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March 20, 1972
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'CIA INTER !'iL use.. ONLY 'Approved For~Relebao 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R00SW260023-9 f b` 2 0 MAR 1972 MEMORANDUM FOR: Deputy Director for Support Profile for the Support Officer of 1980 This paper is submitted in response to your STATINTL invitation to describe what a typical Support Officer might look like in 1980. As in any theoretical effort which is normative in scope certain basic assump- tions are required; therefore, this paper makes the following assumptions: A. the Support Directorate, which generally functions as a reactive organization, should strive to become more proactive in its relationships with the other Directorates and Independent Offices; B. it is a desirable goal for the management of the Support Directorate to achieve full parity with the managements of the other Directorates and Independent Offices in terms of participation in Agency goal setting and decision-making; C. the Deputy Director for Support (DD/S) recognizes that the performance of the Directorate is to a large extent a function of the prevailing attitudes of its officers and their perceptions of the Directorate's value system. ILLEGIB 2. As implied by the above assumptions, the Support Directorate has been indirectly controlled by the other Directorates and Independent offices because it has tra- ditionally taken its behavioral cues from these other decision-makers and their respective value systems. if the Deputy Director for Support subscribes to the postulated goal of changing the Support Directorate to a proactive organization which functions as a coequal participant in Agency goal setting and decision-making, three dimensions of the Support Officer must be recognized: (1) the Support Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 ' Approved For Rele 2003/ 8 tltTAI 3U $2?K( 0 0260023-9 Officer as a self-conscious and knowing actor within the Agency's environment; (2) his understanding, acceptance and commitment to the Directorate's goals, objectives and value system; and (3) his feeling of full acceptance by others to participate in Agency goal setting and decision-making. While the problem can be analysed on an individual level, it is obvious that the proactivity of one officer will not transform the Directorate. A transformation of this magnitude will require the concerted effort of all Support Officers, each of whom must activate his respective organization. Collectively, this new proactive attitude and behavior pattern will have an impact on both the Directorate and the Agency. 3. Given an acceptance of the three major dimensions of molding a proactive organization, the central element would seem to be the individual actor. In the case of the Support Directorate, the individual actor is the Support Officer.l Consequently, this paper, while recognizing the importance of the other two dimensions, will concentrate on the modest objective of describing a profile for the Support Officer in 1980. In general, three basic skills would seem to be required of any Support Officer in the performance of his job; that is, each officer must possess a certain ad- mixture of technical, human and conceptual skills. These skills are defined as follows: ILLEGIB Technical skill--a knowledge or expertise in a gig ven-discipline and the facility to apply the methodology of that discipline, e.g., technical skill is acquired and practiced within each functional office of the Directorate and by the "S" careerists whose expertise is a general knowledge of the support: process; Human skill--a facility for developing good interpersonal relationships and working effect- ively as a leader or member of a group; Conceptual skill--the intellectual ability to perceive one's organization and its goals as part of a larger and more complex institutional setting and to act accordingly. As a general observation, we can say that the relative import- ance of the mix of these three skills to an organization is a 1Support Officer is defined generically as any officer xecuting a support function and under the command jurisdiction If f the DD/S. Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 Approved For Releacaw 263f08/~$ GiA 938693 200 0260023-9 function of one's place in the organization hierarchy. For example, technical skill should have its greatest importance at the lower levels while conceptual skill becomes critical at the highest levels of management responsibility. By extension we can hypothesize that while technical skill becomes relatively less important as one progresses in responsibility, the importance of conceptual skill increases exponentially and becomes critical at the most senior level of a given organization. Unfortunately, most organizations are not overstaffed with people who can function equally well on all three skill levels, and the Support Directorate cannot be touted as an exception to the rule. For example, the Support Officer who demonstrates exceptional technical skill is not necessarily capable of demonstrating a comparable level of conceptual skill. If the ability to conceptualize a problem, define alternatives and select an optimum course of action is not a common skill among all men, how can we begin to identify and develop this skill in our officers. It is the position of this paper that the development of conceptual skill is a function of experience and formal education, and neither on-the--job experience nor academic achievement alone can commonly result in the conceptual skill required at the more senior levels of management. 4. Whereas the development of a closed and rigid system would be dysfunctional to the Directorate in the long run, it is imperative that we begin to identify the general mix of experience and education that should be expected of Support Officers in 1980.2 While Support. Officers may eventually share common attributes and commitments to the Directorate's goals, objectives and value system, there should also be distinct and observable differences in the performance require- ments and credentials for officers at each level in the organization. This paper is not asserting that the profiles illustrated below are necessarily complete; it is, however, suggesting that certain combinations of experience and education should be basic to a given level of achievement within the Directorate. Three achievement, levels or groups have been selected to illustrate basic profiles: A. Junior Level (GS-07 to GS-11). Professionals entering a`E-tfie junior level (direct hires or career trainees) should be college graduates who have 2 See Tab A which suggests that by 1980 more CIA officers in general will have participated in post graduate study, and more Support officers in particular will have completed post graduate work in their chosen field. Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-MDP83B00823R000600260023-9 d., li tl _ 7f Approved For Rele2003 18' .9=83(0>i1d00260023-9 articulated an interest in an administrative career. While it may be desirable to recruit a certain percentage of junior officers who have completed post graduate programs in specialized fields where they will be working, e.g., engineering, personnel administration or accounting, post graduate work is not seen as an essential element for entry into the junior levels of the Support Directorate. In terms of past work experience some junior officers will enter from the college campus, some from military service and others from work experience in both the public and private sector. What is important for the junior professional is that he understand that he is expected to develop a proficiency in certain technical and human skills (see above) and improve his knowledge of both his chosen speciality and the field of public administra- tion.3 For the purpose of this paper, it is not relevant to attempt an identification of a desirable mix of line and staff experience .4 What is important is that the junior officer acquire and develop basic technical and human skills, understand the Directorate's goals, objectives and value system and demonstrate an interest in improving his professional knowledge. B. Middle Level (GS-12 to GS-15). While there are obvious gradations between expected performance levels, personal attributes, exper- ience and education required for professionals in the middle level of their work life, there are still basic requirements we can identify for these Support Officers. For example, it does not seem unreasonable to expect these officers as a group to have demonstrated an ability to conceptualize problems, develop viable alter- natives, choose and implement a rational course of action. They must also possess the ability 3 This requirement recognizes public administration as a professional discipline and not as a "second career," and prescribes that any specialist, e.g., engineer, psychologist, computer specialist, lawyer, etc. who has managerial aspirations seek formal training in public administration to enhance his chance for success and ultimate value to the organization. 4For an interesting evaluation the relevance of line and staff experience, see Tab B, an abstract of Phillip Kelley's article Reappraisals s of Appraisals," Harvard. 'Business May.-June 1958, p. 13 Review, Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIADP831300823R000600260023-9 Approved For Remorse 20d (0ili$" 4:kDW B 8 3R 600260023-9 to apply both technical and human skills when such knowledge is required. Moreover, it does not seem unreasonable to expect officers at this middle level to display initiative, creativity and knowledge of the field of public administration. Since knowledge is a perish-able commodity, it is important that these officers demonstrate a pro- fessional's interest in keeping abreast of the latest developments in public administration and related fields.5 For example, participation in professional organizations, attendance at pro- fessional conferences and Civil Service seminars and post-graduate study would all be acceptable indicators of professional. interest. In short, middle level officers who aspire to management positions must not only perform well in their assigned jobs, but should also demonstrate that they have executive potential and a professional's interest in keeping abreast: of the latest research and developments in the general field of public administration.6 C. Senior Level (GS-16) to EPS). A senior level officer should be a public administrator par excellence. He should be an executive who possesses full mastery of his area of responsibility, a generalist's appreciation of the Directorate and Agency's culture and their respective con- stituencies, and an ability to apply the knowledge and experience gained over time to the challenge of leading others and managing activities to a successful conclusion. In terms of executive style, he should be self--actualizing, proactive and capable of applying 5 Related fields could be defined as information science, public financial and personnel administration, organization behavior, management science, public policy, and public law. 6A few professional associations that would seem relevant to the Support Directorate are: American Society for Public Administration, American Association of Information Sciences, American Society for Training and Development. Society for Personnel Administration, American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Association of Federal Investigators, Federal Accountant's Association, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Approved For Release 2003/08/18 CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 Approved For Rele 200~$/'~8% C1i~IP8083`00260023-9 both his knowledge of the organization and his profession to problems. He must, therefore, be openminded enough to alter his choices as he receives fresh information from the environment around him and objective enough to redefine problems, identify new alternatives and convert decisions into rational actions. Most importantly, the senior executive must be futuristic in orientation; that is, he should be able to anticipate problems before they are manifested and apply his sense of creativity in ascertaining possible solutions. The senior officer of 1980 will also be required to have an appreciation of the problems inherent in the managing of organization change; consequently, he will need a professional's respect for new ideas, techniques and methodologies and a willingness to try new and often bold approaches that may not always guarantee success. In terms of personal attributes, he should display a professional's acumen of the fundamental distinction between the concept of leadership (the ability to motivate superordinates, peers and subordinates) and the concept of management (the planning, and control of programs or activites). As for professional credentials, it does not seem unreasonable to expect him to hold a graduate degree in public administration or related field, be involved in a program of continuing education and in professional associations.? In short, the senior, level executive should be the personification of a true generalist. 5. Having identified the magnitude of the problem of moving the Support Directorate to a more cohesive and pro- active posture, the admixture of professional skills required at various levels of work within the Directorate and general profiles for Support Officers of the future., one might ask what has to be done now to transform the Support Directorate into a successfully proactive and equal member of the Agency management team. How does one achieve a new order without completely destroying the confidences of colleagues earned over the years. I-low does one change prevailing attitudes 7 One's active participation in professional associations would, of course, be a function of his cover situation; however, at.the senior level, cover is nct usually a major constraint. 6 Approved For Release 2003/08/18: CIA-RDP83B0.0823R000600260023-9 Approved For Rele 2003/0 8: @A 6I ~-Bb$23W 260023-9 within an organization without reverting to edict and the ramifications of arbitrary action. Part of the answer lies in understanding what organizational leadership is and part in conveying this concept to others on the manage- ment team. Leadership is a function of three rather complex variables: the individual, the group of followers and the organizational environment. To overcome the current reactive nature of the Support Directorate, a new style of leader- ship must be exhibited--a leadership style that communicates a clear sense of direction and a consuming sense of urgency. While the development of dynamic leadership is the respon- sibility of all officers in managerial positions, the catalyst must be the Deputy Director for Support (DD/S). He must think and act not just as a manager in the traditional sense of that term but as a strategist and an architect of change. This posture means that the DD/S must seize the initiative in identifying problem areas and encourage new and innovative solutions; it means supporting people who articulate new approaches or who take issue with the status quo; it means rewarding those who are willing to tackle major policy issues or established procedures; and,. finally, it means convincing talented young professionals that the future of the Directorate depends to a large extent on their willingness to think creatively and to act professionally in helping more exper- ienced officers shape the organization's future. . 6. To recapitulate, neither academic achievement nor work experience alone can ensure that an individual officer will be equipped to handle the future problems of the Support Directorate; namely, the management of change, the leading of people and the developing and managing of a flexible organization which is capable of meeting internal and external pressures for change. Too frequently, the experience factor has received a disproportionate emphasis in the Support Directorate. Too many Support Officers have spent too much time analyzing past actions in search of clues on how to respond to -today's problems. The Support Officers of 1980 cannot afford to remain service technicians; they must have the trained public administrator's ability to meld past experiences with a healthy skepticism toward existing policies and practices. Experience will always be a valuable guide, but the status quo deserves no special reverence. 7. In conclusion, it is the position of the writers of this paper that the Central Intelligence Agency of 1980 will require leaders who are futuristic in orientation and possess the ability to understand, stimulate and manage change. As part of the Agency's management: team, the Support Officer of the future must be a professionally educated and experienced Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 Approved For Rele 20t3'/b8`/h'8? CIA'-RD 8 B 8fi3 009 0260023-9 public administrator; he must be receptive to new ideas and methods; and he must have earned the professional respect of other Agency colleagues. STATINTL Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-R6P83B00823R000600260023-9 Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 TABA - EDUCATION OF SEN I OR CI I E S :RVi CE ENIPLO EES BY GRADE, AGE AND DEGREE ( as of 1971 A LESS THAN BACHELOR DEGREE BACHELOR BUT NOT A MASTERS MASTERS AND PH. D GS 15 AND GS 15 AND EQUIVALENTS EQUIVALENTS UNDER 50 50 AND OLDER GS 16-18 AND EQUIVALENTS UNDER 50 GS 16-18 AND EQUIVALENTS 50 AND OLDER A. EXECUTIVE MANPOWER fN THE FEDERAL G' S hVlCE BUREAU OF EXECUTIVE MANPOWER, U. S. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION {7572). B. AWFprTdVed6fbrRRld& 2O0 1O848) T-CIARDP83d3QQ$ ROOD Q.2$QWgz%IVALEN T C. OF THIS 54%, 31% HOLD MASTERS DEGREES AND 23% HOLD THE PH. 0 OR EQU!VALENT . Approved For Relea' e'2003,/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000 260023;9:il,t,r iisal of ,i,t,r;,;s;,ty 1.1 cultics ill making salary decisions and appraisal, particularly in those positions where quality or Creativity may be the 1)('rfor1nance index rather than quantitative factors. As costs rise and profit margins shrink, such positions draw the quickest attention for mana- gerial cost control. Part of this can undoubtedly be attributed to what Peter Drucker calls the "obsolete vocabulary of business." Drucker feels that terms such as "overhead," "productive hi- bor," and "nonproductive labor" arc semant.i- ca11y misleading. As he points out, the produc- tivity differential between Western Europe and the United States is not a matter of capital in- vestment but of analyzing, planning, re-examin- ing, and innovating." And it is true that the greatest contribution, to profitability may stern from those areas labeled "overhead." I am not sure, however, that this fact is gen- erally understood. For the concept of dcterm:in- ing contributions to profitability in terms of the immediately pleasurable "productive activity" is the warp and woof of the American tradition, Part of this concept stems from early time-and- Illotion study concepts of prod uctivit.y, Cost ac- countability, and measurement which still per- meate much management thinking. Another part of the concept undoubtedly do's f;o back to traditional ideas about line and staff ---- with the line seen as the "productive" phase of all organization, and the staff seen as "ovverhead." 'These ideas cattle from an era when the chief need was to "turn out the goods" to fill the ex- panding needs of both United States and world economics; the line job of "turning out the goods was the in,tjor and overriding interest, and staff work :vas seen as merely a supporting activity of the line. But in today's fast-tightening Competitive pic.- ture, tvc may tied the traditional roles reversed, with line din activitiC in solppoorrt of yf too it w'-11- ctim, (port heavi , ccntrrcd arotim trtJ1 4~~ti j(d` I or (lie real VI gills oL)iou t d ility'_tl~c'sc-r. -. slie in ~t7~ail;is c mcilt's abi~itr to lm1 ze and~7l ur to ,tt in a sensitivity to Ch ul"calld to dcvc ob) 17 i fity to res'j ii1 cft)icl;ly to new conditions. lcin s ;:ucnas tic tyc hccrnlic illCanlr, 'Iris n tcr tilt- . el,tt io51:11 concept for r v er ' ,tc tie ity is concerned with orwhicirtt' notimmn t,rolit,~bi ',. vat inn and sttoncnlcnt through physical work. Mamlgentent analysts link this to sonic of our national built-in predilections for seeuririJ; to "keep busy," and I Suspect that these prcdilcc- tions may unconsciously influence our starulards of managerial 1x'havior and pcrformance. TO what extent is our appraisal philosophy auto- matically loaded in favor of the obviously "busy" executive - and action for action's sake? Let us consider a few examples: QI here is Executive X, amiable head of a sizable department. His phone is constantly bits)'. lie dashes from meeting to meeting, carries home heavy loads of work, takes a certain delight in overtime work, and never takes vacations. Those of his staff who have not moved out may be withering on the vine for lack of a chance to show what they can do. A real one-man band, his clcrnise will find a weak organization, ill-prepared to carry on now that the kingpin has gone. Actually, Mr. X might cease to be so busy if lie were willing to delegate, to organize better, to be a manager rather than a doer. In fact, to be brutally blunt, if he would take the time to sit down and meditate, he might discover that go ,7(, of his ac- tivity Could be saved by the clarification and issu- ance of a few policy decisions. Cl On (lie other hand, consider Mr. Y -- quite the opposite of Mr. X. Ile never seems harassed. Ile spends a good deal of time on plannin;; and on staff wore.. Ile gives out both responsibility and recognition freely, worries more about his people than himself. Constantly at work at the incon- spicuous job of developing others, lie has fostered a flow of people to key posts in the conipan\. And if lie were to vanish tomorrow, his departmc nt would continue to function smoothly and well. To what extent. does our management tra- dition of "obvious busyness" lead us to rate rsEr. X's performance and contribution over dlr. Y's? Should lnanagcrnent reappraise not only. its appraisal methods hut also its basic ideas of what constitutes real and meritorious perform- ance? For, in truth, the "good" manager. Ilk, it topnotch performer in any field, "makes it leink easy." 'l'hc better lie does his work as ;t le;tdcr- nullialger, the less "noise" lie males avid [lie less other well will appreciate his accowplishmetlt. Ile will not continually seek to grab power or credit, but to give it, so that lie will attract less s- Ile should be a teacher and coach, able to make clear to his subordinates the relationships between what they are doing and other events and techniques around them. 5. He naz4-st be crsatiue. Creativity means the `viliinl; ss to experiment withh the nove 1 and be open to the untried. Its characteristics are the ability to suspend judgment and toy with the absurd, to see beyond technological limitations to possibilities of bringing together discrete elements or people into new relationships and projecting likely results. 6. He _ wz!+ sB_ 2uc to b, a rn ar er,_ His desire to manage must arise from his recognition that it is file kind of work that most suits his abilities and inclinations. Yearnings for power, prestige or promotion should not be dominant motives- Selecting and Train-in, Manager's From the foregoing it should be clear that most of the qualities sought in a manager can be sharpened, shaped, and enhanced through training, but training will not instill or create tlz rri. S lection, then, is a key to success. Tests have been developed for all the qualities listed as requisite for the manager. Some of these tests are still primitive, but they are at least reliable enough to be used as indicators. 1~fhere the tests are markedly imperfect, as, for S Approved For Release 2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000600260023-9 25X1 SLCRiv Approved For Releae%2003/08/18 : CIA-RDP83B00823R000260023-9 example, are indices for creativity, NS,. research psychologists can work toward improving them, in consultation with outsiders from academic and business circles. Work of this sort takes time and money, but the results should for outweigh the costs. Aside from testing, observing people on the job can be useful for the 'identification of traits needed in management. The major problem here is training supervisors to be on the lookout for personnel with these traits. A clear definition of what the traits are and possibly training on how to recognize them might be helpful. A revision of performance appraisals or the use of personnel evaluation forms tailored to elicit remarks on management potential are other possible devices. Recruitin. g college graduates who manifest the defined attributes is yet another possibility. Young men and women trained in such fields as psychology, business administration, management science (or its equivalent by other names) and public administration are likely candidates for Agency management training. These and other systems of selection should be used in concert to assure that young people selected for management training do in fact possess management potential and that all likely candidates are considered. Because of their individual weaknesses, any one of these systems of selection may, on occasion, disqualify the qualified and admit the unqualified. In keeping with the definition of a manager posited earlier, the training of a potential mat ger must stress disciplines most likely to (a) strengthen the ability to work through l eople, and (b) enhance the aptitude to make sound decisions. Toward the first of these goals, a potential manager should be rti:Cll.uired to develop ruome col ;pete nce in as penny of the following fields as possible: psychology, sociology, communication (written and oral), behavioral science, organizational theory, and managemartt science (or administration). The last three are admittedly hybrid studies that have not attained the status of classic academic disciplines. But their usefulness for training managers is patent. Toward the second goal-sound decision- mzl:ing- training should stress mathematics, philosophy, systems analysis or operations research, general semantics, linguistics, computer technology, statistics, economics, vaiirsus kinds of engineering, and such new devices as I) ::.I'HI and decision tables- The point of these studies is to reinforce the ability to use vi,.riOus kinds of logic for comparing options and building alternative mixes. Both '_; can be aided by new techniques designed to increase awareness of the self and its relationship to its environment. When used properly, these techniques can hone perception and promote awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses--including those which can be improved. Schooling in still-experimental fields--such as r,. 1 Utrtrl sin, c l l.atl'V ply, aL.ll al.lileverileAll-' ; 1..? ...,,-t2 investigating as an aid to expanding the ability to project and relate. The Manage lent Ca 'eer Panel The precariousness of projecting ideas from a definition which is in itself open to dispute will no doubt have struck the reader. I do not maintain that there is an empirical basis for these ideas; they represent no more than a rudimentary attempt to build the theoretical framework on which to hang a management professionalization program. How, then, might we go about producing a flesh-and- blood management program for NSA? One step would be to establish a panel for managem nt made up of exceptionally well-qualified proffessionals representing, a Wide ran f Bil1l,nth. c .7 R LLILJ+S ft L? 1L,,....tion r_ ,. RJUA ~, (JO 1VAAU Ytci i_.. 5.-51.._-.i. 'range of ti yr VUl l assure a good mix: (a) senior Agency managers, ideally Group chiefs or higher; (b) management experts from the Personnel Organization and the National Cryptologic School; (c) outstanding young managers from the branch or division level; and (d) qualified experts from outside NSA----from universities, consulting firms and businesses. The group assembled from these sources would he given the charter of (a) defining NSA management and the attributes required; (b) identifying criteria for professionalization in management; (c) establishiri,, selection criteria for management interns; arty (d) defining training both for forum managers and for those sere'i ig as n-i_~r~arin:c Were the panel to proceed along, the line of the theories VL1t2131CCE above, It fvCi.iclC+ liri`-UCD1 xy i... ,.`l~ .. r nis`^z: -o t e intern programs to those who (:+.) were recommended by their supervisors, (b) had already spent scene time at NSA (perhaps three or more and (c) could qualify through a battery of tests. The intern program would stress training in the fields mentioned . above and s=.-or>. assignments focussed on problem-solving, of both a technical and human variety, in a real-world environment. Training; would probably require attendance at schools outside NSA, including after-hours study. Proficiency in various technical fields, gained in tours and by extensive course work, might be tested by a requirement for written studies on problems in six cified fields such as mathemat- ics, linguistics, traffic analysis, or signals analysis; each *An alten:raiv: is the sc Icrt;on of th