Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 11, 2016
Document Release Date: 
October 29, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP84-00951R000300020003-6.pdf3.13 MB
Approved For Release I 9992 W ! -00951 R000300020003-6 1. Introduction This chapter* will discuss those aspects of the CIA Library that are not specifically concerned with the Intellofax system or the Acquisitions- Procurement function. Separate chapters appear on these two important activities, which were an integral part of the Library organization for many years. This chapter does, however, cover the Consul- tants' Survey of the Library (1957) and the Task Team Reports (1958), because, although the Intellofax system was a major topic of discussion, the reports dealt with the Library as a whole and had an important impact upon it. This history is arranged in a year- by-year chronological sequence, except when it seemed more logical to discuss the entire historical development of an activity, such as Branch Libraries and the CIA Library's relations with the Library of Congress. * Statistical information on Library services, including information on requests serviced, books cataloged, documents indexed, source cards filed, and bibliographies prepared appear in OCD/OCR Statistical Tables (1947-57) 1/ and OCR Annual Reports (1958-67). 2/ Approved For Release 19 /?:' _ 084-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199` /,.84 CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 2. Early Organization of the Library--1947 On 1 January 1947 the CIA Library, with three subprofessional people on duty, was organized as the Intelligence Documents Division (IDD) of the Reference Branch (in July renamed the Reference Center), of the Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE). It was assigned an initial T/O of 47.* Organizationally,, 4/ it was planned with two divisions: Bibliographic, including Classification and Cataloging; and Accession, Reference, and Circulation. The first professional person to report for duty was 25X1A9a , who transferred from the Air Force Intelligence Library on 2 February. She holds the distinction of having remained on the reference staff of the Library ever since--she will retire 25X1A9a in the summer of 1973. Mrs. first task was to set up interlibrary loan arrangements with the Library of Congress (LC) and with other government libraries. * Information on the Library T/0 in 1947 ranges from 43 to 54; 47 seems to be the figure most frequently quoted. -./ . Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release QV)W9 f V&-RDP84-!P951 RO 300020003-6 ..9.& h' In June the Libraryrreceived its first Chief 25X1A9a Librarian (later CIA Librarian)-- 25X1A9a Mr. had transferred to the Central Intelligence Group (CIG) from the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) Library in December 1946 and had been assigned as Chief Librarian in the Foreign Documents Division (FDD) of the Office of Operations (00). When he joined the ORE Reference Branch, he was given complete authority for the Library's planning, staffing, organization, and management. The Library was charged with total repository responsibility for the Agency of basic intelligence reference 25X1A9a material. Under Mr. direction, it began to assemble equipment and books, many surplus The core of the reference collection was based on fundamental standard reference works supplemented by the specific requests of the ORE branches. By 15 June the documentary floodgates opened, and the Library became heir to approximately 50,000 unsorted intelligence documents, which had been stored in the Message Center of ORE awaiting establishment of the IDD. ,.a/ Arrangements were made with the Agency's dissemination office so T :ENI Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-ktP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999w12w-`r6l`94-DP84-00951 R000300020003-6 25X1A8b that the Reference Center Library would receive at least one copy of every incoming intelligence document. Their receipt was recorded in a visible serial file and arranged by source. In addition, the Library acquired the Director's set of noncurrent cables and arranged for the receipt of one copy of every current cable J~` ~/ for filing; During these formative months the Library received authoriza- tion for centralization of purchase orders for books and periodicals to avoid duplicative ordering by offices in the Agency. I/ 25X1A9a In the latter half of 1947, Mr. - and his small staff worked closely with the Reference Center's Central Index (later the Machine Methods Division [M_MD1) in preparing a comprehensive subject classification system for intelligence documents. These preliminary efforts toward what was soon to be called the Intellofax lystem are described in detail in the separate chapter on the Intellofax ,,ystem. Daily machine indexing of the FOIAb3b1 Reports (issued by_ was initiated jointly by the Library and the Central Index in August. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199 WtDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 (See also Intellofax chapter.) Operating procedures for cataloging of books was completed in July, and cataloging commenced in August. / As early as December 1947, the Chief Reference 25X1A9a Librarian had raised the issue 25X1A9a with the Acting Chief, Reference Center 25X1A9a of the desirability of establishing in the Reference Center a newspaper scanning and clipping service for the various branches in CIA. This was started in March of the following year by using the facilities of the uncleared personnel pool. _/ 3. Off the Ground--1948-51 By the early part of 1948, the Library had put into effect working procedures for reference, interlibrary loan, circulation, preparation of bibliographies, book selection, book cataloging, and document indexing and filing. Reference Center Special Authorization No. 5, dated 15 March 1948, authorized the Library, Reference Center to Approved For Release 1999/091INRA'a46-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999(#24; --RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 L 3 (1) collect unclassified materials and (2) to disseminate unclassified materials in accordance with accepted interlibrary loan procedures. /$/ After the 1 May merger of the Reference Center and the Office of Collection and Dissemination (OCD).,, the CIA Library absorbed the information and distribution duties of the former Central Records Division/Services Branch/ Administration and Management (A&M), 197/ and the number of persons on duty rose from 31 to 55. Prior to that time, the Library had indexed and filed the documents but had not been responsible for their distribution. The organizational breakdown of the Library was 25X1A9a as follows: Field Survey Division 25X1A9a _, Chief), responsible for locating and surveying items of unusual intelligence significance in universities, libraries, and research institutions, both in and _g9of the Washington area; Bibliographic Division XX , Chief), including 25X1A9a the Analysis Section ~ Wile, Chief) for indexing of documents and the Catalog Section 25X1A9a , Chief) for book ordering and cataloging; Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 19990' IIDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 25X1A9a Reference Division (three chiefs within 1 ear: 25X1A9a ,_. - 1. a, for answering information queries, including Intellofax retrieval, preparing bibliographies, and maintaining files of documents and books; 25X1A9a Information Distribution Division , Chief) for recording the bibliographic information for every incoming intelligence document, for distributing documents, and for locating documents through document control (assigning accession or control numbers to documents); Archives Division 25X1A9a ( , Chief) for the efficient management of active and inactive records in the Agency, for maintaining a central record over all administrative records, and for directing the control of all Top Secret (TS) documents.* 25X1A9a Mr. reported that by December 1948 the major organization of the Library was complete: With 75% of the authorized organiza- tion on hand, the Library devoted 320 of the staff's time to Library * The TS control function was activated for CIG on 4 April 1947. Approved For Re j [Po 4 : CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 4 Approved For Release I 999/05 2~ t 4;00951 R000300020003-6 service, 10% to the processing of intelligence documents for the Library files, 23% for bibliographic processing, 25% for service distribution of intelligence documents, 6% for planning and procedures and the remaining 4% of the staff's time to administra- tive duties. Two Library publications made their appearance in 1948: The Weekly Accessions List (of books received) and the Library Bulletin (see chapter on Intellofax for an explanation of the locator system for filing documents). The workload in the Library increased as the young Agency grew; fortunately, a T/O of 100 for the Library had already been approved for FY 1949. 13/ There were 27% more intelligence documents received, recorded, and distributed in 1949 than in the previous year and an increase of 277% in the number of copies received. During 1948 the number of publications ordered averaged Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 628; for 1949--1,376. The number of reference searches rose from 1,161 to 1,500; the number of items circulated from 2,196 to 3,355. The gradual dissolution of Special Project No. 1 (uncleared personnel pool) in late 1948 and early 1949 increased the Library workload .11 in three important aspects: newspaper clipping service (clippings from 24 newspapers and 21 magazines were supplied to six geographic branches of ORE based on reading requirements), indexing of = FOIAb3b1 Daily Reports, and indexing of unclassified documents into the Intellofax System. On 17 March 1949 the Agency's Assistant Directors (AD's) established the Document Procurement Committee to advise the CIA Library on matters pertaining to the procurement of foreign and domestic publications.* ,'P The CIA Library reference book collection was converted in September 1949 from LC call numbers to the classification scheme used for documents-- 25X1X8 4* See chapter on Acquisitions-Procurement for further discussion. FIE fI Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999% ' f - 84-00951 R000300020003-6 Intelligence Subject Code (ISC), thus standardizing the Library's subject anc3 area, approach to its i Cam` V W_6 ,.2 P q-VL, a Li resourcesi)Y in 1948 6,912 books had been cataloged and these were all converted to the ISC scheme.) In 1959 after several surveys recommended the use of the LC scheme for book cataloging, the decision was made to convert again--back to LC cataloging. In November 1949 ].#/ the Library was reorganized into the following six branches:* Analysis (under 25X1A9a 25X1A9a ), Catalogin (under ), 25X1A9a Central Records (under , who supervised this activity until her retirement in 1958), Field 25X1A9a Survey (under , who also acted as Assistant Chief, CIA Library), Records Management 25X1A9a (under , and Reference (under 25X1A9a until 1954). The Analysis Branch performed the input to the Intellofax System. The Cataloging Branch had three sections: Cataloging, Order (procurement of books and periodicals), and Publications Review (clipping service). The Central Records Branch was responsible for distribution of documents, including TS, and maintenance of * By General Order. No. 28, 21 September 1949, a vertical departmental organizational structure was adopted in CIA. The Library, therefore, became a Division and all breakdowns thereof became Branches. Approved For Release 1999, PP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R060300020003-6 coxrfflENI, TS files. The Field Survey Branch was responsible for locating resources of intelligence interest. Records Management (formerly Archives) was charged with developing and implementing an active CIA Records Management Program. Reference Branch included three sections: Circulation, Information 25X1A9a (under until her retirement in Jur}e 1972), and Files (of documents). With the issuance of CIA Notice 30-50, dated 26 July 1950, the Library accelerated the Records Management Program for the Agency. 149,363 items from 1948 and 1949 were microfilmed; this resulted in the processing of 351,698 frames for archival purposes. 25X1A9a In April 1950 the DCI appointed Mr. 25X1A9a to replace Mr. - as CIA Top Secret Control Officer (TSCO) and as CIA Custodian of Registered Documents. 11. He was also appointed CIA Control Officer for certain codeword collections of documents. In October 1950 he called a meeting of the Area TSCO's. 1/ (Areas were intra-Agency office + F1 E , UUL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199*IDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 designations for TS control purposes.) The conference, the first of a series, was designed to improve the overall control system as much as possible and to develop uniform understanding of procedures 25X1A9a among the Areas. As a follow-up, Mr. - issued, in August 1951, a Guide for Area Top Secret Control Officers to provide all TSCO's with a uniform functional understanding of the TS network or system. In 1951 the Library was relieved of two respon- sibilities that had been time-consuming. On 28 February, James Andrews, the AD/CD, established a centralized Cable Center Branch in the Liaison Division (LD). / This consolidated the reading or dissemination and the reference functions of servicing cables in one Branch. Four months later, the Administrative Services Office assumed operation of the Vital Materials Program, which had been 25X1A9a under the jurisdiction of Mr. as the first Vital Documents Officer since March 1949. NF1UE lTI t1 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 CONFIDENTIAL 4. CIA Library and the Library of Congress Over the years, OCD (OCR) maintained close working relationships with and provided a variety of support to the LC. This discussion will cover the entire period from 1948 until financial support terminated in 1967. It appears in this chapter because in 1948 the CIA Librarian became the first official liaison officer from CIA to the LC, a relationship that every CIA Librarian has continued. a. Support to Slavic Catalogs and Accessions Lists Az The Monthly List of Russian Accessions (The title was changed in-1958 to Monthly Index of Russian Accessions (MIRA] as a more explanatory title and will henceforth be so designated) was first published by the LC in 1948 as a comprehensive record of post-World War II Soviet publications in all fields of knowledge received by the LC and some 200 other major US libraries. in April 1949 the AD/CD negotiated an agreement with the LC for incorporating into the MIRA certain unclassified Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release I 99 9 l pP84-00951 R000300020003-6 25X1A8b translated bibliographic information formerly published by =DD. In December the Acting Librarian of Congress informed CIA that the LC would be unable to continue the printing and dissemination of the MIRA because of shortage of funds during the last quarter of FY 1950. Convinced of the unique value of the MIRA, the AD/CD recommended and the Projects Review Committee (PRC) approved an expenditure of $1,000 to the LC. (LC had asked for $4,000.) In October 1951 the Librarian of Congress set forth two proposals to CIA: (1) improvement of the MIRA (including translating Russian titles into English and providing detailed cross-referencing); and (2) a project for the development of a subject arrangement to the Slavic Union Catalog, an author catalog that the LC had started in 1942 for material in the Cyrillic alphabet acquired in the United States since 1917. 29 CON F1 E 1 ,, Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/2: C RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The ADs of ORR and OSI concurred in the AD/CD's request to the Chairman/PRC to support the LC facilities for reference to Slavic publications. Dr. Andrews, in referring to the Slavic Union Catalog, stated: The intelligence family does not now possess a central facility for. obtaining adequate bibliographic control of the books, monographs and periodicals which are received from the Soviet Union. As a result of its work, the Library of Congress has assembled a Slavic Union Catalog to which researchers the country over can be referred including Soviet publications cataloged by other cooperating American libraries. For budgetary reasons, the Library of Congress has been restricted in developing this catalog and the only approach to the material is now by author. C45s"I 1UE I Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 COW IDTI The LC cost estimates, as approved by.the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) on 23 November 1951, were $73,240 in support of the MIRA for the initial year of sponsored operation and $198,760, the entire cost, for adapting the Slavic Union Catalog to a subject approach. In a letter of 8 August 1952, the Librarian of Congress raised the estimate for the two projects to $314,698. 41- The DCI authorized the increased expenditure in October 1952. / Beginning with the March 1952 issue,* and as a product of the CIA-sponsored project, the MIRA was expanded from two to four parts, and with the increased FY 1953 budget, the LC added a subject index of monographs. Under the agreement to convert the Slavic Union Catalog from author to subject approach, the CIA Library received increments of the subject catalog, which was henceforth known as the Cyrillic .w4 C/~5 * A copy of a 1952 MIRA is on file i 4istorical Files. At/ C FJ ENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 ?ClA=R?P. 4-00951 R000300020003-6 Subject Union Catalog (CSUC).* (All branches of the Library assisted in trying to alleviate the filing backlog created by the arrival of these cards.) In 1956 the CIA Librarian as Project Officer with the LC terminated the CSUC project. In listing his reasons, he stated that he believed it was more important to announce the availability of publications (in the MIRA) than to build up a fully cataloged set of cards. Termination of the CSUC permitted the LC to transfer nine positions to the MIRA staff, which needed relief because of an increase in receipts of USSR publications. In 1959 CIA, through OCR, began support to a companion publication to the MIRA, the East European Accessions Index (EEAI), published by the LC since 1952. Costs for the EEAI were $254,154 in FY 1959, rising to $282,600 for FY 1961. $51,000 was received from the National Science Foundation (NSF). * These CSUC cards were augmented in 1954 by cards that the CIA Library received from the Army G-2 Library, the Air Force ATIC Library, the National Central Library in London, and the Armed Forces Medical Library on Slavic materials in those libraries. This companion catalog, known as the IAC Union Catalog in the CIA Library, did not work successfully, however, because of variations in cataloging practices and the resultant incompatibility of cards for filing purposes. The project ceased in 1956. / Approved For Release 19999 ~:IP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199g/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 COFDENT1AL Funding by the Agency for the MIRA rose to a peak of almost $441,000 by FY 1962, at which time CIA secured the financial participation of the NSF and the LC itself. CIA costs then stabilized at the $350,000 - $370,000 level. During a routine audit of the Office of Central Reference (OCR--name changed from OCD in 1955) by representatives of the General Accounting Office in 1961, the question of propriety of CIA/OCR sponsorship 25X1A9a of the two publications was raised. AD/CR at the time, called on the Central Advisory Group (CRAG)--which he had established in 1957-- and the members of the USIB Committee on Documentation (CODIB) to survey the usefulness of the two publications. The NSF and the LC hired an outside consultant, 25X1A5a1 , to determine the character and degree of use of the MIRA and the EEAI. j/ In late 1961 CIA stopped its support of the EEAI and the LC ceased its publication. As financial pressure on CIA continued to build up in the 1960's, the priority importance of the support to MIRA Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 l DP84-00951 R000300020003-6 continued to drop. OCR felt that access to Russian publishing had vastly improved compared with the early 1950's, and intelligence users were no longer making substantial use of the MIRA. OCR notified the Librarian of Congress on 5 October 1965 of its decision to terminate CIA's funding of the MIRA in FY 1967. This occurred after much correspondence between OCR and the LC and even congressional questioning regarding CIA's termination of support to the MIRA. b. Other Relationships With the LC 25X1X8 In the mid-1950's the CIA Library began to transfer regularly to the LC those foreign publications that (a) had been utilized by research components of CIA and were not scheduled to be retained in the CIA Library, (b) were archival materials no longer re wired b CI example, the captured Japanese collection), or (c) were current publications received as a result of the CIA Library's worldwide selection program but found to have little or no intelligence value. By 1959 an average of 8,000 pieces, books and serials, had been sent to the LC every month. 3/ 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 :,. I.A-RDP$4-00951 R000300020003-6 C J J An important but informal arrangement was worked-out in December 1952--and has continued to the present date--between the CIA Library and the LC for one person from the Circulation Branch of the Library to be detailed to the LC on a full- time basis to handle searching and charging out of all CIA requests, averaging 37 a day. 'j~ Arrangements were also made in the 1950's whereby professional personnel recruited for OCR were utilized by the LC while awaiting full security clearance. These people worked at the LC on projects that The AD/CR made an offer on 23 November 1959 to the Librarian of Congress to supply the LC with a copy of every catalog entry representing original cataloging by the CIA Library. The LC accepted with the proviso that these cards would not be filed in the LC's Union Catalog because CIA did not want to get into the lending pattern for open publications. Arrangements were made to transfer the Library's retrospective collection of Russian newspapers to the LC. By 1964 the CIA Library had freed approximately 2,000 linear feet of shelving, 25X1 X8 Appre Approved For Release 1999/ Off 4-00951 R000300020003-6 which provided badly needed space for other serial material. 5. Branch Libraries (1951-1967) As the Agency grew larger and personnel were housed in widely scattered buildings, a need arose to establish branch libraries that would be administra- tively responsible to the CIA Library but would specialize in satisfying the reference needs of a particular group or component. The first such Library to be established was at the request of Matthew Baird, the Director of Training. 3 / It opened in Alcott Hall in May 1951 to support the uncleared personnel going through the recruitment process. It was known as Branch #2 because plans for a branch library specifically tailored to the needs of the covert offices had begun earlier in 1951 at the request of those offices. 3/ It was not until 11 February 1952, however, that Branch #1 was officially opened in K Building with two positions added to the Library's T/O. In September ICOHFIIJENTML Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/2?'`'.-VA,DP84-009518000300020003-6 1952 0/ the medical Office requested of the CIA Librarian a part-time librarian to take care of processing the accumulation of medical documents. A detail of 6 months was arranged. At the end of this period, the medical Office initiated action to augment the CIA Library T/O by one GS-9 librarian, and Branch #3 opened in Central Building in November 1953.,: Library administration lasted until July 1959, when the Medical Staff took over completely. In May 1953 the foreign publications procurement function was transferred from the State Department to the CIA Library. An agreement was reached with OO/FDD * that Branch #4 be established at that 25X1A6a time in 0 Building to function as the focal point of procurement, receipt, bibliographic control, and retention of foreign language publications in the Agency. This branch operated until FDD's move in 1960 to H Street, N.W. When the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) moved from M Building to Barton Hall in 1954, it requested that a branch * Discussions with FDD regarding a Branch Library began as early as January 1952. The CIA Library maintained that FDD had assumed certain LL.brary functions for which it had no charter. / Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09 A-RDP84-009518000300020003-6 library be established for its purposes. Branch #5 opened in September of that year. As the Office of Training (OTR) programs evolved, the training of uncleared personnel dropped out of the picture and the role of the OTR Library and Branch #2 tended to blend. Mr. Baird and the AD/CR agreed that these two facilities should be consolidated into a single branch of the CIA Library in R&S Building. The, takeover from OTR became effective in November 1957 and OTR transferred six T/O slots. 25XT6a arthest afield Branch Library was established in in 1958, at the requ2% o Brig. Gen. 25X1A9a 1A 6a , Chief of the a A6CChief of the Circulation Branch was sent to to study the need for a station library. He recommended the establishment of a 25X1A9a reference and information activity. Mrs. 25X1A9a from his staff became the station's first OCR librarian on 15 February 1958 and served for 3 years. The Library terminated its support in 1964 because the activity no longer required professional administration.* 25X1Aea A total of three librarians served in Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The Office of Communications (OC) Library was transferred to OCR with a T/O of two persons in 1 May 1959 to increase managerial efficiency. This is the only branch library still under CIA Library administration in 1973. The OTR Language 25X1A6a and Area School, located in was not scheduled-for a move to the new Agency building; therefore, a Branch Library was established in the fall of 1960 for these training activities with a Library T/O increase of one. It was phased out in 1966 because of a cutback in area training. In 1963 the Office of General Counsel (OGC) asked for assistance in providing specialized reference service and in building up a legal collection for its lawyers. As a result, another Branch Library was established; its staff of one was administratively transferred to OGC in 1968 as the CIA Library faced T/O cuts. The last Branch Library to be established was in the Office of Research and Development (ORD). Opened in July 1966, it provided direct support to ORD, including the use of a manual "profile of interest file" for calling new materials to the attention of ORD subject specialization. ORD took over its administration in mid-1968. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RQP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199/09/24 :,,CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 (t1L a'J,_, The move to the new building in 1961 obviated the need for Branch Libraries #1 and #5 and the Training Library. 6. Much Ado About Something--1952 Reorganization OCD's move to the 25X1A6a in April 1952 resulted in the Librarian's Office being placed "in the loft" above the troops, except for the Reference and Circulation Branches, which remained in M Building. Immediately before the move, the Library had its second reorganization. Based on 25X1A9a a survey by entitled A Report on the Files and Circulation Sections of the CIA Library, a new Circulation Branch was created made up of the former Circulation and Files Sections of the Reference Branch. Both the Analysis and the Circulation Branches were organized on a document source basis (State, Defense, CIA, and Miscellaneous) * Planner and first editor of the Intelligence Publications Index (IPI). See chapter on Intellofax. Approved For Release 1 9 9109124-: CIA=RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999109124,: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 similar in pattern to that of the Liaison Division. (Documents were also batched/envelopes according to main source of origin.) The Processing Unit of the Document Branch (successor to central Records Branch), performing duties in connection with preliminary cataloging (typing) of incoming documents, was transferred to the Production Section, Analysis Branch. The project for microfilming all intelligence documents was transferred from the Reference Branch to the Document Branch, with nine positions added to the T/O of the latter. A few months later this project was transferred to MMD where the technical aspects of microphotography could be researched and tested. The Field Survey Branch of the Library had been inactive for 2 years because of the other demands 25X1A9a upon Mr. the Deputy Librarian, who also headed the Branch. As a result of inter-office discussions, OCD was charged with planning and initiating a new operation for reporting to analysts on reference facilities and resources The Library received authority on 1 May 1952 to establish a Resources Section in the Reference Branch with a staff of six. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/091':fit; RAt84-00951 R000300020003-6 25X1A9a 25X1A9a On 24 June Mr. ~ replaced 25X1A9a as Librarian (Mr. - became Executive in the 25X1A9a AD's office), and on 7 July chief of the Book Branch, took over as Deputy Librarian. The new Library team made a plea for additional personnel. In a memo to the AD/CD they presented statistically the growth of Library service: ff 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 Reference Questions 6,817 8,250 12,594 17,000 Documents Supplied 34,084- 41,015 60,794 90,400 Books Purchased 8,184 10,760 24,436 44,100 Subscriptions Placed 2,576 4,256 3,891 6,000 Books Cataloged 4,164 4,476 4,920 7,400 b. Clipping Service Late in 1952 the Chief of the Book Branch 25X1A9a at the request of the AD/CD, made a survey of the newspaper and FIB Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 1 flu , periodical clipping service. At that time 17,000 clippings were being sent out each month based on 145 requirements from CIA customers in all offices except Administration and Management. 41/ Due to the analysts' cry of "inestimable value" and the threat of increasing publication subscriptions, the service continued for another 3 years. The T/O, however, was reduced from an approved T/O of seven in 1949 / to five in 1952. Service was finally terminated in 1956 because of budget restrictions. c. Selection The important position of Selection Officer was established in the Reference Branch in 1952. One of the earliest mentions of selection procedures 25X1A9a occurs in a memo from Mr. ~ 2 weeks after he reported for duty in March 1948. / Six months later the Librarian approved a proposal from 25X1A9a Mr. _ that resulted in five librarians being assigned responsibility for screening book reviews in designated magazines to choose books for the Library. 41 Selection policy was the key to CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199 J4-,RYP84-00951 R000300020003-6 the CIA Library's shaping of its reference capabilities. Among the principal considerations were (a) knowing what the major requirements of the Agency were likely to be by studying the borrowing and purchase patterns of individual requesters, requirements lists, and reference questions, and (b) reviewing trade announcements, bibliographies, book reviews, and catalogs from all over the world. The emphasis was usually on current material, with heavy reliance on interlibrary loan for historical background items. Originally set up for the purpose of selecting material for the book and periodical collections, this function expanded over the years to include similar responsibility for the document collection. Selection officers worked closely with document disseminators and classifiers in determining what, how, and where classified documents should be handled in the Library. They also alerted production offices to new and forthcoming publications. A Joint Liaison-Library Selection Committee was also established in May 1952. It consisted of one officer from LD and three Library representatives from the Analysis, Book, and Reference Branches. s, 4 Approved For Release 19997d N ATk kDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The Committee determined processing treatment for documents secured by LD officers, publications from the Foreign Service, and enclosures that required specialized treatment. #/ 7. The Heyday of the Library (1953-mid-1956) A "first" was the Library's publication in January 1953 of theAindex to finished intelligence. Its history and development are discussed in the chapter on the Intellofax System, inasmuch as the two indexing systems are closely related. In May 1953 the Foreign Publications Branch of the State Department was abolished, and the important foreign publications procurement function was transferred to CIA as a result of NSCID 16. On 9 May the Foreign Branch (later called the Acquisitions 25X1A9a Branch) became part of the CIA Library with - 25X1A9a as its chief. .4/ (The Branch was established with a T/O of 16, supplemented by 13 additional positions from State in July.) At that time the Library added to its managerial staff a Deputy 25X1A9a Librarian for Procurement- , an ex-Army Approved For Release 1999 09114, -6 R P84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Major who had been G-2 Librarian. (He remained with the Agency until. 1955 when he transferred to NSA and the second Deputy Librarian's slot was then dropped.) As mentioned in the organizational setup of the Reference Branch in 1948 (see page l), retrieval for;:the Intellofax System was not the administrative responsibility of the classifiers. The reasoning behind this separation was that professional librarians considered Intellofax queries no different from any other reference question. In 1953 a policy was inaugprated whereby one senior classifier was rotated from the Analysis Branch to Reference on a weekly basis. The gains realized were evident in a wider understanding of reference problems and a closer knowledge of the end product. In May 1953 a Serials Unit was developed in the Circulation Branch to resolve the many specialized problems concerning the treatment of the serials collection. in cooperation with LD, arrangements were completed giving the Circulation Branch direct V..,., S a.1# Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 ear, [I access to Armed Services Technical Information Agency (ASTIA) for the procurement of reports originating from contractors for the Department of Defense (DoD). 25X1A9a In October 1954 resigned as Chief of the Reference Branch to accept a position 25X1A9a with USIA, and , editor of the IPI, transferred from the Book Branch to become Reference Chief. a. Reorganization Again In June 1955 the Library was again reorganized. At that time it had a T/O of 250--the highest it has ever had to date (1973). In the course of the reorganization the Book Branch was abolished, and all procurement activities, domestic and foreign, were transferred to. the Acquisitions Branch. The TS Section was removed from the Library entirely, and a new Classification Control Staff was created 25X1A9a in the CAD, with as chief, to handle consolidation of the document security control functions of the Agency TSCO and of the Library's Document Branch. Approved For Release 1 ru"MPA: RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The Catalog Section was moved to the Analysis Branch, which was renamed Analysis and Catalog Branch. All-subject indexing functions of the Library were combined in this new Branch, which comprised three sections: Reports, for indexing intelligence reports into Intellofax; Book, for cataloging books; and Periodicals, for indexing finished intelligence and periodicals and for handling ;a the clipping service. The Special Resources Section of the Reference Branch was abolished as an administrative unit. During its 3 years of existence it had identified and surveyed a variety of non-CIA library collections and activities.* This part of its mission was completed and its activities were redirected toward book selection and management of special reference projects for the Library. b. IG Survey The Inspector General (IG) surveyed OCR in 1956 and submitted a report to the DCI on 25 April. If'/ * For its surveys see the list of Library publications o-n-page ' ; e4 i Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/2t - IA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Nixh The Library received plus marks for its accomplishments, which the survey described as "impressive." The overall appraisal of the Library, its personnel, organization, management, and operations was highly favorable. Certain minor deficiencies were noted, namely: restricted data material was not indexed in the central reference system; there were no written selection criteria for selecting material for inclusion in the IPI; there seemed to be a duplication of the Library's clipping service elsewhere in the Agency (DDP's News Highlights) and in the government (the IG questioned whether the Agency was getting a maximum return from the service as conducted in the Library); a considerable amount of time was lost in moving documents from place to place--dissemination, coding, keypunching, microfilming, distribution--all in a variety of areas in OCD (the IG recognized that this problem common to all OCR operations was under continuing study and changes were made as experience dictated); grade structure in the Document Branch was too low to provide adequate compensation for the service performed; a serious space problem existed in the Circulation Branch, which jeopardized efficiency and morale; Approved For Release I 999 /' lAP84-00951 R000300020003-6 f~~14~~);09a Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CI-J R000300020003-6 and the Circulation Branch found it difficult to recover books and documents borrowed from the Library. The DD/I's (Amory) comments on certain of the Library deficiencies were: restricted data should not be merged into the central reference system any more than special intelligence should be indluded on an Intellofax tape because of the danger of compromise; because the DCI had given his approval to continued production of News High hts by DD/Pthe IG's recommendation concerning elimination of certain duplication of clipping services was no longer valid; OCR grade structure in general was inequitable and the DD/S would be asked to take the recommended action; the AD/CR would prepare and publish an Agency notice defining employee responsibilities with respect to materials borrowed from the CIA Library. c. Treaty Collection Because of a flap that occurred at the time of the Suez Crisis in the summer of 1956 when reference librarians searched all over the Washington DT Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release I 999/09/ . ' 1.A=RDP84-009518000300020003-6 government area. for the Suez Canal Treaty of 1888, the Library took steps to strengthen its treaty collection. It undertook to establish microfilm- ing schedules with the LC for the latter's out- of-print treaty reference works. 8. B Reorganization - September 1956 25X1A9a 25X1A9a Mr. _, the Librarian, and Mr. Chief, Acquisitions Branch, left on a round-the- world trip in August 1956. While they were away, another reorganization--the most extensive yet--took place. In September the DD/I ordered an across-the-board personnel cut, as a result of which OCR had to discontinue several operations that were considered to be of relatively low priority and costly in manpower, including the Library Clipping Service and the Week1yj ccessions List. To achieve a more effective utilization of manpower, OCR was reorganized on 1 November, 56/ and parts of the Library and LD, plus the Classification Control Staff, were regrouped into a new Document Division (DD). This change placed the coding and dissemination j 1, p{r JAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 functions in the same Division--DD.. Management had considered adding the dissemination function to the Library but had decided that this would make the Library too unwieldy. The shift of duties and personnel left the Library with a T/O of 141 and stripped it of the distinction of being the largest single Division in OCR. Circulation and Reference were left basically intact. Book cataloging was attached to the Acquisitions Branch. 9. Library Consultants' Survey and Task Team Reports a. Consultants' Survey--1957 5 / In 1957 the Library underwent a traumatic experience--the Library Consultants I Survey. This survey was, in fact, the major issue concerning OCR during 1957. It stemmed from a proposal of the DD/I the previous year that a panel of library experts be engaged to make a special survey of the library. He apparently made this proposal largely upon the recommendation of one of his Special Assistants (Walter Pforzheimer), who felt that the Library was in poor shape but was himself unable to pinpoint the problems. In August 1956 Mr. Amory Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 _' Iiil;crib 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA I b1 4-00951 R000300020003-6 established an ad hoc Library survey committee, representing many segments of CIA, which drew up terms of reference for a panel of three outside librarians who were to survey the CIA Library and the OCR documentation processes so that OCR could be sure of developing optimum efficiency and best possible use of space and manpower before its move to the new building. The three consultants- 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 --spent over three months in OCR. probed vigorously 25X1A5a1 into the details of the entire reference problem. 25X1A5a1 Mr. llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllwas mainly interested in the Library collections, in relations between the Library and the Registers, and in overall problems of office 25X1A5a1 policy, command, and operation. Mr. concentrated on acquisitions problems. On the .whole, the Consultants were not favorably impressed with the Library operations and related document activities, many of which affected DD and Machine Division (MD) as well. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/0912.4 CIAO-~DP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Dr. Andrews was greatly disturbed by the specific criticisms the Consultants levied on OCR, its Intellofax System, and its mechanized approach to the documentation problems. He stated: "We knew the family car had plenty of squeaks and rattles, but we did not believe it was in quite such a shape as the Consultants say it is." / He took issue with their recommenda- tionssthat OCR cease using microfilm aperture cards and go back to hard copy, abandon the Intellofax System, and expand the IPI into a monthly publication much like the Bibliography of Agriculture (BOA). 25X1A5a1 i had been Librarian at the Department 25X1A5a1 of Agriculture before affiliating with ~) Dr. Andrews likened the adoption of these recommendations to telling OCR to "junk the family car and buy a horse." On 18'June ff/ Dr. Andrews answered the Consultants' criticisms of the handling and usage of Intellofax cards over 5 years old. They claimed the cards were not available to the customers, who were not even told of the retirement policy. Dr. Andrews actually made an Intellofax request and in 20 minutes had legible photos of the older cards, which had been put on microfilm. He claimed that most of the indictments were untrue and particularly misleading. Approved For Releal O- O J 99/0912] : CIA-RDP94-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/49/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 LIII No aspect of the survey caused Dr. Andrews as much concern as the "Ten Horrible cases" they cited to "point up some of the intellectual and mechanical problems of the Intellofax System." He spent the better part of a week examining in detail each of the 10 Intellofax requests. He the, bluntly stated to the DDI: "Now hear me! These are not Ten Horrible Cases at all." He admitted that two of the cases were serious human errors causing MD to miss some cards that should have been supplied to the customers. Two others were similar, but the Consultants failed to note that these mistakes were caught and corrected within OCR itself. The other six cases he described as "phonies and bogus"; he showed why reruns did not always retrieve the same Intellofax references, due in specific instances to a change in retrieval parameters, such as date coverage, source specificity, or subject or area breakdowns. On 11 July A(/ he prepared a final accounting for the DD/I referring to his two previous memos which he said proved that most of the criticisms CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 of the Intellofax System were thoroughly unsound. He was certain that OCR (and the DD/I) should reject the Consultants' most important recommendation that the Intellofax System be phased out as rapidly as possible. He admitted, as he always had, that the System had imperfections, but he claimed it was doing a better job for OCR than any conventional published index* could do. Dr. Andrews felt that the Consultants' proposal that OCR should create a Central Reference Staff had some merit; he recommended, however, that OCR build up its Library Reference Staff through fairly intensive training but that there be no formal reorganization until there could be an experimental trial of the usefulness of putting liaison officers from the Registers into the staff. He suggested as a start that each Register might be required to place one person full-time with the reference librarians for a week or so. Dr. Andrews stated that the Consultants were right in saying that * He even appended a nine-page study of the BoA to his report. He had asked Mrs. , formerly 25X1A9a associated with the BoA, to prepare the study. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84- 0951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/Q9/24 CIA-RDR84-00951 R000300020003-6 the Library held down purchase of books for reasons of economy and space limitations. He recommended a slow buildup of collections even in the new building, and embarcation on a program of acquisition in specific fields, such as the Treaty Collection. Dr. Andrews bristled at the Consultants' criticisms of the, Library's efficiency and manpower as compared with libraries at the State Department, Yale, and other institutions. He found many of these criticisms unsound. He recommended that the Management Staff study the charges of inefficiency and wasteful use of manpower. He agreed with the criticisms of the ISC that it was too detailed for efficient and consistent use. However, he did refer to the difficulty of keeping other agencies from expanding segments of the ISC in which they were specifically interested. He was confident that a Working Group el, ( ,, A, , G acv -i. v { sx, ,c~ Ot t s Gib{ N,.t _A~ct ca rx n+ at~ez r~ y j~ ~rl %t of A4-P-would be able to agree on a simpler version '4- for a revised ISC. Dr. Andrews absolutely rejected the Consultants' recommendation that the document collection be maintained in hard copy rather than A t_ on microfilm in aperture cards. The original reasons for developing the aperture card system were still valid: conserve floor space and cabinets and ensure a complete file. Approved -dr R - .1a99L09 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 b. Task Team Reports (1958) With his last blast against the consultants on 11 July, Dr. Andrews also submitted his resignation. His successor as AD/CR, Paul Borel, arrived in September and immediately set out to evaluate the recofnmendations of the Library consultants in order to have a sound basis for making decisions on them. Examining the Consultants' Report in detail, he found that basic questions could be identified, and he set up 16 Task Teams (TT) to deal with these problems. Most of these Teams were chaired by OCR personnel, and 37 of the Team members were OCR employees. Other Agency offices contributed the services of more than 30 of their employees as Team members. Twelve of the 16 Teams dealt with Library or related operations; the others with general topics, such as training and customer relations. Three of the 12 that concerned the Library were directed toward acquisitions and ublications procure- ment (TT 5, 6, and 7) and will e discussed in s relation to the Consultants' c iti i r c sms on the Library and related operations. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: 951 ROOO3OOO2OOO3-6 M.i Approved For Release 1999/0912:,:? C:IA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 (1) Intellofax (TT1) 25X1A5a1 had devoted a great deal of time examining, dissecting, and relentlessly attacking the Intellofax System in all its ramifications. TT1's seven-man committee came up with the longest study of all the Teams--90 pages, including much philosophizing on the part of the chairman about information storage and retrieval. The committee participated in a joint questionnaire with TT10 (Reference) and TT11 (Information Center) designed to elicit information from customers regarding their attitude toward and opinions of the OCR information services. Some of TTl's findings overlapped with TT3 (Coding) and TT9 (Cataloging) in the use of the ISC and with TT2 (Machine Use) in the machine applications of the Intellofax System. Before the Task Teams were actually organized, Mr. Sorel had asked an user analyst to study OCR's document system in the light of 25X1A9a the Consultants' findings. of the Office of National Estimates (ONE) prepared a thorough 37-page study, which Mr. Borel gave to TT1. iAa ~..a .1Y31t4&+ Approved For Releasee,1.999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The Consultants had charged that Intellofax was unreliable in coding and encoding, citing 20 cases in which the same subject was not coded twice in the same ISC terms. TT1 confirmed that this charge was substantially correct, stating that these errors were due to lack of direct contact with the requester, lack of experience of reference .11 librarians, lack of advice from the Analysis Branch, and lack of a continuing and growing tradition that would benefit from past experience. TT1 felt that all of these factors could be alleviated with a revised ISC with tools that would contain enough information for proper code choices and with an Analysis Branch representation on the retrieval end. TT1 agreed with the Consultants that citations (titles) on documents were inadequate and should be improved.* The Consultants also charged that 8n Iy'sL the System was insufficiently used, slow,** untrustworthy, * Even before Mr. Borel had taken up the community problem of improved titles with ,., l Branch had prepared and put into practice a "Gu de 4 A "ijP in ]95s): on How to Write Abs acts and title Expansions" in February 1959. / for lack of use. ** The Intellofax Questionnaire showed that slowness was the least frequently cited reason ;Approved, F p r Re)easE Approved For Release 1999/09/24: C14~MfR1 R000300020003-6 and costly, and that it required excessive space,- overlapped work done in the OCR Registers, and failed to provide service at as high an intellectual level as was needed for the programs of the Agency. TT1 pointed out that Intellofax was chosen as a solution to a requester's problems if the information he needed could be found only in information reports; that11-2 days to satisfy a request was not unreasonably slow; that it was impossible to compare the Consultants' cited figure of $200 for each search with any norm or ideal; that the recommended card catalog and intact hard-copy file would take more space than Intellofax; that the Consultants confused multiple processing among the Registers with duplicate processing; and that Intellofax was not designed to retrieve by name of individual or industrial installation. The Task Team felt that the Intellofax System provided very sophisticated service when combined with the researchers' screening of the document services. TTl and TT3 both recommended that the Analysis Branch be divided by subject/area specialization to raise the intellectual level.* * Subject specialization was considered but never put into effect, because a large percentage of the documents were multisubject. The eventual reorganization of the Analysis Branch in November 1960 was by area specialization. See chapter c Document Division). the ,~ Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA- ~~ X000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Two other criticisms were directed to the mechanical aspects of the System: the same data did not appear on repeated runs for the same codes, and older IBM cards were unavailable. Dr. Andrews had directed himself to these two issues 3 9 ~/o (see pages 2=6-and 2:W). According to TT1 and TT2, MD had 'already corrected the weakness of a multiplicity 11 of files, which the Consultants claimed as one of the major reasons for the errors in the Ten Horrible Cases. The Consultants' charge of unavailability of older cards was partly true insofar as it referred to the information given the requester. TT1 claimed, however, that it was not correct in relation to the true facts. Some librarians had been remiss in not alerting a requester that the Intellofax cards older than 5 years had been retired to Records Center and that these cards were on microfilm in Headquarters. The Task Team also determined that the cards could be returned from Records Center within a relatively short time. TTl recommended that microfilming of retired Intellofax cards should be discontinued. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/14 : C.IA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 During the Task Team's investigations, a Composite Group was set up as an experiment to handle Intellofax runs in the Reference Branch. The Group consisted of one representative each 25X1A9a from the Analysis Branch, DD ( also 25X1A9a a member of TT1), MDX( ), and the Library Reference Branch ( 'f Intellofax retrieval under'this arrangement reflected the maximum efforts of the three divisions involved. The establishment of the Composite Group was probably one of the most important results of this Task Team's efforts, for it emphasized the importance of amalgamating input and output. The arrangement became a permanent one, with a senior Intellofaxer on rotation to the Reference Branch for a month to work with one librarian whose sole responsibility was Intellofax retrieval. After the initial experiment, it was not considered necessary to have a permanent MD representative--he was on call, if necessary. The activity was given a more descriptive name in January 1961, when it became the Intellofax Reference Group (IRG).` 'a.1wr ?"r ~1~ d~~~ Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 CIAFbP84-=:,0 951 R000300020003-6 (2) Machine Use (TT2) This Task Team consisted of three individuals with varied degrees of experience in machine data handling system operations. TT2 agreed with the Consultants' criticism that eight Subject and 14 Area Files in MD were excessive and impaired the efficiency of the Intellofax operations. It also discovered that the machine sorting of the Area File was minimal, and it recommended that all parts of it be combined in arrangement by area only. TT2 agreed with the Consultants that the electronic facsimile printers used for the preparation of Intellofax tapes had become outmoded. MD had performed tests and produced sample Intellofax tapes using Card List Cameras (built in MD) and Photostat Expeditors, which processed the exposed photographic paper. TT2 confirmed that these machines could produce tapes at twice the speed of the facsimile printers. It recommended that they should continue to be used because they also could be readily converted for use with hard-copy documents or with aperture cards and because the services they provided could not be obtained at a lower cost by other systems App Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 ti? F UEiIIA L M as the Consultants claimed. TT2 agreed with the charge that the machine files required excessive space. (See TTl above) (3) Coding (TT3) This Team covered a variety of subjects, some of which overlapped with TTl, TT2, and TT9. Charged with a study of the ISC, it made no tests on the coding scheme per se, because the ISC was already undergoing extensive revision. The Consultants had strongly recommended the adoption of the LC system of classification for the cataloging of books in the CIA Library. TT3 had no argument with this, agreed that the ISC was inadequate for book cataloging, and heartily recommended the conversion from the ISC to the LC scheme. Two main claims of the Consultants that the aperture cards should be discontinued in favor of an intact hard-copy document system and that the Intellofax punch card system should be replaced by a manual card catalog were partly accepted by TT3. It recommended the establishment on a trial basis of a 1-5 year collection 4: Approved For Release 1999/09/2 84-009518000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 of hard-copy documents, but as a supplement to, not a replacement for the aperture card program. TT3 stated that, although there was no substitute for the extensive searching capability of a good machine indexing system, there might be some advantage to the rapid browsing ability offered by a card catalog. It therefore recommended that such a catalog be adopted, with extra IBM cards prepared as a by-product of the Intellofax file.* In attacking the Intellofax System the Consultants' urged that it be replaced by an expanded IPI to cover all documents, books and FOlAb3bl periodical articles, including ~ materials. TT3 rejected this recommendation (and agreed with Dr. Andrews) based on size alone, estimatthat an annual cumulation of the augmented IPI would be three times as thick as Webster's unabridged dictionary. In addition, TT3 asserted that the At the recommendation of the.eD/CR in January 1959, Mr. Borel agreed to defer further action on these two recommendations until OCR had an opportunity to evaluate the impact of the MINXeAI.b experiment on OCR operation. As far as this historian recollects, these two changes were never recommended again. Approved For Release 1990/0/1 A-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 publication would not be a$ ,curren Intellofax TW and the total expenditure would be more. TT3 did, however, recommend a printed index of published FEIS material, possibly through an external research contract.* (4) Selection (TT4) TT4 was assigned the problem of studying the publication selection criteria and determining whether the Agency staff participated in the selection process, whether there was a satisfactory selection policy, and whether the selection function should be in the Acquisitions Branch or in the Reference Branch. The Team recommended that a committee of Library selection consultants be designated a channel subordinate to CRAG representation to receive research programming and project planning papers. TT4 gave both plus and minus marks to the selection policy. It was not satisfactory in that there were selection standards and practices FOIAb3bl 25X1A5a1 Approved For Release I999/09/24'?'~Gt - 84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 CoNrf f1NTb for which there were no official endorsements. Written statements of policy, criteria, and procedures were also incomplete. A plus mark was given to the emphasis on a strong reference and bibliographic collection. (5) Circulation (TT8 ) 25X1A9a Deputy Librarian since 1957 and chairman of TT8, was also Acting Chief of the Circulation Branch for a short period in order to coordinate the TT study and to delve into circulation weaknesses. TT8 studied in detail actual operating procedures, forms in use, files or records maintained, working tools and equipment available, staffing patterns, the existence, if any, of duplication of effort, and the possibility of combining functions or operations. The detailed procedural charts made by the TT member from the Management Staff provided a useful management tool, and several suggestions for simplification of work methods were put into effect while the survey was underway. FUUNFIDENTIAL 01, Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199 /Q9 P84-00951 R000300020003-6 TT8 agreed with the Consultants that with 16 units the Branch was overorganized. It recommended that some realignment of functions should take place immediately: the ultimate goal should be the consolidation of the Services Section (with its four units) into a Document Section and a Book-Periodical Section. The Team also recommended procedural changes, more precise work standards, clearly defined work methods, and discontinuation of the indefinite loan files. According to the TT members, the Consultants' charges of low production and slow service could be overcome by the following actions: simplifying procedures; outlining precise work standards and methods; microfilming all NCp documents onto aperture cards; annotating source cards when documents required special handling; placing cards in the card catalogs for only those books that were available to users of the catalogs; assigning to the Branch Chief wide discretion in purchasing and reproducing materials when this appeared to be the best method of servicing a request; and, finally, placing responsibility on the purchasing offices for the custody and accountability for materials purchased with other than CIA Library funds. Approved For Release 1999/9~fi4 84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/0912.::-b 84-00951 R000300020003-6 (6) Cataloging (TT9) TT9, two members of which were professional catalogers--one head of the Catalog Section and one a former head--directed its efforts to studying the card catalogs, the workloads and the cost of cataloging. The Team members agreed with all five of the Consultants' criticisms: (1) The catalogs were inefficient tools and badly kept, because new and additional cards were machine filed in the Subject and Area Catalogs at irregular intervals from 5 months to 1 year.. For catalog purposes, the long, narrow IBM card was considered impractical, whether filed on end or on the side. (2) Too many cards per title were made--19 per title plus special card service based on 82 requirements (for example, one card for %.l for every title in an oriental language). TT9 recommended that cards be prepared only for the Catalog Section (one for Author/Title and one for the Shelf List), for Reference Branch (one for Author/Title, one for Subject, one for Area) and for the Branch Libraries (one, for Author/Title for each library). (3) High cataloging costs were Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1 4 : CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 due to the lack of clearly defined acquisition and selection policies and the preparation and distribution of catalog cards all over the Agency. (4) The use of the ISC was not profitable for cataloging books. TT9 heartily endorsed the adoption of the LC classification scheme and devoted itself to establishing workload standards for conversion. (5) Assuming that the Consultants meant that production rather than workload was low, TT9 pointed up the need for a better balancing of the professional versus the nonprofessional personnel in the cataloging operation. (7) Reference (TT10) The Consultants had criticized the Information Unit of the Reference Branch on several scores: It was grossly overstaffed, it made too much use of untrained staff for work requiring professional competence, and it used tools inferior to those in most reference libraries. The Consultants claimed that analyst must go to many places to get the information that was available and must also maintain large personal files because Library Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1U4V RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 service was poor and undependable. The Consultants also accused the Bibliographic Unit of low quantity and quality work, requiring little special competence. With these harsh criticisms in mind, TT10 stated that the organization of the Reference Branch..,into information, bibliography, selection and Intellofax units dispersed manpower, segmented and duplicated efforts, and failed to develop the kind of well-rounded reference competence required by the Agency. The Team recommended that the Branch be reorganized along area.and functional lines, assigning to each specialist all the reference functions, including selection. TT10 felt that the Reference staff needed strengthening in economics and natural sciences as well as in reading capability in the Slavic and Chinese languages. The Team recommended more aggressive methods to acquaint Agency personnel with reference services and to secure feedback on services rendered. It also suggested a more meaningful system of record keeping and reporting to describe and evaluate Branch activities. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 19990 91?4ti_.Cl l pP84-00951 R000300020003-6 (8) Single Information Center (TT11) The Consultants' proposed organization for OCR was based upon the major premise of a centralized information service for CIA in OCR. By this they meant the establishment of one point of contact for users of OCR reference services and the representation of each OCR service division at the central point. TT11 maintained that the Consultants did not provide a clear and consistent definition of the proposed information center, not differentiating between the concept of "centralized information center for CIA in OCR" and of "one point of contact for users of OCR reference service. TT11 concluded that the single information point concept. was illusory because in practice the Consultants themselves indicated that except for short-term transactions, the customers would be referred to several registers and/or other supporting information units. The Team felt that the nucleus of a central (in contrast to a single) information unit already existed in the Reference Branch. TT11 accused the Consultants of making too superficial a study of the Registers Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release rID84-00951 itflfforfiAL (and the Consultants admitted as much) and of other units outside the Library for them to evaluate adequately the-unique character of their reference services. The Task Team was very much concerned that the Consultants had extended the reference yardstick to the point where it was proposed to separate the reference service per se in the Registers, 25X1A8a in WFDD and in the ORR Map Library from each parent organization and incorporating it into a single reference unit. TT11 recommended that a central information unit be established within the Library and that the following activities, whether administratively part of OCR or not, be located in close proximity to each other in the new building and that they be readily accessible from the central information unit: Library, Industrial Register, Biographic Register, Graphics Register, FAD the Map Library and t-he--Fare?grrHacument-s---D v s' on.. (9) Mt~frCARD (TT12) The Consultants obviously could not criticize the M!WYQ RD System* in depth because * See chapter on-~ e Cntellofax Syster for discussion of the MII'ICARD experiment. Approved For Release 19 DP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 F 1D E T1A , it was not operational in 1957, nor was there a staff or formal paper evaluating the gains anticipated from the new system. The task of TT12 was to determine if (1) M*10 Rb offered advantages over Intellofax; (2) the M1gflt, -h pilot operations had been satisfactorily planned; (3) OCR should have a continuing high- level planning and management staff to investigate new ideas. TT12 concluded that (1) M1L,R;RD did offer many advantages over Intellofax and would substantially improve OCR's support of intelligence research; (2) OCR should immediately organize a MididA,Rt Pilot Operating Staff composed of a Chief and personnel from the Machine and Document Divisions and the Library to develop policies and procedures and to direct the pilot MIN1CA td operation system; (3).0CR should have a high level planning and manage- ment staff to investigate new ideas of document receipt, dissemination indexing and retrieval, to keep abreast of new developments in the fields CON c!D HT Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 19!UT DP84-009518000300020003-6 and to study continually the OCR system in order to recommend changes to improve its efficiency and service to user offices. 10. After the Storm--1958-59 What did the Consultants' Survey and the Task Team Reports do to the Library? It was obvious that many of the recommendations were dependent upon the move to the new building and those referring to the Intellofax System dependent upon the success of the M ~Tlct D experiment.. The overall history of OCR discusses in general Mr. Borel's 1958 program for implementing recommendations of the Consultants and the Task Teams. Needless to say, the Library reorganized on 25X1A9a 4 June 1958. Mr. - comments at that time are pertinent to an understanding of the Library's reaction to the 2 years of intensive examination (IG, Consultants, and Task Teams).0 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 What the Library Survey attempted to do, and what Task Teams, including CRAG, are trying to resolve are certain basic goals or standards needed to give our Agency the best kind of Library...I believe that the mountain of words being amassed on what our problems are tends to over- whelm and becloud fundamentals...As we experiment with new techniques and procedures in the new environment which we are now creating, the recommendations (by the Consultants and Task Teams) will be studied and adopted as appropriate to our entrance into the new building... These have been difficult times but I believe we can look forward now for the next few years to a period when our objectives of optimum service are clearly in sight. 41 JFIENT Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/0914-00951 R000300020003-6 cl A f ~~j I I 1 11 LEPla I a. Revitalized Reference Branch In the reorganization, 25X1A9a 25X1A9a was designated Chief Reference Librarian, replacing 25X1A9a Mrs. as Chief of the Reference Branch. 25X1A9a He continued to act as CIA Librarian in Mr. - absenc:e.* A Bibliographic Section, combining the bibliographic and selection functions, was established 25X1A9a with Mrs. as Chief.** The Branch Libraries were transferred out of the Circulation Branch because of their across-the-board library activities and established briefly under the control of an 25X1A9a independent Branch, with as chief. By December 1958, however, they were brought under the Reference Branch on the recommendation of the Management Staff because it was recognized that the most important part of their work was of a reference nature. 25)(1-A9a * was named Staff Assistant to the CIA Librarian to perform work previously assigned to the Deputy Librarian: staff work and much of the coordinating below the policy level. ~?, :.? }Lva ~~ 25X1 A9a ** As a special service to (NMrs. was detailed to that office in ov/ember 1958 for 2 months to compile an index to National Intelligence Estimates (NIE's) and Special National Intelligence Estimates (SNIE's) published during 1957 and 1958. One. of Mrs. assistants continued compilation of the index until 1964.. Approved For Release 1999/0 "'i 4-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09./24- _CIA-.R DP84-00951 R000300020003-6 The Catalog Section, which had been under Acquisitions Branch since November 1956, was for the first time in its history placed in the Reference Branch (where it remains).* This was a recognition of the vital role of the catalog in reference work. 25X1A9a In February 1959 Mr. _ appointed a specific task to-am made up of Library personnel to recommend the cataloging system that would be the most useful from the Library point of view. A/ Everyone agreed on the LC system and, although this change was an internal matter and would be adopted, Mr. Borel decided to so inform CODIB He received its blessings, and the changeover began in the summer of 1959. To provide for subjects inadequately covered by the LC scheme, the Catalog Section produced three of its own schedules: te/ Law, Communism and Communist Parties, and Intelligence and Security. These schedules were distributed to CODIB members and selected nonintelligence libraries, including the LC. The recataloging, to everyone's surprise, * This Library activity was administratively transferred more than any other. iAL ..a 'S~aa..ti L Approved For Release 1999/09/24 :.CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999JOS/ CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 TL. was concluded by January 1963, except for a small number of titles in the Historical Intelligence Collection, which were given low priority and not completed until October 1964. Back to School The need to provide more training for its librarians, some of whom did not have degrees in library science, had become evident during the 2 years of investigations, so in 1959 the Library began a program o 2spongoring training at recognized Library schools. 5X , who headed the Training Branch Library, attended Rutgers University during the school year 1959-60 and became the first employee to receive a master's degree in library science under Agency sponsorship. Through 1970 eight more OCR employees received similar training at Rutgers, Columbia, Catholic, and Maryland Universities and at Drexel Institute of Technology. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 C. Accessions List Again The subject of an accessions list for the CIA Library had come up recurrently ever since the last one was published in 1956. In 1959 the Library and Mr. Borel, through CRAG, explored the demand for such a list because of an increase in volume of Russian books on many subjects. Only three customers replied to CRAG 15-59, so Mr. Borel issued CRAG 15/1-59, announcing that an accessions list would not be published. 11. A Reorganization Before A Move--1961 In line with OCR policy to coordinate like functions for possible economies, five positions in the Copy Unit of the Circulation Branch were transferred administratively in April 1961 to MD for operation of the photostat machines. This gave the Library a T/O of 133. The filing and servicing of the filmed collection continued to be performed in the Circulation Branch. A further Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 199/09/2.4 :.CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 organizational change involved the transfer of the three-man Selection Unit from the Bibliography Section of the Reference Branch to the Acquisitions Branch. The Librarian's reasoning for this transfer was to allow the Selection Staff to participate more actively in the preparation of selection guides for the foreign procurement program and to plan for the actual location of the Selection Section in the Acquisitions Branch in the new building. The shift was on paper only; the selection activity never moved administratively or physically because there was no room in the new building for the Acquisitions Branch. The Selection Staff therefore was assigned directly to the Librarian's Office. The title of Chief of the Catalog Section moved up a notch in prestige and became Chief Cataloger as an acknowledg- ment of the Library-wide responsibilities of the incumbent. The move of the main library to Langley was completed on 28 September 1961. During the move, main library service points were maintained at the Branch Libraries, State Department Library, Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/0 CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 and the LC. All hands assisted in unpacking and shelving the Reference Collection, unpacking and placing furniture, and locating periodicals, newspapers, and press summaries for display purposes. The Branch Libraries in Barton Hall and R&5 and K Buildings were abolished before the end of 1961 and their functions consolidated with the main Library. Library service increased significantly. Intellofax requests were up 310 over 1960, and requests for the loan and/or retention of books and documents increased 59%. At the invitation of the AD/CR, two consultants visited the Library in June 1962 to review operations and facilities in the new building and to advise officials on policy and procedures. 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 submitted quite a different report '[,from the devastating Consultants' Report of 1957 (although had also been a member of that team). They I Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 commented favorably on fYi~ 40f programs and services and suggested only minor changes in organization, training programs for staff members and the publication of accessions lists. The Accessions List resumed publication as a monthly issuance in 1963 partly on this recommendation and partly because of consumers' requests. An OCR management decision of November 1962 assigned to the Inter-Agency Service (IAS) unit of the Circulation Branch the job of ordering and distributing military procurement materials that could be obtained without charge from US military establishments. This was transferred from the Acquisitions Branch to IAS in order to reduce the number of Library points contacting the same suppliers and to clarify and reduce the responsibilities of Acquisitions Branch with regard to the procurement of classified and "free" publications. a. IG Again The Inspector General surveyed OCR again in September 1963. i/ The Library was rated high, and the overall tone of the report was that Approved For Release 1999/0912(:=CIA} t D 84-009;51 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 it had been able to render an increasing amount of effective service to both CIA and non-CIA users. Commending the work of the Selection Staff, the IG nevertheless stressed the need for a reevaluation of selection policies. He recommended the establishment of a group of representatives of the major components of the Agency who would discuss and reexamine with the Librarian and the Chief of the Selection Staff the policies pertaining to book procurement. This was not a new idea; TT4 and CRAG had recommended similar action. .1~/ The IG felt that the move to the new building had substantially reduced many of the former difficulties that the Circulation Branch had had in recovering borrowed books and documents. Recognizing the faults inherent in the Intellofax System, the IG nevertheless described the System as an asset to the Agency and complimented the Library on "improving and producing a better coding system." The IG recommended a system of rotation of assignment every 2-3 years for reference librarians to other parts of the Library for new and challenging responsibilities. Describing the CIA Library as unique, the IG recommended the establishment Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 19Q9,/09124.: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 of a training course in the use of the Library for production analyst recruits. The IG recommended that the Historical Intelligence Collection (HIC) be transferred to and become a subordinate unit of the Library. The following actions were taken by Mr. Borel and Join Vance, who became AD/CR in December 1963, to implement IG recommendations: / (1) Another CRAG Notice was issued in January 1964 urging all users of the Library to participate in the strengthening of the Library collections through comments or specific recommendations to the Selection Staff. (2) The AD directed the CIA Librarian to outline a suitable training program for production analyst recruits. One reference librarian was assigned to this task and by March 1964 had completed work on a paper outlining such a course. (3) The transfer to the Library of HIC and its personnel was accomplished on 24 September 1963 (but it was transferred b to the,,Director's Office in 1965). No further action was taken on the recommendation to rotate reference librarians because 10 of the 11 reference Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/094s:;lt 4-009518000300020003-6 librarians had had professional library experience outside the Information Section and five of them elsewhere within the Library. The Executive Director of the Agency also disapproved of the recommendation. b. New Librarian 25X1A9a Mr. . who had had foreign publications procurement experience right after World War II 25X1A6a in - and had been closely involved with the program throughout his 15-year career with the CIA Library, first as Deputy Librarian and then as Librarian, was chosen to fill the post of Regional Publications Procurement Officer in London. He 25X1A9a departed in July 1963, and , formerly with BR and the Staff for the Community Information Processing Study (SCIPS), became the CIA Librarian./ c. Impact of CHIVE Beginning in FY 1964, one of OCR's major efforts was directed to Project CHIVE, a long-range large-scale plan for a computer-based central reference Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020063-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 facility. Working closely'r4 Office of Computer Services, OCR conducted an indexing e nriment in the fall of 1964. The Library's Chief Cataloger was one of the chief indexers, and he decided to remain permanently on the CHIVE staff. He and the ISC Training Officer were responsible for revising the ISC into a detailed indexing scheme to be used for both collateral and codeword material-- the Subject Intelligence Code (SIC). The Library Staff Assistant became the CHIVE recruitment officer and during 1965 the Library lost five additional persons to CHIVE. External Relations (1) The Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) and the Pan American Union (PAU) Interlibrary loan service was established with the ICAF Library in January 1961 and.a similar relationship with the PAU Library in October 1961. The Office of Security and the DD/I offered no coffl TI Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 ::CIArRDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 objections to these working relationships with the latter, even though it was an international organization. (2) COSATI and US Secret Service In February 1964 the Library was accorded observer status on the President's Federal Council on Science and Technology's Committee on Scientific and Technical Information (COSATI); 25X1A9a Mr. attended the monthly meetings regularly, and this exposure gave the Library an insight into developments in other government libraries, particularly 7~," . 25X1A9a nonintelligence. In Bred Mr. - was also designated OCR contact point with the Protective Research Section of the US Secret Service. DD cooperated in screening incoming items of possible use in protective research relative to presidential visits abroad. Extensive Intellofax runs were made before each visit and turned over to the Secret 25X1A9a Service via Mr. and DD/P channels. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/2 :}CIA-RDP9410O951 R000300020003-6 (3) Machine Literature Searches 25X1A5a1 25X1A5a1 1966 saw the beginning of machine literature searches using the systems of the National Library of Medicine, the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) and the National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA). A year later, at the request of ORD-, a model 33 ASR telewriter was installed in the Library, providing a direct link to the This supported Project COLEX, a data base of 54,000 citations to unclassified articles and reports on aerospace technology. The approach was by author, descriptors or COSATI subject category. The response was immediate with TWX printouts at 100 words per minute. (4) Chinese Publications The Coordinator for Academic Relations recommended to Mr. Borel that CIA make available to the academic community its holdings of unclassified Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/""ft"m Wfffl. 184-00951 R000300020003-6 Tuff mainland Chinese publications. In 1967 the CIA Library began a program of microfilming more than 2 million pages for the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. A microfilm copy was also made for the Library and the hard copies were sent to LC. This program was not completed until 1972. e. Servicing Budget cuts in 1964 caused the curtailment of two Library services. Special indexes to the NIE's were stopped. With. the abolishment of the Bibliography Section of the Reference Branch, the Library ceased preparing formal bibliographies, and the responsibility for limited bibliographic service was transferred to the Information Section. At the same time, however, new services were added. The Library inaugurated a Scientific and Technical Information Service (SATIS) in support of the scientific and technical activities of CIA. A/ In response to a request from ORD, the Library provided an announcement service by means of reproduced tables C %I Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: GPI T.84-00951 R000300020003-6 ~N. of contents of selected journals, which were located on display shelving at one end of the Reading Room. SATIS, which was used extensively but without much selectivity by ORD and one office in OC, was discontinued in 1967 because of dwindling Library personnel resources and ORD's own capabilities. The Information Section also assumed responsibility for servicing requests from BR's International Conference File, to which BR had added no new material after 1965. The Library finally retired the file of 60 boxes to Records Center in July 1966 because of little request traffic. To meet expressed needs of NPIC, ORR, f a 1,C.TLtC.%,,k.A(:Lvt(r" (~OSI~)and the Deputy Director/Research, the Library took steps to receive and distribute, but not store or catalog, selected US reports on missile and space research and development. The volume of such reports by US contractor groups was staggering and would have buried OCR and the analysts if received in toto. The Library felt that although this was OF13IA Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 an ASTIA responsibility, ASTIA was not geared to meet CIA's needs, and so the Library negotiated an interim approach with the research components of DoD and separately with NASA. (1) Library's Servicing of Intellofax To ensure all-source reference support (the name of the game under the CHIVE concept), the Intellofax Reference Group on 1 June 1965 began a systematic exchange with the Special Register of request sheets for machine listings of documents. The retrieval aspect of the Intellofax System was finally transferred from Library Reference to DD in November 1965, and the activity was renamed the Intellofax Reference Service (IRS) with the transfer of one slot from the Library. OCR Instruction 1-3, / dated 19 October, gave the reason for the change: "This change places both indexing and retrieval of collateral documents under single management and represents pre-CHIVE planning designed to-ease the transition into the computer-backed reference world." it took 18 years CGIUDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: ClA RDP8.4-00951 R000300020003-6 to achieve an ever-hoped-for goal on the part of the document classifiers--to put input and output together! Two mammoth machine runs in the summer of 1966 taxed the resources of the three divisions involved in the Intellofax System. OSI's request for a machine run for the purpose of updating Section 43 of various(NIS) areJJas resulted in 9,953 references. The Circulation Branch agreed it would print documents up through eight pages, the contents of one aperture card, without viewing. The OSI requester agreed to view all large reports before they were reproduced. During this elephantine task, another request of similar magnitude was received from ORR. This request resulted in 7,645 references. The requester agreed to the same restrictions as OSI, and the Library reproduced 100 documents for him each day. This number was increased after the completion of the OSI project. Results: two satisfied but rather overwhelmed customers. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 f. The Future of the Library In a memo commenting on CIA Library cost reduction goals, Walter Pforzheimer, HIC Curator who was Acting Librarian for a few months in 1965 25X1A9a until Mr. _ returned, wrote: Personnelwise the Library is at rock-bottom. Nothing significant can be cut from any Object Class without detriment to, or even outright denial of, service in certain areas, particularly document delivery. We have no low-priority activities to eliminate. '7I' 25X1A9a Alex MEMO% returning from his two-year 25X1A6a tour of duty in - to resume his duties as CIA Librarian in October 1965, found a greatly weakened Library in terms of strength and stature. The Acquisitions Branch, which had been part of the Library since 1953, had been transferred in Approved For Release 1999/09/24 CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 April 1965 to FDD. (F 5 jJ1rt of OCR since 27 December 1963.) Mr. became concerned with the lack of a delineation of any meaningful role for that part of OCR referred to in the OCR Five- Year Plan of 16 March 1966 as the "non-CHIVE Library." He felt that a few lines on the Library were necessary, otherwise the "Library's bare bones are fair game for further paring." He continued with almost a plea: The Plan highlights the "exploitation" of open literature through the services provided by translation, dissemination and its subsequent retrievability in the CHIVE mechanism. The Plan does not acknowledge that such open literature may also be available in book or periodical form in the CIA Library...The Library's daily role, which it refuses to call "exploitation," in aiding less demanding requesters cc1 F Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84.00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release I 999/0 Z4,;.CIA- ,Q .84-00951 R000300020003-6 responds to about 1,000 reference requests per month, to say nothing of the Library materials which the requesters find by themselves in the Library. To have essential Library service available takes high caliber people - cataloging, circulation, and reference - to keep available a current vibrant collection. They are as important to the program for making open literature available as the translators and/or mechanized equipment-There are many facets in the OCR blueprint for the future where the CIA Library has important contribu- tions to make. It offers its capabilities as a member of this partnership to help the plans achieve fruition. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6 Many of the plans for reorganization of OCR included curtailment of Library services with the threat of cutting back the existing reference, periodical, selection and cataloging services to a minimum level. Fortunately, this did not occur in the September 1967 reorganization. A/ Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP84-00951 R000300020003-6