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December 1, 1966
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Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Intelligence Report SOVIET RESTRICTIONS ON TRAVEL BY FOREIGNERS SECRET December 1966 pproved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET CONTENTS Page Summary . 1 I. Introduction 3 II. Registration and Monitoring of Travel 3 III. Closed Areas 4 A. Background 4 B. Current situation 5 I. European USSR 5 2. Central Asia and Kazakhstan 7 3. Eastern USSR 8 4. Cities 9 a. Opened Cities 9 b. Closed Cities 9 c. Moscow and Leningrad 10 APPENDIXES Page A. Chronology of Closed-Area Actions 13 B. Translation of July 1966 Soviet Note 15 C. Official Status of Cities with 100,000 or More Inhabitants 21 MAPS (following page 26) USSR: Changes in Areas Closed to Foreigners-19594966 (54769) Moscow Oblast: Areas Closed to Foreigners-22 July 1966 (54610) USSR: Travel Restrictions-22 July 1966 (54818) USSR: Areas Closed to Foreigners-22 July 1966 (55386) SECRET Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Soviet Restrictions on Travel by Foreigners SUMMARY The Soviet Government has long maintained a policy of close control over - the movements of all foreigners within the USSR. This policy is implemented at the official level by closing specified areas to travel on both a continuing and an ad hoc basis and by requiring preregistration of all travel in open areas. These official restrictions are supplemented by surveillance and harassment of travelers in order to prevent observation of any installations of military or indus- trial significance. The consequence of both official and unofficial restrictions has been to effectively shield over 95 percent of the USSR from observation by foreigners. The most recent Soviet note on travel restrictions was circulated on 22 July 1966. It reaffirmed the existing system of preregistration of all travel by for- eigners and modified slightly the list of closed areas. The overall effect of this note was to reduce the closed area of the country from 26.5 percent to 23 percent of the total. Several large areas of probably little intel- ligence significance in the eastern part of the country have been opened to travel, and several less extensive but pre- sumably strategically important areas in the west have been closed. In addition to officially closing interior areas of military significance, the new note reflects increased concern about security in the western USSR.There is no completely sat- isfactory explanation for several newly closed areas; their general locational pattern suggests the possibility that they are potential defensive missile sites, but there is no evi- dence that this is the case. SFCRET Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET I. INTRODUCTION The techniques used by the Soviet Government to control and monitor travel by foreigners within the USSR have been quite effective in liraiting observation of areas that they consid? er sensitive. Although the Soviet' note of 22 July 1966 slightly reduces the extent of the officially closed areas, the overall system of tight control over travel by foreigners remains unaltered, Embassy personnel are required to notify Soviet authorities before undertaking travel to any areas,offi- daily, open beyond the outskirts of Moscow; such travel is frequently not allowed for specified or unspecified reasons. Tourist travel within the Soviet Union is effectively controlled by Intourist, the government tourist service, through which all travel arrangements must be made. This system of control permits Soviet authorities to identify travel plans which are likely to permit observation of areas they consider to be sensitive and to develop surveillance and harassment tactics to counter this hazard. As a con- sequence there is great disparity between the land area that is officially open to Westerners and that on which effective observation and reporting is feasible. In 1960 a detailed review of all travel in the USSR by Western embassy personnel during the preceding 18 months indicated that less than 5 percent of the total area of the country would have been observable if perfect observation conditions had prevailed on every trip. Factors such as harassment, .poor visibility, and physical obstructions to vision substantially decreased the area actually observed. It was concluded that at a time when approximately 75 percent of the USSR was technically open .to travel, the combined efforts of western diplomatic per- sonnel provided direct observation of less than 1 percent. ? IL REGISTRATION AND MONITORING OF TRAVEL The current Soviet note requires prior notification of all travel by embassy personnel. Notice must be given at least 2 working days in advance of a trip, and it must include the route, places and duration of stops, and mode of trans- portation. Military attaches submit their travel plans to the External Relations Division of the Ministry of Defense, USSR, and other embassy personnel to the Protocol Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, USSR. The only exception to the regulations is for travel in limited areas in the immediate vicinity of Mos- cow, for which notification is not required (see Map 54610). The travel notification system enables Soviet authorities to prohibit on an ad hoc basis travel to any open area or city by declaring it temporarily closed or by using some other pretext such as the lack of transportation or hotel accommoda- tions. It also provides time to organize surveillance machinery for trips that are registered as requested. Essentially the same regulations have been in effect since 1941, with the exception of the war years when movement required the possession of an NKVD pass. Travel by other foreigners in the USSR?tourists, businessmen, scholars, and journalists?is effectively controlled and monitored by .Intourist. Travel op- SECRET Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CFA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET portunities for these persons are as restricted as they are for embassy personnel, being generally limited to standard Intourist routes and facilities. Approved travel by private auto is carefully monitored by the police. Efforts to follow side roads or to explore the countryside usnally are repelled quickly. Regulations govern the taking of photographs, and penalties for violation of these provisions can be imposed. In August 1960, after the note on travel re- strictions had been circulated, a law prescribing penalities for repeated violation of travel regulations was passed. Ordinary travelers who stray more than twice from approved routes or areas are subject to a minimum penalty of a 50-ruble ($55.00) fine or a maximum penalty of a year's confinement. Diplomatic person- nel who stray are subject to expulsion from the country. III. CLOSED AREAS A. Background Areas and cities from which foreign travelers are excluded have been desig- nated in a series of Soviet notes, the first of which was issued in May 1941. Initially these closed-area restrictions were thought to apply only to diplomatic personnel, but subsequent notes have made it clear that they are applicable to all foreigners. Transit of forbidden areas and cities is possible, but according to a 1948 note it must be by means of public conveyance and without stop-over in a prohibited area. Approved transit routes through some closed areas have also been specified in the notes. , The list of closed areas has been modified substantially over the years (see Appendix A). In 1941 most of the administrative units adjacent to the western border of the Soviet Union as well as many of the industrial centers of the interior were declared off limits. In addition, certain areas occupied primarily by Turkic and Mongolian peoples were closed?the entirety of Soviet Central Asia and the Mongolian areas southeast of Lake Baikal, which had been the scene of nationalist unrest in connection with the Pan-Mongolian movement during the 1920's and 1930's. During World War II some of the closed areas were visited by foreigners, but after the war travel regulations were again enforced. 'the area in which travel was banned was expanded considerably by notes issued in 1948 and 1952. The remainder of the border was sealed, and the major industrial areas were closed. The Donbas, the Urals, and Moscow (Moskoysktiva) and Gor'kiy (Gorlovskaya) oblasts were added to the forbidden list. Travel to several non- Russian republics along the Volga was also prohibited. Very soon after the 1952 Soviet note, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States imposed restrictions on the travel of Soviet diplomatic personnel in their respective countries. In June 1953 the Soviets began to reduce the extent of their dosed areas. Administrative units adjacent to the land boundary of the RSFSR with China were opened, with the exception of the Buryat-Mongol'skaya ASSR and Pri- SECRET 4 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET morskiy Kray. Other areas opened included cei lain parts of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, the entire Donbas, Krasnodarskiv Kray, and some areas on the western periphery?western Belorussia, Moldavia, the Karelo-Finnish SSR, and Arkhangerskaya Oblast'. Certain areas in the United States were closed to travel by Soviet Embassy personnel and Tass correspondents for the first time in 1955 in order to exert pressure on Soviet authorities to reduce further the extent of closed areas in the USSR. Initially this policy was ineffective, as Soviet closed areas actually in- creased slightly in 1957. The subsequent Soviet notes of August 1959 and July 1966, _however, reduced the territory officially closed in the USSR until it now comprises 23 percent of the total, an all-time low. The approximate percentage of area closed to foreigners by Various notes is as follows: 16 May 1941 41 15 January 1952 50 22 June 1953 28 28 August 1957 29.4 18 August 1959 26.5 22 July 1966 23 B. Current Situation The July 1966 Soviet note concerning closed areas (see Appendix B) super- sedes and clarifies the four preceding notes, which were cumulative in their effect. Although the note to a large extent only reaffirms the previously existing situation, several large areas in the eastern part of the country have been opened , to travel, and several less extensive but strategically important areas in the west have been closed (see Paps 54769 and 55386). The New note appears to reflect increased security precautions in the western USSR and concern 'about interior transportation and communication routes and facilities. There is no completely satisfactory explanation for several newly closed areas; their general locational pattern sug- gests the possibility that they are potential defensive missile sites, but as, yet there is no evidence that this is the case. Official sanction is now given to a number of de facto changes in travel policy that had become apparent in recent years with respect to certain urban areas, tourist routes, and waterways. Soviet concern with unofficial travel is revealed by the inclusion in the note, for the first time, of instructions regarding tourists and tourist facilities. I. EUROPEAN USSR Official proscriptions on travel have been most altered in the northwestern part of European USSR. Whereas only the Baltic republics, Kaliningradskaya Oblast', and western Leningradskaya Oblast' had been closed before, seven ? additional areas are now on the closed list, as well as the White Sea ? Baltic Canal and the Volga ? Baltic Waterway. The closings indicate ,a general .tightening SECRET 5 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET of security in areas of known communication and military installations and along strategic transport routes. The large closed area adjacent to the Baltic Sea has been extended eastward to include parts of Novgorodskava and Pskovsl: Iva onlAsts, _although the cities of Novgorod and Pskov remain open.. Closure of western Arkhangerskava Oblast' means that the rail line to Arkhangel'sx arid the area tha it serves are officially off- limits. Leshukonskiy Rayon in Arkhangekkaya Oblast' also has been closed. Its administrative center, I,f-shu- konskoye, is the eastern terminus of the broad-gauge rail line currently under construction from Arkliangask. The line is ostensibly for timber exploitation, but it also provides a new area with the potential for weapons deployment. The newly. :771osed northwestern poriioa of Murmanskaya Ob.a;5 includes such sensitive installations as a long-range-bomber base. Foreign tourists, however, arc permitted to tra.el through this newly closed area by auto from Borisoglebsk- to Nikel' and bY train from Nike to Murmansk. Excursions to the Borisoglebsk CES (hydroelectric plant) near the Norwegian boundary are permitted, but only to Scandinavian tourists. The reasons behind the closing of two small triangular areas in the Karel'skaya ASSR, one west of Belomorsk and the other southeast of Petrozavodsk, are not completely clear. Both Belomorsk and Pctrozavodsk are centers of activity in this sparsely inhabited northerly area, but the delineation of their associated closed areas does not appear tO have a dose correlation with any particulg economic or military activity. The town of Petrozavodsk together with the area immediately to the northwest contains mans- sensitive military installations. Petrozavodsk, however, apparently remains open, and the area closed to the southeast along the shore of Lake Onega seemingly contains' nothing. of unusual military interest. An unclassified report about experimental TV- reception indicates that there should be a tropospheric scatter station somewhere in the Petrozav- odsk area, but it has not been located. The closing of this area maY somehow tie in with the closing of Lake Onega and the Volga-Baltic Waterway. In the Kemi-Belomorsk area there is a concentration of ground troops and numerous military installations. The strategic position of Belomorsk at the entrance to the White Sea Baltic Canal and the alignment of the powerlines that serve the canal locks may be the key to this closing. Since the Volga - Baltic Waterway was opened to traffic in 1q64, after deepening and other improvements, general traffic has increased; the fact that small naval vessels Such as destroyer escorts and submarines can now be moved through the canal probably contributes to Soviet sensitivity about the route. The White Sea - Baltic Canal is also undergoing extensive improvements that will enable larger vessels to use the route. Although the entire Volga River has never been officially closed, travel along it is seldom approved for diplomatic personnel. cFCRFT Apwoved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 :;.01A-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET The closing of the Ker,h trait:s a.-ea at the entrah2e to the Sea of ?Azov may reflect the location of military instal- lations for the protection Of the Donbas industrial region to the north.. The significance of the Urals industrial region in Soviet strategic thinking is underlin..?d by the fact that it remains closed, while the Kiizbas and Donbas have ieen open in recent years and technically remain open to travel. Several places and routes within closed areas in the Baltic republics, the Ukraine, and the Caucasus are designated open specifically to foreign tourists or are accessible via Intourist vehicles. Travel_ privileges given specifically to foreign tourists apparently are not to be granted to embassy personnel. A Leningrad - TAM air trip requested by the US Embassy as a test has already been refuS?ed on the grounds that "air transportation to Tallin was authorized only for foreign tourists traveling with Intourist." Travelers entering the USSR through the western Ukraine are permitted to use several different motor routes (see Map 54818). Travel by foreigners along the route Brest - Kovel' - Lutsk Rovno, however, is restricted to Intourist ve- hicles. Travel by private auto in the Baltic republics appears to be entirely prohibited, since the use of Intourist vehicles is specified on all open roads. -Foreigners are now permitted to visit the tourist base "Itkol" of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions in the Caucasus, but they must. approach the area along a specified route. Transit via auto across the Kabardino - Balkarskaya ASSR by way of the Ordzhonikidze - Nal'ehik - Mineral nye Vodv route is also permitted. This ASSR has been a closed area since 195, possibly because of unsettled economic and social conditions precipitated by a 1957 decree that permitted the exiled Balkars to return to their homeland. 2. CENTRAL ASIA AND KAZAKTISTAN The regions bordering the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea as well as the western oblasts of Kazakhstan continue to be closed to foreigners. Installations of major strategic significance within this area include the nuclear desalinization plant complex at Scgendy. North of the Caspian Sea the closed area extends westward beyond ? the Kazakh border to the Volga Rivep. Although Astrakhan' lies within this closed area, the city is open, and passage to it by air is permitted. Included in the forbidden list for the first time in recent years is the Kzyl-Ordinakaya Oblast' in the Kazakh S S R. This will, probably block all travel on the Orenburg-Tashkent rail line. Three relatively small areas in Central Asia have been closed without obvious justification. The closed area northwest of Termez has no clear relationship to military installations in the are. This general area is regarded as potentially suitable for clandestine nuclear test operations, but there is no evidence that such testing takes place. Natural SECRET 7 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET gas deposits and sulfur mines are located in the closed area north of Ashkhabad; some reports dating back a decade allege atomic experim, nts near Serzwv Zayod. but recent intelligence has not confirmed these active 3 S. Finally. there is no explanation for the closing of Batkeuskiy Rayon in tb kirgiz SSR. Radioactive minerals have been detected in the area, but no mining activities are known to be present. Areas adjacent to Tashkent and Frunze, along with the Tadzhik SSR and Khorezmskaya Oblast' of the Uzbek SSR. have been recently opened. Military and industrial installations in these areas are of limited significance; however. trips to these non-Russian border regions should prove of considerable interest in terms of assessing general economic and social conditions. 3. EASTERN USSR The most extensive areas newly opened to travel in the eastern USSR include the Taymyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya, western Chukhotskskiy NO, and most of Magadanskaya Oblast' and the Buryatskaya ASSR (see Map 54769). The opening of areas such as the Taynwr Peninsula, Severnaya Zeml> t, and western Chukhotia is of no significance, since there is little reason for anyone to travel there nor any facilities to do so.. Opening of the Burvatskava ASSR and Magadanskaya Oblast' may permit some useful. economic and Social reporting._ but with the exception of the city of Ulan-Ude, these areas are Of limited intelli- gence significance. In the Buryatskaya ASSII.only a small strip of land bordering Lake Baikal remains closed. The area contains no known sensitive. instal- lations. It does, include a state forest preserve, and it is a very important sable farming area. Sable, like caviar, is in its own way an important Soviet industry, but it hardly seems to warrant this type of protection. Travel in Magadanskaya Oblast', a mining_ region settled largely by former forced laborers, is handicapped by the closing of the only logical point of entry? Magadan. This has the de facto effect of keeping the entire area closed. Closure of the area around Barabinsk in Noyosibirskava Oblast' appears to reflect the longstanding sensitivity of the Soviets about transport facilities. Barabinsk is reportedly the site of one of the largest locomotive parks in the Soviet Union. The Lena River also has been closed to travel by the new note: previously only the Yenisey River had been dosed. Kamchatskaya Oblast', an impact area for missile testing, and eastern Chnkhotsk- skaya NO, location of early-warning radar installations, remain dosed for under- standable reasons. In the instance of an area that has been closed since 1059 along the Lena River, however, the only explanation is the existence at the town of Sangar of a suspect troposcatter site. It shuld be noted, however, that facilities of this type are also present in open areas. The militarily important areas of Sakhalinskaya Oblastt and Primorskiy Kray continue to be closed, The new closing ofKhabarovskiy Kray east of the Amur River impor- Approved For Release 2000/05/31crakiDP84-00825R000100700001-8 8 ApprOVed For Release 2000/05/3/ : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET antly tightens controls -Ln the Soviet Fax East by officially sealing off the Sovetskaya Cavan' area which Contains exten- sive naval facilities r 4. CITIES 'The status of inchvidual cities is of gr cat importance because most travel in the Soviet Union constitutes hopping fi om one city to another via public trans- portatiori, usually by plane or rail. Free auto travel through the countryside is unusual except along several specified routes in the European USSR that are open to tourists.. 'Moreover, closing a city that is the administrative center and .regional transport hub severely limits the feasibility of travel anywhere within the region. ? ?, , . , ?-Aniroximately 50 of the 187 cities in the USSR with more than 100,000 in- , _ .habitants are offiCially closed to foreigners; actually, numerous others have had no - .;fpseign visitors for many years. Appendix C shows the changes in official status --di major citie,S,in the USSR in terms of accessibility to foreigners since the first restrictions, werj-iMposed in 1941. ?vr a. Opened Cities ,. Kazan and Novosibirsk are the largest of the cities opened by terms of the 1966 note. Kazan' liad been open from 1953 to 1959, but closed - since--1959. Novosibirsl: had been closed since 1952. Nevertheless, foreigners have been permitted to visit both thee places in recent years, and several exchange dcle- ?gations have toured the new science city located on the southern edge of No- vosibirsk. Military and industrial installations of intelligence interest abound in both Kazan' and Novosibirsk.. In addition, Kazan' is the administrative center of the Muslim Tatars, the second largest non-Slavic group in the USSR. Another major city, Ulan-Ude, the capital of the Burvatskava ASSR, Is now officially open because the ASSR, with the exception of a small strip bordering Lake Baikal,?has been removed from the closed' list. Noted as a major rail center in the eastern USSR, Ulan-Ude is the point of juncture of the rail line from China via Ulan-Bator. It also contains a variety of other intelligence targets. Rovno and Ternopol' were added to the list of open cities in the western UkTaine, continuing a process of opening specific cities in this closed area to foreign visitors. Yurmala, the 'coastal resort town for Riga, and Ventspils were opened in Latvia. b. Closed Cities Cities put off Limits by the new note include Angarsk, and Saratov. An atomic energy complex makes Angarsk a very sen- sitive area. Saratov and. its environs?including Engel's-- con- tain many targets of considerable strategic significance, and in practice both cities have always been closed. SECRET 9 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 ilkEplmiLEgraedgA?91.0.0/0.5.0i :?..CIA-RDP84-0D825R0001 00700001-8 - SECRET With the exception of Khabarovsk and Nal:hr,4.1 II the cities of the Soviet Far East are now closed. Although Okhotsk, :\ ik lwevsk, Komsomorsk, and Sovetskaya Gavan' theoretically had been 'open up to this tirne, visits by for- eigners were rare. Land access to cities such as Arkhangel'sk N'orkuta, and Murmansk requires travel through newly closed areas, and transit privileges are not likely to be granted. This may curtail visits to Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, even though they are not specificallyclosed and may be reached by air or possibly by ocean vessel: Travel to Vorkuta has never been possible, although its official status has varied. . While this new note does not explicitly close the city, access to it is effectively blocked by the closed strip, 50-kilometers in width, which extends along the railroad from Theleznodorozhnyy to Vorkuta. Previous Soviet notes have specifically mentioned Batumi, Echmiadzin, Yerevan, and Ashkhabad as open, since they lie within or partially within a 2.5-kilometer closed zone that extends along the entire land boundary of the USSR with non- Communist countries. However, the recent note does not mention them, and their official: status is presently unclear. c. Moscow and Leningrad Detailed regulations have governed travel in the Moscow area since 1948. At that time unrestricted auto travel was officially limited to an area within a 50-kilometer radius of the center of the city. In 1952 the radius was reduced to 40 kilometers and specified areas Within this radius were put off limits. The? extent of the closed areas within this radius has been gradually extended by subsequent notes. The July 1966 note significantly expands the closed areas within the 40-kilo- meter zone surrounding Moscow (see Map 54610). East of Moscow, areas 25X1B around Balashikha and southeast of Lyubertsy alona the Ryazan' Highway are now for the first time officially closed, 25X1B West of Moscow the expansion of t e c ?se( area up to tie city (the ring road) places all of the largely agricultural Odintsovskiv Rayon beyond reach. Travel through this region, however, is still possible along the Minsk Highway. There are few installations of any intelligence sig- nificance in this area, indicating that the changes may have been made either to simplify administrative procedures or as a prelude to new military construction. SFCRET 10 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 25X1B Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECEET Beyond the 40-kilometer zone the only new opening in Moscow Oblast' is Dubna, location of the joint Institute of Nuch ar Research. Travel to Dubna is permitted along the Dmitrov highway, a i'lajor route heretofore closed to travel. The city .of Dmitrov remains closed, b,J limited observation of it prob- ably will be possible from the highway. In the vicinity of Leningrad travel is rwrmitted within a 30-kilometer zone and to a few nearby towns-Zelenogorsk. Gatchina, and Petrokrepose. Kronshtadt, the island naval base, lies outside the open area: SFCRET 11 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET APPENDIX A Chronology of Closed-Area Actions 16 May 41 Initial Soviet note. Regulations for registration of travel by all diplomatic personnel established. Certain areas and cities of the USSR closed to travel by all foreigners. 7. Jun 41 US note. Prior registration of all travel by Soviet Embassy and consular personnel in the United States required. 23 Jun 41 US travel restrictions lifted, 30 Sep 48 Soviet note. New list of closed areas in USSR presented. 27 Oct 48 Soviet note. Rules governing transit through forbidden areas and travel within 50-kilometer radius from the center of Moscow clarified. 15 Jan 52 Soviet note. List of places closed in September 1948- exteiiaed. 10 Mar 52 US note. Prior registration of travel by Soviet personnel in the United States again required. 22 Jun 53 Soviet note. List of areas closed completely revised. System of preliminary registration retained. 12 Nov 53 Soviet note. Five port areas added to closed list. ? Feb 54 Soviet circular note. Regulations restricting photography in the USSR established. 3 Jan 55 US note. Areas in the United States closed to Soviet citizens for the first time. 20 Jul 57 Peter the Great Bay (Vladivostok) closed to foreign ships and planes. 13 Aug 57 United States protests closure of Peter the Great Bay. 28 Aug 57 Soviet note. June 1953 list of closed areas amended. USSR indi- cates willingness to discuss reciprocal reductions. 11 Nov 57 US proposal for abolition of closed areas. 22 May 58 United States offers concrete proposals for reciprocal reduction of closed areas. 18 Aug 59 Soviet note. June 1953 list of closed areas amended further. 6 Jan 61 .US note. Abolition or reduction of US and Soviet travel restrictions proposed. US list of closed areas revised. 22 Jul 66 Soviet note. Four previous notes superseded. Comprehensive list of closed areas issued. System of preliminary registration re- affirmed. SECRET 13 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approve e ease 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 No. 60/Pr SECRET APPENDIX B. Translation of July 1966 Soviet Note Moscow, 22 July 1966 To All Embassies,. City of Moscow The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR presents its compliments to the Embassies and has the honor to communicate that the government of the USSR has put into effect a new single list of cities and regions of the USSR which are forbidden for visits by foreigners. The lists in effect up to the present time, which were communicated by the Ministry in Notes No. 295/Pr of 22 June 1953, No. 400/Pr of 12 November 1953, No. 335/Pr of 28 August 1957 and No. 485/Pr of 18 August 1959, are no longer valid. In presenting the new list, the Ministry requests that it be used as a guide for trips made by personnel of Embassies on the territory of the USSR. The exist- ing procedure of registration of trips beyond the 40-kilometer zone around the city of Moscow is maintained. As in the past, written notification of trips by personnel of Embassies with indication of route to be followed, places and dura- tion of stops, and also mode of transportation are to be sent to the Protocol Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, USSR, and of trips by military attache personnel to the External Relations Division, Ministry of Defense, USSR, 48 hours before the beginning of the trip. Nonworking days are not included in that time period. The Ministry avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Embassies its assurances of its extremely high respect. List of Cities and Areas of the USSR Closed to Visits by Foreigners A 25-kilometer zone along the boundary of the USSR with Nonvay, Finland, Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. RSFSR Chukotskiy Nationarnyy Okrug?the area to the east of the Amguyema, B[orshaya] Osinovka, Belaya, and Mayn rivers; Karnchatskaya and Sakhalinskaya oblasts; SECRET 15 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31: CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Khabarovskiv Kray?the area to the east of the AMUT and Ussuri rivers, with the exception of the city of Khabarovsk: Primorskiy Kray, with the exception of the city of Nakhodka, and passage to the city of Nakhodka via the railroad from the city of Khabarovsk; Buryatskava ASSR?an area 50-kilometers in width adjacent to Lake Baikal between Nizhne-Angarsk and Barguzin; Novaya Sibie Island; ? Yakutskaya ASSR?the area between the Turnara, Dyanvshka and Lena rivers; Taymyrskiy NationaVnvy, Okrug?the area west of the Pyasina River, includ- ing the lakes: Pyasino, Lama, Keta and Khantayskoye; The water route along the White Sea Baltic and Volga ? Baltic canals, the Yenisey River, and Lena River to the north from the city of Yakutsk, Lake Onega, with the exception of Kizhi Island and passage to it by foreign tourists via the water route from the city Of Petrozavodsk; Barabinskiy and Knybysheyskiy rayons of Novosibirskaya Oblast'; Karerskaya ASSR?areas within the boundaries [of a line drawn from] Kern' [to) Andronovo Cora [to] Kochkoma, and also to the southeast from the rail- road line in the Petrozavodsk Svir' sector;? Pskovskaya Oblast'?the area to the north of the Dno Pskov ? Pechora rail .line, with the exception of the city of Pskov and passage to it by plane and along the railroad from Moscow through Bologoye and Dno, and from Leningrad . through the city of Luga; Novgorodskaya Oblast'?the area between the railroad lines Chudovo? Uglovka on the east and Bologoye ? Dno on the south, with the exception of the city of Novgorod and transit passage along the Moscow.? Leningrad Highway: . Yamalo-Nenetskiy Nationarnyy Okiug?the area between the Nyda, Nadym, and Tanlova rivers; Komi ASSR?the area 50 kilometers in width along the railroad between Vorkuta and Zhelezhnodorozhnyy; Arkhangerskaya Oblast'?Leshukonskiv Rayon; the territory to the west of the Severnaya Dvina River and the Vaga River; Soloyetskive Islands; 4Sverdlovskava, Permskaya, Chelvabinskava and Gorlovskaya ?blasts; Udmurtskaya ASSR and Merdovskaya ASSR; Kabardino-Balkarskaya ASSR, with the exception of the VTsSPS [All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions] "Itkor tourist base, to which foreign tourists are brought by auto transport along the route- Pvatigorsk Baksan TYrrivauz ? "Itkol," and also transit passage by auto transport along the route: Ordzhonikidze ? Narchik MineraNyye Vody; 16 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 4 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRE1 Volgogradskava and Astralchariskaya ?blasts?the area to the cast of the Volga River, with the exception of the city of Astrakh.m' and passage to the city of Astrakhan by plane landing at the airport of the Ministry of Civil Aviation; Murmanskaya Oblast'?the area to the west of the Voron'va River and to the north of a line from Kirovsk to Kuolavarvi, with the exception of the left bank of the Patso-Yoki (Pasvikery) River from the Borisoglebsk GES to border' marker No. 218; excursions to the Borisoglebsk CES (right bank of the Patso- Yoki River) for visits by tourists from Scandinavian countries; and also of the border point Borisoglebsk and the routes: Borisoglebsk Nikel' (by auto trans- port), Nikel' - Murmansk (by railroad) for foreign tourists; the city of Mur- mansk and passage to it by plane landing at the Nturmashi airport for foreigners; ? Leningradslcaya Oblast'?the area to the west of the Volkliov River, with the exception of the cities of Leningrad, Zelenogorsk, Gatchina, Petrokrepose, a 30- kilometer zone around the city of Leningrad, passage by auto transport along the highways Moscow-Leningrad and Leningrad- Vyborg- Torfyanovska; Moscow Oblast', with the exception of the City of .Moscow, a 40 kilometer zone around the city of Moscow, and Zagorsk, Dubna, Abraintsevo, Klin, Solnechno- gorsk, Istra, Zvenigorod, Leninskiye Gorki, Lake Senezhskoye (within a radius of no More than 6 kilometers) ? and Sheremeeyevo and Domodedoyo airports; Passage in transit is permitted to the indicated places: to.Zagorsk?along Yaroslavl' Highway; to the Abramtsevo museum-estate?along Yaroslavl' Highway to Rvazansty and ? further through Khoekovo; - to Dubna?along Dmitrov Highway; to Solnechnogorsk, to Senezliskoye Lake, to Klin and to Sheremeeyevo airport? along Leningrad Highway; to Istra?along Volokamsk Highway; to Zvenigorod?along the Minsk Highway to Golitsyno and further along the Zvenigorod Highway; to Leninskiye Gorki and to ?Domodedovo airport?along Kashira Highway; Within the 40-kilometer zone foreigners are forbidden access to: Dmitrovskiy, SOlnechnogorskiy, Khimkinsldy, Odintsovskiy, Noginskiy and Shchelkovskiy rayons; Mytishchinskiy Rayon territory west of the Moscow Canal, Lianozovo, including Uchinskoye Reservoir; Narofominskiy and Leninskiy rayons to the northwest of a line from Peredelk-ino to Aprelevka. In Leninskiy Rayon, in addition, to the territory bounded by the populated places: Ostrov, Prudischche, Bulatnikovo, Beleutoyo, and fur- ther to the east within the boundaries of the rayon; Balashikhinskiy, Lyubertskiy and Rarnenskiy rayons to the east of a line Nikol'- skoye, Balashikha, Kuchino, Tomilino, Zhilino and further to the south, includ- ing Ryazan' Highway; SECRET Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 17 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Departure by foreigners in automobiles beyond the limits of Moscow Oblast' is permitted in transit along the Yaroslavl', Leningrad. Minsk and Simferopol' highways, and in addition, transit to the city of is permitted along the highway through Orel and Clukhoy; Vladimirskaya Oblast'?area to the southwest of a line from Aleksandrov to Kosterevo; Kaluzhskaya Oblast'?area to the northeast of the cities of Maloyaroslavets and Tarusa; Kaliningradskaya Oblast'; Taman' Peninsula?area bounded by a line Temryuk ? Krymskaya, with the exception of :the city of Novorossiysk; Cities: Magadan, Okhotsk, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Kornsomask-on-Amur, Tomsk, Omsk, Kuybyshev, Krasnoyarsk, Kaliningrad of Moscow Oblast', An- garsk, Kirov, Saratov. ESTONIAN SSR The entire territory, with the exception -if the city of Tallin, of transit passage by direct rail connection, Tallin ? Lenin l_ ad, Tallin ? Riga, and Tallin ? Pskov via Tartu; of, transit passage of foreign tourists on "Intourist" auto transport along the routes: Tallin ? Payde? Pyarnu ? Riga, Tallin ? Payde ? Pyrtsamaa ? yandi ? Pyarnu ? Riga, Tallin ? Tartu ? Ryapina ? Pechory ? Pskov; of transporta- tion of foreign tourists by scheduled aircraft of the Ministry of Civil Aviation from the city of Tallin to the cities of Leningrad and Riga and return. LATVIAN SSR The entire territory, with the exception of the cities of Riga, Yurmala and Ventspils and passage to the city of Riga by train, ship and airplane, and to Ventspils by ship and train from Riga.. LITHUANIAN SSR The entire territory, with the exception of the city of Viinyus and passage to it by railroad and plane. UKRAINIAN SSR Volynskaya, Bovenskaya, L'voyskay a, Ternoporskaya, Zakarpatskava, Ivano- Frankovskaya and Chernovitskaya ()blasts, with the exception of the cities: L'vov, Uzhgorod, Rovno, Ternopol', Chernovtsy; and of transit passage: by auto trans- port along the routes Uzhgorod ? Mukachevo ? Stryy ? L'vov Rovno ? Korets; KPP [checkpoint} Mostiska (Shaginva village) ? L'vov; Chernovtsv ? Kamenets Podol'skiy; Chernovtsv ? Novoselitsa ? Brichany; only by "Intourist" auto transport along the route Brest ? Kovel' ? Lutsk ? Rovno; SECRET 18 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Krymskaya Oblast?the area to the east of the rail line Solenoye Ozero ? Dzbankoy ? Simferopol' and of the automobile road Simferopol' ? Alushta; with the exception of the cities of Dzhankoy? Simferopol' and Alushta; The cities of Dnepropetrovsk, Nikolayev, Sevastopol' and Balaklava. AZERBAYDZHAN SSR The territory of Nakhichevanskava ASSR; Area located to the west and southwest of the railroad 'Tbilisi ? Alyaty-Pristan' (50 kilometers southwest of the city of Baku). Transit passage is permitted along the Tbilisi ? Baku rail line. KAZAKII SSR Gur'yevskaya, Karagandinskaya, Kzyl-Ordinskaya, Pavlodarskaya, Semipalatin- skaya, and Alma-Atinskaya oblasts, with the exception of the city of Alma-Ata; Dzhambulskaya Oblast?area to the east of the Myn-Aral?Lugovov railroad; Ural'skaya Oblast?area to the west of the Ural River; Transit passage to the city of Alma-Ata is permitted along the railroad city of Tashkent through Dzhambul and by plane. KIRGIZ SSR from the Territory of the republic, with the exception of the city of Frunze and of Keminskiy, Chuyskiy, Kantskiy, Sokuluskskiy and Moskovskiy rayons, and of Oshskaya Oblast', less Batkenskiy rayon; Transit to the city of Frunze is permitted by plane and along the railroad from the city of Tashkent. UZBEK SSR Karakalpakskaya ASSR; Areas of Surkhandar'inskaya Oblast' within the boundaries of the populated places: Denau, Baysun, Shirabad, and Dzhar-Kurgan. TURKMEN SSR Areas located to the west of the junction of the boundary between the Uzbek SSR and the Kazakh SSR and further to the south through Kizyl-Arvat and Kara-Kala; The area bounded by the populated places: Yerbent? Semyy Zavod ? Darvoza and passage to it along the automobile road Ashkhabad ?Sernyy Zavod. .SECTIFT 19 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET APPENDIX C Official Status of Cities With 100,000 or More Inhabitants 0= Open X =Closed 6 7A1a3. 1941 30 Sep 1948 15 Jan 1932 22 Jun 1953 28 Aug 1957 18 Aug 1939 22 Jul 1966 Aktyubinsk X X X O o 0 0 Alma-Ata X X 0 0 0 0 0 Amlizhan x x X O o o o Angarsk * * 0 O o o x Anzhero-Surlzhensk . 0 0 0 0 o o o Arkhangel'sk X X X 0 0 o 0 Armavir 0 X X 0 0 o o Ashkhabad X X X O o 0 0 Astrakhan' 0 0 0 O 0 o 0 Baku X x X O o -0 .-O Barnaul o x X 0 o 0 o Belgormi 0 0 0 o 0 o o Belovo 0 0 O o o 0 BerUniki o x x x x x Biysk 0 x o 0 o 0 Blagoveshchensk.... 0 X o 0 o o Bobruysk 0 0 0 o o o Bratsk * * * o o 0 Bryansk o o O 0 o o Cheboksary 0 X 0 o o 0 Chelyabinsk 0 x ? x. x x x x Cheremkhovo. , Cherepovets 0 o 0 o X 0 o 0 0 o o 0 o Cherkassy 0 o 0 o o o Chernigov 0 o o o o o Chernovtsy X x X o o o Chimkent X x 0 o o o Chita X x o 0 o o Dneprodzherzhinsk X x x 0 o o o Dnepropetrovsk X X o o x x Donetsk 0 X o o 0 o Dushanbe , Dzerzhinsk x 0 x X o x o x o x 0 x Dzharnbul X X o o o o Elektrostal' 0 X x x x x Engel's X 0 o o o o Frunze X X 0 o o o Gomel' 0 0 o o o 0 Not in existence at this time. SFCRFT 21 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 ? SECRET Official Status of Cities With 100,000 or More Inhabitants (Continued) - 10 May 19-11 30 Sep 19-18 15 Jan 1952 22 Jun 1933 25 Aug I 1S Aug 1957 1959 22 Jul 1960 Leninsk-Kuznetskiy 0 0 0 o 0 0 Li pet sk .0 o 0 0 0 0 0 Lisiehansk X x 0 0 o 0 Lugansk X x o o 0 0 L'vov X x x x o 0 o Lyubertsy o o 0 o 0 0 Magnitogorsk x x x x x x Makeyevka x x 0 o o o Makhaelikala o x o o o 0 Maykop 0 X x o o 0 o Melitopol' X x x 0 o o 0 Miss x x x x x x Minsk X x x o o o o Mogilev 0 O 0 o o o 0 Moscow 0 o 0 o o 0 o Murmansk X X x 0 o o o Mytishchi 0 x 0 o 0 o Narchik 0 o o 0 x x Namangan X X x o 0 0 0 Nikolayev X x x x x. x-- -x Nikopol' X x x o o o o Nizhniy Tagil x x x x x x Noginsk x x x x x x Noril'sk 0 o 0 x x x x Novocherkassk 0 o 0 o o o Novokuznetsk 0 0 x o 0 o o Novomoskovsk 0 x x X 0 o o Novorosslysk X x x 0 0 o o Novoshakhtinsk 0 o 0 o 0 0 o Novosibirsk 0 o x x x x 0 Odessa X O O? 0 o o o Omsk .0 ? x x x x x Ordzhonikidze 0 0 0 0 0 o o Orekhovo-Zuyevo 0 x x x x x x Orel 0. o 0 o o o Orenburg 0 O x o o o o Orsk 0 0 o o o o o Osh X x x o o o o Pavlodar X x x x? x x x Penza 0 o o o 0 0 o Perm' 0 x x x x x x Pervouresk 0 x x x x x x Petropavlovsk X x 0 x o 0 o Petropavlovsk-Kamehat- skiy X X X X X X X Petrozavodsk X X 0 X 0 . SECRET 23 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 Approved Fbr Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 SECRET Official Status of Cities With 100,000 or More Inhabitants (Continued) 16 May 1941 311Sep 1915 153 Ji 19.%2 22 Jun 1953 2s Aug IS Aug 10.57 1939 1 22 Jul 1966 Vladimir 0 , 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vladivostok X , X X X X X X Volgograd. X -. 0 0 0 11 0 0 Vologda 0 () 0 () () 0 . (1 Voronezh 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 'Yaroslavl' 0 . () X 0 0 0 0 Yerevan X X N x.- 0 0 0 ZaporoZh'ye . X X X 0 0 () 0 Zhdanov. 0 X X 0 0 0 () Zhitomir 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 'Zlatoust 0 X X X N X X 25 Approved For Release 2000/05/31 : CIA-RDP84-00825R000100700001-8 NOTED KINL:1301.4 NOR77.1 ' ., N 0 R W A Y