Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 19, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 18, 2006
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
April 10, 1963
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP84-00780R000200010039-9.pdf616.69 KB
7 3/ Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 IT 10 April 1963 RAM" FOR: Deputy Director, Support SUEJECT : Selection and Acquisition of IBM 7090 Computer This paper is in three parts ; Part I - Reasons for Selecting the IBM 7090 Computer Part II - CIA Tasks for the IBM 7090 Computer Part III - Imidiate Steps to Procure and Install an IBM 7090 by July 1963 Part I - Reasons for Selecting the IBM 7490 Computer for CIA's Scientific Cc utir Requirements r I. Many of the Agency's scientific computing applications may be characterized as follows : large-scale tight real-time constraints short deadlines relate to external computing activities involve advanced levels of decision theory. / ORI/CDF Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18 '% Ipffq 84-00780R000200010039-9 The most i diete of the Agency's scientific computing support needs are those of the DD/R. The DD/R has requested an initial operational capability of August 1963. To achieve a scientific computing production capability within the next few months, it is necessary to choose an appropriately configured computer with large proven reliability, a computer already pro- gramed by a large number of scientists/mathematicians, and, most important of all, a computer having extensive software in the fields most significant to the Agency. The IBM 7090 meets these specifications in far fuller measure than any other machine on the market. II. Hardware Considerations A. Mininnu` specifications (with some possible trade-offs) should he as follows : 1. Arithmetic rather than character type. Minimum add time of 10 microseconds. 3. Minimum. of 25k word memory. (Leas memory throws many matrix programs onto auxiliary storage, thus blowing process time.) (Most of the externally-generated source data which CIA will use in its various scientific computing applications will have been generated on 36-bit word ms.- chines, If CIA processes these data on other than 36-bit word equipment, dis- crepancies will occur between CIA results and the results obtained on the original 36-bit word equipment.) Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18 : - 84-0078OR000200010039-9 -3- Indirect addressing (real-time consideration). 5. Floating point. 6. Tape transmission speed of at least 50,000 characters per second. (Real-time considerations might raise this to 100-300 numerics per second.) Several large-scale computers (not to count such ver r large-scale machines as STRETCH, LARC, and CDC-6600) meet the above specifications; e.g., Burroughs-B5000, CDC-1604, M H-1800, IPM-W44, PIIILCO-2000, UNIVAC-1107, CDC-3600 and IBM 7090/94 Reliability The basic engineering of 1962-63 models of the above computern probably is top level. However, in an operational environment the reliability of a computer system will also be determined by (1) the compatibility of the central pro- eesser with its on-line peripheral gear, (2) the extent to which the reliability of all component parts has been proven through extensive and varied usage, and (3) experience and competence of the maintenance engineers. (1) The IBM 7090 system contains only IBM peripheral equipment. Thus, maxi compatibility is assured. (2) The IBM 7090 alone s does about 60% of all scienti- fic computing in the world and consequently is by far the most thrroughly checked out scientific computer available. Vt-J 'c-.a J.Y' Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/1 MDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 t"t -4- (3) (This is a particularly important consideration when an early operational capability is required. other less seasoned computers, although having features perhaps indicative of the next computer generation--such as, the Burroughs B5000 with its list,, stack, and Polish notation features--art not acceptable an initial computers in a "crash" environment. Such machines should be analyzed carefully for possible subsequent incorporation, however., into an operating center.) As for maintenance, there are more experienced main- tenance engineers for the IBM 7090 than for any other seachine. Also, the earlier workhorse for scienti- fic computing, the IBM 704, is basically an IPM 7090 prototype. Thus, not only do more trained engi- neers exist, but the average scientific computer experience level per IBM 7090 engineer is greater. C. Special Hardware Considerations for CIA The IBM 7090 is an excellent data processor and is an ideal complement to the IBM 1410 which is now servic- Ing may CIA. computing requirements. The IBM - 090 can run IBM 1410 programs through an available simulator W35!ROTJT B FR?GRAN , and can share the SAME 01301 disc file. (Solving of real-time problems within predicted future con- straints may well depend on such sharing to provide manipu- lation of pre-computed tables.) T Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/1 IL~PP84-0078OR000200010039-9 21 Software C2ns i.derattone Software may be divided into four categories : (A) Systems Program, (B) Manufacturer's Library, (c) Users' Libraries, and (D) Customer's Library. As for systems program, the IBM 7090 has the most sophie- ticated and thoroughly debugged programs of any large computer in the world. In the other three software categories, ISM 70g0- type programs comprise about of all available scientific software in the free world. Yeray hundreds of man-years of pro- gramming effort are available to the Agency if an IBM 7090 is acquired, And the machine costs for debugging and testing these programs can be considered equivalent to the labor coats. Thus, the IBM 7090 gives the Agency free access to millions of dollars of s oftware . --In short, the software resources of the IBM 7090 are so great relative to comparable emehines as to overwhelm any and all other considerations, given the nature of the Agency's needs, present and anticipated. Most scientific programming in the U. S. is done in some version of FORTRAN (sometii ss intermixed with symbolic mchine code) which is the most used algebraic compiler language for the IBM 7090. Most unbiased students of machine scientific com- piler languages consider FORTRAN somewhat inferior to AIZOL or AILQL-type languages such as MELIAC, JOVIAL, MAD, etc. Academic circles commonly use ALL#OL as the standard form of algebraic expression and communication. Yet when they actually run their SECRET Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18 : 84-00780R000200010039-9 e.~ .m Problem on the machine, they use MMRM. Thus, do facto, MM!W as used on the IBM 7090 =a be accepted as the scienti- fic n-machine language standard, at least for the immediate and intermediate future. A. 8ysteg Fr2paps To reiterate, the IBM 7090 System Program posture is without con,are. These program are too numerous to list. One excels ; the IBSYS Executive Processor monitors debug- ging and production and l supplies all utility programs J RTPAA IV, COBOL,, and 9PAC (Report Generator which sorts before generating) are included in the IBSYS package. B. Msfuctuxeer es Library The 8IM library contains approxin*tely 1200 program (tr*inly scientific) which will run on an IBM 7090. Most of these require modification to run on other machines. C. Other 43 s 'Libraries 1. NSA has the largest library of stream processing pro- gr in the U. S., most of which are for the IBM 7090. Subroutines and techniques from this library are avail- ablee and will be used in the Agency. Also, NSA has automatic ELM processing program for the 7090 which can be used in support of OEL, M /R. use to I. CIA also has extensive intelligence files SA has 7090 trajectory analysis programs of possible h are created, maintained, and retrioved by Togo SECRET Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18,84-00780R000200010039-9 NASA, STL, NORAD, and SAC have 7090 programs of present use or possible future use to 081 and to other Agency components. eas s ing , The 7090 version has had extens ijre use. (used on IBM 70 /709/70 0) which is used for string processing and symbol manipulation. probably the most powerful existing compiler for re- search in machine translation of natural lanes (of interest toll 6. 7. Naval Electronics Tab (DEL) has written LIAC, which is a self-compiler and fast. This language and its trans- lator, accepted only in limited circles, has had two years of shakedown on the 7090. NMTAC, while no great improvement over older lam set, incorporates some advanced features and will probably be used more exten- sively in research environments in the near future. Pew if any, machines other than the IBM 7090 can be consid- Bred to have seasoned production reliability in this language. Approved For Release 2006/07/18: M 4-00780R000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18V-'-.q' P84-0078OR000200010039-9 W (Air Yorce Weather Central, Omha) has a vast collection of DM 7090 prpgrww which concern orbital, trajectory, and geographic-space analysis. Some of these program will produce answers for the Agency and In =L y cases, modifications or extractions will give adequate Initial answers. has programs similar to WW n (plus extensive tracking programs) which feed data auto aticaa.l ly into an IBM 7090. Since =at of these programs were written under U. S. Government contract, they are presumed avail- able to the Agency. D. Customer's Libr CIA 1. OSI/i /I - External contractors are using 709/7090 pro- gram in support of 05I' 5 scientific interests. Pro- gram written in Project for 08I have been written for the 1410 and the 709/7090 (all of which can be run on the 7090 without change). 2. Col /DD/B - A,DPS has Just completed. 74 hours of pro- duetion runs on a 7090 at NSA for CQMI"d3's radio propa- gation J ob . This tank will require henceforth two hours of 7090 time weekly. The 7090 Program for this applica- tion are on hand, of course. Other identified CONM Problem not yet progrua d will borrt r heavily from the 7090 subroutine library at XBA. Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-R?P84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/18 : FTIET 84-0078OR000200010039-9 DD/P ? The programs for a special DD/P application are nay being written in FO1 RAN-II...which is compatible with the IBM 7090. 4. DD/R - All programs existing outside the Agency but being studied now for the DD/R applications can be run he IBM 7090. (They have been written in either F=RAM or 7090 vachine code.) All DD/R Prograims con- 25X1 vented b to the IBM 1410 are written in Ft?R1'RAN an will also run on the IBM 7090. Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/(Y` kCA-RDP84-00780R000200010039-9 r +y - aft for the tear ects have been identified to te: Operutieanal support to M. (Seespecial ObSOUe18 *eaeo an Zr t the /R to the M/0.9 dtd 4 AVril 1963, aitiug critical Heed for 7090 support to this ftvmt. (2) Xcperi station with gem l-purpose conputer proces- ?i of data for r using pw*4pmm developed at W. principal require :t vithin the /I for 709o support. was to set up in-rouse Ceamputing capabilities to back on produr-tim-type a puting now being done under cu is and (b) provide more ima3ediate and flexible wqn=rt to 001 atia3,ysts. The W or areas of /r interest are a There are four 7090-type areas of interest presently identified in t /s Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/07/,18 RDP84-00780R000200010039-9 11 - (1) i'redicti.vns of Useful Radio Frequencies (0000) ftdia PMWtim Graphs and Charts $up orted) suitable l gtenoies (c) (3) Cryptographic bipport (cm4W) ring support to COW Isboratary IV. w 3ftvjeat Il i.e being programed to er external contract in IAW%OMPM ., ern #[ 7090. . Although a eau scientific ill be used during the laboratory devel nt of Project er teQU414tea and proeed a have been, net. Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 2006/071, ~._ S6~RDP84-007808000200010039-9 rte st to rcure !Ed PWtaU 25X1 ? Almeni 44d Ant =" ixat ioa Agency nt must approve priority acquisition of an iJ 7090 and authorize AID to place a priority order with the Corporation now. Order A Must determine suitable bad coufiguratjc. and place a fob order with Ii[ for priority delivery in July 1963. 2 he James pres tative has indicated that the Corporation *M deliver a TM to CIA in July 1963 order is placed xi ME, by .30 ^ itriii9l. ovex'ationally Interdependent /ally excepted) A suitable site in the headquarters Building for the cputer Owter must be designated. This house the 7090, the l0/1 01, and tae i ec a ers. These machines Computer rcxu Tape Library lies 5,750 sq. ft. 700 400 t ations ersonne2, 600 Key Punch FJon 1,2DO 131 Service &igineers Room ICA ___ _ 9,000 sq. ft. The present Computer center (11lO/l401) nov occupies Eoams X418, 18A, and =D4 30A.. totaling 2700 square feet. The site for the meter Center must be designated by W& so that site prep rat n (false floors, power, air duiing can be aopleted in Jay 1963. Peel B use the A I f can draw on ski3ls already an board to staff in per for this major extension of CIA cOputing capabilities, only twenty-five additional ceiling positions will be required. Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9 Approved For Release 200610711:,8.: 0 - DP84-00780R000200010039-9 , MMIN"ut $$kill$ will be dram (rasa on-baerd waLU.) Programers go IBi 7090 Operators -4 ' couing Vositions w ,y'sis, ar ditia l p 3 aa#~ting data mration acrd ftsids Mist be eked for this acquiaeition as fol3gr4ss TM ? . r r site Preparati+ Perscaaa r . . . . . . . . . 225,000 (23 0$9, ) 100,0 0 AME3W ? , f on Xuste3.x it in ter Center of the IM 7090, and ~tien of 14.0/1401. (already in HODAquarters DA11ding) should be .eted in July 1963. Reoz ;itMeut 8t;s3 _ in rr A will cantiaue its recr ui nt and training of skills reed for scientific wing cm the IN 7090. ,3- i 4 T",000 ? i r 50,000 sift 75,000 vhw tcmatic beta Prooessing staff Approved For Release 2006/07/18: CIA-RDP84-0078OR000200010039-9