Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
November 9, 2016
Document Release Date: 
February 27, 1999
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Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
January 1, 1953
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Approved For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDVgJR 25X1A9a Country - Hungary Subject - Agricultural conditions and communist officials in the Village of Vajdacska Place Acquired 25X1 A Date Acquired - 25X1 X6 to of Information - 19+6 1. "The Hungarian village of Vajdacska has about 2,000 inhabitants. Since it lies in a poor district of north-eastern Hungary, emigra- tion to the US and Canada was strong prior to World War II. The famous 19th century Hungarian poet, Ferenc Kazinczy, used to live in Vajdacska. 2. "Collectivization of land began in Vajdacska soon after the end of World War II, when the large estates were divided. However, when CP propagandists started to go around the village to persuade farmers to join a kolkhoz, most of them refused even to listen; still fewer agreed. One of the most active supporters of c llective farming was Ferenc Toth of Karos, a village 10 km. souths of Satoraljaujhely. He used to come to Vajdacska every week to talk about the advantages of collective farming. Finally in 1950 the CP managed to establish the Petofi Collective. One of the founders was Janos Szilagyl. He personally visited houses and made lists of members. Sometime later when he saw that the collective farm was not what he had imagined, he left it. When his son learned about this he implored his father to rejoin the collective, and he finally complied. The son, Janos Szilagyl, Jr., is 23 years old. He originally studied to become a teacher. In 1951 he joined the Army and was soon sent to Moscow for special training. When he returned to Hungary in September 1952 he had the rank of lieutenant. He came to spend his furlough in Vajdacska and made propaganda speeches in the surrounding villages. 3. "The nucleus of the Petofi Collective was the property of the farmer Aurel Sulcz, who had just died at this time. His widow was simply evicted from the farm. This property comprises about 350 yokes of land, to which have been added some strips of land belonging to local smallholders. The collective has about 1,000 head of sheep, some cows and six horse teams. 25X1A9a This tin # p~? i ` A/; r? P sn'(q{~ a1} Its i s only is B ; ftr.* CL J 2 ~lf S+i{~~ A of ~~ 25X1A2~ , A roved For Release ` pp J~ ~~ ~ADPAJiEp23R0007 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001-1 Originally the collective had about 25 members. Many were soon dissatisfied with their new. situation. They earned little money, received bad food and had to pay fines when they failed to fulfill the nomas. Consequently, one after another they took the first opportunity to get away and took jobs as hired laborers at the State farm in Varhomok or at other neighboring State farms, where they were better paid and were not made personally responsible for all production failures. i. "The results achieved by the Petofi Collective have been getting poorer each season. At the beginning of December 1952 the potatoes and sugar beets were still lying in the fields as a result of mismanagement and insufficient manpower. The Communists solved this problem by ordering all inhabitants of Vajdacska to collect potatoes in the fields - an attempt which proved a failure because the soil was already frozen, making digging practically impossible. The Communists ordered out a tractor, which broke down after half an hour. The potatoes were still:?_ift the fields in January. 5. "The chairman of the Petofi Collective is Janos Tamaa 50, a staunch Communist. His 22 year old daughter, Erzsebet, holds a clerical job in the management office, though her education is so poor that she can hardly write. Her assistant, (fnu) Lacsni,is a former lawyer and notary public who was dismissed from that job by the Communists. 6. "The Local Council of Vajdacska consists of 70 members. Because there are not enough Commuxh?sts in the locality, only the top posts are held by reliable Communists. The ordinary members are mostly non-Party men. Since 1951 the chairman of the Council has been Joz-set Csomos, about 30, who used to head the Council's Economic` Department. He has a reputation as a notorious drunkard and has forbidden his wife and children to go to church. 7. "Csomos' predecessor was Andras Tar, about 50, a shoemaker. The CP did not consider him reliable enough for the post of chairman so it demoted him to head the Economic Department. A shoemaker by profession, Andras Tar has not the faintest idea about agri- culture. Yet he is the economic dictator of the village. His orders must be obeyed unconditionally. His constant blunders have made him a laughing stock, but they are often heartbreaking for a conscientious farmer. Tar may order the grain to be harvested immediately, regardless of the fact that it as still wet. He may order sowing at a time when the fields are not ready; as a result _TTTI IM-r IM1T /rro nrt+TrTrT_c (NT,Y/FWTTRTTY TNFORNfATION Approved For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/10 CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001-1 -3 the seeds do not sprout. Each time he commits such an elementary mistake he calls in a number of inspectors to seek their advice and at the same time he attempts to put the blame on somebody else. In summer 1952 he ordered a local farmer to deliver his wheat quota without delay. The farmer was willing to obey but wanted to let the wheat dry before it was stored. Within a few hours after the initial order was issued, Tar dispatched a member of the Council, a woman, to warn the farmer that unless he delivered his quota immediately, he would be fined 600 forints. The farmer took a sample of the wheat to the collecting point. There he was told that no grain can be accepted for storage unless properly dried. When he reported Tar's conflicting order, the latter was reprim- anded by higher authorities. 8. "The secretary of the CP organization in Vajaacska is Mrs. Mihaly Szabo, a Communist activist, who also holds some other political post within the local council. She is a widow. Ner husband died in the USSR during World War II. She has three children. The last was born in 1950; the father is unknown. It is a popular joke in the village that this last child., is an offspring of the Party, the result of CP meetings at late hours, after which Mrs. Szabo usually invited one or two comrades to her home"to discuss political idealogy" over a glass of wine. 9. "Another CP official who belongs to the present village elite is Ferenc Pator, about 30, who was appointed after he passed a three-months' Party course. 10. "The main occupation of local political representatives is to expose "class enemies". For this purpose a black list of "kulaks;" has been drawn up by the Local Council. This list is headed by several farmers who now own no land but are still classified as t'kulaks" . It includes the local Orthodox priest, Bela V atamany, whose land was confiscated back in 1951. Another "kulak" is Mrs. (fnu) Szucs, a widow, whose land was forcibly incorporated into the Petofi Cooperative, Lajos Guensler, a Jew, turned over his land to the State and moved to Budapest in 1951, but he is still listed as a kulak in Vajdacska. The land of another Jewish "kulak", Jozsef Grosz, was incorporated into the State farm years ago.. Andras Gyeresi offered his 40 yokes of land to the State, but the authorities refused this deal for some reason and ordered him to pay 17,000 forints in taxes for 1952. He too is on the ?`kulaki' list. Approved For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001.1 J Approved' For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001-1 Rise in Taxes on Farmers 11. "The taxes collected from-farmers are being increased every year. In 1950 the owner of 18 yokes of land paid 800 forints; in 1951 the tax was increased to 1,200 forints and in 1952 to 6,000 forints. Towards the end of 1952 the farmers were warned that in 1953 they would have to pay an additional 400 forints for `insurance". Persistent rumors are circulating among farmers that in 1953 the taxes will be doubled compared to 1952. 12. "Farmers have to surrender high delivery quotas at minimum prices. The quotas established for 1952 were as follows, for a farmer cultivating 18 yokes of land: 170 kg. of beef, 126 kg. of porkt 48 kg. of poultxy, 800 eggs, 1,200 litres of milk (tested for cream content), 1,200 kg. of wheat, 300 kg. of maize, (price: 18 forints per 100 kg.) 300 kg. of sunflower seed (price: 85 ft. per 300 kg.) 500 kg. of potatoes (price: 18 ft. per 100 kg.) Local Prices 13. "Following were the prices of some commodities on sale at the local store in January 1953: 1 egg - 1 forint 1 kg. salt - 2 forint 10 gr. paprika - 1 forint 1 It. vinegar - 5 forint 1 box of matches - 0.40 forint" Approved For Release 1999/09/10 : CIA-RDP83-00423R000700660001-1