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November 17, 2016
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July 22, 2000
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Approved For Release 2000/081?`.(IRDP84-00951 R000200200036-1 ,~ Ars yy tk y ,p pryyrHISTORICAL SUMMARY OF THE CIA LIBRARY Since 1 January 1947, the CIA Library has been serving the documentary intelligence needs of organizational units in CIG-CIA. The Library started in the Reference Center under the administrative guidance of the Office of Reports and Estimates; it was called the Intelligence Documents Division. Later, it became known as the Reference Center Library under the supervision of the Chief, Reference Center, Administration and Management. After the reorganization of 1 May 1948, it was officially designated as the CIA LIBRARY, a Division in the Office of Collection and Dissemination. The CIA Library is the Agency's documentation center. Intelligence documents, books, periodicals, newspapers,- practically all documentary information arrives in the Library first for processing before distribution to Agency offices. The Library+s main job is to index this material, distribute it to appropriate CIA offices, and then to make it available to all requestors for reference and circulation purposes. Historically, the CIA Library was the first unit in the U.S. intelligence community to apply centralized library methods to both the organization and the distribution of intelligence information. In recognizing the importance of its services to the intelligence research process, the CIA Library has aimed at developing a complete, well-organized collection of documentary materials, supplemented by records or knowledge of the availability of materials elsewhere. It has endeavored to build into this collection the same bibliographical controls ,for classified documents that a researcher is accustomed to finding and using in unclassified research work. Adding to the Library's task of developing a strong reference and bibliographic foundation for intelligence research, has been the concommitant requirement for maintaining speed in the indexing and distribution processes. The research analyst must get his information quickly. I-ie must also be able to find it again. For these reasons, together with the vast quantity of the material arriving daily in the Library, the application and use of machine techniques for coping with information searching problems were stressed. Although machines can'sort and collate rapidly, the success of any reference activity is dependant exclusively on the structure of the coding system which is utilized to process the input. The Library faced this problem in 1947. It examined existing subject classification schemes in and out of the intelligence community; it tried to achieve inter-agency agreement on the adoption of a single scheme; in the end, however, it was forced to consider a new code system tailored to suit intelligence work and in particular, the .special needs of CIA. The purpose of this new coding system, now known as the Intelligence Subject Code, was to provide a method for the subject classification of intelligence information found in the documents transmitted to CIA. It therefore combines the most useful features of schemes in existence in 1947 with the proper arrangement of intelligence subjects according to the continuing desires and needs of Library users. The development of a machine indexing-distribution system, and the Intelligence Subject Code, represent two unique and important contributions made to the intelligence research effort by the CIA Library. Maximum service provided in information work depends on the efficient arrangement of material. The reference activities of the Library have been on the alert to new ways of strengthening the major collection and so improving services. Effective filing and circulation procedures have been devised; new sources of potential intelligence information are being surveyed; important and effective contacts in the field of library techniques and documentation are being made. Attractive reading room facilities have been provided for Agency personnel; Branch libraries, have been established in CIA buildings distant from the main library. A definite acquisitions policy has been in force ensuring that the book and periodical collections of the Library are tuned to the current and long range needs of Agency offices. Approved For Release 2000/08/17 : CIA-RDP84-00951 R000200200036-1 25X1A I 25X1A Approved For Release 200O81'% CIA-RDP84-00951 R000200200036-1 SEU-10N11440104 Since 1947, a steady stream of requesters has made its way to the Library each day in search of documentary support for its intelligence work. Although request vary, they generally require information on, a subject, looking for a specific document, bibliographic service, or research in the Library files and catalogs. The CIA Library receives an average of 1200 reference requests, and 6000 document requests were received per month during 1951. The Library anticipates that these requests will continue to increase. To handle such a volume of material in the form of requests, the CIA Library, working jointly with the Machine Methods Division in the Reference Center, began developing a machine approach'in 1947, a central refernce system termed "INTELLOFAX". This system supplies bibliographies of intelligence document references by any combination of subject, area, source, or date of information, on request. The system couples IBM punched card equipment with facsimile scanners and recorders. Library index cards contain a punched area for sorting purposes, and a text area for the printed reference. IBM machines are used first to refine and select references, then the facsimile reproducing machines record the printed information on a tape for the requester's use., "I;NT.ELLOFAX" as developed by CIA, is one of the most advanced machine reference systems'in operation today for the handling of information searching problems. Its development supports the intelligence research program by providing a unique bibliographic tool for use in the speedy and exacting manipulation of information. The CIA Library has been primarily responsible for the dev'li.opment of a centralized publications procurement activity in the Agency. Foreign and domestic books, periodicals and newspapers, have been procured centrally for all Agency components by the Library. Although it began procuring publications in June, 1947, (prior to this (late, publications procurement was done on an individual office basis through standard Agency procurement channels) it was not until December, 1950, that full and coinpl.etc publications procurement responsibility was delegated to the CIA Library. In operating this program, the Library uses the commercial book trade, U.S. Government facilities, and covert means in special cases. CIA offices rely to a great extent in their work on overt publications. If the publications procurement budget of CIA were compared, for example, with the budgets of major U.S. college and research libraries for their respective acquisitions programs, CIA would place among the top six. This emphasizes the importance of such a service to the intelligence effort. In May 1948, the records management, archival and information distribution functions (including Agency Top Secret control responsibilities) were transferred officially from Administration and Management to the CIA Library. During 1949, the DCI appointed the CIA Librarian as the first Vital Documents Officer for the Agency. Under his guidance, the CIA Library planned, developed, and operated the first vital records repository for CIA, located at a point distant from the Washington area. In January 1950, the records and archives functions were transferred to Administrative Services. The CIA Librarian was appointed by the DCI in 1950 to serve as the CIA Top Secret Control Officer, CIA Custodian of Registered Documents, and as CIA Control Officer of certain code-word collections of documents. Under his guidance the CIA Library has been instrumental in the creation of systematic Top Secret and Registered Document facilities in CIA. As of 1 January 1952, there were 35 Top Secret areas and sub-stations in operation for the Aj.;cncy, all under the, functional the CIA Top Secret Control Officer. In this historical summary only unique elements of the Library development together with its underlying philosophy have been presented. Routine Library development has, however, continued apace over the past five years. Its maturity can be observed by noting that on 1 January 1947, the CIA Library had one shelf of books and two file drawers of intelligence Approved For Release 2000/08/17 : CIA-RDP84-00951 R000200200036-1 Approved For Release 2000& A-RDP84-00951 R000200200036-1 To man such a collection efficiently, the CIA Library has recruited a well-qualified staff of professional and clerical personnel. No librarian ever co:.ipletes his training, since publications continue to be published. The Library recognized this, and has insisted on rnaintainin and applying advanced theories of personnel administration, including its system of supervisory training. Library leadership in this respect has been recognized in CIA by the appointment of Library administrators to Agency working groups as a part of the Career Service program, where the experimental performance rating work done by the Library was used-as a criterion in developing an Agency-wide system. Approved For Release 2000/08/17 : CIA-RDP84-00951 R000200200036-1