socialist life. Having built the Socialist Society, the Soviet people are now confidently advan- cing toward the complete victory of Communism; The Great October' Socialist Revolution, the cons= truction of Socialism in the USSR and the historic victory of the Soviet Union in the war against the.fascist aggressors cleared the way for the conquest of a free and happy life by the working people of Poland, Czechoslo- vakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria and Albania, who have firmly taken to the course of socialist construction. The Chinese people have won a great victory under the leadership of their glorious Communist Party they have discarded the yoke of imperialism and are effecting sweeping democratic reforms. The German Democratic Republic has firmly :taken its place in the camp,'of democracy and peace. Under the banner of Leninism the liberation struggle of"the oppressed peoples against imperialist tyranny is,_ gain- ing mom en_ tum in the colonies rid de'pehdent count-r-ies. (Continued on page 2) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 International Stalin T HE International Stalin Peace Prizes " For the Promotion cf Peace Among Nations" (instituted on J. V. Stalin's seventieth birthday by a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S. i.R. of December 20, 1949) are awarded annually to citizens of all countries, irrespective of their political, religious or racial differences, for outstand- ing services in the struggle to preserve and strengthen peace. The prizes are adjudged by the International Committee, whose members include leading representatives of world democratic opinion. On December 18-20 the International Committee met in Moscow, under the chairmanship of Dmitry Skobeltsyn Member, of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, to examine the recommendations submitted for awards. The Committee members present were : Louis Aragon, writer (France), Dr. John Bernal (Great Britain), Pablo Neruda, poet (Chile), Dr. Jan Dembowski (Poland), Academician Mihail Sadoveanu (Rumania), Alexander Fadeyev and Ilya Ehrenburg, writers (U.S.S.R.). The International Stalin Peace Prizes for 1951 went to the following representatives of the democratic forces of various countries : Kuo Mo-jo-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, writer, dramatist and historian, He is the Deputy Premier of the State Adminis- trative Council of the Chinese People's Republic and Chairman of the All-China Association of Cultural, Literary and Art Workers. A tireless fighter for peace, progress and the independence of peoples, Ku.) Mo-jo heads the peace movement in China. Pietro Nenni-General Secretary of the Italian Socialist Party and Deputy of Parliament. Compelled to flee the country when Mussolini came to power, Nenni waged an indomitable struggle against the fascist regime during the seventeen years he was in exile. Arrested in France in 1943, he was deported to a penal prison in Italy from which he was released only after the downfall of the fascist regime. Nenni's daughter, Vittoria, perished in the Auschwitz death camp. During 1943-47, as Deputy Premier and Foreign Minister, Nenni strove to pursue a foreign policy that would meet the country's fundamental interests-a policy of peace with all countries, both in the West and East. He played an active part in organic;ing the (Continued from Page 11) Leninism illumines to the peoples the road in their great and lofty >truggle for peace in the whole world, of the freedom and independence of all peoples, big and small. The 28th anniversary of V. I. Lenin's death finds the Sovie people with new outstanding victories to their credit in the construction of Communism. Already at the beginning of last: year, the working people learned with joy that the first postwar Five-Year Plan for the restoration and development of the national economy of the USSR was fulfilled and its most important provisions were surpassed.The year 1951 witnessed still greater progress of socialist economy and culture. The national economic plan of the USSR for 1951 has been fulfilled and in many respects surpassed. Further successes have been made in strengthening the might of the Socialist State, in raising the living and cultural standard;; of the Soviet people. Inspired by the magnificent Stalin programme of Communist consti uction, the Soviet people are coping with the most difficult national economic problems. They are successfully building the world's greatest hydro electric stations, canals and irrigation systems; remaking nature in vast territories and preparing the ground for a powerful advancement of the productive forces in the Land of Socialism which will make it possible for the Soviet society to inscribe on its barriers: " From each accord- ing to his abilities, to each according to his needs." As distinct from the capitalist countries where production is a source of profiti for a handful of exploiters-billionaires, the development of national economy in 2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Peace Prize Awards Italian peace movement and was elected Chairman of its National Com- rnittee. Pietro Nenni is Vice-Chairman of the Bureau of the World Peace Council. I1cuo Oyama--Eniincrit Japanese scientist and Deputy of Parliament. During the years in emigration (from 1932), Professor Oyama in his writ- ings actively came out against the Japanese war lords. On his return to his native land at the end of the war lie appealed to the progressive forces of the Jaapanese people to safeguard their country against being drawn into a new world slaughter. Ini. April 1949, the first National Peace Congress was held in Japan, on the initiative of Oyama. This Congress laid the foundation stone of the organized peace movement in Japan. Monica Felton--Economist. Between 1937--116 was a Labour mem- ber ol`t:he London County Council, Chairman of the L.C.C. Supplies Com- mittee and a member of the Housing and Town Planning Committees. In 1.94(1 Mrs. Felton published the book " British War Production and the Consumer." In May 19 51. she visited Korea as a member of the Fact- Finding Mission of the Women's International Democratic Federation. On lice return to England Mrs. Felton addressed meetings at which she told the truth about Korea. In ,July 19 51 her book " What I Saw in Korea," appeared. Anna Seghers --Well-known German writer and active fighter against fasci.srn and war. Many notable novels, where the main theme is the struggle against Hitlerism, belong to the pen of this eminent author includ- ing "' The Road Through February," " The Rescue," " The Seventh Cross," The Dead Stay Young." Anna Seghers is in the van of the struggle fin- a united, independent, democratic and peaceable Germany. ?Jorge Amado--Brazilian writer, poet and public figure. In 1942 Anrado was elected a deputy to the National Congress of Brazil. Many of the writer's works portraying the life of the Brazilian people have won him fame far beyond the boundaries of his country. His best known books are : " Lands Without End,- ';' Land of Golden Fruit," "Red Blos sours." the Soviet Union is directed entirely in the interest of the working people. The national income grows year after year furnishing the basis for rise in the incomes of the workers, peasants and intellectuals. People, the working :masses, are considered the most precious assei in the Land of Soviets, and the welfare and happiness of the people is a matter of paramount concern to the Soviet state. Noteworthy success in peaceful construction has been achieved by the working people on the People's Democracies. Benefitting from the historical experience of the USSR,the free peoples of these countries are successfully building Socialism. They are developing new branches of production, building new industrial centres, railways and power stations. The scourge of unemployment has been eradicated, the ranks of the working class are growing and the living and cultural standards of the working people are being advanced in town and country. While the countries of the camp of Socialism and democracy are steering along the course of construction and uninterrupted progress, the reactionary circles in the capitalist world are whipping up the war hysteria, converting the economy of their countries to war production and burdening the working people with an increasingly heavier taxation. The imperialists are planning new military gambles, they are trying to unleash a third world, war. But no matter how the warmongers may rave in. their frenzy, nc matter what pacts and blocs they may knock together against the peace and security of the peoples, the forces of peace, (G,)ntinued on page 11) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 soviet Cinema Delegation to Film Festival in India Interview with Nikolai Semyonov !)efiuty Minister of Cinematography of the USSR, Head +-i the Soviet delegation v? HE Soviet cinema workers arc. with great interest lireparing to take part in the I iternational Film Festival to be held in India. Asked about. the tasks of the Soviet cinema industry, Nikolai Semyonov told our correspondent: ' 1'he story of 'Soviet cinema art, from its first big pictures, S. Eisenstcin`s "The Armoured Cruiser Potem- kin " and V. Pudovkin's " Mother," to the recent outstanding films, 341. Chiaureli's" The Fall of Berlin," Y. Raizman's " Cavalier of the Gold Star " and I. I,ukov's " Doiiets iners,'' is the story of struggle for productions of high ideological content, portraying the Soviet people's ardour for building and creating, and their noble striving for peace and friendship between nations. Soviet film makers create truthful, life-affirming, airtistic productions about Soviet men and women as they are building a new life, and their heroism in the Great Patriotic War when the entire Soviet people rose up in defence of their Homeland and all mankind ilgainsi fascism. ", Soviet film art has won universal recognition and love of the broad masses because it is profoundly Popular. It exists and develops in the interests of the people. The Soviet cinema industry strives thy each of its films to portray live, veracious images of Soviet men and women, and to be permeated with ideas that animate the Soviet people, the people-creator, the people-fighter for peace. Each Soviet feature film, portraying man's best traits--high morality, nobleness 'it character, will power, boundless devotion. to his people, amiability--inspires the spectator, by the example of its heroes, calls him to emulate the best and most beautiful in life, and stirs the creative energy of the millions. It is this which primarily distinguishes Soviet, cinema art from bourgeois film-making which, with a few exceptions, distorts life, distorts human nature, stuffing its pictures with sensational, intimate and vulgar trivialities ; with propaganda of gangsterism and misanthropy ; and with premeditated falsification of historical and biographical facts. Soviet cinema art is growing and developing as a c ultinational art. There are national film studios in practically all the Union Republics of the USSR: in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azer- baija.n, Armenia, Ukraine., Byelorussia, and the Baltic Soviet republics. And each Union republic has developed native producers, scenario writers, actors and :ximeramen. Each national studio puts out its films in the. language of its republic, which are later dubbed into the languages of all the other republics. Many of the national studios have put out cinema productions ankiug among the best and most popular Soviet films. Besides feature pictnn's, in the USSR at- widely produced documentaries and topical newsreel,. There is a Central Document a v? Film Studio in Moscow which puts out full-length films as well as news serials : " News of the Day," " Soviet Sports," and a special news serial for children "Soviet Pioneeria." Tien there are documentary film studios also in the cs.pitals of all the Union republics. In addition to this, there are film new,, shooting stations in many cit es. The camera men send their shots to the Central Documen- tary Film Studio in Moscow and this mater al is used in the" News of the Day "serial. The national studios put out news reels in the language of the given republic. " Widespread, too, in the Soviet Union are popular scientific films. There are in the USSR four popular scientific film studios : in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and Sverdlovsk. These studios put out films propagating the major whievements of the Land of Socialism in science and technology, bring to the broadest masses of the wrn?king people graphic news of the latest technical developments, and faci itate the application in industry, on the Firm, etc., of various improvements proposed by innovators and rarionalizers of' production. The Moscow popular-scientific film studio, besides full-lengtli pictures, puts ou; monthly serials : " Science and Technology," and " Farm News." There is in the Soviet. Union also an animated cartoon film studio. Its pictures, in colour, are deservedly popular nw only with the youthful spectator, but with adults as well." " It should be noted," N. Semyonov pointed out, "that the Soviet motion picture industry is since 1951) putting out feature films. only in colour. TLe produc- tion of colour films in the USSR has become possible thanks to the fact that we have built up large and well-equipped facilities Much attention s given to the production of films portraying the economic. cultural and everyday life of the Union republ cs,." To our correspondent's question which Soviet film will he shown at the International Film Festival in India, N. Semyonov replied : " The Soviet delegation will show in India the colour feature films, "The Fall of Berlin" produced by Mikhail Chiaureli, " Cavalier of the Gold Star " by Yuli Raizman and " Donets Miners," I y Leonid Laikov. In " The Fall ,-f Berlin," a pictur, in two parts, the prominent Soviet film producer M. Cbiaureli strikingly shows the world-historical significance of the Soviet Union's victory over Germany, wider the brilliant leadership of Generalissimo j. V. 'italic, and, (Continued on page 7) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 "By the Will of the Pike" i taged by the State Central Puppet Theatre. The Voioode and his army (behind the scene) A- 7D, UPPCES JF-)%;;h 1* n d t htr Footlights IN! and the Dollar " was the title of the first play J produced by the oldest of the Soviet puppet thea- tres, which is headed by Se:rgei Obraztsov. Jim was a little Negro boy who was homeless and hungry in capitalist America. The children who saw the play laughed at the capers of.Jim's faithful friend, his dog, and wept and grew indignant at the sad fate of this coloured boy doomed to starvation and humiliation. That. was in 1932. In the twenty years since its foundation the Central Puppet Theatre has traversed a big path of development. It has staged 39 different plays for children and adults, and today has a staff of more than 40 actors and 95 musicians. Twice daily the lobbies and auditorium of this theatre, housed in a large building on one of Moscow's central squares, are filled with spectators ; the matinees are attended by tots with their parents or schoolchildren with their teachers, and the evening performances by adults. The gay art of the Soviet puppet theatres provides the spectators with wholesome entertainment and it the same time teaches them to love truth and justice, to hate falsehood and violence, to respect people who work, and to scorn the lazy arid the parasites. Some of the puppet theatre's production: are especially written and produced for the very youngest of spectators, for those who have come to the tl.eatre for the first time in their lives and who still believe that the puppets can really walk and talk. To these youngsters the puppet theatre is a place where their nursery toys come alive. Isn't it fascinating to watch bear cubs wash themselves, make their beds, eat noodles and rock in swings ? Another puppet theatre production is called ' ` The Story Chest." As the curtain rises the young spectators see a real chest on the stage-a large, handsome, one with carved sides. Near the chest stands an old man with a flowing beard and twinkling, smiling eye;. He is the storyteller. With a huge key he opens the thes1:. Music is heard, arid with the opened cover of the chest as a background, there appears a winter scene iii the forest. Out of the chest step the industrious hare. who has built himself a cozy little cabin, and the lazy fox., who has simply fashioned a home out of snow. And then the old man tells the children the story of " The Fox and the Hare." When spring comes and th( sun begins to shine bright over the forest, the fox's snow house melts away before the children's eyes, and the fox is left without shelter. The sly fox lures the hare out of his cabin and takes possession of it. Inside the cabin it is warm and dry. The deceived hare is indignant. And so are the little boys and girls in "Actors of the Woods," staged by the State Central Puppet Theatre. Final Scene. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 "Ciinderella,' staged by the State Central PappeL Theatre. Cinderella with the crystal shoe. the audience. Now they will not rest. content until they see justice triumph. When the cock, the only one who is not. afraid of the lox, appears and drive the fix out of the hare's cabin, they clap their hands and shout in glee. One after another the old man tells three simple folic stories, three +haiming fairy tales with which Russian children begin their acquain- tance with the treasure-store of the national folk art. Children who are a bit older- those who already go to school- will find in the plays of the Central Puppet Theatre their favourite characters from literature : " Puss in Boots " and " Cinderella," from the book of fairy tales by the French author Charles 'crrault the light-hearted labour;?r Balda from the immortal tale by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin ; the brave boy Mowg i, from Rudyard Kipling's story, who was reared by wolves in the heart of the Indian jungle ; Ilya 1V=uromets, Dobrin yea Nikitich and Alyosha Popov](.-h, those titans wh( are the heroes of Russian folk epics ; and the vivacious, fearless Alla ldin and his magic lamp, whose story was told by Scheherazade in the Thousand and One Nights." " Allac in's Magic Laml " 09:39) was the first puppet phy staged by Sei ei Obraztsov isotfoi children but fir adults. Arid adult audiences gave nt a hearty reception. They saw it not simply as a 1 lay with puppets directed by someone's hand but are a production of or tstanding ability, as real art on th ? part of actor , lirectors, stage desit hers and musicians. Sint r~ them the Centr..l Puppet Theatre has 'ceased being only a theatre for , children. It has put on a number of plays for grown.-ups, among them Gogol's fant..sy " The Night Before Christmas, ' Carlo Gozzi's old Italian try gicomedy King Reindeer," and Polya- kov's lyrical comedy on a con- temporary theme, sport-., called " 2: It in Our Favour," in which puppets play football, skate, dive into the water from diving boards, sail yachts, and besides, fall in love and cngaD in the SCrencn'S. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 "The Night before Christmas," staged by the State Central Puppet Theatre. Festivities in Dikanka "Alladin's Magic Lamp staged by the Stale Central Puppet Theatre, Alladin sees Princess Iludour Puppets can be ludicrous ancA gentle, heroic and stirrin---but they can also be grim and mali- cious. In the play " The Flutter of Your Eyelids," puppets show up the abominable, ev 1-filled world of heartless capitalist busi- nessmen and venal movie stars. This satirical play by E. Spc ransky exposes the trashy, reac ionary output of the Hollywood ,tudios. In satire, puppets are ruthles;. Thus the puppet theatre helps Soviet people to give their c tildren a correct, truly humanistic up- bringing, to rear them in a spirit of true and pure human rela- tionships- Soviet Cinema Delegation to Film Festival in India (Gontinaed from page 4) the valour and courage of the heroic men of the Soviet Army. In " Cavalier of the Gold Star " is mirrored the peaceful const ?uctive labour of the Soviet collective- farm peasantry, portraying charac- ters drawn from the Soviet collective- farm countryside, their noble aspirations, their high moral make- up, their striving for world peace. " The 1)onets Miners," cont-asting with the unbearably hard working 0 Jn Our Favour, staged by the State Central Puppet Theatre. Scene at the stadium at the conditions of the coal digg ;rs in pre-Revolutionary Russia, shows the splendid mechanization of the mines in present-day Soviet Donbas, the cultured life of the mine-s and the honour and esteem with which the Soviet Government and the Soviet people surrounc' the man of labour. " Besides these feature filnts, at the festival will be shown several colour documentaries : " Soviet Uzbekistan," " Soviet Tajikistan," "Soviet Kazakltstan" and others. The Soviet films will acquaint the Indian people with the life of the Soviet people who are er gaged in peacef itl constructive labour, are building huge canals and electric stations, are remaking the geol,raphy and climate of their country, a id are working for peace and friendship between nations. The Soviet L nion's participation in the film I -stival in India will make for the farther strengthening of friendship and cultural ties between our two great countries ' Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 The Kazantsev Family THE Kazantsev liimily is an ordinary family of Urals forgcmen. Alexander Sofronovich Kazantsev started his life in the same way as thousands of his fellow-country men ; he began workini; at an early age and slaved for a Urals factory owner. The October Revolution brought great changes in the live of the Urals worker. In Soviet times Alexander Kaz sntsev's labour and high skill earned him famr. And when the plant in the young city of I?hlektro- stal required experienced and skilled fore- men, Kazantsev, together with other Urals workers, was invited to come here. The city's new streets, handsome ap fxtment houses, bright iacitory buildings, spring up before Kazantsev's eyes. His was a large family. All his eight childen received a secondary and higher education. Tamara--is a facto-y fore- man, Gennadi- an electrician, Angelina-a surgical nurse, Ludmila and Irma are s udents, Faina-is a seventh grade pupil and Alexander, the eldest son, is a designing erginec at the Novo-Kramatorsk plant. Alexander Sofron.ovich is not working any lorger and receives an old-age pensi(in. He and his wife Agnia. Nikitichna, who has been awarded the " Glory of Motherhood " order, live with their children. The Kazantsevs are a big happy Soviet family. Photo on top : Alexander Alexandrovich liazantsev, senior designing engineer (in foreground) in the open-hearth .furnace shop of toe .Novo- Kramatorsk Plant watching steel being pourer.. Photo on bottom : The state provided Alexander Sofronovich Kazantsev and his family with a cottage. We happened to be visiting tb s . family when the postman brought Kazantsev'.s pension. On photo: Alexander Sotionovich Kazantsev, his wi,e Agnia .Nikitichna, their daughter Angelina and grandson Valeri. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 UZBEK ART SOVIET Uzbekistau's numerour; ancient rnornu- ments tell of an art, that is beautiful and varied, of a highly gifted people. The world knows of the blue mosaics of the Samarkand archi- tectural mouurn: alts, the Tashkent embroidered tapestries that IoW vwith all the colours of the rain- bow, the chased gold and silve weapons of Koka nd, the Khiva kumgans-pitchers, the Rishtan ceramics, the Khoresm carvings, the Bukhara carpets, silks and velvets. It has also i:tea.rd of the wond( r--ful Uzbek songs, dances and music. Until the historic year of 17 -the year of the 1"fi : Tamara Khanunt, I'eo;ilr,'.s ~Irti.et of the U bek SSR and o Stalin Psi e tVintter, rendering an Lulian fblk s,a . Right : haler,,, ,' liwni.lo:rt foU: il,, er, awl doira a millartut Ciftr ho,znzoa rc'on prizes of the [bird World f outi, and Student, Fesli.val in 7T!rrlia. liottoin : 1 I3udtara folk dame J~afornt_d 1) v the dance group of ILzhek State Sate and Dance Ensemble. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 1 he Uzbek dance "Suzanne." performed by ATukar'rannt Turgunbayera, soloist of Me Alisher JVrmoi Theatre of opera and Ballet. (.rrat October Socialist Revolution; however, Uzbekistan's cultural development was artificially re- taided. Uzbek art was within the reach only of the wealthy and the titled. It was limited chiefly to de- corative, ornamental art used in religious ceremonies, and was zealously protected against the invasion of new art methods and especially against the free- dom-loving ideas, thoughts and hopes of the Uzbek people. Soviet Uzbekistan is a flourishing land ! In the l years of the Soviet system it has changed from a back%ti_trd Russian horderla rd rert of Soviet designing ?'i gineers, scientific workers, Farm specialists and machine-and-tract- tor station. personnel, in the past few years have been developed new models of diesel tractors, garden tractors, hydraulic mecha- nisrns for row-crop tractors to oncrate direct-acting implements, a'ornplex agricultnral maclaiucs ,;rain harvester combines, and nnrchfnes for harvesting technical crops-hayrnowers, acid a vast array of other machines and im- pletile rsts. At present, the de- bureaus are developing some :300 new models of machines f'or the all-round mechanization o1' farm work. All t]re machines arc being designed on the basis of the prac- tical demands of agronomy ela- borated by the agricultural scien- tific research institute, and em- hotly the rich experience of scien- tists and leading farm-machinery Operators and other mechanizers. For the all-sided appraisal of the new machines and determi- nation of their suitability for the different zones and conditions of work, as well as for controlling the quality of their production, a ramified network of state zonal Agri u.ltui?e's 'rech1nieal The moor cultivator is designed for work on knobby meadoce curd marshland, and also,for rippin;, the turf of meadows and pastures as well as for breaking up particularly hard upturned virgin , oil. It has a swath of 1.9 metres and readies a depth of 25 centimetres. It comes with changeable sets of marshland tillers, straight tillers and field tillers and is powerrel directly by the tractor. Its t opacity is 0.45 hectares per hour. Pneumatic Self-propelled Three Mow Cotton Picker This machine is designed for non-irrigated fields to pick llrr cotton from opened-zip boys. In contrast to the "SKIIAI-48" cottonpiclcing machine made to pic6 the cotton fraan high-growim, bolls? this machine picks cotton from low-set bolls. It has swath of 1.8 to 2.1 metres and a between row distan,e of 60 to 70 centimetres. In one hoar it clears 0.63 of a hectare. Compared with hand-picking, t1.' productivity of labour with he u.re of this machine ;increases 2.4. times. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Equipment Grows in the USSR The "Belarus" tractor, put out by the Minsk Tractor Plant, is a row-crop, universal wheel tractor designed to work with direct acting, semi-direct acting and trailer machines for the cultivation of high stem and low-stem crops growing in rows. It can also be used as a general-purpose tractor fir sandy soil which excessit)ely wears out the traction parts of caterpillar tractors The tractor has a "D-35" diesel motor and, five speeds ranging from 4.6 to 12.2 kilometres an hour. It comes either with rubber tyres or steel wheels. The width between the wheels is regulated. 1 -his allows to establish the most favourable, protective zone for the cultivation of each row. For better traction the adhesion weight may be regulated by filling the tyres of the driving wheels with water and by attaching additional metal loads to the wheel disc. The tractor is equipped with a drive pulley and a transmission shaft. This machine is designed to cut the stalks of hemp, kenaf, jute and similar crops from 0.7 to 3.0 metres high, clean the stalks of weeds and entanglements, bunch them and drop them on the ground. it has a swath of 2.1 metres. Powered directly from the tractor it clears 0.6 hectares per hour. Compared with hand picking it requires 3.5 to 5.0 times less manpower. machine testing stations his been set ulr. These stations have a prrl qty big job : in 19510 they tested over 1,000 specimens of different machines, and in 1951 they are testing upwai cis of 1,200 machines. Scientists and designing; engi- neers are working on the prob- lem of the wide mechanizat on and clcc(riIication of hiI'm w )rk in the air'as of'the great const ruction projects of Communism. I I these areas, new methods of crop cul- tivation will be used, conf n-ming to the latest developments. in so- cialist agriculture. Such new irrigation imple- ments as the universal ditcher, the universal combination diteIer and soil loosener, and the direc -acting ditchcir and leveller, ensure the cutting and filling up of the tcrn- porarv irrigation network in con- formity with the requirements of the new Soviet irrigation system. Besides these implemet ts, ap- pliances are being designed for grain seed drills to level up the surff ere of the field and make contour checks to hold tl water until it soaks away, or cut irriga- tion Iurrows simultaneousy with planting. The performance of the first electric, tractors and self=propel- led electric combines shows that electricity can be widely Ised in field husbandry. Electricty will also be used extensively to sperate sprinkler systems, the mo: t mod- ern irrigation method whi ;h does not require a lot of earth work. The accompanying phot.>s show some of the new machines. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 ~~KCcftZO AE&V V 49 n By V. Sinyavsky S/carts Commentator-, Moscow Radio Committee CANNOT name any Soviet eleven as my most Jii.vourite. But giving a blow by blow description 01 soccer meets on the microphone 1 took a liking to rnai:y good footballers. Onc:c, travcllitrg through picturesque spots in the Trans-Caucasian mountains I stopped my car near a t lngerine plantation A stocky man with shaved head walked among the trees and was examining sornetlung. His figure looked very familiar to me, whcic have 1 seen him This must be Arctadzc I exclaimed involun- tardy... Indeed, having heard my voice, he smiled and ca.rn.e forward to shake my hand. It was Antadze, one of the best players of the Tbilisi "Dynamo" eleven and also an agronomist of the tangerine plantation... To speak about the footballers of the Tbilisi Dynamo " Sports Society, one must speak not only about soccer play but also about the happy life of he Georgian people, and about their constructive Work. There are students in the team who are united Honoured Master of Sport M. Takushin together not simply by their play of the football field or by their travels to other cities of the Soviet !Jnion for playing soccer but also I,y their studies. True, the future professions of tin ?,c footballers are quite different. Thus, small sin ky right wing fo -ward jojua, who excellently feeds the game of his i isider Gogoberidze is a Conserva ivory student but J ,oga, as the sports fans lovingly call him, is a student c f the Tbilisi University. However, Goga greatly enjo-s his friend's singing while the oilier checks on his com- rade's knowledge of Roman laws or Eastern his- tory... The Tbilisi " Dynamo " eleven has a number of young players, including `?I-year old Dzapshla a good half back and student ,f the Tbilisi Univc rsity, 23-year old goalie Nf tr gai ia. The latter al ?eady graduated the pedagogical technical school and is now continuing to study in lie Institute of Ph'sical Training. He entered the pedagogical department (Continued on n,~=s 23) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 REPLY TO A READER PERSONAL PAND SAVINGS OF SOVIET CITIZENS M ANY people who wish to acquaint themselves with life in the Soviet Union are interested whether citizens in the USSR have the right to own personal property and savings. It should be noted that the enemies of the Soviet Union frequently allege that citizens in the USSR cannot own any property whatever. This statement is entirely wrong and false. For the proper understanding of this question it is necessary to draw a distinction between the ownership of the. instruments and means of production and the ownership of articles that go to meet the personal re- quirements of people. Indeed, in the USSR the main instruments and means of production, i.e., everything that is used in modern society for the production of material values is the property of the entire people. The land, its mineral wealth, waters, forests, mills, factories, mines, power stations, big agricultural enterprises, rail and other forms of transport cannot be owned in the USSR by private persons and thus serve as a means for extract- ing profits. The Soviet law permits only the small private economy of the individual peasants and handi- craftsmen based on their own labour and precluding the exploitation of the labour of others. Soviet people regard it natural and just that the instruments of labour and stocks of materials used by them in common for the production of material values should be common property. The Soviet people value highly the Socialist system they have builtup which guarantees each person the right to work and a cons- tantly growing income from work. The absence of private ownership of the instruments and means of pro- duction has enabled the peoples of the USSR to con- duct their economy according to an integrated state plan and to use the material resources, scientific dis- coveries and improvements for a constant expansion of the production of material values and increasing the country's national income. Since in the USSR social production is owned by the people the national income is distributed in the interests of the working people. It is but natural that under such conditions a rise in the national income re- sults in an increase in the income of the working people. And this is actually the case. The personal property right of citizens in their in- comes and savings from work, in their property and all articles that improve life and make it more comfortable and pleasant is fully recognized in the Soviet Union. Everything that Soviet citizens acquire on the income from their work-household articles, automobiles, radios, television sets, musical instruments, books, not to men- tion stocks of food, clothing, footwear, etc.-comprise their personal property. Moreover, citizens have the right to build their own homes both in towns and rural localities. In addition to cash Soviet citizens can have their deposits in savings and other banks and own state bonds. The personal property of citizens is protected by law. Article 10 of the Soviet Constitution reads : " The personal property of citizens in their incomes and savings from work, in their dwelling houses and subsidiary home enterprises, in articles of domestic economy and use and articles of personal use and convenience, as well as the right to inherit personal property, is protected by law." The Government of the USSR displays daily concern and takes measures for steadily improving the living conditions of the population. This aim is being attain- ed by constantly increasing the incomes of the popula- tion and systematically reducing retail prices. Growing incomes enable the population of the USSR to assign an ever-bigger share of its expenditures for buying clothes, furniture and other durable goods, for building homes and increasing their savings. Citi- zens who build their own homes are given help by the state in the form of long-term loans. Exceedingly low rents area factor contributing to the expansion of the purchasing power of the population. Rents comprise not more than 3-4 per cent of the earnings. of factory and office workers. Since the war ended retail prices on staple goods have been reduced four times in the Soviet Union. These reductions enabled the population to buy from year to year at cheaper prices foodstuffs, clothing, foot- wear, furniture, radio sets, clocks and watches, auto- mobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, sewing machines, kitchen utensils and dishes, building materials, etc. As a result of the increase in income and the reduc- tion of prices the demand of the population for goods rises sharply. Soviet stores;, from the bakery to stores selling automobiles or pre-fabricated homes, are al- ways thronged with customers. Soviet industry in- creases the production of diverse goods for the popula- tion at a fast pace every year. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 One could cite many facts illustrating the tremen- dous improvement in the well-being of different sections of the population in the USSR. In pre-revolutionary times, for example, Russian miners received low wages ,and lived in horrihle poverty. All the more interest- i.ng are the changes in the life of miners in the USSR. Ifs or example, miners of the Moscow coalfields have built more than 3,000 homes of their own in recent years. These are mostly 3-4 room cottages surrounded by orchards. In the first ten months of last year miners bought in the city of Stalinogorsk, one of the centres of these coalfields, 2,640 radios, 1,330 bicycles, 160 cameras, 2,100 watches, many musical instruments, motorcycles, etc. Many miners have their own automobiles. 11?xceedingly great changes have taken place in the life of the Soviet peasants. The peasants in Tajikistan . former borderland of the tsarist empire and now a full-fledged Soviet Socialist Republic-lacked the most elementary household articles in the past and most of them lived in adobe huts. Now well-improved collective farm communities have arisen throughout Tajikistan. The homes of the collective farmers have city furniture, radio and electrical household appliances. More and more collective farmers buy motorcy Iles and automobiles. The steady rise in the Ewwell-being of Soviet citizens is manifested also in bigger money savings. Terra of mil- lions of Soviet citizens are savings bank depositors. In 1949 alone, the number of depositors increased by more than 2.2 million. Saving:, bank deposits of tl e popu- lation increased from 7,300 million rubles at the end of 1940 to 18,500 million rubles at the beginning of 1951. Also about 70 million Sa rviet citizens own state loan bonds. In 1951 alone the Soviet state is paying out to the population 5,000 million. rubles as income on the loans they hold. Thus, in the Soviet Union not only do citizens enjoy the right to personal property and savings, but they are assured a constantly risirn g purchasing power and a well-to-do and cultured life One of the streets' in the new settlement built for the workers employed on the construction of the Volga-Don canal. In the .foreground is the building "l` workers' club. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 TIBILISI "DYNAMO" ELEVEN (Continued from page 18) having a definite trend for teaching. Among the young players of the eleven one may find also 20-year old Cahkuaseli, who only recently finished school, and many others. The Tbilisi " Dynamo " eleven unites people of difli:?rcnt walks of life. The team was knocked to- gether in the thirties. By 1930 it had already become famous not only among Georgian football admirers but also in many cities of the Soviet Union. The same year the eleven captured the top soccer honours in. the second division ("B") of the Soviet champion- ship and was promoted to the first division (" A"). Since then the Georgian team has become a hard nut for any team to crack. the team successfully forges ahead and winds up the 1939-40 USSR championships as a runner up. During these years many outstanding footballers came forward in the team including Boris Paichadze (who does not play any more now), Gaioz Jejelava who,, in spite of his 158 centimetre height,could reach the upper plank of the goal poles. Jejelava is now a graduate of the Institute of Physical Training and works as senior coach of one of the Moscow elevens. The football fans are always impatiently await ing the performances of the Tbilisi eleven in the matches for the USSR football cup. It should be said that the Georgian footballers always play with great temperament and. keenness. During the cup plays they always qualify for quarter-finals and even finals. This is very significant if one takes into ac- count the great number of teams taking a hand in the games for the coveted trophy. Thus teams compet- ing ibr the USSR football cup in the 1951 season numb- Bred over 16,000 ! And to reach almost the t nal games among so many teams, is no easy matter ! The Tbilisi " Dynamo ' successfully played a number of international games. Thus in 1945- it played in Iran and in 1945 in Rumania. During tl ieir last tour the Georgian pla.ycr~ scored a great sue ess by scoring ten times in one game. In 1951 the Tbilisi footballers played four games in the Polish Repul lie. They won three and tied one Last season this eleven captured second placfr in the USSR football championship and its players were awarded silver medals. ['his is a great achie ve- ment of their coach, Honoured Master of Sport Mikhail Yakushin. Yakushin himself was for a 1rng time one of' the best players in the Moscow ".Dynamo " eleven. Later, after graduation of the higher school of coaches of the Moscow Institute of' Physical Training he began to work as a. football trainer. He was the Moscow " Dynamo " eleven's coach at the time when this team toured Great Britain in 1945 without losing a single game. Under his guidance the same team twice defeated the best Swedish footballers with an impressive score of 5 : 1, A responsive coach who puts his heart into his work, Mikhail Yakushin introduced many novelties into the games of the Tbilisi footballers. The Tbilisi Dynamo " is now the youngest team in the first division for the average age of the players. Yakushin boldly advanced young players, and by the way, he has a good source from which to draw future foot- ballers. Tbilisi has a Juvenile secondary sports school in which the boys, in addition to their general education, are taught football playing, g'?m- niastics, track and field athletics and other sports. Winding up my little story about Tbilisi footballers I have no doubt that they will win many good friends in India. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 rugs of the oppresscu people, ivcntasov paiuicu was pay.. =, -.e?---- in his long, poem " Who Lives Well in lords and the new, capitalist vultures. Thus, Russia " and other works pictures of poverty, in his " Contemporaries " (187b) Nekrasov Release;20=0,107uic [Aria a -AOA RQ r QQ Q Q x si gyltussian capitalism r- i[IL 130th atinivcr..aiy of the birth of Nikolai Nekrasov, the great Russian poet and revolutionary democrat, was recently observed in. the USSR. (1821 1878). For 30 odd years 1\. Nekrasov was one of the leading representatives of the Russian literary movement. He was uo,ot only the outstanding poet of the democratic camp in Russian literature, but also a remarkable organiser of Russian democratic literature, the publisher and editor of progressive Rus- sian literary magazines of the 19th century -the " Soveremennik " (Contemporary) and impression, But to Nekrasov, to the poet of the. revolutionary democratic camp, the people were not only a suffering, oppressed "lass. The poet has a deep faith in the forces of the people, in their rich creative capaci- ties, in the transforming power of the free labour of the people. 'I 'he ardent optimism of the poet, his faith in the bright future that " the people will win for themselves " are forcefully expressed in his famous poem " The Railway." While painting frightful pictures of the miserable life and labour of the road builders, the poet says with convic- tion that the Russian people " Will endure everything and Lay a wide clear road for themselves." Nekrasov's poetry taught that the creative force of lice, the real creator of all human culture is the man of labour, and that only in porting them. The poet's vision of " the 1 eople, freed from its fetters " has come true in the free, great Land of Soviets. Nekrasov is near and dear to the Soviet people :, they cherish the mem try of the democratic poet who reproduced in his works the characteristic features of' the Russian people's life of his time, who fought with all his ardour for a free and happy life for the masses. The democratic spirit of Nekrasov's poetry, his deep faith in the people, in the transforming power of free, peaceful, creative labour-, intakes the great Russian poet near and dear to all progressive mankind engaged in the struggle for peace and dentocracy, for its bright future. Vladimir Korolenko-Russian Writer (Commemorating the 30th Anniversary of His Death) r- `11 P literary and ideological formative period in the life of Vladimir Koro- lenko, onistandiug Russian writer, was the 70's and 80's of the last century. I his literary and public activity was devoted to defending the people and affirming the popular striving for truth and justice. Korolenko's very first story, " Makar's Dream," paved the way for his entry into " big " literature and in many ways deter- mined the path of development that his writing would take. Delineating the charac- ter of Makar, the author shows with great artistic power how a simple, downtrodden man becomes conscious of his human worth, how protest arises and grows in him. Ilere Korolenko wanted to show that neither ex- ploitation, ignorance nor humiliation is able to crush the powerful forces that lie concealed in the oppressed masses, that the time would come when. the people themselves would pro- nounce the truthful words that are so terri- fying to the exploiters: " We cannot endure it ." In 1892 Korolenko wrote his story "The. River is Playing." The leading character is the peasant ferry-toast '1'yulin, whom Koro- lenko paints in his true colours and through whom he shows that critical moments arouse in the common man the ability to perform deeds of fearless valour. Maxim Gorky gave high praise to " The River is Playing," say- ing : ` With the tender yet strong hand of the great artist V. G. Korolenko has given us an honest and truthful portrait of a misahik, a real, full-length portrait... " Besides Tyulin, the most developed folk character depicted by Korolenko is Matvei Lozinsky, :hero of the story " Without a Tongue." Here Korolcoko presents a man with great spiritual possibilities, w ho possesses the qualities that are typical for the Russian national character : Love of freedom, spiritual. purity, kindness, boldness, independence, integrity, and g'cat moral strength. Korolenko was not only a wri er. He was all active public leader and pamphleteer, who defendafl the interests of the pecple against the despotism and violence of die authorities. Korolenko's works are published in the USSR in editions running into the millions. Between 1917 and 1946, for example, 333 cdititnis of Korolcnko's works were issued in the USSR, in more than 30 languages of the peoples of the Soviet Union, the editions amounting to 7,270,000 copies altogether. In the last few years several other large editions of Korolenko's works have been published. Kot clenko's name has been given to a number of secondary and higher schools, and Korolenko scholarships were established in several higher schools. In Poltava, where.Korolenko lived and worke. 1, the Koro- lenko museum, which was bu -ned down during the war, was restored. All this is confirmation of Max ins Gorky *s words that "in the great tvork of wilding the trcwv Russia the splendid writings of V. G. Korolenko, a man with a big at d a strong heart, will find worthy approval.' Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Appro4d For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 The Immortal Nikolai Ostrovsky D ECEMBER 22, 1951, marked 15 years since the death of Nikolai Ostrovsky, outstanding Soviet writer whose glo- rious name and whose books arc world famous. Ostrovsky had in battle against tremen- dous odds in the course of his life. An in-I curable illness following upon a severe wound during the Civil War kept the future writer to his bed. He did not surrender, however, 1. Under the Banner of Lenin, Under the Leadership of Stalin 2. International Stalin Peace Prize Awards 3. Soviet Cinema Delegation to but continued to work stubbornly and self- lessly to help establish the new life in the country. Although he was physically in- capacitated, he preserved a clear mind and an iron will, and turned to writing, using his pen to make his life and activity worth- while. " How the Steel Was Tempered " is Ostrovsky's most famous book. An auto- biographical novel, it is in two parts. The third part was never written, although the writer had it planned out. Just a few days before his death Ostrovskv finished the first part of the novel " Born of the Storm," with the next two parts in outline. This is a book which he wanted `not simply to write but to put in the fire of my heart," He also wrote a scenario based on "How the Steel Was Tempered," and dreamed of writing a book for children to be called " Pavka's Child- hood " and a book about the Soviet Army leader Semyon Budyonny. Death tore the ,pen from Ostrovsky's hands at the very height of his writing career. He was only 32 years old. But Ostrovsky's wonderful books remain, his passionate and truthful words. " For man the most wonderful thing is to have everything one creates serve people, even after one ceases to exist,'.' Ostrovsky said. This is just what has happened to Ostrovsky himself. The first part of " How the Steel Was Tempered " appeared in. 1932, and the second part two years later. There are now approximately six million copies of " How the Steel Was Tempered " and the posthumous " Borm of the Storm " in the country. His works have been trans- lated into 43 languages of the peoples of the USSR and 20 foreign languages. One should not, however, estimate the signifi- cance of Ostrovsky's literary heritage only in figures. Pavel Korchagin, the hero of " How the Steel Was Tempered," has be- come a model for the younger generation in the Soviet Union. He is their model, whom they study and from whom they learn. Ostrovsk'y books encourage the youth to feats of labour and battle valour. Nikolai Ostrovsky's name has been given to streets and schools, libraries and parks, Young Pioneer Houses and theatres in the USSR. There are " Nikolai Ostrovsky " steamships, "N. Ostrovsky" locomotives, and " N. Ostrovsky" aeroplanes. All this is part of the writer's immortality. These words of Ostrovsky's ring out with especial force today : " The banner of peace has been raised over our Soviet Land. It is a beautiful ban- ner, it is the hope of all mankind. To look at our country is to see an industrious ant- hill. All our plans and all our thoughts are directed toward peaceful construction, to- ward the creation of collective wealth, toward raising the cultural level, toward concern for our wonderful children. Our banner is peace 1 " Nikolai Ostrovsky was and remains one with his people and his peaceful country. In this lies his immortality. His was a life selflessly given to the great cause of Com- munism. Men like Nikolai Ostrovsky do not die. Today, too, they are marching in the ranks of the peace fighters! CONTENTS Page S. Titarenko 1 14. The Immortal Nikolai Film Festival in India dV. Semyonov 4. Puppets Behind the Foot- lights D. Shpet 5. The Kazantsev Family 6. Soviet Uzbek Art A. Begicheva 7. In the Lenin Museurp 8. Agriculture's Technical Equipment Grows in USSR 9. Tbilisi " Dynamo " Eleven V. Sinyavsky 10. Personal Property and Savings of Soviet Citizens N. Margolin 11. The Giant's Gauntlet P. Bazhoo 12. The Great Russian Poet and Revolutionary Democrat 13. Vladimir Korolenko-Russian writer 19 21 24 PRICE As. 2 Edited, printed and published by F. Matveev for TASS in India, Travancore House, Curzon Road, New Delhi, at the Roxy Printing Press, New Delhi. Only cover printed at the Punjabi I'ross, Sadar Bazar Delhi. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Ostrovsky Cover : A sculpture of V. I. Lenin on Lenin Museum. 3rd cover view at the Supplements : 1. Statement by J. A. Malik at the Security Council Meeting of (anuary 17, 1952 with Regard to the Kashmir Question. 2A. Speech Delivered by M. V. Nesterov, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, in the Indian Merchants' Chamber at Bombay on January 8, 1952. 2B. Statement made by M.V. Nestcrov, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, to the Press Conference held by him on 10th ,January, 1952 in the Soviet Pavilion at the Interna- tional Industries Fair, Bombay. Approved; or Fie 1:kgdt. No. D--1555 "V1.. Lenin in Ex ie'in Siberia" ra'rru the painting by A, Yeroxnin V.I, Lenin -,peaking at the (Seventh !1i)rii) Corsi, :-enee of the RSDLP (B) a thin pairat'e:lp by N. 1 v,-akumov Approved For ReleallA(YSWDP is I DT DETACH Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 U'ap of the 1'. I. Lenin Volga-Dan Canal CONTENTS ii G -(-at Programme cf Peaceful Economic _and Cultural Construction in the USSR Privileges Enjoyed by Soviet Miners I. Rossochinsicy [',age 1 3, Industrial Settlement of the Petrov Plant in Stalingrad X Chumakov 4 :. At School E. Krechetova 5 - St:holarships and other Benefits for Soviet Students M. Krugliansky 6 1,1. c: r a Tea Growing State Farm Al. Agajanov 8 Flow Locusts Were Exterminated in the Soviet Union N. Shcherbznovsky 111 8. (- h.inese Guests in Kuban 19'1'1te V 1. Lenin Volga-lion Canal 12 It. E. 'l'siolkovsky---Outstanding Russian Scientist 1'agc 11. Invaluable Monument w World Culturar 1U6 12, Aid to the Starving in A dlira Provinca? l7 13. Economic Co-operatioI between the Soviet Union and the People's M. Peramo:; 17 14, Seven Years After Japan Surrencier 20 15, Telegram from M.to 1"se img to J.V. Stalin 21 16. Telegram from J.V. Stab r to Mao Tse-tung 21 17. Iourisrn in the USSR G. I yicheva 23 18. Soviet Sportsmen at the ath 01ymmnpic Game 24 Cover : The Statue )I J. V. Stalin a the Entrance Gate .,t the V. I. Lenin Volga- ])on Canal Back cover : View of a Waterfall in Cam.casia PRICE As. 2 Edited, printed and published by F. Matveev for TASS in India, Travancore House, Curzo:c Road, New Delhi, at the Roxy Printing Press, New Delhi. Only cover printed at the Punjabi Press, Sadur Bazar, D.-.Ihi. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 SOVIET LAND An Illustrated Fortnightly Journal Published by TASS in India S?ptember 10 1952. Great Programme of Peaceful Economic and Cultural Construction in the USSR ON, August 20, the Soviet Press carried a communique announcing that a plenum of the Central Committee of'the Communist Party of, the Soviet Union was held a few days ago which resolved to convene the regular 19th Congress of the Cl'S1; on October 5, and adopted the agenda of the Congress. After the report of the Party's Central Committee and Central Auditing Commission, the (.oneness will take up the directives of the 19th Congress of the Party con.cernir.g the fifth Fivc-Year flan of the development of the USSR For I951-1955. The draft directives of the 19th Congress of the Party concerning the fifth Five-Year Plan of development of the USSR in 1%,5 1-1955), published simultaneously with the above communique is a sweeping programme of peaceful economic and cultural construction, ensuring the further advancement of all branches of the national economy, expansion of the pr_rhhc health services, irnprovcment of the material well-being and rise of the cultnnnI level of the Soviet people. Industrial output is to step up about 70 pcr cent in these five years.. Capital development work-- construction of giant hydro-electric stations, industrial enterprises, irrigation systems, dwelling houses--is to increase 10 per cent, compared with the first post-war F'ive-Year Plan. These figures alone most strikingly show the sweeping extent: of economic and cultural construction under the second post-war Five-Year Plan. Electrification is under the second post-war Five- Year Plan being pushed further ahead at an increasing pace. 'the total number of electric stations will, approximately, double and that of hydra-electric stations, treble. huge power plants will he put into or' ration, including the Kuibyshev 1-1\ ()ro-I lc ctric Station Na ith a capacity of 2,100,094) kilowatts ; and also the Kama, Gorky, Mingechaur, Ust-Kamp nogorsk and other h edro- electric stations with a tot:ri capacity of 1,91.;,000 kilowatts. The Kill bysin e-Moscow high-te nsion transmission line will go into service. I3e-:ades this, work will be pushed forward err the construction c f the Stalingrad and Kakhovka ll dro-Electric Station;, as well as of a number of other hydro-electric plants ; the Slicboksary on the Volga, the Votkiusk on the Krrna, the Bukhtarma on the Irtys',, to name but a few. Work will begin on the utiliz=e t inn of the power resources of Angara river for develapinr? on the basis of cheap electric power and local raw material resources, the aluminium, chemical, ore mining, and other Inanehes of industry. The fifth Five-Year Plan is t,, provide for an cxtei sive growth of the engineering indu:.rrries as tic' basis for rtew sweeping technical progress ;u all branches of the. national economy of the USSld. Engineering and metal machining will, approxi~natel1, double output in t.tese five years, and thus f_dly Inert the needs of :dl Soviet industry, the transport scrr.ie ss, capital construe ion and socialist agriculture iii cgr~ii;rnc lit, rriachi ics, t:>ols and instruments. Soviet agriculture in the sccr,nd 1)0:;r-war five year period is with increased tech cal aid out a wider scientific basis con.iit tilt [g, to pcus:,e its m. jor task : raising the yields of'all a~~, i,adtrzrai crony, furt'tcr growth of the herd of commonly owrn.d lives:ock with the simultaneous rise of its Ir ,dJc,ivi!A', i crr;,~e of gross and market out:,ut of fir:' an ,l :ninral husbandry by the further consolida,i on an development of lie (Gbnttoned nn. f`)a,ge 9) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 /,j/e( of Sor'iet People 40 _~. Privile a>w'e Eu etI by Soviet Miners Rossochinsky, Chairman, Coal Miner's Union of the USSR 'y"'t`/I RY year ott August :,, 1, _..! the Soviet Union celebrates Miner's flay. Now a traditional festival of the Soviet c olliiers, it was instituted by the (government of the USSR in 1947, in recognition of their great services to the country. At, the same time, the Government established a number of benefits and privileges for them . The miner's trade is highly esteemed in the Soviet Union. Miners here are surrounded with great care and attention. For one thing, they are the highest paid workers. Wages in the Soviet pits are paid by the progressive piece- rate system under which for every per cent produced above target a miner is remunerated at progressively rising ra.tcs. 'Flue higher his above-target output, the higher, naturally, are his earnings. 'thus miners' actual earnings substantially exceed their basic wages. X tiny Stakhanovite colliers make as much as 7,000 to 8,000 rubles a month. Nor is the Soviet miners' well- being determined only by their high cash earnings and the constantly increasing real value of their wages thanks to the systematic reduction of retail prices of consumers' goods. Like all working people in the Soviet Union they get. many benefits and services free, at state expense, which considerably augment their money wages. Besides this miners, metallurgical workers, oil men, and workers in several other industries enj ry a number of special privileges. Thus, for example, miners once every year receive long-service bonus. The size of such a bonus ranges from 10 to 30 per cent of the miner's basic wage for the given year, depending on his length of service. In the past five years alone, the Soviet miners received from N,lislrin houses is approxitrtately fen lilies "flea tee than heh>rc the Soviet ,,cars exceed I(1,11t1U,1)1)11 copies. Iricidetitally, many hzbcks read Lenin and Stalin in the original. 'F'lit interest that Soviet well mid women slrow in tli e clas:;ics ol, Nlarxisrir-Leninism and other political literature is highly indicative , eve] v Soviet citizen cudeavours to obtain as thorough an undcrstandittg as possible of the tasks that Race 1r1rn ill the common ellort of building Communism. Fiction and poetry, both classical and contemporary, hold an important place in the' output of, the: tiotr-Rilssiatt publishing Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 in :15 languages, those of the wonderful Azerbaijan poet Nizami in 17, and ' of the great Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi in 17. Foreign classical literature is liikewise extensively published. Not long ago the newspapers of North Ossetia announced the appearance in the Ossetian language of a new transhftio,' of Shakespeare's "Othello." 't'his is not surprising. Serirkespcale I as been translated into more than 20 Soviet Ianl"uages, I111go into It and Dickens into .5. The works of progressive modern f'o r( ign :a n hors are also widely issued in the USSR. science literature is published in the USSR in Russian and in the other languages. Almost all the Soviet `Republics now have their own Academies of Science, arid there is no Soviet. ReplIblic without a network of scientihc re earch institutions. '['his year joist the publishing ltottse oh the Ukrainian Academy of Scieoces plans to issue 231) rnonograplts, collection of papers., and popular science pnl>lications. Books n(cl pamphlets l describing( in popular form the latest achievements of science a td the work ot great scientists of the past air put out in the Soviel Union it huge editions. The citizen of the USSR fill(],, in hooks a friend, advis,r and helper in life. The "socialist svstern has brought hooks within the ictw1a of all sections of the popnlat ion. Books by Soviet writers are ill neat demand. 'l'lic best books, no matter in what language they are written, are translated and published in dozens of outer languages of the peoples of the USSR. In these books the reader finds descriptions of the present-clay life of the Soviet people and their heroic constructive ellort arrd answers to vital problems of Socialist ethics. The Uzbek books published in Ilie largest editions last year were Aibek's Winc1 of the Golden Valley," Yard l'ursun's The Teacher", A. A-Iukhtar's " Where the Rivers feet,'' and the poems "'to Comrade Stalin " by Ga[irr Gnlyarn and " Road to Happiness" by E. RakWin. All of these works, which depict the creative labour of Soviet men and women, have been translated into the Russian language. Every successliil book is very quickly translated into the Russian arid then into the other languages of the USSR, in this way coming within the. reach of all the Soviet people. Books dealing with the fight for peace and the ru~,ventent ol, the peace champions ale issued in all the languages of the peoples of the USSR. .ast yrar, 1'or instance, Byelorussian authors, and po els published more (ban '2.W Works that were inspired by this ,Treat theITim. N1Itch scientific and popular "Through India" ~H1~OUCI1' In(lia " is the name of it newv docrrmcntarv colour film now featured it, the USSR. It was filmed at the time of the International Film Festival Ill India by the talented c rmerarnen A. Sologubov, G. llonglovskaya, 1. Sokolnikov and the producer, J_ Varlamov, who were members of the Soviet delegation to this festival. 7'he film has won the admiration of the Soviet audiences. It pictures the rich nature of India, her wonderful landscapes, lifc ill the biggest. Indian cities and small villages, harvesting in the fields, historic places associated with the memory of'the Sepoy 1\lutiny against the Brl I ish colonial rule, i eligious rituals. festivities at Delhi, perlhlriti.tnces by distil guislied actors, noteworthy arch tectural rrrernor ills which r e p r e s e n t masterlricces of world art. w itncssc s of the ancient culture of ill,- talented and in( tstri+nt; Indian people. 'I'hc commentaries to l1le him seers I, if Ihe) were broadening the pi, (mire : they enlighten upon architc( tural styles, th( time when one or another historic: rnemoria.l was built and its signific.fnce. Folk I c g c to Cl s and n~cienl tales cited by the annonn(:cr initiate the a Idicnces (0,1,1 xce1 m, /s ce toj It the "Herrni.ta? e'' rinerur theatre, r4lnscow, b'(orr, the Geo'mfi.ni of the r4,, 11 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 "CHILDREN'S TOWNS" IN MOSCOW PARKS By Maya Rozhdestvenskaya Young "builders" in the children's section of the Gorky Cenlral Park of Culture and Rest. HE green tracts of parks T and gardens in the Soviet capital are like wonderful oasis. Thousands of people come there for a rest and interesting pastime. The first visitors who come to these parks in the morning are the children. True, with the coming of summer most of the young Muscovites have left town some went to country places with their kindergartens and others-to summer camps. Other children are awaiting their turn to go to camp. And in the meantime they have facilities for a good rest and recreation in the " children's towns " of the parks of culture and rest. Welcome ! " bids the inviting sign over the light archway leading to the children's town in the Sokolniki Park: There are sculptures in the shady alleys and colourful flowers on the lawns. Let us look into the " attraction grounds " which constantly resound with merry laughter. Swings fly smoothly into the air. A merry-go-round is turning. There is a brave little lad perched proudly upon a wooden horse. From time to time he looks to the right where youthful artists are working with brush and ease] in front of a white pavilion. The little equestrian is convinced that they are painting his picture... On the walls in the pavilion, called Hall of Interesting Occupations," one may see productions of the amateur artists : paintings, water colour, pencil drawings. Attention is attracted by a portrait of J. V. Stalin embroidered in silk. On display in the showcases are skillfully carved wooden caskets and beautifully ornamented picture frames, statuettes made of plasticine, soft toys and ohjects fashioned of cardboard. All these were made by members of the amateur circles in the park, under the guidance of expert instructors. Right now they are working on new productions. Vladimir Mozharov a ninth-form student with abilities for wood carving is completing a beautiful frame ; 12-year old Valya. Bunevich is doing an attractive piece of embroidery, in ancient Russian style.... Volleyballs are flying over the sports. grounds. Athletic minded youngsters are engaged in gymnastic and acrobatic exercises in a special hall.'There are sepcial premises for air and sun baths. An amateur art contest is in progress on the vast grounds called " mass field". The youngsters dance and sing. The game room is filled with noisy merriment. Table soccer is one of the most favourite games. Moving the figures of the " team members " over special boards, they become absorbed in the compe- titions. There is a special playground in children's town for the very little ones, with a rich choice of toys. There is a one-day rest home in the park which accommodates 550 people. The school children accommodated in this rest home also avail themselves of the attractions in the park. The Soviet parks are not only places for amusement, but real centres for dissemi- nating socialist culture. The personnel of the children's towns cultivate in their visitors love .of labour and sports, develop their initiative and assist them in selecting their future professions. What a variety of interesting lectures and talks are arranged by the lecture service for children maintained in the parks ! Every lecture is illustrated with exhibitions, films, slides and experiments. Scientists, innovators in production, writers and actors come to the children. The library of the park arranges literary reviews and loud reading of books which attract scores of listeners. And now follow me into the technical hobby circles where youngsters are' building miniature models of dams and tall buildings, assembling radio sets, and instruments for experiment ; in physics, testing models of ships and planes, and learning photography. Members of the young tourists' and automobile clubs are making interesting trips. At the beginning of July, about 60 youths set out on the Moscow- Stalingrad-Moscow motoring race, covering about 3,000 km. by car and motorcycle. ...There is a small building amid trees surrounded by a fence. A little girl, her eyes shining with curiosity, stops in front of the wicket gate. "Look here," she says to her friend," here is the young naturalists' centre. Whatever have they not got here!" The two little girls have never been to the Sokolniki Park before, and everything excites their wonder. They had already managed to join a circle on the first day.... . There really is much of interest on the territory of the young naturalists' centre. Medicinal herbs and technical plants grow on the neatly cultivated beds. There are Michurin apple trees in the orchard, and stretching along the fence is an experimental. shelter belt made up of a variety of trees. The centre has its animal section. Among its population you will see a turtle, doves, moles, an aquarium with live fry, and even raccoons (a present from the Moscow zoo) which seem quite at home in a tiny little house inthe yard. Last year there was Mashka, a mischievous bear cub, to delight the children who came to the park. Mashka had grown since then and was returned to the zoo. He looks quite ferocious now. But whenever any of his former " attendants " call " Mashka", the bear immediately lifts his shaggy head and running up to the wire net looksaffectionately at his old friends. Like all the children, the "Sokolniki" naturalists frequently go to the Moscow zoo which has animals representing the fauna of the whole world. Especially many visitors crowd.. in front of the home of the family of Indian elephants : Shango, Molly and three- year-old Moskvich who was born in the zoo. The elephants are fond of bathing in the big pool, and' they delight in munching the sugar they receive for dessert. In general, they feel quite fine. , . , . The little Children's section of the Gorky Park of Culture and Rest. A lesrom iaa painting. wolves, foxes, bear cubs and other young animals kept behind special enclosures also attract many visitors. The workers of the zoo sometimes take them out of the park to illustrate their lectures : in the schools. In addition to the children's towns in the general parks, there are special children's parks in 16 districts of the capital. These parks arrange varied- and interesting (Continued on page 15) Playing volleyball at the Park of Culture and Rest at Sekolnik., Moscow. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 J ULY and August is the" height of the health resort season in the USSR. Millions of working people. spend their annual paid vacations at sanatoria,or rest homes. Upwards of 4,000,000 working people will this year spend their vacations at the health building establishments belonging to the unions ; the various ministries or other :organisations. The Soviet working, people going to health resorts have a great choice to pick from. There are in the USSR some 130 resort areas, situated in the most picturesque places throughout the country. Among the resorts enjoying particular favour with the working people are those on the southern coast of the Crimea. Sunny Crimea is rich and -picturesque. Its southern shore constitutes a narrow strip of coast 105 kilometres long and from two to ten kilometres wide. It is walled off from the north by a tall mountain range which keeps out from here the cold winds. Here, on the sea coast, at Melas, Kastropol, Simei?z, Alupka, Miskhor, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta and other resorts, amidst pine woods covering the mountain slopes and boundless vineyards ; the palaces of the tsars and grand dukes and the villas and mansions of the rich have been turned into sanatoria and health building establishments for workers and peasants, and many new magnificent ones have been built. Most of the sanatoria, . and there are about a hundred here, are general-therapeutic ones. Every year, tens of thousands of working people build up their health in them. The sanatoria have all the necessary treatment and diagnostic equipment : X-ray physiotherapeutic, curative physical culture and massage, dental, electrotherapy, electro-cardio graphy, hydropathic and other facilities. Vacationers are under constant observation of com- petent doctors and other medical personnel. Great attention at the sanatoria is devoted to cultural services for their guests, who have here at their disposal libraries, games, sports grounds. The number of sanatoria on the southern coast of the Crimea is rowing with every year, THE HEALTH RESORTS The "Krym" Sanatorium in Simeiz, Crimea. . Vacationers at the "Marat" Sanatorium in Miskhor, Crimea, taking a sun bath. One of the rooms at the "Kharaks" Sanatorium in Miskhor, Crimea. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13600010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 OF SOUTHERN CRIMEA Guests at t,e `'Li..~r,.kisl,~u" Sanatorium in 2'alta, Crimea. A glimpse of the dining nom at the "Gurzuf" Sanatorium in the Crimea. Guests at the "Kurpaty" Sanatorim. in the Crimea : A, Lavrukhina (left), a dairymaid at the "Konstontantinoiio" State Farrn, Moscow Region and Maria Rozhenko, a working woman at the. "Chebanovka" State L''arm in Molda,,ia, on the bench. "THROUGH INDIA" into Indian folklores. The music based on Indian national melodies is a fitting accompaniment to the film. 'raking into account the great interest displayed by the Soviet People in India, the studio has duplicated this film in 16 national languages of the peoples of the USSR. Announcements were published in the Press a few days before its appearance on the screen. The public was also informed w l this through posters and bills with scenes of India issued by Soviet publishing houses in some 250,000 copies. " Through India " is now being shown in all parts of the USSR, in the biggest cinema houses of Moscow, and in village clubs, It is featured simultaneoulsy and with invariable success on about 600 screens. Some 200,000 people saw the film in twenty Nloscow cinema theatres during the first week. " Through India", a film which bears the imprint of simplicity aA sincerity, of great respect and ail: ction for the people of India, has stirred up much interest among the Soviet public. "Chil.dren's Towns" in Moscow Parks activities; Flower Day", " Fairy Talc Day", "Favourite Game Day", etc., are very popular. Lecture halls and amateur art circles function in all the parks ; physical culture competitions and games are organized for the youngsters. Everything here is for the children of the working people. Everyone, from the three-year old child who is building a house of blocks, to the senior student in secondary school who is looking forward to entering college within a year or twc'. finds something of interest here. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 s'rcne loon Act ('co )% Cowtar!'s opera "Pmcst". Ili cenln : l:u,inrre G. (ic-ski i in Me role of R9ephotopheles; exinOle ?eht : P. Pirotez', a pensioner WO KERS' CLU h Ol_UNOI)' S I':IIIsl "' is the latest opera to he stagcxl by (It(. Inert and women who b(doll,ty to 1lie amateur talent studio of opera anti ballet at the Kirov Palace of Cultnre t Leningrad. L;ndcr the h ircctic.m (&(L I)ouivakh, an Honoured ,Art ','orker, the rncrnbcrsol" this stndic have, in the pa5,i five years, put oil tile ol)"MS "Rusalka' i"'1"hc Alertnaid `) in 1).t^.1ornvzltskv, Mum, k'1,5 he Fair at Sor'oc:hintsv and Veldi's '?Li 'll'r.tviata." "Rnsalka." and "I'hc. fair at Sorcchiutr,v" lwct:. givetn first pi izes at ill(' L!SSR '('Sle -v of amateur ialcnt last Near. I.n producing " Falls( - the studio un let tools a still tuore. (Iiilictilt task and coped NY itii t succe"4'U lv 11) recent n;o,itlts the studio had alt influx of new tncrrthers anad I.Itc studio group now compris s sotuc `tot) ntcu alt([ women. One of them is the pen'ioucr P. Pirogov, 1 ho joined the group only a lew vicars ago. In " Faust '' ltc sang V:dczttin and vw'ae ;t trctncudous yue' ea . \nolhcr sine' A. H STAG Philippov, a mechanic, can perform the roles of, Valentine and Wagner. In the studio's new production laurels also go to the two women whet sing Margaret.. They are V. Filatova, senior librarian at the Saltykov-Shchcdrin State Public Library, and V. 'l'ikhomirova, a cast accountant in the Leningrad bread distributiotn network. l?specially worthy of note at the prcmicre yeas the periorilia uce by C,. Beskin, an engineer, who gave a vivid, interesting interpretation of \leplsistophcles. In the studio's conning production of the opera Ivan Susanin " llcskin has been assigucd the leading role. :Among the studio members there :u-c malty young people, nicn and women lvho follow a great variety of prolcssions and trades. They include the mechanic A. Borodavkin, till' woman tool-ina.ker M. 1laizal, thc lathe-operator G. Sinitsky and the students A. \ianukliov and Rashid Sabitov. yLanukhov gave an cxccllcnt perlbrmance a, Faun(., and Sabitov, it luttire mining S "FAUST" engincci , danced Bacchus it the \Valpul tis Night " se "nc to great applause. the role of the B t.ccatante was executed with airiness and grace by l':. Chulkova. a conk at the SevkaI'el Plant rIinins.;a-oon. Like all, the prodnctionssiaged by the Kirov Palace studio Faust - was accompanied by tale orchrst.ra of the Lend grad tilaly Opera house. `the producer was Honoured Artist of' the Republic A. Vince ; N. Libe'man directed '11c chorcoga.rphic g'ottp, the balil t master was Honoured \rt \Vorkcv F. i,opukhov, the stage director 5'.ts S. I apirov. the Nader of' the ch,'n Y. Slavnitsky, aryl the concertma-ter Y. Finkelstein. At the present time the studio is working together with compo,.er 1. 1)zerzltinskv oil the staging of a new vcrs'un of' his opera " And Quiet Fl(.kV'S the Don." The prcmicre 'f this opera is set ['Cr the beginning of November, whet thu country t'' ill be marking the 35th. anuiversars oh the (;letit Oc obcr Socialist V,'011111011- Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 The Coexistence Problem "New York Times" Article Discussed N I' IS June 111th issue the " New York Times" published an article by its Washington corres- pordent Mr. Waggoner on the peaceful coexistence of the. U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. Judging by all the signs, the views he expresses arc not only, and not so much, his own, as these of certain official Washington circles. At any rate, Mr. Waggoner keeps referring to Washington " experts"; who are examining recent Soviet actions and statements. All the more reason, therefore, to examine Mr. Waggoner's article. Its obvious intention is to have the reader believe that the Soviet Union has abandoned its original stand on the question of the peaceful coexistence of the capitalist and socialist systems, and for that reason the " experts fail " to discern signs of peace or co-operation from Moscow." Only those who deliberately set out to distort and mispresent the facts can accuse the Soviet Union of having changed its policy on the question of the peaceful coexistence of the two systems on the basis of international co-operation. Soviet reccgnition of the necessity and feasibility of the two systems living side by side in peace is not something transient or temporary but a constant factor of Soviet foreign policy. It forms an integral part of the fundamental principles of the teachings of Lenin and Stalin. It is the cornerstone, the very essence, of the policy which the Soviet Union has been pursuing since its very inception. World history has passed through several stages in that period, but at each of them the foreign policy of the U.S.S.R. was invariably directed at ensuring peace and peaceful co-operation between all countries, irrespective of their social and political systems. x x x Foreign policy is inseparable from domestic policy ; it is, in fact, a continuation and extension of the latter. This rule applies to the U.S.S.R. as it e5es to any other country. Even its bitterest enemies do not deny that the U.S.S.R. has invariably set the world an example of fraternity and friendship among the nations inhabiting its territory. The same principle of friendship and co-operation among nations is also the cornerstone of its foreign policy. In 11322, in an interview with a correspondent of the London "Observer ',' and the " Manchester Guardian", V. I. Lenin especially stressed this basic and distinguishing feature of Soviet foreign policy. He told the correspondent : Our experience has firmly convinced us that only the. greatest concern for the interests of the various nations can remove the causes of conflicts, remove mutual distrust, remove the fear of intrigue, and create the confidence, especially among the workers and peasants speaking different languages, without which peaceful relations between the nations and any successful development of all that is precious in modern civilization, are absolutely impossible." Soviet people have always regarded it their sacred duty to apply this principle expounded by Lenin. That explains the continuity between the historic Decree on Peace, made public on November 8, 1917, by the- newly-formed Soviet government, and the proposal for a Five-Power Peace Pact which the government of the U.S.S.R. has been consistently advocating in these past years. The Decree on Peace called for an end to the war and for the conclusion of a just, democratic peace. It was addressed to all belligerents, to all the peoples. The major belligerent powers at that time were the United States; Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, that is, the chief capitalist countries. The very first action of the new Soviet government was thus based on the principle of peaceful coexistence of two divergent social and economic systems. In 1919 V. I. Lenin submitted to the Seventh All Russian Congress of Soviets,, the supreme legislative body of the country, a resolution which stated : " The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic desires to live in peace with all nations and to devote all its energies to internal development, in order to organize industry, transport and public administration on the basis of the Soviet system, which it has hitherto been prevented from doing by the interference of the Entente and the hunger blockade." Here again V. I. Lenin stressed the desire of the U.S.S.R. to live in peace with all capitalist countries, for at that time there were no other countries. Two years later, in December, 1921, in his report to the Ninth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin squarely put the question : is there any possibility of the peaceful coexistence of Soviet Russia and the capitalist countries ? His reply, a firm and unhesitating yes," has determined the policy of the Soviet government ever since. In his talk with Harold Stassen in 1947, J. V. Stalin said : " The idea of co-operation between the two systems was first expressed by Lenin. Lenin is our teacher, and we, Soviet people, are Lenin's pupils. We have never departed and never shall depart from Lenin's teachings." These words have been borne out by the entire record of the Soviet Union. The socialist system of society has enabled the Soviet Union to achieve in a short space of time economic and cultural progress and an improvement in the welfare of its peoples, unparalleled in history. And it is characteristic that the stronger the Soviet Union grew, the greater its progress in the work of construction, and the greater its prestige in international affairs, the more persistent and resolute were its efforts to promote peaceful co-operation between the two divergent systems, capitalism and socialism. This is but natural and logical : every new step in the building of socialism opens up ever~wider prospects for further creative endeavour and, consequently, adds to the Soviet Union's interest in. consolidating Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 peace and international security and in developing international economic intercourse. The record of the past three decades furnishes ample proof of this and also provides a clue to an understanding of the future. With the further development of socialist society in the Soviet Union the possibilities of peaceful coexistence and effective co-operation of the two systems, far from diminishing, are bound to increase and expand. This J. V. Stalin stressed in his reply to a " Sunday Times " Moscow correspondent in September, 1946. The correspondent asked whether, with the continued advance of the Soviet Union towards Communism, the possibilities of peaceful co-operation between the Soviet Union and the outside world would not decrease. J. V. Stalin replied : "I do not doubt that the possibilities of peaceful co-operation, far from decreasing, may even grow." Any unbiased person making a study of the statements by V. I. Lenin and J. V. Stalin over the course of the last thirty-five years, statements made at different periods and under totally different conditions, will arrive at the inescapable conclusion that the Soviet Union regards the peaceful coexistence of the two divergent systems as the inviolable foundation of its foreign policy. Truth is tested by practice- A survey of the leading trends in international affairs since the inception of Soviet government will show how this policy has worked out. The last thirty and more years have seen many an attempt by aggressive circles in the West to embroil the capitalist world and the land of socialism in war. Yet, the second world war started as a conflict between two groups of capitalist powers. Later, after Hitler Germany's treacherous attack on the Soviet Union, there came into being the powerful anti-Hitler coalition of the Soviet Union --a socialist state-and the United States, Britain and France-capitalist states. Opposed to it was the coalition made up of Germany, Japan and Italy, all of them capitalist states. Thus the antagonisms between the various capitalist states proved to be more acute and profound than the antagonisms between the two systems. Even though the prewar period was one of constant anti-Soviet intrigue by the Western powers, still the possibility of capitalism and socialism existing side by side in peace was fully confirmed. The outcome of the second world war greatly increased these possibilities. I n 1941, in reply to a question by Elliott Roosevelt whether it was possible for the U.S.A. to live peacefully side by side with the Soviet Union, J. V. Stalin said : "This is not only possible. It is wise and entirely within the bounds of realization. In the most strenuous times, during the war, the differences in government did not prevent our two nations from .joining together and vanquishing our foes. Even more so is it possible to continue this relationship in time ol',peace." X x x What, then, has led the Washington " experts " and Mr. Waggoner, who pleads their case on the pages of the " New York Times", to assume that the Soviet Union has abandoned its earlier stand on the question of peaceful coexistence of the two systems ? Be it noted, in the first place, that all this talk of the Washington ` experts " about a supposed " evolution " of Soviet policy only exposes their own turnabout. For years many official American spokesmen claimed that the Soviet Union denied the very principle of peaceful coexistence. The Washington " experts " are telling a different story now, and are, in. effect, admitting that their earlier position was, to put it mildly, at variance with the facts. For it is absurd to maintain that a totally negative stand can develop into one more totally negative, though that is what their argument amounts to. If there can be any talk of evolution, then only in respect to the methods of these Washington ` ` experts " : they have publicly renounced their earlier assertions and, in an attempt to make political capital, are now affirming the very opposite. But this will not get them any too far, for now as before they are twisting and garbling the facts. Mr. Waggoner affirms that whereas in the past the Soviet Union attached no " strings " to its statements about the possibility of the peaceful coexistence of the two systems, now it is advancing definite conditions, namely, willingness of both sides to co-operate, readiness to discharge the obligations they have assumed, and so on and so forth. The "New York Times " and its Washington correspondent have put themselves in a ludicrous position, for it stands to reason that peaceful coexistence and effective co-operation of the two systems are possible only if the representatives of both parties desire such co-operation and, conversely, are impossible if one of the parties obstinately refuses to co-operate. That is precisely why J. V. Stalin said, in his interview with Stassen in 1947 " Of course, it is understood that given the desire to co-operate, co-operation is fully possible between different economic systems. But if there is no desire to co-operate, even with the same economic system, states and people can fight each other." .J. V. Stalin expressed the same thought in April of this year in his replies to a group of American newspaper editors who asked him : "On what basis is the coexistence of capitalism and Communism possible ? " The reply was : "The peaceful coexistence of capitalism and Communism is quite possible provided there is a mutual desire to co-operate, readiness to carry out undertaken commitments, and observance of the principle of equality and noninterference in the internal affairs of other states." Naturally, peaceful coexistence and effective co-operation between states, including states with different economic systems, are inconceivable if one of the parties fails to carry out its obligations and embarks on a policy of interfering in the internal affairs of the other, or if it commits itself to a policy of discrimination against the other party. Behind all this talk of the Washington "experts " about new Soviet stipulations which, they claim, hinder the peaceful coexistence of the two systems is reluctance to support and develop peaceful international co- operation on the only acceptable basis of mutual respect of interests, equality, faithful discharge of obligations and noninterference in the internal affairs of` other countries. The " evolution " discovered by Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 the Washington " experts applies to their own position, not to that of the Soviet Union. Mr. Waggoner tells us that these "experts" fail "to discern signs of peace or co-operation from Moscow." There is no need for special investigations to discern such "signs". Soviet foreign policy is not a book sealed with seven seals, it is known to hundreds of millions of people as are its aims. These aims are : Conclusion of a Peace Pact between the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France and China. Unconditional prohibition of atomic and germ weapons as weapons designed for the mass extermination of human life, and establishment of stringent international control to enforce the ban. Reduction of the armaments and armed forces, first of the five Great Powers and subsequently. of all nations. The reunion of Germany and her conversion into a peaceable, democratic state. The conclusion of a just peace treaty with Germany, to be followed by the withdrawal of all occupation forces. Termination of the war in Korea and the speedy peaceful settlement of the Korean problem. A just peace treaty for Japan and withdrawal of all occupation troops. Who will deny that implementation of these measures, on which the Soviet Union insists, would go a long way towards consolidating peace and international security? And if this peace programme is not being carried out, the reason should be sought in the postwar evolution of the policies of the Western powers, the United States primarily. From ".News" No. 14, 1952 The Painter A. E. Arkhipov (Marking the 90th Anniversary of his Birth) O N August 27th of this year the Soviet public will mark the 90th anniversary of the birth of A. E. Arkhipov, master of Russian genre painting, a People's Artist of the Republic, and the teacher of a number of outstanding Soviet artists. Arkhipov is a name well-known in the Soviet Union. His paintings hang in many museums and are favourites with the Soviet people. Arkhipov was born into a peasant family in the village of Yegorovo, Ryazan Gubernia. His grandfather and father were serfs. Life in the Arkhipov family was not easy. A constant struggle had to be waged against hunger, poverty and want. At an early age the future artist became a pupil of icon painters. One of them, Zaikov, was much impressed by Arkhipov's gift for drawing and at his recommendation the boy was entered at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. There he studied under the ' outstanding Russian realist painters Perov, Makovsky, Pryanishnikov and Polenov, graduating in 1883. By 1886 Arkhipov had won general recognition with his painting " The Girl Friends", fqr which he was awarded a Grand Silver Medal and an honorary title. Knowing the life of the Russian pre-revolutionary peasantry, Arkhipov depicted their hard lot. Arkhipov's scenes of everyday peasant life rang out as a protest against the cheerless life of the toiling peasant. In the next few years Arkhipov painted a number of pictures that became widely famous, among them " Along the Oka River", "On the Volga," The Send-Off", " The Road to Exile " " Women at Work in an Iron Foundry", "After the Pogrom", and " Poor Peasant beside a Grave." In 1895 he was given the title of Academician of Painting. In 1901. Arkhipov painted one of his greatest pictures " The Washerwomen," depicting the hard life of the Russian working class. One has but to glance at the bent figures of the washerwomen, worn out by exhausting labour in a damp, dark cellar, to understand the message of social protest carried by the picture. In the years that followed Arkhipov painted a series of wonderful landscapes of the Russian North. In 1916 he was elected a member of the Academy of Arts. During the Great October Socialist Revolution Arkhipov joined the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia and painted a series of vivid, joyous portraits of Russian peasant women. In 1927 the Soviet Government bestowed upon him the title of People's Artist of the Republic in recognition of his great services in helping to develop Soviet art. Arkhipov died in]1930 at the age of 69. His realistic genre paintings have become a part of the golden treasury of Soviet fine arts. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 The Pia at 1h0 ?xeerylt 6romp )2eehanin9 ~ ook Two o, the %n,et 4, /V(z/ch zzLt ,u&ennov " 7Le UhLte , rcAC , . THE second German fascist offensive, begun November 16th with the objective of surrounding and capturing Moscow, had been halted on all sectors of the 600-kilometer Western Front. This time, too, Hitler's plan had fallen through.... With great difficulty the Hitlerite northern shock grouping seized Rogachev, Klin and Solnechnogorsk in the last days of November ; its tank units managed to break through only to Yakhroma. Linable to take Tula, the Hitlerite southern shock grouping bypassed it on the east and seized Stalinogorsk and Venev in an attempt to reach the Oka, but it was halted seven kilometres south of Kahira. After marking time for many days the Hitlerite central auxiliary grouping forced the Nara River in several places, but was immediately thrown back by our troops. The encirclement and capture of Moscow did not take place. The German fascist troops suffered heavy losses (hiring the offensive, when they were drawn into exhausting battles. Hundreds of burnt and smashed tanks, guns and lorries lay strewn on the fields of the Moscow area. More than 50,000 Hitlerites had left their bones there. On many sectors the Hitlerites were already going over to the defensive. Hitler's headquarters no longer issued boasting communiques about the offensive on Moscow. Instead, it complained of the hosts and snowfalls. It affirmed that the Russian winter did not permit. big offensive operations. It Was not, of course, a matter of the Russian winter... . Despite the enemy's two-told and three-fold numerical superiority, the troops of the Western Front had displayed miraculous grit in defending the Soviet capital. They had courageously fought for every inch of native soil. They had bravely launched endless counter-attacks. They had converted the whole of Moscow Region into one huge graveyard of Hitlerite troops and material. Now, hardened and tempered in bitter battle, the troops of the Western Front were, with the forces at their disposal, dealing the enemy telling counter-blows everywhere, and especially on the flanks. Even so, Hitler could hardly suspect what awaited his troops near Moscow in the near future. In their endeavour to surround Moscow the German fascist shock groupings had advanced far beyond the remaining line of the front. Confident that the Red Army's forces were almost depleted, that it had no strategic reserves whatsover, the groupings gave poor protection to their flanks, leaving them open to blows from our troops. Beginning with November 20th, the fourth day of the German offensive, our fresh reserves began to arrive at the Moscow front from deep in the rear, according to Stalin's plan and order. They were brought up in full secrecy. In the dark of night numberless trains carrying infantry, tanks and artillery halted and unloaded at small stations east of Moscow. From here the reserves moved up to the appointed places under cover of night. While the troops of the Western Front were fearlessly defending the near approaches to Moscow, three fresh armies of Soviet troops supplied with first-class equipment by our heroic rear, were being concentrated in the district of Dmitrov and Zagorsk, on the flank of the enemy's northern grouping, and in the district of Kashira and south of Ryazan, on the flank of the southern grouping. Fresh troops also appeared west of the capital. No matter how threatening the situation was at times on the near approaches to Moscow, no matter how hard a time Moscow's gallant defenders were having, Stalin held back these reserves, did not send them into action. The day of reckoning with the enemy was drawing near. During these days Stalin pondered much on the conning counter-offensive of our troops. This well- prepared and organized counter-offensive, Stalin felt, should be a most unique type of offensive, as a result of which our troops would not only smash the enemy near Moscow but would also deal him powerful blows in the north and south. Fulfilment of this counter- offensive plan might thus become the decisive military event of the first year of the Great Patriotic War. In the Battle of Moscow the Soviet Army was to raise the banner of victory, in order later to carry it to Berlin.... While thinking about the counter-offensive and closely watching for the moment to begin it, Stalin acquainted himself first-hand with the military situation on different sectors of the Moscow front. These days he especially wished to be as close as possible to the Army in the Field. x x x ....On his way to the forward defence lines, while passing through a big village on Volokolamsk Highway, Stalin noticed a small white flag with a vivid red cross in the middle floating above the entrance to a stone building. This was an army field hospital. Stalin ordered the driver to stop the car, and in a few minutes he was in a ward where lay men wounded in the recent fighting. There were four of them. They lay in white hospital cots set in a row, heads towar Is a windowless wall, with a space for passage between each. The opposite wall had two windows facing south. Without Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 lifting their heads the wounded could see the red setting sun low over the houses on the other side of the highway. The sudden appearance of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief accompanied by generals, the head of the hospital and the doctor on duty excited the wounded unbelievably. All four simultaneously made jerky motions beneath the woollen blankets, unconsciously moved by the desire to spring to their feet and greet Stalin in military fashion, but only one of them, a man with a bandaged chest and neck, somehow managed to sit, up. A bitter sense of their helplessness once again swept over the other three.. Physical pain, no matter how.. great they could bear without a murmur, but they could not conceal the anguish they felt now at not having the strength to welcome Stalin at attention. One gave an agonized groan.. Another moved his head on the pillow in distress. The third ground his teeth in bitter disappointment., Stalin noticed that the wounded were upset. " Good-day, Comrades, good-day" he therefore said heartily. as he. halted by the cot nearest to the door, in which sat,a wounded man with an amazed and blissful expression on his high cheekboned young face. "But I have a big request to make of you, Comrades,- you must all lie quietly;" he:said after they had replied to his greeting. "Yes, indeed, you have to lie quietly. As for us, we can, and, should, stand here in front of you." Embarrassment flickered in the quick grey eyes of the wounded man sitting up in the cot... "Allow, me .to sit-up, Comrade Stalin," he said, closing his thin fingers around the edge of the bed. " Honest to goodness, Tin sick of lying down. It's the fourth day now .. ? . " Very well, sit up,". Stalin said. " I see your hair has, just been clipped. Are you an officer ?" " Yes, sir. A Guards_ lieutenant ...." " What's your name ? " " Murashov." Stalin glanced at the doctor on duty, who hastened to report that Murashov had several flesh wounds from shell splinters ; two fragments had been removed the day before, and four left for the next operation. " Let them stay there ! Murashov said in. sudden animation, and Stalin saw at once that before him sat a' man who" was not downhearted and was probably a. vivacious young fellow in ordinary life. " They'll make me stronger, that's all! Then only an` armour piercing bullet can get me.. , Have you been at the front long, Comrade Murashov ? " U " Since the first day of th'e war, Comrade Stalin.',' " First time you're in hospital ? " Yes." " Tell me, Comrade Murashov," said Stalin, placing his hand on the bed post, " which period of the war has been the most difficult for you ? " " The first month, Comrade Stalin." " I see. And now ? " Murashov sighed, but replied with a smile, " it's not-.easy now either, of course, to be quite frank. The Germans still have a big advantage in equipment. And their. being so_near- Moscow. makes it hard going. But stilly it's much easier fighting now than it was even a month ago." " Why is that ? " asked Stalin. " In the first place, Comrade Stalin, we've changed," Murashov replied. "Our men have seen those fascists face to face. We've found out ' what they're like, and come to see clearly, very clearly, what the threat to our country is .... And we've all grown vicious and merciless in battle. That seems to give us more strength And we've all realized that., like you said, the devil isn't as terrible as he's painted. Now all of us know that the talk about the German army being invincible is stupid, is plain nonsense. Look at the way they're running from us ! That's what has made it easier." "And in the second place ? " asked Stalin.. " In the second place, the Germans have changed too," Murashov went on. "In a word, they see that plundering is a dangerous game. I've talked with German prisoners, Co nrade Stalin. A month ago they still believed they would take Moscow soon, but new they've stopped thinking about it." " Not even thinking of it, you say ? Yes." Listening to Murashov, Stalin cast several glances at the other wounded men, as though he were trying to learn their attitude to what the lieutenant was saying. " They will confirm it," Murashov said, turning to his fellow patients. " Am I right, lads ? " The man lying next to him was very pale ; his right arm was amputated. He grew agitated when Stalin approached him, but still not a drop of colour appeared in his broad, good-natured face. Only his one remaining hand twitched several times as it lay on his chest beneath the blanket. "That's right," he said in a low voice "The Germans are a lot weaker." On the next cot a man with a bandaged head 'lay motionless. Only his stubborn mouth, turned-up nose and big dark velvety eyes were visible. He had long been waiting for the moment when Stalin would approach his cot, and was fairly trembling with impatience and anticipation of the happy moment. "The Germans are wheezing, and now's' the time to give it to them" he declared. With a slight gesture of his right hand Stalin stopped the doctor, who had opened his mouth to describe the condition of 'the two men. It was clear,` without his words that their condition was grave, that' they were out of the running for a long time, if not forever:' Stifling a sigh; Stalin cautiously, so as not to irritate the men's greatest wounds, their mental wounds; of which the doctor had forgotten, began to ask -them where they were from, where they had worked before the war, how their families were getting along, whether they had children, whether they got letters from home; had their names been submitted for decoration.... Matvei Yurgin lay on the fourth cot, beside the wall. He lay `high on several pillows, covered to the' chin with a blanket, and as Stalin approached he stared 'at him with an expression of such amazement that it seemed he would not' be able to keep from crying out. It was as though he were seeing Stalin in the' ward for the first time. Stalin realized that during the few. minutes he had been talking with the other men Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Yurgin was unconscious and that he had just recovered consciousness. "It is ... really you ? " asked Yurgin, wheezing heavily. " Really... you ? " Yes, it is I," replied Stalin. Glancing at Yurgin's leaden-hued face, with its black growth of beard on the gaunt cheeks and feverishly glittering eyes, Stalin realized that the patient was at death's door. A momentary shadow crossed Stalin's face as he sank heavily onto the stool beside the bed. He adjusted the pillow beneath Yurgin's head and asked, " Feel bad ? " Yurgin replied with a look that said he could not lie, that he was having a hard struggle against death, and did not yet know who would emerge the victor. " Take courage," Stalin said. Yurgin lowered his eyelids, following the advice. Then raised 'them immediately with a glance that begged Stalin to lean closer. Stalin did : " Soon ? " Yurgin asked in a whisper. Stalin understood. He bent still lower over Yurgin and replied, also in a whisper, " Very soon . . . ' 11 Wishing all the wounded men rapid recovery, Stalin left the ward and walked into the doctor's office. He stood by the window for a moment, gazing silently at the forest shining silvery in the pale wintery sun. Then, without turning, he asked the doctor behind him in a low voice, " Will he live ?" " We have no hope," the doctor replied apologetically. Stalin turned. " You must have hope," he said. Then he remarked softly, his voice filled with emotion, ` An immortal people ! " ...Before evening Stalin reached the forward defence line, a high, wooded rise beside the Volokolamsk Highway. It had been quiet here for more than two days now. Light snowflakes, like dandelion fluff, were falling, and although it was windless they floated in the air for a long time before coming to rest on the ground. Stalin and the small group of generals accompanying him walked over to the western fringe of the woods where, looking through the spaces between the snow- covered alder bushes, one could see a large territory with the naked eye. That's the village of Lenino, isn't it ? " Stalin asked. His outstretched hand in a woollen mitten accidentally touched a alder branch and sent down a shower of powdery snow. " Lenino...... he repeated thoughtfully after he had received confirmation that he was right. Turning suddenly to the generals he asked, "By the way, what was the village called before?" Without stopping to think, two of the generals nearby looked ' simultaneously at their maps, but the village in front of them naturally had only one name shown on the map, the name given it many years ago. Although the faces of the generals were quite different, they now both wore the absolutely same expression of chagrin at this gap in their knowledge. Also simultaneously, the generals glanced at Borodin, hoping that he would help them out, but the division commander, expecting their questioning look, tugged the village either. Feeling that the others might he forgiven but that he certainly could not since he and his regiment had been holding down positions near Lenino for several days now, Ozerov instantly turned red, and in search of help looked at the soldiers standing nearby. " So no one knows ? " Stalin asked. At that moment Guards Sergeant Andrei Lopukhov, who was standing in the group of men, pulled himself erect as though propelled inwardly, lifting his submachine gun still higher on his chest. Stalin instantly noticed Andrei's movement and turned a calm, inquiring glance on him. In the dark, shining eyes of the tall young man wearing a camouflage cape, in the handsome weatherbeaten Russian face glowing wih happiness he saw a bold readiness to speak. " Do you know " Stalin asked Lopukhov. "Yes, Comrade Supreme Commander-in-Chief ! " Andrei replied, taking a step forward. " What was the name of this village before ? " Comrade Supreme Commander-in-Chief, this village used to be called Lupikha," Andrei replied loudly and distinctly, at this moment glad only that he had replied without stumbling. Stalin also took a step toward Andrei. " Are you from Lenino, Comrade Lopukhov ? " No, Comrade Stalin." " Then how do you happen to know the old name ? " " I met a soldier from here, Comrade Stalin. We got to talking, and I asked what the name used to be." " And why did you ask ? " "Just in case, Comrade Stalin ! " Stalin gave a barely perceptible smile. " It turns out it wasn't for nothing," he said slowly and thoughtfully. " Yes, our men must always know everything. Just in case. So that used to be Lupikha ?','r) he went on, turning to the rest. " A suitable name .... With a nod to the west he raised his voice a trifle. "Here is where we must thrash the German invaders, thrash them mercilessly for daring to raise their filthy hands against the land of Lenin ! " Stalin was about to pick up the binoculars hanging on his chest when he again turned to the soldiers. " There's no denying they've already taken a good beating here," he said, glancing at Andrei, for whore he had taken a big liking for his youth and fine military bearing. " But it seems to me they have to be given a bigger, still more merciless beating. I should like to know what you think of this, Comrades Guardsmen ? " Andrei snapped to attention. " Comrade Supreme Commander-in-Chief," he said clearly and boldly, " all the Guardsmen think that it's time to kick the beast out ! All we're waiting for is the order ! " " That's the way to think, Comrades Guardsmen; just the way ! " said Stalin seriously. " Yes, it's time to drive those brutal invaders out of our country ! Like the first, the second German fascist offensive against Moscow has failed. The plan to encircle and take Moscow has burst like a soap bubble. That's lightly at his moustaches and glanced in turn at Ozerov. 1 The name comes from the Russian verb lupit, which means However, Ozerov did not know the former name of to thrash, to give a beating to. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 clrear both to us and to the German in,aders. It was just for this reason that Hitler left the Eastern Front. He decided to choose quieter places to take an airing. Ran away because he was afraid. But he won't be able to, escape responsibility. He'll have to answer for everything ! ' As he picked up his binoculars again Stalin suddenly said, " There's going to be a storm." All quickly looked around and were no little surprised to see what had happened to the weather the past few minutes while they were listening to Stalin. The, sky had darkened, a haze had enveloped the woods, the snow flakes were whirling faster than ever, and a raw wind came from the fields. With an involuntary shiver they all sensed that in a little while, very soon, a mighty .and irresistible Russian snowstorm would come sweeping across the lands about Moscow, filling the sky with its whistle and roar.... The Story of an Experiment (Continued from page 9) that even the experienced agronomists were perplexed. The ovaries grew to an enormous size." Subsequently I received a few more communications from the . Ukraine, the Gorky region and even from abroad-from the People's Democracies. True, in most cases they came from scientists. The specialists are repeating my experiments with plant organisms on a broad scale. The assistance of my correspondents and the active participation of youth in these experiments give me the greatest pleasure. I have not the least doubt that the results of the experiments that will be obtained this year will make it possible broadly to recommend the treatment of seeds of certain cultures with sodium bicarbonate as a new and very effective agricultural means of raising yields, I am sure that there is many a "dark nook " and unsolved riddle in the world of plant cells the solution of which will help boost yields. T T 1 . Results of the 1 th Ol i 5 ymp c Gam Interview with N. N. Romanov, Head of the Soviet THE 15th Olympic games, which took place between July 19th and August 3rd, said N. N. Romanov, were the, biggest. events. of this kind ever held. About 7,000 men and women athletes representing 70 countries took. part in the competitions. Foreign Press comments were unanimous in noting the fact that the participation of the athletes of the Soviet Union in the Olympics heightened the interest towards these games and lent them great international significance. N. N. Romanov referred to the major successes scored in the Olympics by the Soviet athletes who established 2 world, 3 European and 11 USSR records, winning 106` Olympic. medals, including 38 gold, 53 silver and 15 bronze medals. In the Olympic competitions which lasted 16 days the Soviet athletes scored 494 points, i.e., the highest number of points. According to concretized data, the athletes of the USA also scored 494 points. The number of points scored by the athletes of the Hungarian People's Republic gained Sports Delegation them a worthy place in the Olympic table after the athletes of the USSR and the USA. Successful results were won by the athletes of Sweden, Italy and Finland. In conclusion, N. N. Romanov referred to the abusive and unfair practices of judges who deliberately belittled the results scored by a number of athletes of the Soviet Union and other countries. As an example, N. N. Romanov mentioned the outrageous conduct of the. referee in the case of the Soviet boxer Shotsikas. At the same time the jury adjudged undeserved victories to some of the American athletes, especially in the. last days of the competitions. There is no doubt, concluded N. N. Romanov, that with a fair jury in all the sports, the athletes of the Soviet Union and of some other countries would have been awarded a far greater number of prizes. " In general," declared N. N. Romanov, " the Olympic games helped in promoting co-operation between athletes of different countries and brought out their urge for peace and, friendship." Sports as a Factor of Friendship T HE Olympic games in Finland are not only a big were being held, a sacred truce " was proclaimed event in the world of sport. In Turku, the between the different cities, and any violation of it was port through which many of the contestants and sternly punished. uests arrived, a poster in many languages proclaimed : When the tradition was revived at the end of the Welcome to the Olympic Games for Peace!" And last century at the suggestion of the French educator dedicated as they are to friendship among the peoples, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, friendship between the and especially among the youth of all countries, athletes of different countries and better relations the games have a wider significance than only sports. among nations were the keynote of the first Olympic Already in ancient Greece, from which the Olympic games of modern times, held in 1896 at Athens. The tradition has come down to us, the games were Olympic badge with its five interlocked rings is. a synonymous with peace ; every four years, while they symbol of the'brotherhogd of the five continents, 23 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Ali(] on the p^esent occasions too, we know that most of the contestants gathered in Helsinki have come there not only to display their prowess but to help cement the ties of friendship among the nations; for the people everywhere are eager to strengthen the peace in every way they can. We in the Soviet Union have always stood for friendly intercourse between sportsmen of' different countries, 't'eams from abroad are frequent visitors to our country and are always accorded a warm welcome. Our own athletes, too, have visited other countries to take part in various contests. Designed as they are to build up mans' physical health, sports by their very nature tend to imbue him with a spirit of vigour and optimism. They furnish an excellent meeting ground for people from all over the world. Soviet sportsmen accepted with pleasure the International Olympic Committee's invitation to take part in the Helsinki games, and their participation (for the first time) helps to make the Olympic games more truly international, to promote peace and friendship among the sportsmen and youth of all the world. With the world in its present troubled state, the keen interest in the Olympic games, with their tradition Village Sportsmen g Ry A. Finogenov 't PORT is very popular among the village youth in the USSR. At present there are some three million people in the ranks of village sportsmen. Voluntary rural sports societies have been organized in nearly all of the Union republics. In RSFSR functions the Kolkhoznik Society, in the Ukraine the holgospnik, in Uzbekistan the Pakhtakor Society and so on. of peace and friendship, i, but. natural ; it ref ects the anxiety of the peoples to ;ee the international tension relaxed, In a letter to the International Olympic Committee, students of the University of' Illinois send greetings to the sportsmen of all nations who are taking part in the Helsinki gain.es, and declare that their peaceful sports contests are an example to the world. And we need not doubt that sentiments like these are shared by millions every is here. The more regrettable therefore the fact that the arrangements made for rlhe games should h~.ve been marred by some untorr,,tnate shortcoming:. 'The sportsmen of the Germarn Democratic Repu )lic and the People's Democratic Republic of Korea were not invited to Helsinki, and it was only at the last noment, on the insistence of sportsmen and sports lovers all over the world, that an invitation was ext.-nded to the sportsmen of the Chino se People's Republic. People everywhere hope that, these shortcomings notwithstanding, this summer's Olympic gapes will prove a contribution to (lie cause of peace. And one wants to believe that the friendship knit among the sportsmen and youth of different countries during these games will not die, and that the contestants will take back with them to all Buds of' the earth a message of peace and friendship amori[g the nations. :`'crow " ,News " No. 5, 1952. Robert ,Skuya (Lama) flaying with Korb au Khauoa (Turk- menlo) . The kolkhoz physical culture organizations form the basis of the village sports societies. Membership to these organizations is open to everyone from 14 years of' age and over. All athletic activity in the kolkhoz is headed by a council elected at a general meeting of the sportsmen. Any member of' the sports society may be elected to this council. It is the council's duty to arrange the schedule for athletic meets, create sections in various fields of sport, prepare athletes for competitions, etc. All physical culture facilities and equipment are placed at the disposal of the members free of charge. Village sportsmen participate in contests and athletic meets. Sections are organized for village athletes desiring to participate in one or another field of sport. In these ,ections are formed groups of teams in the most varied sports-track and field events, boxing, swimming, football, basketball, volleyball, wrestling, fencing, etc. Crigori Zhurav/eo, USSR Chess Chanrpir a among collective (,men. The members are taught rncl'trained by physic-.l culture teachers or well trained athletes who are appointed by the council. The Soviet State displays great solicitude for the physical training of the collective farmers. The Soviets of Working People's Deputies allocate big sun is for the construction of stadiums, and sports grounc s in the kolkhoz villages. Questions dealing m ith the development of' physical culture and s )ort are discussed regularly at sessions of regional and district Soviets of Working People's Deputies. A statuette of a football player decorates the office desk of the Chairman of' the Polyarnaya Zve~ da (Polar Star) kolkhoz, Uzbek SSR.. This is an honorary prize, Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 won by the kolkhoz team-the republic's champion in football. What was it that ensured such a splendid victory to the sportsmen of the Polyarnaya Zvezda Kolkhoz ? Here, in this collective farm, as in all others, sport became an essential element in the life of the youth. The collective Farmers built for themselves a stadium. Tens of young collective farmers engage systematically in track and field events, volleyball, boxing, horsemanship. Competitions among village athletes in various sports are held annually in the USSR on a country- wide scale. In track and field meets last year 232 men and 129 women, representing the top kolkhoz athletes, took a hand. They came from the Russian Federation, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Moldavia, Estonia and other republics. The village sportsmen showed good results. For instance, I. Chernov, member of the Kolkhoznik Sports Society, covered 100 metres in 10.9 sec. ; A. Ignatyev raced 400 in. in 50.6 sec. ; R. Bikchurin covered the 800-m. :race in 1 min., 58.1 sec. The sportswoman N. Derganova, captured first place in the .100-m. sprint-12.9 sec., and cleared 5.03-m. in the broad jump. Four Georgian collective farmers engaging in the At. a collective farm in Daghestan. A competition of aeroplane modellers, members of the "Kolkhoznik" Sports Society AQotorcyclisls, members of the Stalin Collective Farm, Lninabad District, 7 aide SSR mountain climbing sport merited the high title of Honoured Masters of Sport of the USSR. Ten collective farm football teams of the Uzbek rural sport society Pakhtakor participated last year in the republic's football championship games. A weight-lifting competition was held in Kiev among athletes of the Kolgospnik Society in June of this year. The lightweight A. Khvesik, a collective i armer from Lyubeshov village, Volynsk Region, lifted 100 kilograms in the two-hand clean and press, 102.5 kilograms in the snatch and 127.5 kilograms in the clean and jerk. Recently a USSR chess tournament was held in Moscow among collective farmers. Eighteen of the best village players, representing kolkhoz sports organizations of 15 Union republics, made a bid for top honours. The contestants employed new interesting ideas in the openings and displayed fine technic ue in realization of positional advantage. Grigory Zhuravlev of the Kolkhoznik Sports Society won first place in the USSR chess tournament among collective farm players. Zhuravlev came well prepared and performed in great style scoring 14.5 out of a possible 17 points. The extensive development of physical culture and sport in the villages of the Soviet Union serves as a striking proof of the cultural growth in the country:,ide. Football team of the Tivniryazev Collective Farm, Gorky Region_ Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 2 ~=RD ~ 4- 013000010063=2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Statement made by M. V. NESTEROV, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, to the. Press Conference held by him on 10th. January, 1952 in- the Soviet Pavilion at the International Industries Fair, Bombay . A i the outset I must thank all of you for your kind attendance at this Press conference. I would like you to get acquainted in brief with those changes which have occurred in the economic life of the Soviet State since 1917. I would also like to dwell upon the development of the trade relations between the USSR and other countries, particularly between the USSR and India. Thirty-four years have already passed since the work- ers and peasants of Russia took power in their own hands. Thirty-four years have passed since the exploitation of man by man was entirely eliminated on one-sixth of the globe. It is already over thirty years that the Soviet peoples have been living as one enormous family, a family of toilers. During this time, great changes took place in the Soviet Union. The Soviet people have achieved such successes that humanity is able to achieve only in the new advanced system of social and state order. I wish to tell you about these achievements not only because they define the face of my country but also be- cause they determine relations of the Soviet Union with other countries. In particular, they -determine our foreign trade policy. Well, the principal change which has taken -place in the economy of my country in the course of the past 34 years, i.e., from the date of the Great October Socialist Revolution, is that from a backward agrarian country, Soviet Russia has turned into an advanced, industrially developed mighty power. Now, the Soviet Union not only possesses an advanc- ed industry but also renders technical and economic aid to other countries. Tsarist Russia possessed immense natural wealth, but it remained untapped. Russia, I am repeating this, was a poor and technically backward country. Her industrial production was confined to only a few ma- chines. Nearly all machinery she imported from abroad. In those years, Russia was predominantly a country=of light industry. As - regards heavy industries, which give a country economic independence, it was poorly developed; There was no production of tractors, au- iomobiles, many types of machine tools, aircraft, agri- cliltural machinery, road-building machinery, electrical egj,ipment, chemicals and many many other vital prod:?cts. But even these enterprises which Russia had then did not belong to her fully. Many of them were the property of foreign capital. The Russia of those times -depended very much on the capitalist of the West. Such was the Russia then l It goes without saying that her transformation into an advanced industrial country took much effort and many resources. By 1927- the Soviet people completely restored in- dustrial and agricultural production to the pre-war level and started moving forward in big strides. The most important role in the economic development of my country was played, and continues to be played, by the Stalin Five-Year Plans,, on the basis of which the planned growth of Soviet economy is effected. The First Five-Year Plan. which came into effect in 1928 was completed ahead of time, in four years and three months. The Second Five-Year Plan (1933-37) was completed within the sam time. In 1938, the Soviet people started working on the Third Five-Year Plan, but it was not completed owing to the attack of fascist Germany on the USSR. Nevertheless, in the thriteen years preceding the Second World War, the USSR, made the greatest leap from backwardness to progress and without any outside help, became a country with a powerful, first-class industry. " It has never happened yet in the world," the leader of the :peoples of the USSR, J. V. Stalin,'pointed out, "that a huge backward agra- rian land should be turned into an industrial country without plundering colonies, without robbing foreign countries or without big loans and long-term credits from outside..: We have been able to organise the in- dustrialisation of our own forces." (J. Stalin). The basic task of the Five-Year Plan was to create heavy industry and especially, machine-building industry. This task was - successfully carried out. The Soviet Union has built up its own iron and steel -industry, the tractor, automobile, machine-tool, chemical, aircraft and agricultural machine industries. This enabled the Soviet people to equip with the new technique all the branches of the industry and to effect the reconstruction of the economy of the USSR. Apart from the recons- truction of the old industrial enterprises, many new in- dustrial centres have been set up in different parts of the country. Here are some figures showing the achievements of the Soviet Union during the period from 1917 to 1948. In 1913 the national income of tsarist Russia amount- ed to 21,000 million rubles ; the national income of the U. S. S. R. increased.to 128,000 million rubles in 1940. In 1940 large-scale industry of the Soviet Union supplied Approved For Release 2002/01/171 CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 approximately 12 times more industrial output than the industry of tsarist Russia did in 1913. Production in the machine-building, and metal-working industries increas- ed 41 times over. In the same year, Soviet industry produced 15 million tons of pig-iron., or four times the 1913 output ; 18,300,000 tons of steel-4.5 times the 1913 amount ; 166 million tons of coal (5.5 times.more) 31 million tons of oil (3.5 times more); 38,300,000 tons of marketable grain (17 million tons more than in 1913), 27,000,000 tons of cotton or 3.5 times more than in I913,etc. Immense successes were achieved by Soviet agri- culture which is now the most advanced agriculture in the world. Before 1913, the agriculture of Russia was extremely backward. Land was tilled in a most pri- mitive way. After the Revolution, land passed over to the peasants who united in collective farms and start- ed using modern agricultural machinery, taking full advantage of the progress of agricultural science. In 1940, 523,000 tractors, 182,000 harvester com- bines, 228,000 trucks, hundreds of thousands of various agricultural machines were used in the fields of the Soviet Union. This considerably increased the production of agricultural products and improved the standard of living of the peasants. The Secor.d World War, however, tore the Soviet peoples from tl eir crea- tive labour--the Soviet Union having to bear the main brunt of the war. I shall cite only a few general figures to show you what were the losses suffered as a result of the fascist invasion. Indeed, these losses are hard to estimate. The direct damage alone inflicted by the Hitlerites on the USSR amounted to 679,000 million rubles (or 170,000 million dollars or 807,000 million rupees). The fascist invaders destroyed. fully or in part, 1,710 Soviet cities and more than 70,000 villages. They destroyed thous- ands of industrial enterprises, ruined and sacked 98,000 collective farms and so or. Any other state on sustaining such damage would have been thrown back for decades. This, however, did rot happen and could not happen in the case of the Soviet State which relies on planned economy and enjoys g ee one y tractor-drawn the boundless support of the entire people. seed drills and more than 60 per cent of the grain area After the war the Soviet people guided by the wise has been harvested with combines. The very good Stalin have rapidly rehabilitated the economy of the technical equipment and the utilization of the highly country, showing to the world once more that the peoples developed agrarian science resulted in the big growth of liberated from the yoke of exploitation, masters of their production of agricultural products. own state, are capable of performing miracles. During the last few years the total grain crop an- The post-war Five-Year Plan (1946-50), the main nually exceeded 7,000 million poods (112 million tons). task of which was to rehabilitate the war-devastated The Soviet Union now produces more cotton than India, economy to the pre-war level and to surpass this level. Pakista-r and Egypt, taken together. The increase in has successfully been carried out. production of manufactured goods. and agricultural The output of all the irdustries not only reached the products secures the systematic rise ohe material and pre-war level but surpassed it by far. As a result of this cultural standards of the Soviet people. The advance in plan steel production in the USSR increased by 2.2 times the living standard of the people is the law of Socialism. as compared with the pre-war level. In 1951 alone the In 1950 the national income increased by 64 per cent increase in steel production was about four million tons or compared with 1940; the working people received 74 approximately as much as all tsarist Russia produced. per cent of the national income for meeting their per- Now the Soviet Union produces approximately as much sonal material and cultural requirements, while the steel as Britain, F'rarrcc, Belgium and Sweden com- other 26 per cent remained at the disposal of the State hived. Coal output increased to 8 times as much as collective farms and cooperative organisations for ex- in 1913. According to the plan. for 1950, the output of panding production and for other needs of the state and coal was more than 250 million tons. The annual in- society as a whole. crease in coal production amounts to 24 million tons on in 1950, the total incomes of workers, office emph,yees the average. Oil production is increasirg by 4.5 mil- and collective farms increased by 62 per cent cOMpared lion tons annually. with 1940. The USSR was the first country in Europe Approved For Release 2002/01/17ICIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 A specially rapid increase has taken place in power generation. In the post-war Five-Year Plan pefiod the production of electric power increased twice over and surpassed the pre-war level by 87 per cent. In 1951 the Soviet Union produced more than 104,000 million kilo- watt hours of electric power-55 times more than pre- Revolutionary Russia and more than is being generated by the electric stations of Britain and France combined. At present there are being built in the Soviet Union gigantic hydro-electric stations-the biggest in the world. They will generate more than 22,000 million KWH annually, which is equal to the total produced by all the power stations of Denmark, Finland, Holland, Belgium and Spain taken together. This additional electric power will enable us to cut production costs and to sup- ply far greater amounts of products at lower costs. In 1950' the USSR produced 2.3 times as many machines as in 1940 and more than 100 times the production of tsarist Russia. During 6 post-war years Soviet engineering work have mastered the manufacture of more than 1,700 new models of machines. There is no machine in the world that Soviet industry cannot manufacture. More- over, we now produce such machines as are produced nowhere else in the world. For instance, Soviet industry is manufacturing a steam turbine of 150,000 kw. capacity. The increase in production in the machine-building industry after the war has led to a further improvement in the technical equipment of our agriculture which has substantially grown in the last few years. Thus, the increase in production of tractors in 1950 by 3.8 times and in the production of combines by 3.6 times against 1940, as well as the increase in production of other agricultural machinery, made it possible for Soviet agriculture to receive 536,000 tractors (in terms of 15 H. P. units), 93,000 grain harvesting; combines (includ- ing 39,000 self-propelled machines) about 850,000 tractor drawn implements and big quantities of other agricultural machinery. In 1951 almost the entire ploughing in collective farms was mechanised, three- quarters of the sowin has b n d b Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 to abolish rationing of all foodstuffs and manufactured The Soviet Union is now busy with creative peaceful goods in December 1947. Since then state retail prices labour. It has not launched an armament drive and is of all goods have been reduced tour times. This resulted therefore, quite capable of supplying other countries, in an increase in the real wages of the toiling masses and and particularly India, with various manufactured goods in the purchasing power of the ruble. and foodstuff.. Huge funds are spent in the USSR for cultural and We can=provide your country with machine-tools, social services to the people. For instance Soviet people generators, electric equipment, transport equipment, receive free of charge or at reduced rates, accommo- mining equipment, textile machinery, agricultural ma- dations in sanatoriums, rest homes, and children's chinery, as well as cement, timber, fertilizers, food- institutions. Vast amounts are being spent for allow- grains, consumer goods, etc. On the other hand, we ances to mothers of large families and lone mothers, for are interested in a number of your goods, such as jute, free medical service, for pensions to disabled and old tobacco, shellac, textiles, copra, spices and other things. persons, for stipends to students, and so on. All factory A more detailed list of commodities that we can and office workers receive an annual paid vacation at supply to your country can be obtained from the Soviet the expense of the State of not less than two weeks. In Trade Agency in Calcutta (4, Camac Street, Tel. 1.950 alone the State spent mote than 120,000 million No. 3281). rubles (about 138,000 million rupees) for social and In conclusion, I would like to say that we stand for cultural services to, the population, or three times more the establishment of close business relations with all than in 1940. countries. These relations should be based on the grin- Such are in brief the changes which have taken place ciples of equality of nations and considerations of mutual in the Soviet Union. Such is the state of affairs in my profit. We feel that the development and strengthening country. Naturally the extent of economic develop- of business relations with all countries, regardless of the ment of the Soviet Union determines its business rela- differences of their social and economic stystems, is one tions with other countries, the character and composition of the most important conditions for the maintenance of its foreign trade, and strengthening of peace and security. To this end Now ttre USSR exports not only raw materials and we are taking an active part in the convening of an foodstuffs as in the case of old Russia. We now export International Economic Conference, the idea of which various manufactured goods including different ma- was initiated by public-minded individuals of various chines and equipment. At the same time we need a countries. number of manufactures and raw materials. This It is expected that 400 to 450 persons-economists, provides favourable conditions for development of trade manufacturers, merchants, farmers, ergineers, trade between the Soviet Union and other countries of the union leaders, etc., will attend the conference. Its world. purpose will be to promote international economic co- I have been in Bombay for more than a,month and operation, to find ways and means of raising the general during this time I have met many businessmen. Almost living standards through peaceful co-operation between all of them put me the same question-whether the different economic and social systems. The conference Soviet Union is able to supply India with capital goods will presumably endeavour to recommend practical and foodgrains and in what Indian goods the USSR is measures along these lines and will provide a personal interested. Asking me this question, many of the busi- opportunity for the delegates to establish business nessmen complained of the difficulties in obtaining capi- contacts and to exchange views on economic tal goods from the United States and Britain which are problems. intensifying an armament drive and are drastically cur- Such a conference can undoubtedly prove an im- tailing civilian production.. portant step in promoting economic ties between differ- It seems to me that the question of the possibility of ent countries. It may certainly be said in advance that supplying India with Soviet manufactured goods and Soviet Economic Organisations will lend their utmost foodstuffs and of importing Indian goods into the USSR assistance to further this object. The potentialities for is also of interest to you. In other words, this question closer economic co-operation between the Soviet Union means whether it is possible to expand trade between and the capitalist countries, between the lands of demo- our two countries, whether it is possible to establish cracy and socialism generally and the capitalist world, closer business cooperation between them. are very great indeed. Obstacles are being artificially To this question I can answer that, as far as the Soviet put in the way of such co-operation. They must be re- Union is concerned, the expansion of trade between our moved if the severe economic position in which many of two countries and the establishment of closer business the capitalist countries find themselves is to be improved contacts is quite possible. and peace among the nations made secure. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Speech Delivered by M. V. NESTEROV, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, in the Indian Merchants' Chamber at Bombay on January 8, 1952 Statement made by M. V. NESTEROV, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, to the Press Conference held by him on 10th' January, 1952 in the Soviet Pavilion at the International Industries Fair, Bombay SUPPLEMENT TO SOVIET LAND NO. 2, JANUARY 25, 1952 proved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Speech Delivered by M. V. NESTEROV, President of Chamber of Commerce of the USSR, in the Indian Merchants" Chamber at Bombay on January 8, 1952 WOULD like to acquaint this esteemed audience in I brief with the great changes in the economic life of the Soviet State since 1917, when the Great October Socialist Revolution took place in Russia, i.e., during the 34 years of the existence of the USSR. Three decades are but a brief moment in history, but these past three decades have no equal in the annals of mankind for the social and political developments they have brought. During this period the peoples of the USSR have transformed their country from a backward agrarian land into a powerful industrial country which not only steadily develops without any outside help, but is.able to render tangible technical and economic assistance to other countries as well. Tsarist Russia possessed immense natural wealth, but it remained untapped. Russia was a poor, tech- nically backward country. It produced few machines and most of them were then imported from abroad. In those years it was mainly light industry that was developed. As for the heavy industry which gives a country economic independence, it was poorly deve- loped. Many factories, mills and mines of old Russia were owned by foreign capitalists. The country's economy was greatly dependent on the capitalist states of the West. The first years of the young Soviet State were spent in armed struggle against enemies of the new Socialist system ; next, a number of'years was required to rehabi- litate the economy destroyed by the war and foreign intervention, to regain the pre-war level in industry and agriculture. This was accomplished by 1927. Since 1928 economic development in the Soviet Union has been proceeding on the basis of the famed Stalin Five-Year Plans. The First Five-Year Plan (1928-1932) was completed ahead of time. The same accomplishment was registered in the case of the Second Five-Year Plan (1933-1937). In 1938 the Soviet people started work on the Third Five-Year Plan but it was not completed, owing to the attack of fascist Germany on the USSR. Nevertheless, in the 13 years preceding the Second World War, the USSR made the greatest leap from backwardness to progress, and without any outside aid became a country with a powerful first-class industry. " It has never happened yet in the world," the leader of the peoples of the USSR J. V. Stalin pointed out, " that a huge backward agra- rian land should be turned into an industrial country without plundering colonies, without robbing foreign countries or without big loans and long-term credits 3 from the outside... We have been able to organize the industrialization of our country with our own forces." (J. Stalin.) The main link of the First Five-Year Plan was the establishment of heavy industry with its core, machine- building. Only heavy industry is capable of recons- tructing and putting transport, agriculture and industry as a whole on their feet. The Soviet country coped splendidly with these im- mense tasks and attained results that are of the greatest international significance. The USSR built up its own iron and steel industry, the foundation of industrialisa- tion, the tractor, automobile, machine-tool, chemical air-craft and agricultural machinery industries. This has enabled the Soviet_ people to equip with new techni- que all branches of production and to effect the Social- ist reconstruction of the entire economy of the USSR. During the subsequent Five-Year Plans the Soviet Union attained more, still greater achievements in all spheres of economic life. In the pre-war year 1940 the output of large-scale industry in the USSR was 12 times above 1913 ! Already by the end of the Second Five- Year Plan the USSR advanced to first place in Europe for gross industrial output and to first place in the world, for the level of technique of production. Socialist industry has developed not only in old centres, but also in areas where there was no industry at all in the past. During the Stalin-Five-Year Plans industrial enterprises have been distributed throughout the country more evenly, they have been brought closer to the raw material sources and to the consuming areas. Especially large has been the growth of industry in the republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasia, in the Eastern districts of the USSR. New powerful indus- trial centres have arisen deep in the interior of the country. While before the Revolution Russia had only one coal and metal centre in the South, on the initiative of J. V. Stalin another coal and metal centre was set up in the East (the combination of Urals iron ore and Kuznetsk coal) during the pre-war Five-Year Plans. In that period the most up-to-date mammoth iron and steel mills were built. Among them are the Stalin Iron and Steel Mills in Magnitogorsk, the Stalin Mills in Kuznetsk, the Krivoi Rog, Novaya Tula and other mills. The Magnitogorsk mills alone produce several times more metal than all the works of the pre-revolutionary Urals. Without Soviet-made machinery the USSR could Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 not have its own large-scale industry and mechanized agriculture, could not provide the means of production to all branches of the national economy. Huge machine- building works outfitted with the latest equipment have been set up in the USSR during the Stalin Five-Year Plans. The Soviet machine-building industry is able to manufacture the most intricate equipment, machine- tools and instruments, all types of the means of produc- tion. It serves as a solid foundation for the technical and economic independence of the USSR. By the beginning of the Second World War the Soviet machine- building industry grew more than 50 times over comp- ared with 1913 and held first place in Europe for its volume of output. The Soviet Union is the country with the most ad- vanced agriculture in the world. Prior to the Great October Revolution agriculture in Russia was extremely backward. The bulk of the land was owned by land- lords, monasteries and kulaks. The peasants, in their majority had tiny strips of lands and operated their puny farms single-handed. In Soviet times agriculture has been fundamentally transformed in the USSR. The October Revolution did away with the ownership of the land by landlords. The land was declared to be the property of the entire people and was turned over to the peasants for free perpetual use. Having become convinced of the ad- vantages of collective farming over individual farming, the Soviet peasants, with the support ofthe state began Co unite voluntarily into producers' co-operatives, into collective farms. Collectivization of agriculture has been effected in the USSR under the guidance of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government. Agri- culture in the USSR has been turned into Socialist, col- lective agriculture, the biggest and the most mechanized in the world, capable of applying all the achievements of agronomy, of advanced Michurin agrobiological science. During the Second World War the powerful Social- ist industry of the USSR, as distinct from the industry of old Russia, proved capable of fully ensuring the needs of the front and rear and it enabled the Soviet Army to score a brilliant victory over fascist Germany and imperialist Japan and to liberate the peoples from fascist enslavement. When the war ended the Soviet people were faced with immense tasks : they had. to repair in a short space of time the vast destruction caused by the Hitlerite in- cursion, to rehabilitate the national economy, and to surpass the pre-war level of economic development. '1'h.e Stalin post-war Five-Year Plan (1946-1950) was subordinated to these tasks. The peoples of the Soviet Union bore the main brunt of the Second World War and discharged with credit their historic mission--they saved world civilization from the fascist menace. To accomplish this the Soviet people had to bear tremendous sacrifices in human lives and material resources. The damage caused to the USSR by the-enemy is even hard to estimate. For example, the fascist invaders destroyed.,in full or in part, I,',, 10 Soviet cities and more than 70,000 villages, they destroyed thousands of industrial enterprises, ruined and sacked ' 98,000 collective farms, and so on. The direct damage alone inflicted by the Hitlerites on the USSR amounted to 679,000 million rubles (or 170,000 million dollars at the present rate of exchange). Any other state, on sustaining such damage, would have been thrown back for decades. This, however, did not.happen and could not happen in the case of the Soviet State which relies on planned Socialist economy and enjoys the boundless support of the entire people. Soviet men and women have once again demonstrated to the entire world that a'people liberated from oppres- sion and exploitation who have become masters of their state are capable of performing miracles. The post- war Five-Year Plan was successfully fulfilled and its most important targets were even greatly exceeded ! The Five-Year Plan envisaged that the output of Soviet industry in 1950, the last year of the Five-Year Plan, is to be 48 per cent above the pre-war year 1940. Ac- tually in 1950 industrial output increased 73 per cent compared with 1940. Soviet industry completed the Five-Year Plan ahead of time, in four years and three months ! Last year has brought fresh achievements. The output of Soviet industry increased twice above the pre- war level. A vast programme of capital construction has been effected in the USSR after the war and it greatly exceeds the pre-war scope. During the First Five-Year Plan more than 350 enterprises were commissioned annually, in the Second Five-Year Plan 900, while in the post-war Five-Year Plan more than 1,200 enterprises were put into operation every year. Altogether during 1946- 1950 over 6,000 industrial enterprises were built, res- tored and commissioned, this figure being exclusive of small state, co-operative and collective farm establish- ments. The basic production plant of Soviet industry in 1950 was 58 per cent above 1940. All branches of Soviet industry, in the first place the entire heavy industry, the backbone of the country's whole economy have mace big progress in the post-war years. During the post-war Five-Year Plan period the pro- duction of steel in the USSR increased 2.2 times. In 1951, for example, the increase in the output of steel alone amounted to about four million tons, or approxi- mately as much as all tsarist Russia produced. The ! Soviet Union now produces approximately as much steel as Britain, France, Belgium and Sweden combined. The USSR holds second place in the world for coal production. The annual increase in coal production amounts to 24 million tons on the average. The main processes of coal production are fully mechanized in the USSR. For the level of mechanization the Soviet coal industry has no equal in the world. In 1950 the oil industry of the USSR exceeded the pre-war level by 22 per cent. The annual increase in oil production amounts to 4.5 million tons. The USSR is a country where electrification is pro- ceeding on a big scale. In the post-war Five-Year Plan period the production of electric power increased twice over and surpassed the pre-war level by 87 per cent. In 1.951 the Soviet Union will produce 104,000 million kilowatt hours of electric power---55 times more than pre-revolutionary. Russia and more than is being generated by the electric stations of Britain and France combined. Great are the achievements of the Soviet machine- building, industry. In 1950 the USSR produced 2.3 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : ClJ -RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 ILLEGIB Approved For Release 2002/01 s as many machines as in 1940 and more than 10 in t 00415RO13000010003-2 Ian period the production of cotton goods increaEG16 .4 times, woollen fabrics almost three times, foot e r times above tsarist Russia. In 1951 the output of ma chines is again expanding by more than one-fifth com ared with the preceding year. In the six post-wa p years Soviet engineering works have mastered the manu -3 -1- e f^ h f mac ne o all branches of the economy. There is no machine r For example, in 1951 the Soviet ^industry is ^manu turbine of such capacity is being produced for the first time i ich h e world, ?.. t / ---- - - - and engineering. The successes of the machine-buildin industry have made possible the wide mechanization an able expansion in the technical equipment or the n T l l . eve tional economy compared with the pre-war ose of technical progress in the USSR is ur f hi p p e c lighten human labour, to promote the mechanizatio a^ it ti d y v uc ise labour pro of laborious processes, to ra to bring up to the highest level the production aterial values for the people. m The supply of the latest machinery to agricultu increases from year to year and as a result the technic facilities of agriculture have grown substantially. 1950 the production of tractors in the USSR increas 38 times over compared with 1940, combines 3.6 tim . and so on. During the post-war Five-Year Plan peri 000 grain harvesting combines, lincli 93 HP units) , , ing 39,000 self-propelled machines), about ein,g muru#actured for the first time fly the world in the IJSSR. h> 195I alone the country's machine-building industry is putting out more than 400 new models of ma- chinery and equipment. Soviet industry is developing on the basis of the application of the latest colle?tice Farm, in if, L' bek Soviet, R=haahlic. achievements of science and engineer- (electrification, the ise of automatic machinery, remote co itrol, cbenticcil pr,,ceoses, eta. The conntrv's indus!rialization, es- Pe' i:ally the development of heave iudlnstry, have provided the requisites for the technical recons ruction of agri- cul>rn?c along large-se tle, collectivc, 160111y rnecl>anized Soc a list lines. At p11=c'nt state-owned machine dull tra< for stations, oil'whici there are nun,:' than [',4!)0 in the USSR, perform Nvitli tractors, combine-., and c ther machine',' runte than two-thirds of all field work in the collective farms. Power development has been pry muted to the utmost since the first. (t ,'oninued on 1'age 23) Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Prive-s ,te Monte Building i the USSR By A. Silayev, 17irector, Municipal and Housing Construction Bank of the USSR IIOUS1 S for the working people are built in th USSR on a vast scale. Thus, during the five years of 1946---1950 alone, upwards of 100 million square metres of housing were restored or built anew in towns and industrial settlements, and 2,700.000 houses in the rural communities of the Soviet Union. While the overwhelming mass of the houses in. towns and industrial settle- ments is built by the State, there is also widespread private housebuilding. For the construction of their private homes they are given free and for permanent use plots of land ranging from 300 to 500 square metres in cities and from 700 to 1.,200 square metres in industrial settlements. The private homebulders get technical consultation entirely free. And, lastly, their places of work, in accordance with a special government decree, lend them assistance in trans- porting building materials to the cons- truction site as well as any other aid that may be needed. As we see, the state, rendering wide assistance to the private hornebuilders, pursues no commercial ends whatever, but is guided solely by the endeavour to further improve the living ctauicfards of the working people. '.fhe postwar Live--year plait for 1946--50 envisaged the construction of' private homes aggregating .12,000,000 square metres of living floor space. And this target, high as it is, has been exceeded by 200,000 square metres. Besides this, 100,000 new private houses, the construction of which began in 1950, has been completed this year. To this figure should be added an- other 32,00 one-family houses built by industrial establishments ,And sold to their employees on easy instalments. Loans to private homebuilders it, towns and in industrial settlements are granted by the Municipal and Housing Construction Bank of the USSR. These loans are issued in the sum of up to 10,000 rubles repayable by factory and office workers in the course of seven years and by invalids of the Great Patriotic War and families of ser\'ice- men killed in the war, in the course of ten years. The interest rate ranges from one to two per cent per annum. Many factory and office workers, how- ever, build their homes on their own savings without resorting to the finan- cial aid of the State or taking only small State loans. This fact testifies to the growing prosperity of the Soviet people. The Soviet State spends large funds Private houses belonging to lumb,rmen of the Karelo-Finnish SSR. on municipal improvement, in these settlements. It builds there schools, clubs, polyclinics, kindergartens, child- ren's nurseries, motion pictur. theatres, stores, sparing no means to make the life of ordinary man ever letter and more comfortable. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Glorious Daughter of the Soviet People (Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the Death of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya) By Yelena Kononenko, Soviet Writer Soviet woman and mother, want to speak today in the name of millions of Soviet mothers who have not forgotten the horrors of the war unleashed by fascism. Many of us became widows, iiiany lost their sons and brothers. In the last war I, too, lost what was most precious to me --my sort and daughter who, for their deeds of valour, were posthumously awarded the title of FTero of the Soviet Uniot'.... " These stirring words came from the lips of a1 Russian woman, from Lyubov Kosmodemyanskaya, at the World Peace Congress. When she finished her speech a storm of applause swept through the huge auditorium decorated with the flags of all nations,. The Congress delegates were expressing their burning sympathy for the mother of two heroes who fell in the battle for the freedom and independence of their Soviet Home- There is no place on earth today where people do not know of the immortal deed of the Soviet girl Zoya Kosrnodeinyanskaya, who gave her life for the sake of peace and the hap- piness of all mankind. That was ten years ago. Following the dictates of her heart, this Moscow schoolgirl joined a detachment of the peoples avengers--partisans-where she carried out a number of difficult rssignrneuts in the enemy rear. But in the village of Petrishchevo, near Moscow, Zoya was captured by the Tlitlerite hangmen. She refused to arts- wcr their questions. Whips whistled through the air, biting into her flesh, hut still she kept silent. She was led barefoot through the snow. Still she kept silent. Only in the last few seconds before her death did Zoya speak. She. loosened the noose about her neck, raised herself on her toes, and shouted : "Farewell, Comrades! Fight on, don't be afraid. Stalin is with us ! Stalin will come ! These words were heard. - by the peasant.; of Petrishchevo, whom the fascists had driven to witness the ex- c cutiorrr. The entire Soviet people (41, t hcx, At toe- front and peartison /o i Ii'arnode~~nnrsk,~,a, hero of the Soviet 1 %,rtorr. (She on,' killed hY the German invades irs 1((4);, deep in th . rear Soviet men and women, choked with sorrow and wrath, learned of the fearless manner in which this simple Soviet girl had gone to her death. Zoya possessed all the traits of character which the Communist Party, the Young Communist League and the great Stalin tirelessly train in the Soviet youth---w!role-hearted, bound- less love of ac's country and,~ eople, readiness to give all one's s trength, intelligence, heart, and life itself, for the good of' the people, willingness to shield one's Soviet land from the enemy with one's body. The memory of Zoya Kosmodeni- yanskaya lives on in the minds of the Soviet people. The Soviet people, the youth, remember Zoya alive, courage- ous, unyielding. The name Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya has also become a symbol for courage, daring and valour, to the advanced youth of the world. In the Soviet Union leading mines, locomotives; strips schools, Young Communist youth brigades, clubhouses and parks have been named after Zoya Kpsn~odcmyanskaya. Daily the postman brings Zoya's mother a heap of letters from poeple all over the Soviet Union and from abroad. Here el a letter from a grot p of young people vho work at a mac line plant in the I trals, They write : We revere and honou:? the me- mory of Zoya, who gave ter young life for tike freedom and happiness of the Homeland. Zoya's feat of valour will lie forever in the memory of he people. Her fC.at of valour will serve as an example to Soviet youth rf what a Soviet person should be and how he should fulfil his duty to I is country. To he I i ke Zoya is the aim of each of us. A girl from Prague writes to Zoya's mother " 1 1 a 1vv helone the men( pry of your daughter, who is the bright( it example for us, rite Czechiosloavk yc uth . . . I am sending you a flower, which I treasw - as my dearest possession. It was .iven to me by a Cr inese dele- gate at the assembly of peace sup- porter:; in Prague. I beg y,u to lay it on 'h(,n a's grave for me. Yours is a great s~ )rrow, but to have sr ch children as Zn-~i. is a great pride." Our youth will alwayr remember Zoya. Just a few days a! o I visited girls' chool No. 211 in Moscow to attend a meeting of the se iior classes. The t( pie for discussion w~:s friendship as it I:-; understood by Soviet young people. One of the girls delivered a short, poetic report on Zoya Kosmo- demyanskaya. She said that in Zoya's school copybooks and her notebook there were entries about courage, about loyalty, about love for a fiend, about the bliss of being a bra ve fighter." All these notes were not just exalted dreams, not lofty, noble words copied out of a favourite hook. Zoya embo- died all these qualities in her life, and actions, and she remained rue to them to the end of her life. Her death was proof of the truth of every word in her copybooks.. The girls listened to fl .e report on Zoya with profound attention. As (Continued un page 23.1 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 That Soviet Yorkers Say OUR LIFE IS BRIGHT AND They have been given plots of land JOYOUS entirely free of charge and granted long-term loans at easy rates. In the M Y father was a foundryman for past three years alone some 150 work- nearly thrity years. I, too, am ers of our pit have built themselves a steel worker for close to two their own houses. decades now, operating electric fur- Our miners' average earnings have naces at the Kirov Plant of Leningrad. gone up substantially since 1949. Soviet Several times I have won the title of miners receive from the state large long- Lenin rad's best t 1 k see m g a Cr. service bonuses and various "premiums I live with my family in the centre for overfulfilling coal output quotas of the cit o M h, k S n oz t y, ais aya reet. On a former country estate not far from our plant a residential settlement is going up for our plant's personnel. The new houses will have three and four-room apartments with baths and other conveniences and comforts. On holidays our entire family as- sembles at my house. Some 25 to 30 people gather ; my sisters with their husbands and children, my shopmates and friends from the plant. And around the holiday table we first of all drink to the health of Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin to whom we owe our happiness, and wish him many years of life for the good of all working people. We also drink to our beloved Soviet power, to the happiness of the Soviet people, and to our radiant future-Ccmmu- nism. and other indices. The personnel of our mine are mostly young workers, yet every year 1,200,000 to 1,300,000 rubles are paid out here in long service bonuses. In the past two years our workers received close to 350,000 rubles in premiums from the director's fund. Our miners enjoy also all other be- nefits. In the first nine months of this year 130 of our workers spent their vacation at sanatoriums and rest homes. Prosperity is evident in every miner's home. In each of them one will find a motor cycle radio, an accordian, Twelve of our miners have their own cars. Our colliers say, " We live well now but we will live still better." This assurance comes from the deep knowledge that the constant rise in the people's standard of livi i l ng s a aw Nikolai Mikhailov, of development of the Socialist state. Steelmaker, Kirov Plant, Leningrad, Dimitri Nesmekha, (The Plant has been decorated with four Superintendent, Pit No. 17-bis, Chistakovo Government Orders) Anthracite Division, Donets Coaleld. OUR MINERS LIVE WELL A BUILDER'S PRIDE The Soviet Government is pater- Six years have elapsed since the day nally solicitous to make the miners' when I laid the first bricks in our war- job'T ever easier. Our small pit is ravaged city. And now it almost equipped with Donbas coalmining seems incredible that we have accom- combines, with powerful coal cutters, plished so much ! with labour saving rock loaders, and Recently, coming from work I found many other modern machines. The myself on Leningrad Street. I wanted job of the Soviet miner is truly a to see the place where I lived in those -joyous one. early days, where the tents of our Enormous too is the care of our builders stood. To my amazement I government to constantly improve the didn't recognize the place. Today material and cultural standards of the beautiful tall apartment houses stand miners. In the past three years at our here. mine have been erected two big lodg- Pride fills my heart when I look on ing houses for young and single work- our revived Minsk. In its newly ers, five two-storey apartment houses, erected buildings there is a share also 39 one and two-family cottages. This of my effort. During these years I have year a beautiful club with a 400-seat helped to put up an apartment house hall and stage for dramatic perform- on Respublikanskaya Street and have ances has been erected and also an helped to restore the Byelorussian State excellently-equipped polyclinic. Our University named after V. I. Lenin, state has rendered lavish aid to miners and other buildings. wish ng co build their own ?homes Tbe Soviet stag spares no mean's fir the improvement of the material con- ditions and cultural services of the working people. In the postwar years new houses have been erected and old ones restored in Minsk totalling upwards of 500,000 square metres of living floor space; and besides this, 40 schools, dozens of higher educational institutions, secondary specialized schools and scientific research estab- lishments. This year the population here will receive close to 75,000 square metres of new housing. In the Land of Soviets, the well- being of the people is rising intermin- ably. My Stakhanovite work is highly rewarded. My family lives in a nice apartment with all improvements in a house which I have helped to build. Denis Bulakhov, Bricklayer, Building Trust No. i, Minsk Building Administration. PROSPERITY AND JOY I am a mother of fve children. My children are well fed, clothed and healthy. We live in a nice apartment. My older four children-Lida, Galya, Volodya and Tanya-attend school and the youngest one stays in a creche. If we. should add up the cost of all the services my family enjoys, it would come up to more than our total earnings. This is because much of this cost is borne by the state which is unflaggingly solicitous for large families. This year I received a large grant from the state upon the birth of my fifth child. In the summer my children spent their holidays at Young Pioneer camps and I spent my vaca- tion at a sanatorium-all free of charge. In the past summer more than a thous- and workers of our mill spent their vacation at health resorts. Our mill has its own health-building institutions : an overnight sanatorium and two rest homes. We also have a splendid Palace of Culture. V. Polukhina, Weaver, Trekhgornaya Textile Mill. WORKERS RECEIVE FREE TRAINING When I first came to our mill I had no trade at all. Here I was trained entirely free. When I became a weaver, I enrolled at our evening secondary textile school. Upon graduating from it I am now working as a rate-setter. I a:rn no-w- expecting a child. 'T'his is a Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 great joy in a Soviet family. I know that my mill will take care of my children just as it has cared for me. Our mill has two Young Pioneer camps, five kindergartens, 3 creches and a children's Palace of Culture. M. Chertova, junior Rate Setter, Trekhgornaya Textile Mill. THE OLD GUARD Elderly people are. surrounded in our country with care, attention and honour. I am approaching my 60th birthday. For my long service in the oil industry; I get an old-age pension of 500 rubles a month. This is quite enough for an old man. But can one sit at home when so much development work is going on all around ? It is a joy to work together with the young people. And our job goes well. Stakhanovite work brings high earn- ings : in addition to my pension I receive 1,500 rubles a month and even more than that. Besides this, we, old workers, receive annually a long-service bonus of 5,000 to 6,000 rubles. We, old folks, enjoy the respect of our fellow workers. Everybody calls us The Old Guard. People learn from us and draw upon our experience. It is rightly said in one of our new songs : ...Old age receives its due esteem. Idiatulla Ibrahimov, Assistant Superintendent, Section 6, Oilfield, %Leninneft Oil Trust. SIGNING THE APPEAL I am a lathe operator. I do my out- put quota at the rate of 200 percent, which brings me high earnings. Last year I spent my vacation at an Alpine camp in the Caucasus and this year at the Talgor Alpine camp. My son during this time was out in the country with his kindergarten. Could a woman from a peasant or worker's family ever dream of such a life under the capitalist system. Of course not. A miserable life would have been her lot. This thought in- voluntarily arose in my mind when I signed the Peace Pact Appeal. And I pledged myself to do my job still better. A. Pelevina, Lathe Operator, Rail and Beam-Rolling Shop. WITH ALL MY HEART When I was a child I frequently went with my father to the market in the village of Ponyri. And I always enviously looked at the pretty coaches of the passing trains, bearing the sign Moscow-Kislovodsk, in which mer- chants and manufacturers were going to the health resort. Recently; I spent my vacation in a beautiful health-building establishment in Kislovodsk. My accommodations there I received entirely free of charge from my union at the Azovstalstroy Building Trust. I shall never forget the superb panorama of the Kislovodsk Park and the view of the Caucasian range which open up from the " Red Sun " Mountain. Standing at 1,750 metres above sea level you breathe the invi- gorating air and think how happy the Soviet people are. I am sincerely grateful to Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, the father and friend to all working people, the stand- ard-bearer of our triumphs, for the great care of us, modest working-men. 0. Ovsyannikov, Gardener, Builders' Park. MACHINE AND BOOKS I first came to Sverdlovsk in 1048 and enrolled at the gear cutter's class of Vocational School No. 1 at Urals Heavy Machinery Plant. Though I was doing well in learning my trade, foreman Dyatlov once told me : ? " I would advise you to enrol also at evening school. You would become a good specialist." Thus, I began to attend a Young Workers' Evening School. And simul- taneously with finishing vocational school I also finished secondary school. At our plant there is a branch of the Urals Polytechnical Institute, attended by many young workers, including me- chanic Nikolai Graf, foreman Yevgeny Karzhitsky, to name but a few. I am now already a second-year student of the Institute's mechanical department. The Soviet Government has given me the opportunity to work and study. And my machine and books are my best friends. A. Veretenenko, Gear-Cutting Machine Operator, Urals Heavy Machinery Works. WAR-INVALID LEARNS SKILLED TRADE During the war I was wounded and ;lost my right hand and one eye. Though in accordance with Soviet law I was at once given an ample invalid pension it was depressing to feel a disabled man. I wanted to work like everybody. Before the war I cherished the thought of becoming a lathe operator. Now I had to give up this idea. How could I handle a machine tool without my right hand ? With these thoughts I came to the Panfilov Invalid Producers' Co-opera- tive where I was at once given the choice of several different jobs. Then I hesitantly asked : " Isn't there a chance for me to learn to be a turner ? " Foreman Sogolovsky, Production man- ager Pitelsky and shop superintendent Dubinsky took counsel and to my great joy promised to satisfy my request. At first I was given the job of packer. A few days later was put to operate a stamping press which was fitted with a special appliance. After two months, my shop superintendent told me : " Now that you have had the preli- minary training you may begin to operate a machine tool. We have al- ready fixed one up for you." It was with anxiety that I began to operate my lathe. For me a special lathe was fitted out. Instead of a hand clamp which I could not use it was equipped with a foot clamp. This, the foreman took care to provide. Seeing that I was actually operating a lathe and how the machined metal pieces were shooting out of it, I for the first time since I was wounded felt a powerful joy of life. As I changed to new operations my lathe was fitted out with new ap- pliances : for machining cylindrical parts, for tapered machining, for re- moving barbs. Thus I gradually mas- tered the turner's trade. Now I am a Stakhanovite turner. I have long forgotten the bitter thoughts of my first days after I was wounded. .Again I now feel myself an able- bodied man. Perhaps I was just lucky to meet such considerate men as our foreman, shop superintendent and the others ? No, this is not a matter of chance. In our city, Kiev, a special big training centre has been set up for invalids. It trains office clerks, tailors, designers, shoe- makers, rate-setters, production mana- gers-skilled men in the most diverse professions and trades. A. Torshechkin, Stakhanovite Lathe Operator, Invalid of the Great Patriotic War. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 THE entire life of tile Lukakhin fa- mil; is i:iseparabiy associated with one of the biggest industrial estab- lishments of the Soviet capital-the 'Dv;hamo" Electrical Engineering Plant named after Kirov. In its spacious shops equipped with first-class machines work six Lukakhin brothers. Three are fore- men and three turners. Toe story of each of the brothers is a graphic illustration of how any Soviet enterprise develops its workers, how it not -0 u: l advances their skill but also caters to their intel'iccrual wants. Tae eldest brother, Georgi. a foreman ?m.: t rho ..1? !' .,., . ., the rnant ~ years ann. Here he took a turners' :lt a?d .? ...., a skilled lathe crah,l. _rfte, tint he finished a foremen's course. Now he is an excellent fixer of the most complex machines. He has trained more than 50 young workers at the plant. They are all full-fledged turners a: ti are regularly over- al-filling their output quotas. Forema:l Georgi Lukakhin in his spare time indulges i n painting. And here too he is aided by Isis plant : he attends the art studio attheplant club where he is instru- cted by corn etent pedagogues. But he has no professional aspirations, he simply CCets pleasure out of it. The youngest Lukakhin at the plant is Victor. He is 22 years old buti s already a skirted turner. Combining work and study Iso attends the evening electrical engineer ing secondary school at his plant and in three years will become a junior engineer- Five nt ti-c c_t_ brothers are married. And they have all received comfortable apartments in their plant's houses. The new Lukakhin generation-children of the three brothers-attend secondary school No. 51(1 in the plant's residential quarter. Like all Soviet people, the Lukakhin brothers every year enjoy a paid holiday which they spend at sanatoriums or rest homes. Last year, for example, five of the Lukakhin brothers received from their plant trade union organization passes to sanatoriums in the Crimea, in the Standing on the pence watch Geatgi Lukakhin, foreman of the tool chub tmdertoook to teach a group soe'g,:nnecs rd. ..,. methods of Stakhanotite wo... Or phot (e~?~_ Lit-aa i n trtutir; i Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 Soviet We'chin9 da!;ahhi,, frurih~ left to ht,-Goon L,~;at ; and I utor, turners tikoi0i, ,cover frreraan rnr to;o and Porn.,) C To am illy Caucasus and in the Moscow country-side. Their accommodations at the sanatoriums were paid for by then, trade union from the state social insurance fund. Victor Lukakhin did not avail himself of this pass as he spent the summer months preparing to enter the secondary electrical engineering school, attending a special course opened at his plant. The close-knit Lukakhin family often meet at their plant club. One of the Lukakhins' iniembe of an amateur- arts group. The others come to attend concerts or to spent a quiet evening ill i the club's library's reading roam. n, lie vouttcost ihot let irtor. the turner and st dent, t as he is findi time to spend a few hour dancing at his plant's club, In September, the adult members of 0, e y_t_Llirlalrll.t -.e Lnnanl ly, together with all Muscovites, signed the Appeal of the World Peace Council, calling upon the ~+ veers tv sigh a rani iii Peace. The entire family gathered at brother \ikolai's apartment and under the Appeal 13 signatures appeared one after another. Signing the Appeal Georgi said Each one of our family is happy in his own way. But we also have a common happiness : the joy of unfettered labour lot the glory of our great country, fbr the ;good of our people. The signatures of 13 members of our family support the Peace Appeal. !\I--- shall ,cork Still better to strengthen the friendship among nations. And the Lukakhins are as good as their word. As these lines are being Written the Lukakhin brothers are keeping la- bour Peace Watch. In October and -November all the six brothers who are working at the " Dynamo " Plant have systematically overfulfilled their output quotas. They have taken part in manu- facturing an important and honourable order for the Volga-Don Canal: an automatic remote control installation for its 15 sluice locks. The installation was In the reading hall of toe faste lib+art ? In' tl The farml; if senior forenmrt .1Tl:aio after fertile. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415R013000010003-2 completed a month and a half ahead o{ time. On the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, all the Lukakhin brothers took part in the demonstration of the working people of Moscow. They marched through the Red Square with a placard inscribed : "The Luka- khin family wants peace and are working to strengthen it." This is the firm word of the Lukakhins, ordinary Soviet people who ardently love their mighty peace-loving country and are ready to fight to the end for peace and friendship among all the nations of the foreerontr-d is tAe foren.an B Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 P/t iZ [f l"imeo 0Hd #t2t kol~Ao3 By I. Shumai Chairman of the-Gogoleva Village Executive Committee, Brovarsky District, Kiev Region E had an unexpected review of our kolkhoz wealth should live like we, Soviet collective farmers." V V this year. Here is how it happened. We were sitting in the office of Mikhail Isaakovich Vir_ar- sky, the chairman ofour Chervona Ukraine Kolkhoz, discussing various problems, and suddenly we learned that guests had arrived at our kolkhoz. We went out, together, with the chairman, to meet the guests. We shook hands and got acquainted. It turned out that the arrivals were foreigners-a Canadian delegation con- sisting of four people. One of the Canadians said : " We would like to inspect and get acquainted with your collective farm husbandry." The kolkhoz chairman, Comrade Vinarsky, replied : " This we are always glad to do." But, he remarked, " why didn't you give us a ring from Kiev, we could have pre- pared dinner for you.... Before the chairman had a chance to finish his remark a tall Canadian, evidently the head of the delegation said : t 4 " You need not worry about preparing dinner for us, we'll, only spend about an hour or an hour and a half here, look things over, and leave." We showed our guests around the farm for a couple of hours. They examined everything they wished to see, asked about everything in detail, and looked round everywhere. We re- turned to the office, and as we started bidding them goodbye, one of the Canadian delegates said : " But, just the same, it would be good to taste some real Ukrainian fat and some of your village-baked bread." I replied : " The pleasure is yours. We can take care of that for you in no time." The guest smiled cunningly and remarked : " Don't bother to prepare it. Let's walk into the first house on our way out,and let them treat us to some bread and. fat. Here, let's go into that house." And he pointed to the house of collective farm woman Artamonovna Timko, who lives right across from the kolkhoz office building. We walked in and greeted the hostess, and Comrade Vinarsky said : "Anna,receive the guests. They would like to taste some of your bread and salt...... " Anna Artamonovna, the hostess, was, of course, delighted to receive the guests. She covered the table with a beautifully embroidered cloth and invited the guests to her neatly furnished dining room. On the table were placed plates with jellied meat, meat pies, white bread, Ukrainian dumplings with cheese and Ukrainian fat that was four-fingers thick. And along with the fat came the wine. Raising his glass, one of the guests suggested that as hostess, Anna Timko should make the first toast. She was somewhat embarrassed at first, but then got up, and, raising her wine glass, she said : The guests dined, and then expressed their desire to take a look at Anna Timko's individual household. They went into the yard and saw her cow, the carcass of a pig killed in the morning and a live one in the stall kept for fattening. They looked into the chicken house and sized up the flock, displayed their interest in the produce which was stored in the cellar, and then asked : " Does your husband also work in the kolkhoz ? How have you managed to acquire such a wealth ofthings ? Anna Artamonovna explained that her husband had been killed at the front, that she is a widow, a mother ofoour child- ren, and that the riches they saw is due to the income she had received from the kolkhoz for her honest labour. " And where are your children." they inquired. Anna Timko took out a photograph and, showing it to the delegation, said : "This is my eldest daughter, Galina, who graduated a medical institute, and is now employed as a doctor. The others, her daughter Shura and two boys, Ivan and Alexei, she called over and introduced to the visitors. The children were dressed well. She told them that Shura is in the 10th grade, Vanya in the sixth, and Alyosha is in the second grade. The delegation left. They were unable to take in every- thing in that two-hour visit. True enough, they saw the kolkhoz stock farm sections where everything is mechanized, the narrow- gauge road, the machines for cutting and steaming feed. They saw our graded livestock; they know that we have 1,400 head of dairy and 2,200 heads of other cattle, that there are over 4,200 birds in the poultry flock, 433 horses, 245 bee families in the hives, and that 118 hectares are planted to fruit trees and berries. The guests learned that the cash income of the kolkhoz amounts to no less than two million rubles. And that which they did not have time to learn about or see they could have inspected if they only had stayed longer. New stables for 120 and 80 heads of dairy cattle respectively, are being erected according to the last word in technique-with canalization and monorail system for transporting feed to the cattle. Electricity is used eectensively both on the farm as in the homes. There are 85 intellectulas in Gogoleva village-teachers, doctors, agronomists, veterinaries ...... It is interesting to note that a great many of them were born and raised here. They left their native village to obtaina higher education and after graduating returned to work here in their speciality. There are three schools in the village-a 10-year, 7-year and elementary school, which are attended by more than 1,300 children. The inhabitants of Gogoleva receive 370 newspapers every day, and subscribe to more than a hundred magazines. The villagers own dozens of motorcycles and over 350 radiosets. There are about 3,000 books in the village library. Our collective farmers work well and live a well-to-do " Here is wishing that all the Canadian working people . and cultured life. Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 I1' grows dark early in our parts. Twilight sets in as soon as the sun hides behind the mountains. Men After the Working Day By Sho-Zade Siarov Chairman of Lenin Collective farm in Stalinabad along with social subjects. Opera artists are welcome guests in District? our collective farm. People's Artists of the Tajik Republic Mullokandov and Galibova, and People's Artist of the USSR Kasymov, one of the most ac- complished interpreters of the role of Othello, appeared at the end of June in a concert at our club. The enhanced cultural requirements of the collective farmers are a consequence of the rise in their material well-being which is growing with the expansion of our commonly-owned economy and growth of its income. A definite sum, constituting two percent of the total income of the collective farm, is allo- cated for cultural work. In 1949, when our income amounted to seven million rubles, we appropriated 140 thousand rubles for cultural requirements. Last year's income of our collective farm considerably exceeded 12 million rubles, and this year we anticipate an income of at least 20 million rubles. The cul- tural fund of the collective farm will thus greatly increase. This means that the collective ? farmers will be able to spend their leisure hours in a still better and more interesting way. come from the fields, bright electric lights flare up and the kishlak (village) revives. Work is in full swing during the day on the cotton plantations, stock farms, smithies. Only the aged and the children remain at home, and even they in the sultry mid-day heat, seek shelter somewhere in the shade. Full of Life and Happy Laughter In the past, life would die down in the kishlak at sunset. Our villages would be plunged in profound dark- ness, and rarely would the usual quiet be disturbed. Now, the evenings are full of light, music and happy laughter of the youth. We have a large, handsome club on our collective farm. Collective farmers come here to see a new film, to hear a concert. And although the auditorium is spacious-it has seats for 800 spec- tators-it cannot house all who wish to attend. Twice weekly we are, there- fore, showing films directly in the field camps. Cosy and inviting is the reading room in the evenings. Here there are al- ways fresh newspapers and magazines, as well as a rich choice of fiction and technical literature. The central col- lective farm library contains approxi- mately 7,000 volumes in all branches of knowledge. The dance is a most favourite form of Tajik art. To the sounds of the doira, our girls whirl in beautiful ring dances. Often, long after midnight, when the doors of the club and the library are already closed, the sounds of the doira, the songs and laughter of the youth come from the dark greenery of the gardens. Radio Network The radio is taking an ever more considerable place in the cultural life of the village. Loud speakers have been installed in the production sections and collective farmers' homes. The collec- tive farm radio relay station is daily broadcasting the latest news and or- ganizing broadcasts by the foremost workers in agriculture-brigade and team leaders. In the evening, on re- turning from the fields, collective far- mers have an opportunity of listening- in to radio concerts often including per, foi* races by ou rrrusidal ircles. Among the frequent performers in radio concerts are our gifted musician, collective farmer Girez Faizulayev, whose playing on the dutar is highly expressive, the violinist Talib Kinjayev who has distinguished himself in the amateur art contest of our Republic, Makhmadi Tagayeva who has mast- ered to perfection the playing on the gizhak (a national string instrument) and many others. Our amateur musicians not infre- quently develop into professionals. We have sent two of our finest musicians, Satar Purgayev and All Kasymov to the Stalinabad Music School. They have now graduated from it and are working as artists in the State Phil-- harmonic. Frequent Literary Evenings After the working day the youth brings liveliness and gaiety to the sports grounds. These are particularly thronged in times of football matches and volleyball team competitions. Very popular is the collective farm lecture centre. We arc organizing lec- tures and talks on various subjects of interest to collective farmers, not only in the evenings in the lecture hall, but also in the daytime during the dinner interval in the field camps. Scien- tists of the Tajik Academy of Sciences frequently visit our collective farm to tell us about their work. Literary evenings are also organized in the lecture centre. Recently, for example, Mirzo Tursun-Zade, the well known Tajik poet and Stalin Prize winner, came to us. At the request of the collective farmers, he told: us of his visit to India and other countries of the East, and recited his new poems. Agricultural Schools Numerous circles and courses for at- taining greater knowledge in 'agri- culture are working in the lecture centre during the winter. This year we organised a three-year collective farm school comprising two field-hus- bandry and one zootechnical group. Here collective farmers acquire a se- condary agricultural education. A spe- cial " collective farm university " has been opened for brigade and team leaders, timekeepers-where problems of calicctive farm production are :>i^urdieil? Striving For Knowledge Cultural transformations are, of course, characteristic not only of our kishlak. All conditions for rest and spiritual growth of the peasants have been created in every collective farm of our Republic, just as in ours. Striving for knowledge has become a characteristic feature of the collective farm population. Let me cite only two figures in confirmation of these words. Last year 250 lectures were delivered in our district on literary, philosophic and social subjects which were attended by over 23,000 persons. I do not know a single collective farm which has not its radio relay station, cinema instal- lations, libraries. Collective farm villages are impro- ving and becoming more beautiful year by year. A prosperous and cultured life has come to the home of the Tajik. And can it be otherwise in the Soviet country where everything is done for the happiness and good of the people ? From the bottom of our heart, we thank our Soviet Government and the great friend of the working people, J. V. S'takii, for these great cha'n'ges: Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 Approved For Release 2002/01/17 : CIA-RDP83-00415RO13000010003-2 s f 1] L i,vorks of the great Russian 1 rational poet, Alexander Push- kie, Itav,e inspired ninny ballets written 1>y the Soviet composers. Anr)o ILv i,hc ballets based o Li Pushkin's works are the "Fountain of Bakhtchi- sarai " "Prisoner in the Caucasus" and " Lady Rustic " composed by Boris A';afvcv, " Gypsies," composed by Sergei Vasilenko, " Tale of the Priest and His Servant Balda," coin- posed by Mikhail Chulaki, " The Bronze Horseman'' written by one of the oldest composers, R. Gli"ere- eli these wtix written and produced rl1. Soviet years. " The latest addition to the Pushkin rc?file. The Fires,in the USSR belongs i.o the people and promotes their inter.&.,ts. One of the most important fretures