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November 9, 2016
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February 19, 1999
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May 1, 1953
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Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 0711 25X1A2g 10, S Wa ODe 7a". Cordon W . $. CPYRGHT Yay, 1553 p8 0BT,E.E OF S AS i BIt l1 StJR O P% IN ?"381 GBB to N ------------ pOL IT I OB -boa-1--ast 'Of The political interests and ambitions d od tedntoNthe Easte s gurope are reflected in Western- Germany of today trends of thought. 'These differences are expressed Jr the progremmee as in the forms of organisation. And each of so a etftwo as well trends fir~de its adherents in a different c ends is ~ follows: The briefest desoription of these two trends - adFOCSting a retmcn 1. The trans of ?1is~itsiorpooiigggt (Only a small fraction of to the a tstuM quo pT ~e ~ of the return this camp supports a more drastic proms' to the status quo pr for to 1914) 2. ~rba trend of 'bunlf.mited* political aims: a roconstruction at of gurope. As to the means of Germany's Position in the towards this end, many various tendencies exist, such as: (a) the return to the EA.PALLO system gn cysts', (ti)the reconstruction of the pre-war Central Surope with Germany ae its chief factor, the eetebliahment of an economic system concentrating principles which were around Germany. based or the years 1934-35. A b CLAUDIM in the t e y promo (d) the dislntefration of the Soviet union on the tration~y ~ and ?eo pe l . winoiple, and a politica Germany into the new national states. (Beside the coun- tries of Central Europe it the strict sense of the word, this camp advocate's the necessity of eating the n- dependent states of Ukraine. By a countries and liirkestan). Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT '1'!s first of these two trends is the result of the conditions brought about by the war, i.e.,: territorial changes, compulsory deportations and of the refugee exodus from behind the iron contain. The second trend marks the rebirth of traditional tendencies in Bast-European policy of Germany. prith very few exceptions, it is, on the whole, devoid of drastic imperialistic tendencies of the Hitierite type and such like. A-art from the search for political solutions which would assure a decisive predominance to Germany, certain attempts may also be observed to work out a programme introducinga balance of equality between Geraaany and eastern countries. Here, the only variety which may be described imperialistic, In the tendency to the restoration of the APALLO system, i.e. the system of the division of influence etween Germany and Russia on the territories situated between these countries,. This tendency, in turn, takes under consideration two alternative possibilities: RAPALLO system based on M,._ANY's collaboration with the SOVIET UWION, RAPALW system-so modus of cooreration between Germany ate! the future, democratic Russia in which the fbrrmunlst regime has been overthrown. On the grounds of this most sketchy characteriestlon of t-wo main trends of German interests and ambitions directed to the last, the following observations can be made : 1. The trend-of "limited" political aims finds its expression in a preoiseed programme. This in also reflected in well- deter>ained. organisatior- forme of its pertisesna. Further- more, this trend has at Its disposal a strong and extensive apparatus of action, which has already gained certain political position in 4ieete,rn Germany. 2. The trend of "ur_i imi ted* -po i tical alas has not, as yet, determined its 1roeremrse. Its adherents are still in the store of research and discussion. Their direst. activity 1.0 rather within the limits of mug, e.eting and inspiring of certain political moves. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT Of these two trends, the drat one has the support of -the macsee. Several million deportees, erpelleee and refugees, grouped in *motherland* organisations, are a:,_l behind the programme of *limited* political aims. which for 'hem is expressed by the slogan: *we want to go back home*. At the same time, the-second trend finds its adherents in a group of e&ite - experts, scientists, and politicians who however I I- with few exceptions - do not play u prominent political role at present. This does not mean however that the importance of the first trend is bigger. The tendencies of "limited" political aims often find their outlet in noisy public deronetratione; the camp of *unlimited* aims works discreetly, bsfhind the official political scene, affecting not so much the supErficial moods of the public opinion as the decisive centres of tl-e political machinery of west Germany. After these few initial explanations. we shall present a detailed description of both main trends. 1. Trend of "Limited" Folitioa Aims. As result of a process of unification, the year 1952 brought the formation of a general representation of all German deportees, expellees and refugees from Eastern Europe. This large group fmmd its political exponent in the political party GBHB - GBSAMT- D213TSCEZ BLOCK DER }I3IMATV3hTliIB3N8 UND BNTBSCH't'STTBA. In the post-war years. many other political parties had courted the votes of this group of population. The Socialist Party S'PD had comparatively the greatest chances of success; this is easily understood, taking into account the difficult material, situation of the deportees, expellees and refugees. The Communists, although the most radical,-could not hope to gain the sympathies of this category of people. since deportations or expulsions were being decided by the Soviet Union or Coimunist rggimee. which also forced people to escapes. The political leaders who arose among this group, name to the conclusion that a creation of their own. separate political re. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT Presentation would be the most roner,? solution. They thought that each a repreoerution would most effet tt-j-ely 'promote the interests Of the group. Simultaneously. it oou& d take advarkage of the political interplay between other po: itical parties. Thee* caloulfltionns }trcved to be ; nstified. The GBHE participated in- the local elections, argil dm intr tie last two years won arou.nd 16-18% of votes in various coretituercies. Ir this way, in several instances it gained a very important position, balancing the forces Of two political parties whiel are now the strongest in West Germany, i.e. Christian Democrats of Chancellor ADEiAUER, and the Socialiat8 which are in sharp oprosition arainst his cabinet. Waldemar KRAFT. deputy to the BONN wrliament and leader of the GBH6, uses this possibility of acting - as a balancing force in a most adroit manner. His tactical allianceE. whether with Ohrlstiar, Democrats or with the Socialists, are always concluded after the respective other party agrees to eupt art the camp of 0l lmitedt political- calms. During the period of negotiations to obtain the ratification of re-militarisation agz eemente between the Allies and West Germany, KRAFT switched thcs votes of the GBHE to the et2pport of AD1NAUFR. - Nothing has offs cially been published as to whee ther. and how far, had ADENAUER gt aran .eed the support for IRAPTS party. But it is quite cee.r tair that wi thcu t such guarantee the GBHE would not have appeared in the group of adhersnte of the reamilitar. isation reermente. Apart from this political r. epreee: ntation. embodied in the GBHE. the camp of *limited* political aims possesses a large machinery of propaganda. Here we find, first of all, more than ten weekly newepapera. of which the moot important are : DIE STIMMS (Hamburg) > D SCHLE31SE (Reckltngbauser?) SC'SLI 3ISC'HE RUfII)SCHAt7 (Stuttgart) SUDfi'2EiMl'1iSCHE ZEITUNG (Bayreuth) 0S'1`_WE3T-IiURILR (Frankfurt/M, I_;geturg, Hamburg) -DI. BL UCKS (Munchen) auDrami 1m (Detmo?.ri ) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT Apart from these regularl,, published weeklies, the camp of *limited* political aims has at its disposal some 40 periodicals, scattered all over Western Germany. adost of them have a specified geographical charaoter, and are interested in different regions from which the* readers derive-their origin (e.g. BALTISCHB RUl D- BCHAU, SCHLE3 ISCHTS S.[OrATSBLATT. OPPSLNSR NACBEICHTEN a.e.o. ) The programme of a return to pre-1939 status quo often gives birth to revisionist tendencies. they are particularly strong with to the present Polish-Gerae-n frontier. Nearly all the deportees are unanimous in their demands for the restoration of the frontier of before 1939. The revisionism of the deportees from the Sudeten is much lase marked. most of them Semand a possibility to return, but without a modification of the frontier. Similarly, no revisionist tendencies are apparent in the attitude of the 'zoup transferred from T9ansilvania or Banat, Fr The revisionist tendencies obtain the support of right-wing nationalist political groups. For example, the FDP party - placed at the utmost right of the coalition backing ADENAUER @ s cabinet - has emphasised many times its solidarity with the revisionist trends. (Here. a discussion may be quoted as example. which- de-veloped in Western Germany at the beginning of 1982 over the so- oalled documentary film "KRRUZWBG DEL FREIHEIT* - Crossroads of Freedom. This film treated as German not only the territories situated between the ODRA-MA line and the 1938 Polish-German frontier, but even those Polish territories - an POZNAN county &vA Palish Pomerran1a - which found themselves within the frontiers of independent Poland after 1918. In this nation-wide disoueeion, the FDP party deo7 erred its full support for the claims expressed by the film.) It should be added that in the conglomeration of deportees, expellees and political refugees from the east. the neo-Hitlerite groups which - though within modest limits only - still are active in Western Germany, have found but an insignificant number of supporters. The l-?ck of popularity of neo-Hitlerism is attributed to the fact that it was the Hitlerism who had initiated mass transfers of the population (e.g. in BANAT and `DhANStLVANIA), and Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT 'afterwards - owing to Gerwiy's defeat - bad become the cause of compulsory deportations. The activities of the group of *limited* politioal aims enjoy a more or less official support of the DOWN Government. The Ministry for the Questions od Deportees headed by LUKASCHt 'C, and in particular the Miristry for A110erman Questions under RAISER, are giving to this group much practical, and often also financial, assistance. 'Must e.g. amongst the official publicati- ons sponsored by KAISha's Ministry, a work entitled 'JJ*8 ITS VON ODER UND f12ISSi* appeared t., print. Thies work advocates revisionist ideas, and its author 3ilesius Alt is one of their leading propagators. On the grounds of this more detailed information about the trend of *limited* political aims, the following asaw,tione may be drawn : 1. This tread is not a political ooneeption; It is rather a progreame of activities. According to the intentions of its rexreeentatives and to the possibilities o"fered lay the current political situation, it in revealled either in revisionist claims, in emotional threats of a revenge, or in demands for restoration of property or oompennation foy material losses, or even in the longing to go back home" without any requests of political nature. It is a iogremme brought about by,oiroumetanoes, born from territorial and constitutional ohanges after the last ear . E;.+i th the passage of time, the importance of this trend - diminishes. The number of its pertis"s, though alwsjs considerable, gradually grows smaller. Some of them beoome assimilated in new conditions. This applies in particular to the younger generations, and also to those of deportees and expelieee who have managed to create new conditions of existence in a new place. It is not beyond the point to add here that according to the official statietion of the eaten German Government, the unemployment on the territo- ries under its control vaoillatea between 1.1 and 1,3 Million for quite a time already. Taking Into account that Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT 4 I'I -7 the number of employable people in the mass of deportees, expellees and refugees from the east amounts to some 4-5 millionq (which rather overestimates the position), these statistics demonstrate that a very considerable part of this large- group has already been able to settle down. As example, we may quote then centres y o stfolk1?re industry on the BODSA Lake, in which the old, traditional centres of this industry from SUDETi or Lower SII,ESIA have besn rspWoduoed. These observations allow the oonalusion that the oarren interests and ambitions directed to Bast 8uropean affairs, insofar as they are reflected in the trend of *limited* political aims, do not exert a decisive influence on the shaping of the new German political doctrine with respect to the East. ? In this sphere, the leading role In played by the second trend, described in our introduotion is the trend of *unlimited* political aims. 11. end .21 "Q311m1ted" P01 tidal Aimsr. As already stated in the initial remarks, this trend has rot yet worked out a new German political doctrine with regard to the East. The primary reason for it are presumably the encumbrances of traditional German concepts of Eastern Europe. Another serious reason is undoubtedly the fact that the results of the war had 1poaed the greatest sacrifices on the Prussian group which had formulated theme concepts and enforced them on the German polioy. Apart from great losses in human lives, this group has been deprived of its material basis to a much greater extent than other German proupe, which in Western Germany are quickly restoring their former standard of property. The *traditional encumbrances* may be listed as follows; 1. M i.dea of RAPALLO which re?ere to ancient Merman-Russian alliarcee of the beginning of 19th century in ablished works dealing with the possibility of a new German-Russian collaboration. the agreement of 'rAUROGI is often mentioned Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP83-00423R000800350004-1 CPYRGHT - aa a symbol of such collaboration. The circles of German "neutralists' consider it possibic to establish such relations even with the Soviet Russia. The )ending members of this group are: Dr. Joseph VIRTU - former Cr anceMor of the Reich from the time of signing the RA.PALLO tz saty; Helene WESSEL - former president of the ZBTF2RU i Party in the MN X Parliament; Gustav INX Al - former minister of internal affairs in ADENAUUR"e first cabinet, who also was the president of the Chief Synod of the B`vazigelical Church; Rev. c arts n NTIL408L president of the Evangelical Church in ff SSEN province; ~tav G5RUL former minister in the fovertiment of bower Saxony, who bowerer in the second half of 1952 seeKed the Oasylum* in gastern Germany. This group has a certain influence in Western Germany; it strives, in the first place, to the "unification of Germany*, in accordance with the formula sponsored by the Soviet Union. It is interest into to note that this section of the .RAPALLO group has acquired a certain euvport in the protestant circles. This is the more characteristic tbat Eastern Germany - with the exception of Silesia - had always been the domain of the Evan- gelical Church, while Western and ;iouthern Germany had been under Catholic influence. A more moderate protestant group stands in between the trend towards an agreement with "any" Russia and the camp backing the agreement with Rueuia "of the future". In March and April 1953. an interesting discussion was enacted in the columns of the official publication of the Nvan,gelical Church 'R301MTAGS- BLATT (Ranburg). between the renre rentatives of the Evangelical Church and of the Orthodox Church. This discussion, without in the least referring to any curr