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Approved For Release2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100000800027 OF r IM TG UViCE of 1940, the need of Amorioan officials for a service to stor foreign radio broadcasts became fully apparent. That was a year before Pearl Barbor. The State Department was especially concerned with the trs:ndous volume of anti-U. S. propaganda being short-waged to Latin , rr lea. The Department of Justice was concerned with the extent to which Axis agents in the United States roosived dirsation and guidance from Nazi audible hereMj the use of radio by Herr 0oebbels in fall of France and the Low Countries had shown how powerful t for fomenting-disruption radio could be in this respect. wes also felt about the growing aggressiveness of Japan as reflected in her radio broadcast. indeed, it is interesting to note that although the first draft of a proposed resolution establishing a United monitoring service spoke of broadcasts "from Europe," a revision Maj. Men. Joseph 0. Mauborgne, then Chief Signal of the Army, substituted for the phrase, "from Europe," the phrase, "from Europe and the Far East." The Council of National Defense which the President had established in 1040 also felt the need of an American listening ssrvicei in January 1941 Prof, William 'x'sndell Elliott of the Council's Advisory Commission wrote in that connections not emphasise that radio as an instrument of prop" gaia" has proved its imgortanoe beyond any doubt and that the methods onployed by the British Broadcasting Corporation and e er Governs is to analyse the intentions of other Govern- smem by study of their official broadcasts have been considered by Gamtral Staff off cials to have the greatest military value sad are a regular feature now in the British Intelligence Service. In this oonneotiern the assumption is that unconscious ls44ons of future strategic moves despite attempts to would be apparent to a trained psycholouist. Approved For Releias 2006/01/12-CIA-RDP83-00442R0001.00080002-9 r this concern of many Government agencies with the need for a service to keep track of foreign broadcasts was crystallized toward the end of 1940 by the State Department, which ssad+e informal uggsstions in this connection to the President. The President stated that jurisdiction over this matter was in the Defense Communications Communioations ). This Board was composed of Signal Officer of the Arey, the Director of Naval Co taa- A,ssistant Secretary of State for International Comaunioations, an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and the Chairman of the Federal Conamications Commission. Department, through Assistant Secretary of State Breokinridgs Wig, accordingly brought the matter before the Defense C. untoat ona $oard at a meeting on January 3, 1941. A proposed resolution establishing listening centers was presented by Assistant secretary Loong and was discussed by General lauborgne, Admiral lops, wi FCC Chief Engineer (later Commissioner) E. B. Jett. the matter was again discussed at the next meeting of the Board at this time the State Department resolution, as expanded by General Unuborgne to include Per East broadcasts, was adopted. In its final form the resolution reads in part as followst vacs the Government of the United States funds itself oon- ted with a system of radio-telephonic broadcasting emanating countries abroad which is aggressive in character and frequently of subversive intend Morass, in the interest of the security of the United hates, it behooves the American Government to keep itself Wormed of coiaumications of all nature which are being broad- east from Europe and the. Par East and! are intended for personsf satire view ef'the picture of propaganda intended for consumption in the American continent; Approved For Releab#e 2006/01/12x` CIA-RDP83!00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Reler2006/01/1 Q 2 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 ' erefore be it resolved, That the Defense Cosmeunioations Board shall request the Federal Communications Commission to submit to the loard at its next meeting a plan for the establish- t of suitable additional monitoring facilities equipped for the purpose of monitoring foreign broadoastal mztd be it further "&esolved, That the Board shall present such a plan with such ea.a4moats as it may dews desirable to the President for his sppreval with the recommendation that he consider the allocation to the Cou issien of additional funds for the remainder of the rxent fiscal year not to exceed 13000000. of which $60, is for additional equipment and $260,004 for personnel, end a corresponding provision for the fiscal year 1942, for the .stabli,ehisent and maintenance of additional monitoring facilities to give coverage not now projected." At the next meeting of the Board, January 21, a memorandum to the President and a justification for funds were approved. ,gross had provided funds for just such newly arising defense Ards. In the Military Appropriations Act, 1941, it had met up a special fund "to enable the President, through the appropriate agencies of the ,t * * * to provide for emergencies affecting the national security and defense." From the funds thus provided by Congress, the president on February 25, 1941, allotted the sum of $160,000 to the mmunications Commission, and on. the next day these funds were *ode available to the Cemaission "for expenses to analyse incoming shoxt- wave radio propaganda, and so forth" by Treasury transfer appropriation 436. In this way the Foreign Broadcast Intelligenee Service was ettablishede Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Releasq,2006/01/12 CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 OZRIQNS s GURU Operations of the FBI8 are a belt line process. This process can Abed in terms of nine simultaneous or successive steps. The steps agar s I4 Scheduling- to Intsa ption. S* Monitoring and. (simultaneously 4. Batotarding. d. Translating. 8. Wive $errioe Dissemination . 7. Reports edited and mimeographed documents for intelligence dissemination) B. Analyses I. ladiyidusl services of various kinds. ptsp I -- Sohedulia of Programs at comes the sohsduling of the programs to be intercepted at each listening post during a listening period. This is a highly complex praolss. It Involves the oampitation . of as complete an index as possible foreign broadcasts, their frequencies, hours, languages, and program types, and thou keeping this comprehensive index currently accurate from day to day. About 6,000 programs are listed. 'This work is done, not merely for the FBI8, but also for other United States send United Nations officials who rely on the FBIS for schedules. It is the task of our Program Information unit. As foreign broadcast program change, change sheets are supplied to users of the schedule book, so that all the agencies concerned are kept currently informed. From the program schedule book each FBIS listening post has assigned gular daily sample which forms the bulk of the monitoring task. These are the programs known to be important and are listened to every daily sample, bow "r, does not fill all the tins devoted to Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For ReleaA&2006/01/1,, CJA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 s torng. There are always special jobs to be done for a particular day, wsek, or month at the request of some user agency, or which need to be done as baoketopping for another listening post temporarily blacked out by static or otherwise. Thus, there is a necessary element of flexi- ty in this day's schedule of programs assigned to the operators at each listening post. $tep 8 .- Interception The second step in the ?B28 operations is performed by the radio engineers. Each engineer is in charge of a battery of short-wave receivers, half of which at any given time are actually operating, while the other half are warming up. The engineer is supplied with a schedule of "programs to ks," so that he will know at 31146 a.m., for example, Just which scheduled to come on at 12 noon he will be expected to cover. ile twos in the requisite number of receivers to the right wave lengths in advance, and makes sure that each receiver is functioning properly at the point of greatest audibility. Then, at precisely noon, he can be throwing a switch. break. off the programs being intercepted during the 11,46.12 nod and tie in the programs for the 12 o'clock period in such a program will go by wire to the right monitor and to the right recording device. Then he proceeds to retune the unused receivers so that they will be ready for the 12 t 16 programs. seldom does everything go precisely according to schedule. An Upfortant broadcast, for example, may become inaudible duo to atmospheric !ditious. The experienced engineer knows wheys there are alternative ties carrying the same program and quickly turns his dial in scare; of the place where the program is doming through so that with only a to seconds delay the desired broadcast can be monitored. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Rele4W,2006/01/126 CJA-RDP83-00442R0001.00080002-9 this regular,,msthodioal interception, the engineers search of news changed sad discontinued programs, so that the 1 always hai before them a complete and accurate record rograms currently available for listening. As part of the information needed, the engineer makes a daily log reports i.e., a report on audibility strength of each program he tunes in. The larger part of the interception task involves voice broadcasts, i small but important part of it, however, is getting the enemy news agency programs transmitted in International Morse Code. Before the war, were regular press transmissions to newspapers in foreign countries paid for their use. The system broke down as between enemy countries ,break of war. Germany, however, still sends out its Transoaean Now$ and Japan its Domei news (both Government controlled) in Norse Code for nautrals, friendly newspapers, and anyone also who wishes to get the as they color it. These are intercepted by engineers versed in the rse Code at two of our listening posts, one for Germany on the Atlantis end one for Japan on the Pacific Coast.` The Japanese Domcei Morse in the Japanese language presents peculiar sulties in handling. It is of such value that it is worth the difficulty, directed as it is from Tokyo to satellite newspapers in the se language itself is written in videographs* ,which cannot d dirsotly to dots and dashes. They must first be changed into aeow alphabet rendering of the Japanese lan uage on a phonetic basis. Om this .Rfmad.ised Japanese, or :Romaji, as it is called, is transmitted STATINTL in Norse Code. At I I the engineers receive and type it out as so may waningless letters. In this form it is teletyped to Washington, ere tr Qf~f 4~i$ 4~gt hcIA+ 8~dd2i+~L16aDM O ObO r times Approved For Releases,2006/01/427 GIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 stations tune in the broadcast programs but do not or record their content. The receivers are attached to ephone lines ahioh end at monitors' booths 6, 10 or 16 miles receiving stations one is levatad a xhere sk is receiving the programs from Japan proper. lse stations in Japanese-occupied territory, Japanese programs rrioa. and other Asiatic transmitters* operate actually as one unit, backstopping and su; adequate antennie system fret from obstructions of any oohing stations themselves are located with a special view sees are they satisfactory locations for office headquarters It from Russia, i nila, and, at tines, satellite stations uth Paoific. A second pest is at a point outside of other as cchangin, conditions dictate. A third manor receiving station is located at Its assignment is listening to the programs beamed from and to the 20 Latin publics. Furth and largest reception unit is located at Its task is that of listening to the grams from Europe d to, or audible in, North rica* a fifth small listening post in ?menting pting broadcasts from and to the Antilles and and Africa to Central and South America. The work and ' 1 ' 1 8 e & ast1?t 1 t - - 00080002-9 STAT Approved For Releasp.;006/01 /12: ,$IA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 1hoss four main stations cover the reception of foreign broadcasts available to the United States in the continental area. oy are manned urs a day by a force of Flenginee re . g posts The United Nations letwo al monitored and recorded at the four major FCC affiliated listening posts abroad and from the broad- , a significant volume of foreign broadcast material ce service* of other countries among the United Nations* of broadcasts which cannot be heard directly in our country are made, available. Various specific arrangements of a aeoperative, character mare made even before the United States entered the war. These were expanded in July 19#S, when a United Nations Monitoring Committee was created in Zn this way e object of pushing forward a* operative plans and specific Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Releaap.2006/01142 CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 P318 s its ova, to ..type service in its office so that to all intents and purposes this important unit serves STATINTL as an additional field station for P3I8* 8saausa of. the very extensive use made of the Continental .ropy *tie broadcasts by 0JI for its special purposes, an arrangement was also *4e to assign an OWl editor round-the-cloak to the FBI8 office at 3ks with complete cooperation, to select and handle the large amount of teletype servioes and personnel In effect, the operation in Washington simultaneously, so that an item seat by either editor listening post, to dispatch texts and suassariss required by ratively, the relationship withi was under F`BIB, STATINTL material. In order to obviate duplication in cable scion,, the 1318 and 0WI wires are delivered in Now York to Owl an is available at both places, and diplomatic units there, an a taletyps service, the material lag queries on specific items, also making special analytical studies. STAT STATINTL the I8 staff distributes to vrariouz United Btates each day round-up of European broadcasts for the use of the Army's two Psychological branch monitoring units in the Yaditerranean Theater, both of which are in charge of an sir-TCC staff member aseigned to M, This round-up as units the necessity of attempting a grniral Turopsaz oavvrage. The cable file sent by FBISI is included by PU at these outposts part of daily distribution of broadcast material to the 10 or 40 Allied 1limenoe and other unit* sash serves Locally. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 STATINTL Approved For Relea ,2006/01/x21(PIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 programs which duplicate those available-to FBIS elsewhere. But it also receives programs which are not otherwise available to us. An FBI$ editor (PWB, xar? correctly) stationed in selects 25X1A valuable summaries, texts and excerpts and cables the selected material to ruing post at l If'r-r Par East material* An O W1 staff member, rmerly head of the FBIS field station in Moods for meter#arl that supplements rather than duplicates Pacific coast seleots items daily and cables them to OW! and PBZB in Washington. (D) The Mediterranean PWB Posts ? In the Mediterranean Theater of Operation* the Psychological Warfare Branch of the Army, with personnel assigned from OWI, OSSO and maintains twO w4or listening posts and several minor ones primarily for the purpose of providing roadoast intelligence for its iimediate,. local uses. Arrangements have however, by which broadcasts monitorabie at these poets and not available to 7BIS elsewhere, ?speoially Spanish, Portuguese, and Balkan br casts, are cabled daily to 73YS in Washington. g) some time age iaastituted a small monitoring unit which has been expanded by OW! for its local uses. An FBI& editor assigned to this post supervises general op.rations, especially seleoting programs from and to the Baltic and Sesndinavian areas which are not elsewhere available, and cabling material Washington via Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Releag&2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000I 080002-9 ? 11 - "18, in addition to its four major listening posts, has direct *able to the monitored programs at five other listening poets valuable material is available. At each of the poets, neither adequate equipment nor manpower is available, the according-atranslating process is the same as in the United The PSIS Pacific coast monitoring units sand a small unit on the Pacific coast, both receiving prisoner- pris rrs?of-war, in order to aseura full coverage and to provide a *hook on accuracy of canoes and addresses. Similarly, Washington and exchange and United States prisoner-of?wsr messages fram Gorenye Mid. from separate monitoring of prisoner-of-war messages, STATINTL Steps 3 and 4 - Monitoring and Recording in tS operations is monitoring and the fourth i.s e, a person called m monitor, thoroughly familiar with the language of the broadcasts intercepted. These are key activities in the **as. As a broadcast is tuned in by the engineers in a particular and also It how in the English language, site before a typewriter with his $ ho i ecV.F #Mise 2006/01/12: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 inished, he goes on to the next program on his schedule and so on through on, listening to the broadcast as it is delivered. As he listens, he translates and makes a typewritten summary of the broadcast in English. The items of the broadcasts he numbers as he summarises. The program of-Japan, exchange messages coned ning Approved For Relea 2006IOl 1ig cIA-RDP83-00442R0001QO080002-9 If, however, the brc adcsat he is monitoring contains items Of real oe In the judpwnt of the supervising editor monitor (significant called to his attention by the monitor at once), the monitor tune aside from listening in a succeeding period and translates the 11 text is available for translation, even though the. program because, at the very time that one wire from the receiver is carrying the program to the nrinitor's headphones, a connecting wire is rrying it to a recording.dictaphone which makes a semi-permanent record of the broadcast. The diotaphone record can be played back oy the monitor to catch anything of importtanoe missed during the actual b?rcadoastj more picked up by a mesa nger, properly identified by a tiaae- station-program slip, and filed away for later translation, in full if that tcesea-ry? The monitoring process is thus a means, of reducing the iaaeense solar of mota.itomble words to a manageable amount. The duplication of material sigh appears in the foreign broadcasts (Radio Tokyo? for example, my broadcast the same item on a down or more occasions during the course of a day) is eliminated and the agencies using F`$IS are in a position to get full translation of precisely the material they want. As a result on d to 10 per cent of the broadcast programs are fully translated. ? Translation step in the ISIS operations is interposed between monitoring and editing for a portion of the recorded broadcasts. This is the trans- lation of texts. By standing orders of Government users, there are a certain Muir of broadcasts for which the. full text is always wanted. Examples are Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Releaw 2006/0g/1%: CIA-RDP83-00442R000'L0080002-9 litany communiques and the weekly article. These form a basis translation load. The recordings are sent to foreign languages, good commend of the English language, rinalator must have good hearing, excellent aural knowledge as soon as recorded, to be rendered into English text* and a good knowledge of the country from which the program is broadcast to $5 to identify re sage over several time in order to catch a word or ph corrctly? In the *sat of a particularly difficult passage, two or even throe translators or monitors may eompars notes an it. Where the trans- later is unsure, he puts a question mark after the, questioned wworde or ssntonaes. Asterisks mark words left out entirely because they are inaudible s, dates, places and svents. He listens with s as the record is played back. Unlike the monitor, he can play ibis. Then. are Qtrauslators in the Foreign Broadcast Intelligenoe Service, 34 languages and 50 additional dialects. These STATINTL and eople are attached to the posts at he quality of monitors and translator ut the reliability of the whole service. Ibnitoring of this not been developed in Or outside the Govarnasnt until the present has had to train practically all of its monitors by apprentice ship an the job. Step 8 The 'sire Services The, sixth. seventh, and eighth steps in FBIS operations have to do etribution of the monitoring results to the various Government Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 s using them. From the four FBIS and various affiliated listening Approved For Rele4W 2006/&11 2 "CIA-RDP83-00442R0004W080002-9 re the summaries, texts, and daily round-ups flow into Washington headquarters minute by minute through the day and night. They come by Hyped transcript, by teletype, by cable, by airmail, and are then dis- tztbuterd to the ultimate users in three ways. One is by the wire services. A copy of the incoming material of all kinds &"a directly to the 'BIS headquarters wire desks whore, in order oy,, the items are selected and put an one of the six wires. The most important of thee* six wires is the A wire, carrying various types of Intelligence to the State Department, to five points in the War Department, points in the 1iavy Department, to 07I, to OSS, to Censorship? CIAA, The B Wire, with Props- STATINTL Banda summaries and texts, goes to 0 in New York and Washington. The C wire, with Latin American material, goes to the Office of the Coordinator of lntsr?Amsrican Affairs. The D wire is a cable '!he wire services are an essential part of the service rendered by ]IBIS. It is the central point at which decisions regarding i. diate 09" "44 Step 7 - Daily Reports step in FBIS operations is simultaneous with the firs one containing the logically orgOnUod and carefully shook d activities. It is the preparation and issuance of two mimeographed Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For ReIea 200610J/1*: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 t s, excerpts, and sumaaariss received during each 24-hour period. The** reports go to a such larger nuscber of offices than the wire services. The mailing list is at present 464 copies to 360 offices in 5$ different agencies. Step 8 Analyses and Queries The eighth step in. f'BT8 operations is the analysis of the volume of the recorded broadcast output, the preparation of periodic reviews of broadcasts particular areas, and the an$wsrs to the steady volume of queries regarding a particular subject, trend, or transmitter. The small group of "IS analysts who perform, thasee tasks are organised into geographical regions sod on the broadcasts of these regions. They read, count, nd analyse the whole volume of broadcasts from week to week and are In the best position to give quick answers to queries regarding than. It should be noted here that queries come into FBIS at various points* questions cow to the wire desk at any time of day and night for n of a text or a request for a full text. Queries for extra of transcripts come to the Inforosation Unit (Library) which furnishes than directly. only queries which require an hour, day,. or several days broadcasts over a period of ti are handled by the Analysis t should be noted that wirer serrioes, daily reports, analysers, s and queries are not successive steps in a process but operate simultaneouly with the same material, furnishing to users directly what they want. Step S -- Individual Spseial Services Wire sorriest, daily reports, and analyses have been built up as the mast economical means of meeting the needs of most Government departments. Approved For Release 2006/Q1/ .CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 tary Intelligence, nearly 2 years ago. stationed one of its offiocrs at FBIS headquarters. Thus, G-2 obtains prompt access to all al available to FBIS itself. In addition, it subscribes to the wire service and other reports. 089 has had a similar liaison officer at our headquarters. For more than a year the Foreign Economic Adaiaistration -- and its decessor, -- has had a small staff located at ISIS headquarters to omb through the ram material for all the economic items. The F&A staff arranges, and edits the items and issues eoonoaio intelligenoe reports which are in fact a joint Fft=11BIS document, I of all transcripts of Far Eastern broadcasts are flown daily to Hawaii by bier for use of the Army Headquarters there. Also, by epeoial arrange- s ndt specified types of information appearing in Par Eastern broadcasts are delivered ineediately to Pacific Naval Headquarters by cable. There have been other special services for short periods afforded to of t ernssent officials requesting them. At the time/ditler's speech following the Italian surrender, the White House had a special telephone installation with Hitler's voice an one end, and Churchill, General Marshall, and others the rsoeiving end. l)uring the 2 days beginning with the Badoglio surrender pooiel order asked p`BIS to deliver all radio references to the surrender by T to the Army Signal Corps headquarters. The State Detrartaesnt has made of requests* ekes by German and Japanese leaders, by standing order ecordod as received on permanent, high-fidelity disks and are furnished t quotation. Thus, 6 months after Tojo has broadcast a Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 are special arrangements whereby typed copies Approved For Releap 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000 0080002-9 about the jxpreg ebility of the Marshall Islands, there domes 25X1A STATI NTL over the airwaves back to Japan his actual voice with its 6.- month-old boast aocuoaapanied by the dsimiatg facts of th* actual Marshall islands* 3nvasiown. NOTES ON LISTENING POSTS Bureau wee established in August. 1942, curtailed during and discontinued in January,, 1946. The post was established in the late fall of 1941, and d * fin' lue in lv"* The STATINTL s Mediterranean posts arrangements were abandoned during 1943 and 1944. taammnts for access to the monitoring output post was established in the Irate fall of 1941 and ued in 1944. the post post was established in the summer of 1944. was set tip in the spring of 194b. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Relea, 2006/01/123: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 1a / '[t1 WIRE SLICES teletype of the MS wire services is to operate six different carrying foreign broadcast intelligence information to . Government and other users of PBIS material. A secondary,, but highly important, function of wire desk editors is to exercise continuous supervision over the current intercept activities ious fIB listening posts. This second function will be described ing and coordinating the actual listening activities is essential to the whole ffIB process. Shall a particularly important Japanese broad- STATINTL east be covered front 'What if 0 reports at the last moment that it is blacked out? To which listening post shall we assign a now enemy transmitter which has just appeared on the air for the ? Our function is to answer these questions in such a way that the flow of intelligence into the wire?servioe desks will include all the need. Wire Division personnel are held responsible for immediate direction and integration, minute by minute, of the monitoring activities listening posts within the more permanent framework of program schedules. An average of 167,700 words daily is transmitted to headquarters of domestic bureaus and by cable and wireless from stations beyond Washington. ?he material arrives in Washington via land lines the oontinontal limits of the United States. 000 words heard at the listening posts. These field editors are 167,700 words per day come from field editors who select it from guided, in the first Instance by general intelligence instructions based on the needs of all the agencies using 7828 services. Their general or standing Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 G Approved For Releq,~gs 2006/0,1/j3 :.CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Austruations are supplemented, from hour to hour, by spsoific Wire Division instructions from Washington. der normal conditions of reception, each listening past covers the area regularly assigned to it, monitoring all desired broadcasts originating In that area. Unusual atmiospheris conditions occasionally, however, make it necessary to amend the area assi. ants, on the spur of the moot, in order to provide the required broadcasts. For example, 1sinking, is Iliohuria, is normally covered by post. Freak reception conditions will sometia ss render the Hsinking broadcasts unintelligible on the West Coast. The Washington wire editor is advised of this by tsletyps, and is ediately shifts coverage of that particular transmitter listening post, probably periods of solar disturbances or other phenomena affecting Short 'save reception, one station may be covered successively at various is of the day by as many as four different listening posts as conditions ,s, with no overlapping of savirage and no loss of significant material. close coordination of the editorial and coverage activities of ions from one central point where all required inforaation lable eliminates duplication of effort, waste motion, and needless thus insuring that all transmissions to Washington are of real fioanooe to one or more of the agencies served by FBIS. Ducts to Agencies circuits giving wire service to intelligence agencies are known as the A, B, C, D, X. and PW wires. It was for this primary function that the Wire Service of the FBIS was oreated in 1941.. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Rele s 2006/0j/: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 the various wire circuits were set up in response to specific requests from agencies. The essence of these FlIS wire servio?s is speed of trans- mission, and the material sent out is arranged with that in mind. In e Daily Report, for example, which classifies items by a selected and edited on the basis of instructions provided by the *APP ISIS wire, has its specific function. *terial carried on each or topic, the wire services handle material in order of urgenoy. users of that particular wire. The A Wire The A wire, our main intelligence circuit, was inaugurated December 7, 1941, at the request of the Department of State which had a particular mood for 24?hour intelligence reporting via teletype. During the next days various sections in the Departments of War and the Navy requested that they also be provided with this service. Sine* that time other e boon added, at their request. The agencies on the A wire r 18. They are, Department of State Offtoe of Naval Zntolligene War Department Public Relations Military Zntelligenoo A4 (Air Intelligence), War Department Air Transport Opnme nd, War Department OffiO- of Censorship Parsi= News bureau Office of War Information Coordinator of Inter- rioan Affairs attics of Public 261ations, Navy Department O cal Warfare Swrrviaa War Be nt a as of Strategic Serr oes The A wire earries about 83,0words of priority intelligence each 14 hours. Material selected for use on this wire can be broadly defined as, l APP ovec` or ePei2~se 6T0 e:1 ~iA>' 3 b2 442R000100 80002 9~n~` Approved For Release 2006/01/1?2zcIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 eeonomio intelligence, and (4) propaganda trend intelligence. rAitorial' psrsonnsl, under the direction of the chief of wire serv'io*i sml .t and file intelligence in the categories on the basis of require- ,e4 by the agencies receiving the service. Thee* agenoi.s, in ion to the general standing directives, make specific requests from _ day to day for typos of material most needed! Editors of the Wire Division tint communication with these agencies in order to maintain a current picture of their constantly shifting needs. The B Wire This wire is a specialized counterpropaganda circuit serving exclusively the Office of War Information in Now York and Washington. It was inaugurated in November 1941 at the request of the Coordinator of Information. The $ Wire carries an average of 45,000 words per day. The copy is provided ?Wl for use in connection with its work in preparing sited States short wave broadcasts to the rest of the world. In addition to providing general coverage of the radio propaganda picture, the B wire takes up special assignments for OWI, such as following the development of a particular enemy propaganda offensive from transmitter to transmitter through Axis and neutral countries, thus enabling OWI to know *mug which peoples the poison was spread and, therefore, where it must be countered. tae C Wire our circuit, inaugurated in 1042 at the request of the, Co- rdinstor of Inter-Amsrioan Affairs, serves that agency with 6,600 words o CIA& affairs. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Relea,2006/01(,1 iCaA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 t broadcast* from radio stations operating in Latin America, effort to stir up anti-Allied feeling there; other broadcasts from Axis roadoaats from enemy transmitters beamed at Latin America, usually in an .tral radios which, while not specifically directed to Latin-American ait#s a balanced intelligence file suited to the need of 16 different audiences, nevertheless deal with fatin?Ameriosn affairs. The C wire serves the News and Radio Divisions, the propaganda ; ysis Section, and other units of CIAL. Unlike the A wire, which main- users, the C wire as the B wire is to OWI, exclusively for the of one agency engaged in operations in one sphere, and the copy carried s keyed to that reality. The D W I re x wire of the Office of War Information in San. Francisco. this d in September 194 at the request of the Propaganda -r~?!'F~L11nsf$0?2Q0$p48 Coast Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Appendix V V Editorial Di"ision: 1941 "German Broadcasts to North America, March-June 1941", -- June 1941 to 18 July 18 July 1941 "Spot Bulletins," ( on an irregular basis)-- discontinued 11Aug. 4. 11 August 1941 "Foreign Broadcasts: Highlights of (date) 18 Nod. 41 18 No--ember 1941 "Daily Report of Foreign Radio Broadcasts" -- to present 27 February 1947-- Issued in Restricted and Unrestricted form 23 June 1948 --- Issued as separate area books (Far East, Europe, Latin America) of restricted classification, and one inclusi?-e unrestricted book (Far East, Europe, Latin America). April 26 1949 -- European book was separated into two ?Tolumes, USSR and Eastern Europe, and Western Europe and Near East. 25 May 1949 -- "Abstracts From Radio Broadcasts, USSR and Eastern Europe", and "Abstracts From Radio Broadcasts, Far East" issued, Analysis Di-ison: V "Weekly Analysis" (later Weekly Re'iew) published from Dec. 6 1941 to 4 Spring 1944 (when di-A was discontinued). Aug. 1942-- Radio Report on the Far East (issued a--ery two weeks) Daily Analysis of Latin American Broadcasts (daily until May 3 1943 when it became a weekly). Discuntinued in August 1943 when 31 began similar daily publication. 1943-1944 Regional rep6rts were issued 6 3ntral,ygouthern and Eastern Europe until the di-'ision was dissol--e . Special Reports: 'Sur-Tey o USSR Broadcasts" (issued as weekly until 5 October 1950, when was published biweekly) 12 October 1950 "Sur-ey of Far East Broadcasts 5 October 1950 "Trends and Highlights of Moscow Broadcasts" Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002 STATSPEC L Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/.22gCIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 the PW Wire a 24-hour teletype circuit linking the FBI& and the Iisrshal General. It carries approximately 8,000 r per day deavoted exclusively to messages from and mention of American ld captive by the enemy. These messages and mentions are prisoner transmissionst rd daily selection of intercepts from European transmitters for ion with a ^pecif is ccunterpropaganda job in the Far by the enemy radio for the purpose of building up a listening audience in the United States for the propaganda which is woven in with the of the Wire service Division consists of wire editors STATINTL =teletype operators. The editors are selected for experience in rtal reporting and ability to handle accurately and rapidly a large volt of broadcast intelligence copy. consequence of the cessation of hostilities,,, the wire services of the FBI$ were in 1946 considerably curtailed in number, volume, and period of open operation. The A wire and C wire only remained in opera- tion, the A wire on a 5-days-a- ek, 16-hours-a-day basis, the C wire about 20,000 daily, C wire wordage to about on a i -dsys-a- rsak, d hours-s ay basis. A wire wordage runs Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 TATINTL k Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/1,2 BCkIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 DAILY IMPORTO 4 in the monitored foreign broadcasts is by mimeographed daily the second method of furnishing the Government agencies the material reports. FBIS issues two such publications -- the Morning Preview and the These are augmented by special reports on the occasion of war or propaganda events or developments such as the United a in North Africa,cbstruotien of the French ?loot at Toulon and the invasion of Sicily, or significant speeches and statements of leading The supplements bring together information and comment ;gne broadcasts to which are frequently added a radio chronology and other relevant material. The speech texts in translation are sometimes sco*panied by the text in the original language. Preview provides a brief summary of war events as revealed for the Bt hours up to 8 a.m. Of the day it is issued. It is limited by radio intercepts, a short factual statement of enemy propaganda themes, and one or more key broadcasts verbatiat. It is produced daily except =day for distribution before 11 a.m. It covers the foreign broadcasts quick over-all view of the situation each day. 6 pages, 1.000 to 1,600 words. Its characteristics are that is always short and always delivered on time to officials who need a Lily Report also-is published daily, except Sunday. It covers foreign broadcasts intercepted up to 10 a.m. (EWT) of the day of its issue, and it is scheduled for delivery to the user agencies by 3 to 4 arclock in the afternoon. It is a mimeographed book averaging 86 to 100 Mos. The average wordage in a day's Report is about 40,000. On Mondays, Daily Report. end Preview cover broadcasts of the previous 49 hours rather than 24e Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 of each Daily Report consists of significant foreign broadcasts selected from the viewpoint of the valuable intelligence they words actually used by the broadcaster. Between 95 and 99 percent of the main body of the Report consists of verbatim text. It tames up about three-quarters of the whole Report, some 54,000 to 35,000 It reports the basic material received each day by FBI& there are various alassif ications of the material ?- primarily according to transmitters and regions. The elaesif ioations as shown In the table of contents of the Daily Report of May 16, 1944, are# LIGENCR PROFACI 'fairer t. t? and other iteslss. Affairs Eastern Europe and Speeches Par Eastern Seotiont liilitary Affairs# General. India Bu rna e China. Japan China# Occupied China Southeast AAsits Netherlands East Indies Way and Singapore International Comement# United Nations Articles sad Speeches. Intelligence -- In addition to the main body of the loport, thins are several special sections built up to nest the needs of the users* e is called Personal lntelligenee. It covers the movements, promotions, demotions, conferences,, and other activity of persons and named groups as as unoed in foreign broadcasts. The section is of special evalue to the Govern ent intelligence departments in piecing together a whole picture ,+era Europe organization, movement, and trend from euoh personal items. It be noted that here, as elsewhere in the Daily Report, it is not Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Rewlease 2006/01/12: A*RDP83-00442R00000100080002-9 foots butt forvigaa broadcast statements that are listed. A typical fioant about conditions in the o try or neighborhood of the Does the use of the radio with respect to beam, frequency. other technical handling reveal pertinent information as to what is called radio warfare! *AUG* is suggested by two questtonet (1) Doss the radio or the behavior of the foreign radios monitored is given. The criterion personal intelligence items would be 80 to 180* on Traz3ami tters -- In another special section, information on caster, aside from the content of the broadcast itself. reveal any- n gathers oO=mM1gze4 with full teat. Still another special IiiUitsry Intelligence -- Another section includes broadcast intercepts of specific value as tmtorna- tIon for the Army eRnd Navy. Selection is based on instructions from the ehief editor which are in turn based on guidance received from the users. the number of items in this special section varies greatly from day to day. OW'day0a broadcasts may yield lass than 10, those of another day 90 to .400 themes -- Different in type and origin from the rest of eeotlan summarising the day's propaganda_direated by rise to their home audiences. Continental domestic broadcasts are examined as part of their routine each day by the f$18 editors and they prepare a review or roand- of the day's output, gauging the volume and emphasis by repetition and day's par Bout auttgu t. These are telegraphed or wabled to d form the body of We special section. The props auada a the devices. Similarly, the FB1S editors review and STATINTL Approved For Release 2006/01/12: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/Oa 1 : CIA-RDP83-00442R0000100080002-9 IWAO re in addition, of course, to excerpts and tests from caste published in the main body of the report. Foreign Economic A4ministration Economic Report -- A report serving ised clientele is issued each day by the Foreign Economic Administration in cooperation with 'RIB. This volume contains all economic any sort.. FbIS editors, as they run across such items in their gular work, set them aside for the FE`h group located at headquarters. The FEA they Processes and issues the Items daily for the use of their. own staff-- also for other Government departments. Because this specialized report handles economic items, the more widely distributed Report is able to omit them, unless they have direct, immediate the ware It S. taken for granted in a general way that the Government agencies make full use of the material contained in the daily newspapers* the constant necessity of keeping down the Report's sise, the verbatim petition of any fully reported newspaper statement as it appears on a Boast would serer no purpose, and is not included. If an important p "oh or statement appears in the newspaper only in part or in direct so, however, the complete text may be carried in the Report. It Is taken for granted that such United Nations information is available to Government intelligence bureaus before it Sc put on the air. For this reason, greater coverage is given to enemy than to United Nations broadcasts. The process The actual process of preparing the day's Report may d through by seeing a section proceed an its routine. The divided into regional unites r Bast., German, and so STATINTL Let us follow the Par east desk though a typical day, which runs Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01,1 j CJA-RDP83-00442ROO0100080002-9 'ROW . The first editor arrives at d. About 400000 words from Far East broadcasts hate accumulated' on his desk. It is the same inflow of material that furnishes the raw material for the wire services and Analysis Division. It includes material from the It includes Japanese, Japanase-organised? broadcasts. The early morning editor puts the volume of aecws+zlated material into preliminary regional and sub,ject-matter olassifi- eations, eliminating items that are either nonessential or that have already been used in previous reportse, other editors arrive by 6 a.m., stile the material from the tele- type machines and monitoring room continues to pour in. The Preview is put together, sand sent for stenciling to the typists who begin their day at 1,80 a.a. The editors then work at the task of selecting, sorting, mating duplicates, arranging items and giving them headings. Special ;r rations, such as Personal Intelligence, are put together. By I1 a.m. the terial has gone into the typing room, the stencils have been ;d the mimeographing process is well under may. Until 11,30 *.ao important news items flowing in are put into the "last minute reception' seotien? With the stenciled copies corrected, the head of the desk assig is d items from incoming material for the next day's report, assembles 1 for the Fgb economic daily digest, and assembles cultural material in the broadcasts for the Par East Section of the State Department. at be in close touch with the other regional desks to furnish Lai in Par East broadcasts dealing with other regions and to r ceive gear East items from the other desks* Each item in the Report is identified fully by a complete description of the broadcast from which-it is taken. This system enables the user Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-004428000100080002-9 MW W to . clip the various items and distribute them among the number or ,file. theat for reference without causing any item to less item, as far as possible, arrives on the Report editor's desk In verbatim quotation. No must preserve and publish, so far as possible, just what the broadcaster said. Already the monitor's and renelator?sLtranscript has been *heoked by a linguistically skilled perri$or. But he east ask hieelf whether the monitor heard correctly,, whether a mistake in wire transmission may have occurred. The slightest slip at any stage may ruin an important intelligence item. Qualifications of Personnel -- The personnel quota for the Report STATINTL a total of Opersons. with the Civil Service Commission for recruitment purposes, r its equivalent, and foreign experience, or its equivalent* d working technique acquired through actual work in the 4aalifieations for editor positions, as recorded editorial department of a metropolitan newspaper are almost the sine qua neat for standing up under the high-speed, high-pressure work which must be Section. It is not, however, newspaper work. Not general reader but intelligence iteres for the trained specialist is the basis for selection. These are different tasks. And in the comps- between accuracy and speed, "curacy must hold first place. In a s or of cases, thoroughly grounded and experienced newspaper people have not responded to the retraining process for ?BIS work and have failed to other hand, a very few without newspaper experience hurt developed into good PSIS editors. When hundreds of *tasks" of Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/1?,,:DP83-00442R000100080002-9 it are being handled, when these takes fall into a dosen separate categories (which, in turn, are subdivided), and the s aber of stencils to be melee rune into 80 to 100, the problem becomes and the pressures upon both editors and typists are heavy. Caol+heeadedneass, clear organization of flow of material, and teen rrk order are essential. The editorial time element in the Report similar to that in a metropolitan newspaper office, i.e., the handling of material rarest begin as late as possible so as to gat t Intelligence and must and as early as possible so that the igenoe may be conveyed soonest to those whose operations depend an DAILY REPORT During the war period,,, the Daily Report of Foreign Radio Broadcasts was published in a single volume, though for a time this wss supplemented short *3brn s Preview." In the Daily Report several methods of cation of intercepts were tried or considered. From the stand- radio reception, the logical classification is on a transmitter basis, or transmitter-group basis A good case s made for classification on the basis of geographical areas A cease could likewise be made for classification according led audience. the difficulties of any classification otherwise than in accordance transmitters of origin are fairly obvious. Nevertheless, in the Daily LO for a l time been made to arrive at a compromise Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/120 f A4-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 low tter classification and classification by geographical areas of reference. Qa the whole, this method, while awkward in some cases, been satisfactory. From time to times, experiment was also made with the inclusion of certain special sections or features in the Daily Report, in which certain kinds of information were grouped or digested. Examples of these hate been *Personal lutelligenoe,w "Alita ry Intelligence Items,* "Daily Roundup of Zuropeaan broadcasts.* Since these features were presented in addition to the fundamental ign broadcasts, their inclusion or abandonment was predicated en the necessities of speedy production or, more often, on the availability or lack of personnel and talent. Budgetary considerations have been the main factor governing the size sad contents of the gaily Report, also arose during the early history of the FBIS as to ether reports should be made in the form of summaries of intercepts or batin (translated) transcription. The need for verbatim transcription of significant passages of intercepts was unmistakably and the practice was adopted of using summaries and digests only sparingly. Rseon rersisn, which took place shortly after V-J Day, has resulted in e Daily Report into three sections -- European, Far Eastern, can. The European Section is classified on a transmitter s. With respect to the Far Eastern Section and the Latin American there is a slight compromise with the geographical-areas-of- reference system. For ex le, Moscow broadcasts directed to the Par East and dealing with Far East problems is included in the Far Eastern Section of the Dally Report rather than in the European Section. Regular special: Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/4232CLA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 roadoast Highlights* a daily or week-end roundup of broadcasts inserted rtags of sigrsifioant passages from intercepts. The 10 percent remainder consists of sumrnariration of broadcast content. The users -- The Daily Report is distributed -- about 390 copies in 80,E per day. Of this, 90 percent or more consists of verbatim by sesssenger and mail to sours 300 offices in 66 differ nt agencies bay* been eliminated with the ccle ezaeptien of published five days each week. The total wordage is otion? The Daily Reports -- three sections -- are Ont. It serves not only a different purpose but also re hes a much wider group of officials than can be served directly, by the PSI$ teletype network. The number of officials receiving the report epics received is a little misleading, however, as to its users. Fourteen major subscribers, 10 of whom also receive the FMS service, e total. , These reoeive 330 of the 991 Daily Reports distributed, or 84 percent tots bsoriborss 0irculatian, February 1943* pe-r.i euistast Intelligence Service Daily Report subscribers o1assifisd from list published in hearings, Senate 8uboommittee on Appropriations, on L.R. 1070, February 13, 1943: pages 130-1309 Office of War Information* --------------------------------- 70 iIrrF--w~rNf~f.Yl#MO~r{-Yei..--.-~r.--wwriar%IYir.ra-f-~erwi~.~- Office of Strategic Services* --,._-----.._. -....-..-..-....-,,...r4II Foreign tooaomio Uministration (includes Lend-Leaes end Of the 14, 6 major subscribers receive two-thirds of the are OWl, War, 033, EA, Nary, and the State Department. Y Department o-------------------------------------------so 2bsr Developmmnt Corporation)------------- ..-.....--?4$ --s+r-rs---.. . State Department *----------------------------- 10, Coordihator of rican Affairs *--------------------- *Also a~ae~d pw4v olt~ict el a4 /Q i3. Asfi?P dbe~2i 1~i11~8?i 2-9 W------------ - ----------- w O her dar'rai ..noy subscrlberea Approved For Release 2006/014.143C A-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Comer" DepaMS ent-------------------r---N----*wr------- Bank- ------------------------ ------rirwr deral Ric s re, ? rioulture---- ---------------+errs-rr-wrw r.. rtwgt of y en Property Custodian ----r-------------------w-------- i tio -----`ir 1 il +~7w l a u /~ ~s'+~is/y^w Civilian Defense Off of Vivilian Defence--------------------'-----------A- I Coat Gua sd.>------------------------?..-..~.----. ----.....-..__-r I Za i ror Department -----yerr. -..-------w-r.rr-wr.-s..~rwrsri-~rr..-? ' iInto rs4mrioan Defense Board ------ ------------- w--------- Libra. {a./L~.' '4 r sa~~lr'a(.,-.Ai ie-,'-------------'--------- -------- sat Gallery nal lof ---------r---------r rrrrar--r-~Mwrr --e 2 Office of Censorship *------------ --------r---w_~.-- 2 Office of P ice Administration** --rr-----r------rr- -rr.....- 2 freaanury Department --------------------- ------rw----r----'--aK T, w-r-.., rnment agencies (with approval of State Department) t Total -------------------------23 ~wr COpi*s r bubscr'ibers------------------------------ 330 r Federal Agency subsoribersw--------wr--N" 20 ied goveramnt agencies-------------------- 23, lident, 11 Congress, $1 Supreme Court I --.. 10 on office of War Information request--- 7 gars -a. On the Office of Information request ------------------ ft-0 RUMMY eta l ** (Se a55uetes)---------Nwiw-----300 Percent 84 5 6 3 Mr"" Mv eiv*a Foreign Ia doest ,Intslligenoe Service wire service. **Z .A tion, 17 copies were distributed internally in Federal Coa+ nioa 00=44+ -oved For Release 2006/01/12: CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 i +y----------------------was-lluth----------- Authority -r------------------------- Via! Approved For Release 2006/01/1 CIA-RDP83-004421 D0100080002-9 Circulation, iiay 194 of the Daily Reports circulated among intelligence operatives and other U. S. Government personnel numbers (1ky, 1946 European Sootion-____-_____~__.......~,.QgS Far Eastern 8sotion-6 ---------------- "2" ioaan Section..- - -__-_~..__-140 partmeuts or Agenoissa Total (all three) 6390 r. L.A. T* 5* Total Mftw "UM" rtmexx' 'orw.--------- -wll`Y 121 39* f* 33* 91 64 93 e u es Pau Aaerioan, Arrioan Red Cross & UNEM. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/1.2IA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 AIALTS IS rviaes provided by the wires and the Daily Reports, the Malysir Division adds' tyro *there, First, the Division prepares periodic siss ies and Interpretations of broadcast material. Some such summaries are prepared once a week, others at 2-week intervals. Second the Division performs special services, it props-rem special reports, and answers special queries. one hand, the Daily Report and the wire service, working from day or minute to minute, quickly and accurately disseminate excerpts broadcasts, in as nearly verbatim form as possible. On the other a Division, working over longer periods, distributes susries and interpretations of broadcast sa-terial. tfany users in many war agencies carefully follow items from the Daily Report or the wire services. May users in the very same agencies, however, cannot read such detailed information, but must have information, nevertheless. The Analysis Division regularly issues six publications. The first these is the Meekly Review of Official Foreign Broadcasts. It has been published each wook since Deoember 6, 1941, the day before It contains significant items and highlights of trends from casts originating all over the world. Its content is organized into s which deal with the various military fronts, and with significant events affecting neutral, occupied, and enemy nations. The number of readers of this document can ,,be estimated with a moderate degree of accuracy by multiplying the number of copies circulated by the number of persons who read each copy. At the last check, in April, 1544, the readership was approximately as f oll+owss War Department, 225 persons; Navy, 60; State, 150; Office of Strategic Services, 105; Office of . Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/12 ?IA--RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 3001 Foreign Eeononeio ministration, 1061 .rtsmnt of Justice, 301 other United States Agencies and Allied over 400. ftn it first appeared, the Weekly Review was the only publication of the Analysis Division. Some time after its inception, it began to reach diminsions of 70 pages or more . In attempting to ceunicate Information of value to regional specialists, the Division was producing a document which was too long for reading by busy officials who wanted over-all point of view. To moot the needs of regional officials, a f regional reports wore originated, and the Weekly Review again rank back to a manageable sise. The first of these regional publications to be developed was the Radio Report an the Par East. This has been published every 2 weeks since 942. Its individual sections deal in some detail with Japan, China, Thailand, Indo-China, Burma, l6alaya, the Philippines, the Nether- lands East Indies, the South Sea Islands,, and India. Faoh geographical swotion contains an orderly and factual account of military, economic, political, and religious events and conditions in the area, as portrayed broadcasts. Individual names, for example, are given of appointees to even relatively minor positions in the Japanese and puppet governments. ow lass are desoribedj commodity prices are quotede the location and products of enemy war plants,, insofar as available, are given. For the avast part, this Radio Report is a careful and painstaking "#*ably of broadcast items. Some special analysis is included at points is can illuminate the material. For example, after the last Japanese Diet seesion, the report included a statistical study of the quostions which Diet representatives asked Cabinet officers as they appeared Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/223PLA-RDP83-004421 Q,00100080002-9 Diet. The study showed that the three leading topics were war ortation, industrial production for military use, and wartime pro- duction of food. The purpose of the study was to indicate which phase, of the Jaapsnsee war effort were most criticized. As it happened, some weeks later, the two Cabinet Ministers concerned with transportation and food o "resign" and the Minitions iiinistry, of which Tojo him- self is the head, was reorganized. The io Report on the Par East, like the other Analysis pabl iaa- ties,, is compiled on the basis of carefully maintained topical files. An item of no particular si nifibanee in itself, and thus not carried in the services, may be seen to be quite signifiosat when the analysts ious items on the subject, .end it and the previous terse may be presented in a short subsection in the Nadio Report on the An aocumulatien of items, broadcast over a long period of time, may add up to a story worth telling. The readership of the Far Fast Radio Report, estimated on the two basis as that of the Weekly Review, is approximately as followsa 05 personns,e NIvy, 2$ State, 321 Office of Strategic Services, U,) Office of war Informtion, ISO$ Foreign Economic Administration, 17 The Zqmtraj European Analysis has been published sash week since 1943. It concentrates especially on German propaganda policy and fasters bearing an German morale. In addition to radio material, it also laoludes some European press material made available by Owl. Its estimated ip Is} War Department, 52 persons; Navy, lOe State, lie OSS, SSj 4$p others 119. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/1,2 2fIQ-RDP83-OO442ROOO1OOO8OOO2-9 low The Western European Analysisj, covering Fran.., the Low Countries, Spain, and Portugal, has been published weekly sines 1!M-y 1248. It also as European press material. Its estimated readership ins war ut, 501 Navy, 15$ gtate, 16, 058, 56; OWI, 105, PEA, 80; others 1409 lysis has been published onus every 2 weeks covers the Soviet Union,: Poland, and the Baltic States. Its estimated readership Jos War Department, 381 Navy, 10, State Department, 14s 088, 421 0WI, 10; PEA, 31;1 others, 69+ sorviaos are r endured in a number of ways. First, the Analysis Division prepares and publishes special reports or topics of interest. Just as regional report circulation is specialized, so is the distribution of special reports limited to agencies who will be interested. Analysis Division functions as an organisation to do ssearah, with the limits of its resources, for any authorised perm or agency Who calls on it for such work. Some requests touch topics of efficient interest to be developed into special reports. Others must reparod, in such a way that they will not betray the source and character of confidential Inquiries. ply *Off the eruff* to many questions which otherwise would the Analysis Division answers miscellaneous queries. The q ir. hours or even days to answer. Sinus, April IM. the Analysis Division has published about 120 special Division. Many others-hwo originated as the result of requests of these reports have originated on the initiative of the a, nOies. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442ROO0100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/42gyCIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 1e epseiai report is a detailed treatment of a subject judged to be a substantial number of officials in other agenbies. Bo. svsnte are to important that they obviously require special treatment. an base of To> Was obviously such as evelit j e0 w s the Conference. Sometimes an agency or group of ageneiss will make kxuosn to "BIB an interest in.a topic which is sufficient to justify a special report on that topics rime factor in the usefulness of the work of the Analysis Division to the competence of the Division's personnel. At the inoeptton of FBig, there were few persons in the country who had had any experience p"Ifto field of broadcast analysis. Neverth9less, the first nucleus of the Division, amounting to half a dozen man and women, was composed of persons with speoifie experience in the field, or very oleo* to it. Two mars forsar staff members of the listening center of another was recruited from the staff of the radio-research project of 0 another had been a fellow of the social sciences$ a fifth, from the had performed research on the effects of spoken propaganda. and was a speoialist in the psychology of From this beginning, the Analysis Division grew into a group wtioh, STATINTL not including clerical staff, never numbered more than persons. Although the first emphasis was on psychology, later personnel of the Division represented several other fieldss government, history, economies, foreign languages, sociology. Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/14 + *IA-RDP83-00442P?00100080002-9 Probably the most important qualification of the analysts is their knowledge of foreign countries. All analysts are American citizens, and have studies or taught in American universities. Every geographical ietion of the Analysis Division contains one or more analysts who kn reports and studies of the Analysis Division are useful for three peoples and countries of their area at first hands principal reasons. First, they present much material in brief and ordered Second, the topics of reports and studies are selected according to the known interests of users. &at foreign broadcasting stations are gvvero ent-operated, and there- fore reflect official policies. Most of them show an inner consistency in their suoceasive reaetion.s to the changing course of events. Each develops a kind of propaganda personality, and no two - even among those dominated by Joseph Ocebbels and flans Fritsch* -- are quite alike. Judg- ment cannot be based on the mere radio statement itself, but =at depend an who said it, in what context, on which program and over what station* lysts acquire a useful experience from many months of study the broadcasts from given transmitters or groups of stations* characteristics ,... The analysts know that certain. stations are likely to be used to launch *trial balloons,* to provoke reactions and to plant rumors, while others are jealous of their reputations for probity. "Trial balloons" axe'sent into the air when enemy intelligenoe agencies suspect that Roosevelt and Churohill are meeting but have not discovered where they are meeting. Some alleged naval news items are only fishing ,expeditions. Gera radio propagandists *sank" the British aircraft earrier, Ark Royal, hoping to provoke a British denial and explanation of t was. Japanese radix-propagandists "sank* the American cruiser Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/1! : IALRDP83-00442000100080002-9 least thane times for much the same reason. Radio "trial are common when the enemy wants to sound out prospects for negotiations without actually making diplomatic approaches. Such false reports? while of some value, are perilous, since they may *sod and their source discredited. They are likely, therefore, to be disseminated by anonymous speakers or satellite stations. Berlin has developed regular outlets for this kind of maEt.ritl. This makes it important to compare the Torsion of a story given by the official radio with those versions put out by radios such as Oslo, Budapest, Lahti, or Madrid, which are under German influence, but can easily be W&Te length, beam, language, hour -- Analysts interpret each e. light of the wave length. language, beaus, and program hour* sharp contrast between became are not uncommon. Berlin's broad- oasts toward Russia called the absoow conference agreement a triumph by Anglo-Saxons over the outwitted Stalin; at the saw time,, from the same station, programs beamed westward called the same pact a shameful sell- out of Europe to Bolsheevism. Won the hour of broadcast may need to be taken into account. There r three news periods each day which are widely listened to by men. of the home population] other programs may be intended jr easpecial audienoesa farmers, woman, children, or troops overseas. Within any one program, on the saes station, been, and language, there be differences which invite analysis* One of the most interesting of appeared during the North African campaign. German news programs began with the High Command communique and continued with other news and added a commentarryy. An-analyst noted that while Rammel's tactical Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 Approved For Release 2006/01/12 :CIA-RDP83-00442000100080002-9 genius was a major theme in the comments, his name was rarely mentioned in the vomm nlques -- lose* in fact, than the names of other lessen generals. Further study supported the conclusion that Rommel was favored whenever e top military leaders. Analysis can be carried out, in the strict and full meaning of the word, without any resort to speculation or interpretation. Nevertheless. it is obvious that after the analyst has divided up and examined his ma- is, he is in a position to interpret their meaning. 60 the analyses to contain interpretations -? which always are clearly indicated as such, and which are not presented at the expense of facts which may enable the o draw a different conclusions Any interpretations made by FRIS 3ked against other evidence in the hands of user agencies* Foreign broadcasts can be interpreted from experience. If a trans- a studied carefully over a period of time, it can be learned how certain major types of situation -- a defeat situation, for ale. When transmitter behavior has been learned, it then becomes possible, on occasion. to read through the lines of broadcasts from that transmitter, and to perceive at least generally the situation the trens- sitter is attempting to conceal or exaggerate. mat is needed for this process of interpretation is first a sound knowledge of transmitter behavior, and second of the cultures of the countries involved as broadcasters or as recipients of broadcast material* N of heavy casualties is likely to depress the 0ermans, but is lose likely to depress the Japanese, who are thoroughly inculcated with the Idea of fighting to the last man, An admission of heavy casualties by the merman radio would mean erne things on the Japanese radio, it would mean Approved For Release 2006/01/12 : CIA-RDP83-00442R000100080002-9 teething else. 9 in those announcements oozing from Nazi party headquarters, but Approved For Release 2006/01 /, 2,"C 4-RDP83-00442R090100080002-9 Propaganda lines and patterns