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December 9, 2016
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December 21, 2000
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October 1, 1946
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*ARMY Declass/Release Instru File* Tim UMAIIII All II/V2IONALI ST UV1TNT. PRINESSI2 DISPIttlit (ticato) ENCLOSURE Approved For Relea.e.e 2001/09/03 : CIA-RDP83-00764R000 0 - 1. 4enera1 ,T1r,ckround ? ? Historical Dvc10 merit. . ? ? 11004 441?44.4444,440414,4 ? ir ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? * * ? a 4**, .7,?*- 1. The, lietrznnet (Skoropndski-Group) . . ? ,. . . . 2. Jehe Petlurians . . . . . . . ? or ? - ? - . - - a . .A.Pne Pe...Li...plane vs. ,the ',':estern (Gnlician) Ukral nin ',Ih GI on: 11 .,..? ts . . . ? . . ? . . . 6 b. Trio PeLlura-Polish'Allince . ... . . . . . a. The Potlurians and Prometho.ts . ? , ? t ? ? 0 8 , , t ? i N, _, 1, -4, it 10.,,,( .?1--m. .-_ ok it ? ? 6, 0 4 he ;t1uriris nnd the, Joni-inns? . . 11 "-N. 4. Itovolut 1._ .).L.rar.-: ,:o0., sts ,F,r., Uth->r_ 4ro 1 pings of Uhr?alnitnIJne,lists in Czechos os;akia . . . 12 5. 1.T.70 and OUN: Jho Act.ivists . . . . . . . ? . . 13 a? U00 4 . 0 ? 0 ? . ? . ? . ? ? 6 * . 4 ? 0 14 b. OM ? * * 0 6 ? 4 ' OOO ? * . *, ?. a r * * 14 6' . OUN ,'etivities in Poland (until ca. 1934) - 15 d. The rurder of .r.,o.iow.1.3.e c ; OUN unaer Cal8 le1p1k.? . 9 0 4 4 ? * ? ? a 4 o:* o 0 ? ? ? 16 e. OUN-3ornein Iipla4:,r,s sInce_1'.:39 ? . . ? . . 17 The Carpl-: tho-Ukr aini tin lc I air (1)3(..-39). 18 2. The 13Cndera-I:elnyk Split (ft1941); ,,:erman 7 t V Countermeasures. ? . 484 8 8. , 4 18 3. ..,.:ffects of the Split; U4rninian Resistance 20 (a) UNS . . ? . . ? . . . 0 8 . ? 21 (b) UNAKOR ..... . . . . . .. . . 22 (c) UPA . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4, 22 I% Renewed Colla:.oration since 1943-44 ? . ., ? 23 14 Ukrainian Nnloic.)nnl Corniittoe . , . . . 24 1?:!.? Ultra ini n.r. /la ti onal Co moil (ida ) ? ? IV 0 24 3:- t.'., : Ukrainian Supreme Council of Lii..ieration . . . . . . . . . ? . . . 25 I. Current Stntits ........... 4 8 ? 27 1. ,UPA-UM.H . ? 27 2. ABN (Anti-Bolahovist Bloc of NaLlent.3), sorno./toes referred to ns ABP (Anti-rolshevist Bloc of Peoples ? 4 a, ? 8 ? 0 10 a 4 **a a rit.oct?li t - 4 ease 2001/09/0 _ ..Z.T1CjkR -00764ROD0500400 ? , Approved For ase 2001/09/03 : CIA-RDP83-00784 0 0500040001-a 3, 01111 (Germsny) 4. Hetnanci-c,4co:ropadski Faction 3. trolD0 P'etlurians (Germany) . . OO ? Appendix A The U.4rntnirlp Church and Its delctIons, with e LI.E.;.rnarls; _VIstyslaw . . ? ... . , 2 . . ...... . 30 , (GaiMarrri 37. f ? . 1-9 Appendix B --German Af,encies Concerned with "Ustnolitikl; folicies; Cotrols of Ukrainian NflI,L'ontlists. . 1-4 . Appendix C Preliminary List of Personalities Connected with the Ukrainian Ntienalst 71ovement . kppcndix D Nalonallat Ukrainian Orsanizations in the U.S., Canada and Latin-America ? ? . 1-28 or Release 2001/09/0 : CIA-RDP83-007 64R000500040001-3 crFor ease 2001/09103 :..Q.1A-RDP83-0076 _ IUMAINZAN NATIONALIST MOVIMENT The following brief deals with several groups and organi- Sations which, although not homogenous, too;ether comprise what May be called the Ukrainian Nationalist Mcvement._Whether these groups operate in he homeland or in exile,in Europe and the 'Western homisPhera; whether they are of socialist, democratic, monarchist or fascist persuasion; whether they agree an methods, Policies and tactics, or whether they are engaged in internecine, 'factional struggles, they all stand for an independent Ukrainian State. Ath astonishing tenacity these groups have clung to their national .1.4ea1 for the past half century. All of them have survived the Seeond World War, and none of them have given: up either their hopes, machinations and intrigues, or their faction-_ alism, They are unified ohly through their concept of Ukrainian independence and in the face of their common enemies. _ . , 1. NERAL. BACXGROUN15 _ Geographically, the Ukraine is a loosely defined region Stretching northwesterly from the Spa of Azov along the Black Sea littorall_across the rich plains of Southern Russia, up to the present SoViet,Polish frontier, At present thegeographical tea:of the Ukraine is contained within the borders of the autp omOu$ Ukrainian SovietAopublic. It includes the Carpatho- kraine (until 1939 under Czechoslovakian control, then trane7', erred _to Hungary 5, the Bukovina and Bessarabia (formerly Rumanian territory), and Eastern Galicia and Volhynia (formerly Polish territories). Before 1939 the western part of the Ukraine belonged to Poland which had acquired this region from the Austro- Hungarian empire. This, previously Polish, territory is referred7,., to_as "Western Ukraine" (sometimes also as Melo olska--"Little Poland"), while the eastern regions which,orig na y elonged to !zarist Russia arc called "Eastern Ukraine". QUIturaZly, :the Eastern Ukraine, by virtue of its close OS with Czarist and Soviet Russia, belongs to the Russian orbit, lie the veaterritIkral.rie was exposed to PiAish and Austror ngarian influences. In the Laatern Ukonine? the Russian-Ortho-; x-Cburch Is Predominant, in the Western Ukraine the Uniate or rei* Catholic Church, National Consoieupnes$ is PaturallY _ trongeat'in the estern Ukraine, The Ukrainians, or, as they are often called, the Little Russi ns number about 40 million in Eastern Europe. They are Approved For Release 2001/09/03 : CIA-RDP83-00764R000500040001-3 Approve&For Releate 2001/0940. CIA-RDP83-0,01a4R000500040031- * ...0-11111.11-1111.11 closely relsted to the 'Great Russians, the: largest branch of the Bost Slav peoples. :Their mother. tongue is Ukrainian, a Slavic languace similar to Rupolan., The incidence ef,nationaliam in the Ukraine Is not sur- prising. Much of ao early formative history of Russia took place in the EatterniUkraine. Kiev, its capital, is the oldest city Of Russia, and laden-with tradition. The richness of the Intgainlin agricultural and mineral belts is a contributing factor to-natiohal pride. MOdern-Ukrainiannetiontlism as a political movement fox' 'Independence, however, developed rather. late-at the and of the 19th century. During the late seventies political and religious perSecution and economic oppression in the Eastern Ukraine under Czarist rule, and in thegestern Ukraine .under Polish and/or ' Austro-Hungarian rule, led to' the emigration of many Ukrainians from Russia proper, from areas d'Poliah-make-up, and from Rumania,, Consequently, about 100,900 (according to unofficial' estimates about 500?,000),UkreinitolS now'the Grated States, about 140,000 in Canada, and about 250,600 in Latin Afterice2 ? 219ese samewenditions of:oppreasion appear to have bred therSe nationalist 'organizations and groups whose aim it was to create a Unified and independent Ukraine and whose forces were set free when the Czarist Empire colle/Sse& At the outbreak of World -War I, the Ukraine and the CkreinianS were divided into two parts, the .astern 'Ukraine belonged to,RusSia, and,the/Wpstern Ukraine .(Eastern Galicia) belonged o the Austrian empire which was at war with Russia. HAccordingly, the ,nationalist movements in the-ESsOrn and the'Western.Ukraine pUrsifed'different courses.' maonIcAL DEVELOPMENT Summary'statemen6: The chief groupings of' Ukrainian separatiet nationalists, such as they prevail to a,certaln extent even' today, began to take shape during and after the lIrst World War, In the Eastern (Russian) Ukraine the um/lapin' RWOLUTIONARY SOCIALIS S and the UKRAINIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATS aligned themselves with the PETLURIANS, a militant group Of polonophile nationalists headed by PETLURA. The Revolutionary Socialists and Social Democrats', however, later broke away from Petlura and(sponsored the liberation of the "Greater Ukraine" (Eastern and Western Ukraine) within the frame- work of a democratic federalTh of Rues:ion etates'whereas Pete lure pursued only thp liboration;df.tho Easternijkraine, renouncing all claims to the .e?stern lands. Theap three factions became the 1111111111111PSP. MEP Approved For Release 2001/09/03 : CIA-RDP83-00764R0005000400913 _ ? Approved For For Release 2001/09 CIA-IR1MM11 .-IEM40001:&) oppositioft to the so-called "HETMANCI".(SKOROPADSKI-GROUF), a Germanophile faction of monarchist complexion, whose leader Hagetman) beefed biS claims on the existence of an independent Cossack state in the Eastern Ukraine 417t1? century). In the We t r (Austro-Hungarian, later Polish) Ukraine the nationalist-sePara st idea was sponsored by the UKRAINIAN NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY which advocated the unification of the Western endjestern Ukraine. This party came in conflict both with the Tetlurians and with the Polish government which suppressed it Out of the Ukrainian National Democratic Party grew, in the Western (Polish) Ukraine, the parliamentary opposition group UNDO (UKRAINIAN NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION). ? ? ? The radical anti-ifolish elements of the Western nationalists ? joined In the pro-German fascist organization, OUN (ORGANIZATION OF UKRAINIAN NATIONALISTS) which became the most active and most ? .1mportent.Ukrainian organization. ? Individual Groups: 1, Tan HETMANa (3KOR0PADSEI-GROUP) At the outbreak of World War I, .one faction of Ukrainian nationalists believed that Ukrelnian Independence could best be achieved under imperialist German-Austro,Hungarian auspices. This group is sYmbolized in the 'figura of a former Czarist officer., Paul SKOROPADBKI. -Originally, "sane of his followers wee organized in the UNION FOR THE LIBERATION OF THE UKRAINE, which was formed in 1914 in' Lye*, (P/astern Wreiftee then Austrian) by several ?Socialists and Monarchistelfrom the Eastern.Ukraineo The organization con- spired with the Germans and Austrians, and recruited Ukrainian ? prisoners pf wsr in German and Austrian prison camps. Thus were fOrmed one division of "Blue Shirts" and two divisions of "Grey Shirts" which ware used as a police force in the rear echelons of the invadielg are. The UNION also was used for CE activities and engaged in int -Russian prepaeanda activities. Its principal leaders were:. ? '*Dmitri DONTZOV . President fldtwir DORWHENKO Vice-president Andre JOUKAZUK) Vice-president -A182(611006 PEPROPI?eXOLTUSHOVSKI (VISBNEWSKI) MIkOlai,ZALIZNIAK KOROLIV lAirs on 20.ILE2iEVSKI ? VlediMir.LEDICKIJ. ? oFor biographical data throughput, see Appendix Co Approved ForRelea?e2001/09/03 : CIA-IiiiMISMSS040001-3 ' ? , Approved For Release 2001/09/V: CIA-RDPb3-0044R000900040001-Sof LILO A W. ?11.1 , ' - 'The URION'appears to have backed the MOAMAR MONARCBIST PARTY which in 1918, with German aid, helped Hotmen Paul SKOHO- PADS= to power. At that time the members of the UNION dispersed 'and some wont to Germany (Berlin), Austria (Vienna), and Czech?. slovakia (Prague), where they continued to engage in nationalist. separatist activities until and during World War It ' Wore OKOilOPADSEIto ascent to 'power, however, another tastion, mainly consisting of Ukrainian Revolutionary Socialists aid Social Democrata had entrenched itself in' the as tern Ukraine. 1 - At the beginning of the Russian Revolution in February 1917, there wee Kiev a provisional government (Rada), which wastee4e4 by Professor Michel HRUSRBVSKY(URHAINIAW.HEVOLUTIONARY SOCIALIST 'ARTY). Its -General Secretary Was Vladimir VINNICHDNKO,_ , and Symeon PBTLURAAUEHAINIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC PARTY) was in charge of,military affairs. The Hada Included -also several other members of the UKRAINIAN REVOLWANARY SOCIAIZST PARTY, as for instance SBVHYUR0. HOLUBOVICH, MAG. HOLUBOVICR later presided over 110 Rade. , . ? , The Rada, which proclaimed Ukrainian independence in January 1018 and made peace with the Central Powers at Brest.LitovSkAn, February, lasted only until April 191$. It was?diaSolVod by the ,Oermans to had resumed their drive into, the Eastern Ukraine. The German army installed Heitman Paul'SKOROPADSKI as 'the head of tfte,40W'government in Kiev. . . ?H''HPOOl.P4OROPAID4=!S regime lasted only about seven months., The erMlea of 0 counter-government, headed by the social Democrat SyMeen PETLURA, put Hetman SKOHOPADSBI,to Mighty and he and some of his followers went:to-GerMany where he and his son Daniel imp$ (Danilo) became, in the' period between the two, *are, the leaders of a MOvement whichWorkpd,for an independent Ukrainian monarchy 'ender the pKoApPAPPa dynasty., ? , j tie center of; the'exiled movement was located in Berlin, with 4etAAn Pep' SKOROPADal residing in Wanness, The .tole of N the Hetman!p cheneeller,ws taken by:SKOROPIS.YOLTUSHOVDEI, co. founder of the UNION OF RV, LID:..2ATION OF THT-7,?UKRAINE. Rodera'ab. ly strictli