Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 17, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 27, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP85-00671R000200250001-4.pdf2.4 MB
- 4pproved For Release 1999091, 2.4.,:_OJA- RPP85-00671 R000200250001-4 RETIRED FILE JOB-W--00 (07IR BOX FOLDER--Oa(. D ::SENSITJZ D COUNTERTERRORIST PROGRAM PRIMER Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 This working paper contains a series of summaries and checklists suggested as planning aids for officials concerned with the initial development of counterterror programs. No attempt has been made to recommend specific solutions to par- ticular terrorist situations since these will vary in accordance with the nature of the threat and with the social, economic, psychological, political, and security factors in any given situation---local, national, or international. It is assumed that readers will already have a working knowledge of those specific terrorist groups and techniques with which they are confronted---and that essential expertise and resources for effectively conducting a counterterror pro- gram are readily attainable. For the purpose of this presentation, the terms terrorist, subversive or guerrilla are synonymous. They are used without particular distinction in any situation where violence is the vehicle for increasing political influence and power at the expense of law and order. Readers will observe that the overall paper is actually a collection of several different drafts. As a result, depth and focus of individual subjects varies between sections. There are also some minor redundancies and a few English errors. However, these problems are not detrimental to general or specific utility, and they are being temporarily overlooked e o t to mmediate requirements. Approve or~F~eiease 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 INDEX 1. SUMMARY . ... . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 1 1. Offensive Terror . . . . . . . . . ? . . . 1 2. Defensive Terror . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Counterterror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. TERRORIST METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Propaganda and Agitation . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Assassination and Kidnapping . . . . . . . 9 3. Infiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Bombing and Sabotage . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Armed Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Mob Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 III. COUNTERTERRORIST TOOLS . . . . . . . . 16 IV. THREAT ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1. Terrorist Fact Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. Possible Terrorist Objectives . . . . . . . 26 3. Terrorist Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 DEFENSIVE MEASURES . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1. Essential Elements of Support . . . . . . 28 2. Local Security Checklist . . . . . . . . . . 30 3. Prepara`:ion of Operational Environment. . . 31 4. Personal/Physical Factors . . . . . . . . 33 5. Communication Related Defense . . . . . . 35 6. Terrorist Activity Gaming . . . . . . . . . 37 7. ITC System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 8. Deception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 9. File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. Essential Equipment. . . . . ? ? ? ? ? ? 49 11. Pre-Crises Pointers . . . . . . . . . ? ? 53 VI. INCIDENT PROCEDURES . . . . . . . s . . 54 1. Protective Reaction Chart . . . . . . . . . 54 2. Reaction Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . 57 3. Immediate Response . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4. Hostage Location . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5. Potential Hostage Notes . . . . . . . . . . 64 VII. TERRORIST EXEMPLARS . . . . . . . . . 66 VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 I. SUMMARY 1. OFFENSIVE TERROR Threats, violence and coercion form the basis of offensive terror. Terrorism is used to reduce effectively resistance to the aims of its proponents. It is the means to (1) demoralize governmental authority; (2) separate a people from their leaders; (3) paralyze opposition forces; (4) shock the indifferent; (5) agitate and influence; (6) 'build terrorist morale; (7) enforce conformity or compliance; (8) eliminate an enemy; (9) advertise and initiate a revolutionary movement; (10) destroy group or population solidarity; (11) disorient a target mass; and (12) provoke repressive government countermeasures which will antagonize the population concerned. Terror ruthlessly applied is a powerful and effective weapon so long as it is not employed clumsily or to excesses which stimulate general population alienation against the terrorists. Further, it can only be applied for short durations or its effectiveness will be diminished as the population becomes accustomed to living under these conditions. It is, therefore, imperative that terrorist actions be planned to evoke a high but short-term state of fear, dread, or anxiety among its target population. If terror is not measured to accomplish these conditions, it cannot hope to attain favorable results for the terrorists or their sponsors. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RbP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Given the above considerations, terrorism may not be effective unless it is climactic and successful in its initial stages. All prepara- tory action must therefore be clandestine and premature acts of vio- lence cannot be permitted. The preparatory phase of terrorism represents the most important and crucial period. Dedicated covert leadership is needed to begin the process of clandestine organization. Motivated manpower with fanatical ideology must be spotted, recruited, trained and secretly formulated into small compartmented action "cells. " Financial and material re- sources, plus related supporting mechanisms are essential if terrorist action is to be undertaken with sufficient impact. Agents or informant s must be recruited and trained to provide target intelligence required for discriminate or indiscriminate acts of violence. Technical skills and specialized equipment will need to be acquired for bombing opera- tions or unique approaches to assassination. Tactics must be re- hearsed generally without secure use of any geographic; area or facility. And last but not least, the means must be achieved to provide communication dispersion of assets, command and control plus tactical mobility. Having completed all preparatory action secretly among an in- finitesimal portion of the population, a well-planned terrorist campaign is launched suddenly by the conduct of massive acts of violence that Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CI-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 occur simultaneously over a wide area. The resultant shock effect may be expected to create highly desirable psychological responses, and per- haps temporarily neutralize opposition security forces. Taking advantage of this situation, the effective terrorist organization can rapidly expand the level of violence until a balance of power is achieved favoring the originators. Acts of terrorism can then be dramatically decreased or curtailed until future needs demand a resurgence. During the conduct of the terror campaign, discriminate terrorism targets selected leaders or individuals whose loss will severely handi- cap the "cause" they represent. This selective violence is also used to disrupt government machinery or impress specific groups by elimina- tion of key personnel. Indiscriminate terror is utilized to spread panic among the general population, with the aim of eroding trust, authority and security. The general technique includes bombing of restaurants, movies, hospitals, religious centers, and transportation services, or assassination of people in the street. As a general rule, this type of terror is most effective when it appears to have no specific targets even though particular acts of violence may be highly selective. 2. DEFENSIVE TERROR If governments or independent groups become frustrated over their inability to negate offensive terror by legal means, they may resort to the employment of violence to counter violence. The targets of such - 3 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 defensive terror include opposition cadre, terrorists, and their supporting mechanisms. Since regimes or individuals do not normally wish to become overtly involved in any terrorist action, most defensive terror campaigns are conducted on a covert basis. Primary tactics of defensive terror include selective assassination and bombing. Ancillary efforts may involve raids, ambush, kidnapping, torture and harsh punishment without "due process. " Normally, defen- sive acts of violence are discriminate unless an easily identifiable population group is directly responsible for offensive terror. Under such circumstances, indiscriminate action against such groups may be thought justifiable, but the government concerned would probably reap a harvest of accusations charging brutal repression -- regard- less of where the guilt may lie. The fundamental problem with defensive terror is that violence begets more violence and the general population usually becomes antagonistic toward government because of this consequence. Even if government is not the actual sponsor of defensive terror, suspicion and accusation will eventually lead to an official image of brutal re- pression which does not enhance the legal government's chances for survival. This reason, plus ethical and moral considerations, will usually preclude any regimes consideration of this technique. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 3. COUNTERTERROR First and most importantly, counterterror has no relationship to defensive terror. Counterterror usually involves a combination of social, economic, psychological, political, propaganda, intelligence, and internal security actions designed to neutralize a terrorist force. Further, these actions must be individually and/or collectively structured to erode the terrorists basis of popular support. Essential counterterrorist actions should incude (1) development of programs designed to meet "felt needs" and resolve conditions per- ceived as being intolerable by various population elements; (2) upgrading of security force capabilities to provide population protection and freedom from fear; (3) effective utilization of "law and due process" to convince the populace that government will defeat the subversives without utilizing repressive measures; and (4) creation of institutional and governmental mechanisms that provide the means for effective "change" without violence. The developmental or modernization approach usually requires human, technological and capital inputs at a rate which will provide substantial agricultural and/or industrial growth. This is a long-term and complex solution which cannot be achieved easily without adequate savings, trade, aid or credit. In addition to the above inputs, markets must be developed; producer incentives created; income and employment Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-13QP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 levels increased; educational programs expanded; birth rates reduced to something less than Gross National Product increases; and skilled manpower, energy sources, raw materials, machinery or other capital items must be assembled at the production point. Apart from these overall development efforts, dissident and impoverished population elements should be provided with basic minimal subsistence plus the opportunity for socio-economic self-advancement. Security improvement programs should be based upon legislative actions which provide the police and other internal defense forces with appropriate increases in leadership, manpower, training, finance, communications, mobility, weapons, equipment and material. Es- sential tactical innovations will be discussed under the following section. The fundamental basis for improving security operations is via better intelligence collection and collation. Human/technical penetrations, agent or informant operations, prisoner interrogation., communications intercept, and investigative techniques all provide essential information inputs. Effective collation of this data should result eventually in the identification of subversive leadership, cadre, action and support elements, ideology, modus operandi, organizational patterns, strength, capability, plans or intentions, facilities, mechanisms, and other details. In turn, the finished intelligence produce is used to provide targets or operational leads and as legal evidence for judicial processing of subversives. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA?RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Regarding "law and due process", it is essential that judicial proce- dures be established to assure that violence control measures are politically, legally and morally justifiable. This is particularly true of methods used to arrest, detain, interrogate, convict and imprison or execute individual members of a subversive movement. If repressive, brutal, or illegal tactics are used by the government to attack subversive forces, popular sentiment may favor success of the latter. Creation of adaptive and responsible institutions provide government with its most effective psychological weapon against violence. Assuming such organizations provide the basis for peaceful constructive change, the perpetrators of violence cannot justify their methods to a target populace. In fact, history has proven that the urban guerrilla cannot long survive in an environment where popular political, economic, or social aspirations can be achieved by non-violent methods. Subversion and social unrest thrives on the inability of a nation to modernize existing private or governmental institutions in a manner which will facilitate the effective, peaceful resolution of intolerable conditions. It is therefore essential that government assure that there is an adaptive organizational basis for reform, modernization and pro- gressive change. This process must include government bureaucracy, political parties, unions, cooperatives, youth groups, and other pri- vate institutions. - 7 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 II. TERRORIST METHODS The following sub-sections provide a general synopsis of terrorist methodology. 1. PROPAGANDA AND AGITATION In order to be successful, most subversive movements must con- vince a majority of a target population that the conditions under which they exist are intolerable. This attitude will then provide the motivation and 17cause" needed to stimulate the popular dissidence essential to ruining or overthrowing any government. Propaganda comes in many and varied forms to include (1) leaflets; (2) letter campaigns; (3) wall slogans; (4) rumors; (5) oratory; and (6) radio, newspapers or other media. However, the latter forum exists only where free speech is guaranteed or for low-level efforts which might not be supressed. Agitation is usually accomplished by agents of influence who seize upon controversial issue to "inflame" specific audiences for the pur- pose of stimulating the development of particular attitudes, actions or reactions. These individuals usually focus their attention on labor, student or other population organizations that have banded together because of common interests they wish to protect or promote. By identifying with their cause, the agitator can thus seek to exploit any known grievance. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 2. ASSASSINATION AND KIDNAPPING The urban guerrillas may employ assassination and/or kidnapping operations to eliminate "key" leaders within government or the private sector. Liquidation of existing leadership is the oldest method of re- volution and afford a relatively simple means to dislocate or disorganize political- social- economic institutions. Targets may be limited to "heads" of state, representatives of government, local leaders, or other individuals who act: to support the status quo. The primary aim of a systematic campaign of assassina- tion is to alienate a populace from their government by establishing the omnipotent power of the guerrillas. Kidnapping operations may also be designed to accomplish this same objective, and to extract conces- sions, capture publicity, provoke controversy or free political pri- soners. Targets for kidnapping may also include foreign diplomats or business executives and various personalities who might be useful for propaganda purposes. In some cases, the kidnap victim may be executed after his usefulness has ended, so that net effect is that of a combined kidnapping and assassination. Individuals or select three to five-man guerrilla teams are usually employed to conduct the above types of operations. Normally, such individuals are selected on the basis of their proven courage, dedication, resourcefulness and cunning. Preferably, they are not persons wanted by Approved For Release 1999/09/24: ClA RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 the authorities, but ordinary citizens capable of moving about freely. Assassinations or kidnappings are planned in detail and special sur- veillance parties first check on the movements of prospective victims. The target is shadowed to learn his habits, hours, movement patterns and usual security procedures. When a pattern is established, the guerrillas then develop and rehearse their specific modus operandi. 3. INFILTRATION"' The security and operational potential of an urban guerrilla force is usually predicated on the quantity of intelligence obtained by suc- cessful infiltration. If police and internal security organizations can be penetrated, the guerrillas may thus be forewarned of actions planned against them. The infiltration of security forces was seen by Lenin as one of the essential preconditions for a successful urban uprising. Lenin's theory being that urban guerrillas would always be outgunned unless they neutralize the police and other security elements by in- filtrating their own agents at all levels. In addition, the subversive movement cannot be expected to succeed unless it attacks and erodes any official programs designed to esta- blish or sustain population confidence in government. To help accomp- lish this goal, the urban guerrillas will attempt to infiltrate all elements of the target regime. The net objective is to obtain information which ,',,As used in this case, the word infiltration is synonymous with penetration. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CtA1 RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 can be used to plan disruptive or destructive attacks against socio- economic development projects or other programs designed to alleviate popular grievances. Select infiltration operations may be used to obtain specific target intelligence, particularly as regards procurement of funds, weapons, or other supplies. Penetration agents can also provide information on potential targets for terrorist, sabotage, assassination and kidnap operations. Classic clandestine "tradecraft" techniques are used as the basis for organizing and accomplishing infiltration operations. We are first concerned with human penetrations and to a lesser degree, theft, bribery, technical penetrations and other ancillary types of espionage. However, the primary danger is that guerrillas may obtain a popular following from among elements of the population having existing intelligence access. This situation will then create a more spontaneous flow of information which the urban guerrillas can use for protection or advantage. 4. BOMBING & SABOTAGE The essential purpose of bombing or sabotage is effective disrup- tion of the economic- political- security activities within a state whose government is targeted for ruin or overthrow. It is a tactic that may be employed by urban guerrillas and terrorists, or by specialized Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA- tbP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 "cells. " Fundamental objectives include: (1) reduction of agricultural and industrial production; (2) impeding the effective functioning of essential services such as communication, transportation and utilities; (3) limiting the conduct of various government activities with emphasis on internal security services and political machinery; and/or (4) "cowing" of a target population. Most of the above is based upon covert destructive attack using explosives, combustibles, abrasives or subtle disruptive action. Methods include: (1) descriminate or indescriminate bombing; (2) mechanical breakage; (3) use of damaging chemicals; (4) arson; (5) electronic interruptions; (6) pilferage of vital components; (7) dis- semination of incorrect information, falsification of data, misfiling and records manipulation; (8) tampering; (9) fatal "flawing" of materials or equipment; (10) work slowdowns; (11) interruption of command or control procedures; and (12) use of laws, courts, and parliamentary rules to impede the effective functioning of government. The extensive employment of various bombing and sabotage techniques affords the revolutionary with a relatively secure and inexpensive weapon that can have disastrous consequences on the economy and security of a state. Further, the systematic employment of same: erodes public morale and confidence in government while advertising the success and apparent invincibility of subversive forces. - 12 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 5. ARMED ATTACKS Terrorist groups may employ snipers or "firing groups" of four or five men which may undertake limited hit and run attacks to erode popular confidence in government security forces and to force the initiation of repressive acts antagonistic to a target populace. Weapons include rifles, shotguns, pistols, grenades, Molotov cocktails, explosives and other lightweight, easily concealable items. Targets may be discriminately or indiscriminately selected. Police, firemen, govern- ment officials, foreign diplomats or businessmen and leaders of mo- derating forces are high on the discriminate list. Indiscriminate tar- gets are usually selected to incite population fear. These armed action groups may also be used to undertake robbery, kidnapping, assassina- tion or other select activity in support of overall subversive objectives. In the urban environment, such guerrilla action is at close quarters for extremely short duration. Specific tactics will depend on the target, the metropolitan terrain, attack options, movement alternatives, type of weapons, accepted modus operandi and the potential for surprise/ retreat. The net effect being a great diversification of tactical approach from one situation to another. 6. MOB VIOLENCE Street tactics of the terrorist or urban guerrillas include the in- stigation and/or manipulation of demonstrations, mobs, and strikes. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA tDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 The objective is to create a situation wherein peaceful protect groups can be agitated to- participate in acts of civil disobedience or riot. Agents of influence and subversive agitators may seize upon any popular grievance to stimulate the formation of protest groups. The next objective is for agitators to encourage the type of public demon- stration that could easily "flare" into a confrontation with police. Having created a proper environment, various guerrilla elements can infiltrate the street mobs to incite a riot or undertake acts of violence using the protestors for cover. Tactics are simple. Bottles, bricks, and stones can be hurled at police. Hasty barricades may be used to block streets. Business establishments, factories and/or government buildings can be looted or burned. Snipers can be deployed to fire at police, hoping they in turn will retaliate by killing innocent members of the rr.Lob. When the police attempt to arrest an agitator, a larger group of urban guerrillas may attempt to aid his escape. If internal security forces effectively contain the riot, the guerrillas will retreat along pre-planned avenues of escape. The primary objective of such group agitation is to force the government to take strong repressive measures, thereby further alienating the population. Promoting general disorder also helps to disrupt the economy and undermine the government. Last but Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CI&RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 not least, by organizing social discontent, the urban guerrillas induce the population to accept their leadership while- demonstrating the re- gime's lack of authority. Basic ingredients for group agitation include: (1) leadership trained in mob psychology and tactics; (2) an executive committee responsible for overall planning and execution; (3) propaganda efforts to rally public sympathy for a cause; (4) compilation and continuous review of exploitable grievances; (5) registration of potential dissidents; (6) study of overall environment; (7) profiling of radical organizations; (8) enlistment of financial and moral support; (9) tactical training for agitators; (10) development of community support; (11) recruitment of "crowd-moving" orators; (12) preparation of music, chants and slogans; (13) creation of demands and ultimatums; (14) planning for pivotal events designed to precipitate conflicts; (15) public announcement of time and place for planned demonstration; (16) stimulation of actions to incite media coverage; and (17) encouraging demonstators to partici- pate in dramatic mass arrests. By effective manipulation of mob psychology, the urban guerrilla thus plans to push the aggrieved citizen into outright breaches of law that will lead to heightened outbursts of violence. In addition, all-out revolution must be rapidly precipitated or mob participants will lose stamina in the face of prolonged adversity. To succeed, group agitation App' b'td} -O? fdWet'I /6@/2$1 'li eFtD`8S `~7~' 6 '~62! 1il a actions. - 15 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 III. COUNTERTERRORIST TOOLS An effective counterterrorist program must incorporate most if not all of the working tools described herein. Terrorist Profiles - can be used to provide security personnel with a classic thumbnail description of individuals who warrant close scrutiny as potential participants in acts of violence. This approach facilitates narrowing the focus of investigative and intelligence operations designed to identify members of terrorist organizations. Further, the profile improves routine observation by police and other authorities responsible for internal security. An example profile of a potential terrorist might indicate basic characteristics to include: (1) male or female age 16 to 58; (2) member of potentially dissident group; (3) person with emotional or fanatical tendency; (4) individual who has evidenced violent behavior or emotional instability; (5) citizens who are isolated from the national socioeconomic or political "mainstream"; (6) radicals who have engaged in demands for revolutionary change; and (7) individuals who obviously have nothing to lose by engaging in terrorism. Potential terrorist traits should be adjusted to fit each particular local or national environment. The main objective being to create a system that is easily developed and readily applied by all security or intelligence personnel. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 : dI RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Documentation Controls - facilitate security forces in their efforts to identify suspect terrorists and their supporters. Population identi- fication papers should be designed to allow the police to spot-check any individual's name, date and place of birth, residence, family status, employment, race, religion, and physical description. Photographs and fingerprints can also be added to documents. In cases of emer- gency, citizens may be required to obtain special documentation for travel and resource control permits for the purchase of any item that might be used to aid a terrorist act. The intended objective of detailed documentation is to aid the screening of dissident population elements. When used in conjunction with terrorist profiles and when properly focused on areas where vio- lence has occurred the system can be effective in providing investiga- tive leads. Biographic Registry - involves the establishment of a central security reference containing biographic card files or computer data on all. known criminals, subversives, terrorists, dissidents and suspicious personalities. Each security and intelligence service would provide appropriate biographic inputs, and have controlled access to the com- plete registry. Sources and information would be protected by appro- priate compartmentation and security clearance procedures. In effect, a national biographic reference is created to facilitate collation of all source intelligence on confirmed or suspect terrorists. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 If the quality and quantity of information inputs are adequate, all security personnel -can use existing files as the basis for rapidly determining any persons possible association with terrorist or sub- versive activity. By establishing secure radio procedures for sending queries to the biographic registry, any policemen with appropriate communication can immediately validate the suspect status of indivi- duals stopped for spot-checks. The biographic registry does not negate the need to investigate or collect intelligence on potential terrorists having or not having files, but it does preclude suspect persons from easily going unnoticed. Personnel& Physical Security - must necessarily be provided for the indigenous leaders and government personnel who will likely be targeted for terrorist violence. This requirement includes pro- tection of individuals from threats, coercion, assassination and bombing; the latter action prompting the need for physical security of offices, homes, meeting places and transportation facilities. General defensive procedures include: (1) personnel security clearances; (2) entry and exit control for offices} (3) protective fences for fixed facilities; (4) guards for personnel and buildings; (5) screening of communications, mail and cargo; (6) use of metal detectors for routine weapons search; (7) utilization of bomb squads with dogs trained to smell out plastic explosives; (8) travel control procedures emphasizing alternate routes and various methods of trans o p trols Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-0 X06 R6bb2Ua2 v~~~l - - 18 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 in the area of offices and individual homes; and (10) other techniques appropriate to environmental situations. The primary objective of such elaborate precautions is to frustrate the effective conduct of terrorist actions and thereby prevent those spectacular successes which encourage expanded future violence. To better focus defensive efforts and conserve resource allocation, it is essential that hard intelligence be obtained on terrorist intentions and modus operandi. This intelligence effort also provides the 'basis for offensive actions designed to negate terrorist violence before it can be employed. Personnel and physical security is thus achieved by a combination of defensive and offensive programs, the latter of which can be the most effective. The offensive methods will be dis- cussed further in subsequent sections. Intelligence Collection - is essential to the conduct of effective counterterror operations. Neutralization of violence is dependent upon government having some knowledge of terrorist personalities, organization, plans, intentions, ideology, modus operandi, and support mechanisms. Without such knowledge, security forces will be unable to properly focus defensive or offensive actions. Unfocused counter- measures are usually doomed to failure since the terrorists will be largely unaffected. Detailed information on terrorists can best be obtained by clandestine human or technical penetration operations. Failing this, intelligence must be gathered by alternate means to include: Approved For Release 1999/09/24 :-CCI#-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 (1) recruitment of informants; (2) suspect surveillance; (3) police investigation of potential terrorists; (4) search for weapons, explo- sives, or other incriminating evidence; (5) prisoner interrogation; (6) monitoring of possible targets and suspected terrorist supply sources; and (7) mass population education in observation and reporting techniques related to terrorist activity. To narrow the focus of the above collection operations, demographic data and terrorist profiles can be used to fix specific geographic areas where terrorists could reside and organize with some degree of relative safety. Although terrorists may operate anywhere, they normally main- tain their residence and meeting places among dissident population ele- ments who evidence negative or hostile reaction to government security forces. This fact, therefore, allows selective elimination of those urban and rural areas which would not provide a hospitable terrorist environ- ment. Physical data on roads, communication facilities, residential patterns, buildings, and isolated areas can also be used to help determine likely patterns of terrorist organizational activity within suspect geographic areas. Trash collectors, building inspectors, electricians and other personnel with natural access can be recruited to aid collection of this physical information. Again, this effort further serves to pinpoint where intelligence operations should be targeted. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 -Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Counterintelligence/counterespionage operations will, also be needed to supplement the above efforts. The qbjective of these operations includes: (1) penetrating and manipulating terrorist cells; (2) stopping, disrupting, misorienting or negating terrorist intelligence collection activities; and (3) developing passive or specialized defenses against planned terrorist acts of violence. In summary, intelligence and counterintelligence operations form the foundation for counterterror campaigns. Those security services or personnel not familiar with essential clandestine tradecraft should seek appropriate guidance and assistance. Intelligence Collation - provides the detailed compilation and analysis of information, needed to help identify, arrest and convict the perpetrators of violence. It also facilitates the location and elimina- tion of terrorist support mechanisms and other hard targets. To function effectively, any collation center must have access to all sources of information. This implies cooperation with all security and intelligence services using appropriate clearances, "source" pro- tection and compartmentation. In addition, the-centers must have the legal right to pinpoint specific targets and assign collection or action requirements to individual government components. Without such follow-on authority, the collation centers become little more than repositories of unexploited intelligence. - 21 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 -Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 All source information inputs should include: (1) biographic data; (Z) pertinent socioeconomic, demographic and geographic publications; (3) details on transportation, communications, and material resources; (4) target assessments; (5) analysis of terrorist organizations and modus operandi; and (6) all reporting on criminals, dissidents, ra- dicals, subversives or terrorists. After collecting every scrap of available information, trained analysts then collate data with the ob- jective of developing investigative and target leads. The primary advantage to central collation is simply that all. available pieces of an investigative puzzle are laid before personnel experienced in the art of formulating a composite intelligence picture which provides the sharpest available detail on any terrorist organi- zation. If this collation process is absent or fragmented, any intelli- gence produce cannot be properly exploited and subsequent counter- terror activities may be expected to be largely ineffective. It is, therefore, imperative that any government targeted by terrorists seek to establish the best possible intelligence collation system. Security Force Requirements - generally include: (1) defense of official personnel and physical facilities; (2) riot control, bomb disposal and population protection from acts of violence; (3) enforcement of law and order; (4) preparation for national defense against; internal or external acts of aggression; (5) investigation leading to location, arrest, and conviction of criminals, dissidents, subversives or Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 -22- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 terrorists; and (6) other actions required to resist lawlessness, vio- lence, subversion and warfare originating within or outside the state. The conduct of counterterror operations primarily burdens police forces with the requirement to provide population freedom from fear and violence, while undertaking legal investigation which will ultimately result in conviction and punishment of terrorists after "due process." As previously stated, the foundation for this effort is based upon adequate intelligence collection which may be a_primary or secondary function of various security services. Once intelligence leads are provided, the lengthy and arduous process begins to obtain sufficient evidence for a court trial which will prove the suspect terrorist guilty of accomplished or planned crimes of violence. This requirement demands the skills and extensive application of modern criminal investigation. It is, therefore, suggested that appropriate actions be undertaken to provide police or other security forces with adequate authority, leadership, manpower, funds, training and equip- ment needed to accomplish the task. Under most circumstances, it is recommended that -target govern- ments seek whatever resources deemed necessary to upgrade security forces and give them the capability to deal with terrorists by action within existing legal parameters. Even though this is often the most difficult course of action, it has proven to be the most successful. -23- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Population Mobilization - is initiated by advising the target nation's citizenry of the nature of any terrorist threat and motivating mass popular participation in negating acts of violence. To accomplish this objective, the populace should be organized and instructed in the techniques of aiding security forces in the identification of possible terrorists. The latter may be accomplished by launching an aggressive educational program designed to establish citizen procedures for reporting suspi- cious activities or personalities that are observed by local inhabitants. Carried to its ultimate conclusion, each village and city block would have resident protection committees with direct communications to local police forces. Possible investigative leads would thus be immediately relayed for exploitation by security forces. The unique advantage of such citizen participation is based on the fact that local residents are most keenly aware of unusual events or the appearance of strangers in their neighborhoods. Another obvious benefit is the increase in numbers of eyes and ears, that terrorists will be forced to avoid. Actual techniques of population mobilization -will vary according to environmental situations and citizen receptivity or motivation. Pro- cedural approaches are the same as for so-called "block warning systems. " As stated in the introductory note, implementation should not be attempted prior to consultation with appropriate specialists. - 24 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Judicial Base - is created by formulating those laws which fully support security forces in their conduct of counterterror operations. In addition, such laws should insure that all efforts are politically, legally and morally justifiable. This is particularly true of methods used to arrest, detain, interrogate, convict and imprison or execute individual members of a terrorist movement. IV. THREAT ANALYSIS 1. TERRORIST FACT SHEET 1. Who are they, how many, how organized, what is their motivation, and what are their basic objectives? 2. What are their linguistic, technical and communications capa- bilities ? 3. Where located, how armed, how equipped, current status, and degree of mobility? 4. What are their psychological and/or physical vulnerabilities ? 5. How is command and control exercised? 6. What are the terrorists' probable courses of action under any given set of circumstances? 7. When, where and how might essential and/or minimal outside support be provided? 8. What are the minimum concessions the terrorists will accept in exchange for hostage release? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 ? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 2. POSSIBLE TERRORIST OBJECTIVES 1. Publicity,` propaganda, and/or influence 2. Political concessions. 3. Finance by ransom of hostages and/or aircraft, etc. 4. Release of fellow terrorists. 5. Expanded control via induced fear. 6. World-wide attention to grievances they have been unable to resolve by legal means. 7. Elimination of principal opponents. 8. Consternation among all the groups, factions, and/or nations who oppose their "cause". 9. Expanded use of target government repressive measures which tend to create sympathy for the terrorists. 3. TERRORIST POTENTIAL 1. What dissident, subversive, terrorist or other elements re- side within the country? 2. Do international or third-country terrorist organizations have support and/or action components assigned to the country? 3. What is the record and modus operandi or post terrorist op- erations, and what is the frequency of incidents? 4. If specific persons were targeted as potential victims, where would terrorists probably initiate the kidnapping or seizure? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: GI&RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 ApprgyeqkF91(rg J iQ9124 vlA MP96PO "I 6062{90 boa1-4 a hostage, where would they probably be held? 6. What factors regarding activities and/or movement patterns unnecessarily expose potential victims to a possible kidnapping? 7. In cases of seizures, airline skyjackings, or other mass hostage operations, why might particular individuals be singled out for special attention? 8. What unusual events normally proceed a terrorist kidnapping or seizure -- either within or outside the country? 9. What disposition is usually made of the hostages of those terrorist groups with which you are familiar and what time factors are involved? 10. In cases of negotiated release, what individuals or groups might be used as a go-between? 11. What are the usual communication channels or systems used by terrorists for command control and/or negotiations? 12. What is the ethnic and psychological profile of those terrorist leaders with whom you might come in contact, and what are their grievances or political objectives? 13. Have terrorists tended to panic, upon lea-rning they are threatened or that governments will not bargain for release of hostages ? 14. Under what conditions have most hostages been held, and what circumstances have led to their release or execution? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 V. DEFENSIVE MEASURES 1. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF SUPPORT 1. Judicial: Laws must be established which facilitate the effective functioning of those intelligence and security operations essential to the conduct of counterterror programs without the creation of a re- pressive police state which will antagonize the populations concerned. 2. Legislative: Governing bodies must enact and sustain the above process of law, while creating the financial and other resources needed to accomplish same. 3. Social: Institutional process should be created to provide op- portunities for personal social advancement and the peaceful resolution of individual grievances regardless of sex, religion, creed, language, ethnic origin, status, or other differences. 4. Economic: Each individual should be afforded the means of subsistance, and the opportunity to attain basic felt needs, e. g. , housing, clothing, and essential material goods. 5. Psychological: Popular attitudes must be created which dis- credit the terrorist "cause" and the violent methods used to attain their objective -- and at the same time the population must be con- vinced that the government should, can, and will prevail without re- sorting to violence to counter violence. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 'Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 6. Political: Governments should create and/or sponsor a political system which foste-rs the means for peaceful changes of leadership, thereby negating the need or justification for violent overthrow of any regime. 7. Media: Newspaper, radio, and television should be encouraged to avoid giving terrorists free publicity of the type which would engender sympathy or support from the general population. 8. Security: Intelligence and internal security services must provide the population with freedom from fear while identifying, apprehending, convicting, and imprisoning terrorists via due process of law. 9. Population: Various elements of the populace should be organized into "block" or village security committees to provide advance alert to any terrorist activity -- assuming all the above actions have first been implemented and have motivated the population to become so involved. 10. Leadership: All government and institutional leaders/adminis- trators should fully support and underwrite the counterterror campaign. They must provide the management, direction, coordination, and re- source inputs which assures the development and continuation of an effective program. NOTE: It is imperative that advance determination be made regarding establishment of priorities and division of labor regarding what private and/or governmental institutions have responsibility for the above actions. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 t 6FA=RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1C1Oc L Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 I Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1 C10c 4. PERSONAL /PHYSICAL FACTORS 1. Instruct all potential targeted personnel to periodically alter modes, times and routes of movement. 2. Where possible, they should avoid making advance appointments or establishing routine schedules. 3. Limit regular travel by personal vehicle unless plans are made for en route protection, e. g. , armed escort, scout vehicles, car ar- moring, street patrols, defensive driving, car pool, car swapping, random routes or other techniques. 4. Fence private residences and utilize dogs, geese, ducks and/or guinea fowl to provide exterior alarm -- while installing adequate hard- ware to preclude a hasty forced entry. (If the situation warrants, guards should also be considered. 5. Armed guards, alarms, fences, control zones, hardware and other protective procedures should be used to deter all possible types of hostiles against office facilities. - 33 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 6. Periodic security investigations should be conducted on all employees having access to residences, vehicles and/or places of work of potential targets. 7. Initiate or accelerate intelligence /counterintelligence efforts focused on terrorist organizations and their sponsors or supporters. 8. Assist security forces in screening all internal and external travelers for suspect terrorists or persons having similar profile. 9. Surveil the movements of all foreign diplomats or other persons who might offer communications or other support for terrorists. 10. Photograph and surveil all strangers moving in or out of foreign embassies sympathetic to the terrorist cause. 11. Establish "block warning systems" whereby local residents can immediately alert security forces if suspect persons or activity is observed. 12. Train all potential targets in counter surveillance techniques and specific security precautions that may be used for personal defense. 13. Qualify selected individuals in the use of small arras and pro- vide them with appropriate weapons. 14. Retain maps of all potential target areas to include! floor plans and defense plan for key buildings. 15. Check airline passenger lists and hotel registrations on a daily basis against known terrorist list by true names and aliases. - 34 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 16. Stimulate security forces to maintain port of entry surveillance and tighten pa~-:sport/visa control. 17. When appropriate, utilize technical penetration and/or wire taps to monitor points of terrorist contact or support. 18. Watch for thefts of automobiles, explosives or weapons and relate stolen items to plausible terrorist operational concepts. 19. Restrict movement and set curfews as needed. 5. COMMUNICATION RELATED DEFENSE 1. Establish periodic radio or telephone check-in procedures whereby all personnel advise their location and status to an alert center having the authority and capability to immediately react to determine why an officer has failed to make his safety report on time -- and to initiate appropriate action as needed. 2. Equip potential target personnel with beacons or other emergency devices that can be used to relay immediate alert when an attack occurs. 3. Organize and periodically test various lines of expedient communi- cation with internal security services who will be called upon to react in the event of any hostile action against personnel. 4. Provide for alternate means of communications with all higher headquarters in the event primary facilities are seized or otherwise rendered inoperative. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 5. Prepare and advise all personnel of word, phrase, gestures or other codes which may be used by hostages to relay information by phone, letter or via intermediaries. 6. Develop necessary contingency plans to control, monitor, block, jam or cut all communications which might be used by any terrorist group. 7. Pre-position equipment and technicians to facilitate immediate employment of remote listening devices, direction finding systems and other specialized communication related items. 8. Pre-determine probable conditions under which media coverage may be granted in exchange for concessions from terrorists. In any event, arrange to prevent, guide, limit and/or control media coverage of any terrorist incident until it has reached a conclusion. 9. Equip potential targets with push-button activated sirens, flares, floodlights and other systems should be considered for aiding emer- gency alert and/or as a means to "foil" an attack. 10. Create a command control center with constant 24-hour communi- cations, and the established capability to coordinate all resources that might be used to deter, negate or react to a terrorist attack. (Therein, establish the focal for intelligence collation and analysis to provide potential advance alert to all hostile actions. ) Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 11. Be prepared to record all conversations during any terrorist incident to facilitate on-going and/or after-action analysis. 12. Maintain an open communication or dialogue with all security services and/or potential intermediaries. 6. TERRORIST ACTIVITY GAMING Experience has generally proven that various terrorist groups eventually evolve stereotyped operational procedures that develop as a result of: (1) standardized organization, doctrine and training; (2) limited quantity or quality of available men, money and material; (3) target area social, economic, political, psychological and security strengths or weaknesses; (4) communication, transportation, support and intelligence limitations; (5) climate, weather, demography and geography; and (6) types of countermeasures which must be overcome. Systematic analysis of these influencing factors thus facilitates the development of hostile activity signal patterns which may be used as an aid in estimating terrorist strength, location, deployment, modus op- erandi, and planned or intended actions. A basic problem in developing such patterns is that most intelli- gence analysts are unwilling or unable to postulate plausible theories relating to suspected terrorist activity. A natural tendency is to avoid theoretical hypothesis and relay solely on indicators substantiated by multiple source intelligence. The lack of a theoretical framework thus deters sequential logic de Approved For Release 1vjJ e et f 20VQ0001-4 37 -- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 plausible operational approaches can be proven or disproven by available data and known events. To further complicate the analytical process, it is also recognized that sufficient intelligence is seldom available in the quantity or quality needed to forecast operational stereotypes. It is therefore essential that "gaps" be filled by developing and testing all possible action options expressed as theoretical operational alternatives. Probable terrorist actions should be advanced by personnel. experienced in operating with or against the types of militant organizations with which any analysis is concerned. If such expertise is not available, it is suggested that indigenous personnel be employed in a role casting exercise. Ideally, groups of prisoners or defectors can also be used "game" particular problem situations confronting those terrorist groups which they previously represented. Initial operational theory should disregard available intelligence data. Once all probable action alternatives are postulated, training analysts may then be used to prove or disprove theoretical concepts. However, actual events may be more useful in determining the validity of particular theories. This, of course, assumes a careful analysis of causal factors contributing to the timing and accomplishment of any particular terrorist action. Application and usefulness of any gaming model is thus dependent upon proper development of a logic sequence predicted on theoretical concept evaluated against intelli ence data a QWM Approved For Release 1999/09P24 : CIA-RDI 9v`bUb-rl`W(YO6200250001-4 - 38 - Approved For-Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 The logic sequence itself is nothing more than the studied formulation of operational hypothesis which are then supported or challenged by all available evidence and the process of deductive reasoning. As theoretical concepts are proven valid, this then facilitates advance prediction of in- tended terrorist action in situations where "hard" intelligence is lacking. Those persons attempting to use initial TAG models should not expect 100 percent accuracy. Basic pitfalls include: (1) failure to properly read indicators; (2) signal patterns can be read out of context; (3) terrorists may cancel or postpone intended actions; and (4) the absence of partial reading of indicators may lead to false conclusions. In addition to the above pitfalls, the system will probably not be effective unless it is managed by an officer with some previous operational experience against the general type of opposition force being evaluated. The officer must also have: (1) courage of conviction; (2) a willingness to develop and express "gut" feeling; (3) basic tactical aptitude; (4) an ability to explore theoretical hypothesis; and (5) skill in developing indicators without substantial multiple source intelligence. Assuming the above conditions are met, the TAG systems should have a reasonable chance of success. Further, it is assumed that a carefully structured TAG system would produce effective results against any type of terrorist force operating in a rural or urban environment. The basic difference is that evaluative criteria must be adjusted to fit each unique - 39 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 set of circumstances. Additionally, the TAG system must be employed by operatives with relevant tactical experience, basic analytical ability, and a large measure of common sense. Prior to developing a TAG model, the following questions must be carefully answered for each specific terrorist group considered: a. What ideological, organizational and tactical patterns are clearly evidenced? b. How do known doctrinal or training concepts compare with specific operational approaches? c. What tactics would be feasible given probable limitations of men, money and material? d. How do various subversive elements overcome the social, economic, political, psychological and security strengths of the target area? e. What types of activities are being directed against the target and how do these relate to known vulnerabilities ? f. What are the probable limits of available communication, transporatation, support and intelligence? g. How do terrorists adapt themselves to limit handicaps caused by adverse climate, weather, demography or geography? h. What types of countermeasures must be overcome and how will these effect operational concepts ? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 i. What is the best estimate of probable modus operandi given known limitations ? In short, the effective development of a workable TAG system is predicated or minimal all-source intelligence and a studied evaluation of specific subversive forces in the local, national or international en- vironment in which they exist. Each scrap of information is then evaluated to determine the validity of activity patterns which are initially presented as plausible theories. A logic sequence is then developed to relate theories to available data, terrorist operational options, and probable events. 7. ITC SYSTEM The Intelligence-Targeting Collation or ITC System has been effectively used to provide a visual system for displaying, locating, and dating large quantities of information on a terrorist or guerrilla force. It is basically a plot-board technique that makes data easier to interpret when compared with most map and/or record systems. In the course of daily plotting, an analyst uses the ITC Plot Board to closely observe developing patterns of activity. He contemplates the purpose of any single action as it relates to potential target proximity and sequential relationship to all other intelligence data. After a brief period, trends will begin to emerge, thus allowing the analyst to make accurate projections on terrorist or guerrilla strength, location, de- ployment, modus operandi and/or intentions. - 41 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 'Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 The ITC System clearly reveals activity signatures that generally hold true for all opposition forces operating in,a particular area. This allows an analyst to assume the role of a master chess player who can view the board and determine various logical moves of an opponent. Obviously, these signatures will vary according to environment, types of conflict and standard methodology of the hostile force. As an example, urban terrorist signatures might be revealed by the following types of information input: a. Police report increasing theft of explosive or incendiary materials. b. Informant observes suspect dissidents conducting a "casual meeting. c. Intelligence asset discovers a terrorist surveillance operation against a likely target for violence. d. A technical penetration operation reveals intentions for future terrorist actions. e. Surveillance team follows suspect terrorist during his recon of local airport. Although certain specific intelligence reports may clearly indicate intended hostile actions, the ITC System can provide a much broader and deeper insight regarding the total threat. It also facilitates the expedient collation of intelligence that might otherwise be handled on a fragmented Approved or eiease1~1`99?jWZ e lA--'RD 85?(Y66f1060b 96601-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 counteraction within a limited time frame. An ITC System may be established for a rural or urban environ- ment using the following procedural approach: a. Obtain a roll of lined graph paper with grids on an approximate map scale of 1:25, 000 for rural areas, or 1:10, 000 for urban areas. b. Bind the graph paper to chartboards or cardboard squares roughly 3 x 4 feet in size. c. Number graph lines on bottom and right side of chartboard to correspond with Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid numbers for selected target areas. d. Match and bind corresponding map sections to reverse side of each board or on a feasible alternate location. e. Establish secure work area where analyst may handle and plot sensitive intelligence data on boards. f. Develop symbol code to identify plotted sources of information, e. g. : SOURCE SYMBOL (1) Agent (2) Informant (3) Penetration (4) Incident (5) Photography Approved For Release 1999/09/24 - CF4=RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 SOURCE SYMBOL (6) Historical 0 (7) Prisoners A (8) Civilian r (9) Research (10) Rumors g. Establish color codes for various time periods of informa- tion acquisition, and plot source symbols in appropriate time color. (NOTE: Color normally should indicate specific 10 - 30 day time periods. ) h. If sourcing of data and dates must be exacting, develop sequential number codes for intelligence reports and place same numeric code beside plotted symbol, e. g. , 3 - 84 for the 84th report during March of that year. (Use card box to maintain record of codes and reference to source reporting related to same. ) i. In conjunction with source codes, utilize two-letter alphabetic vocabulary code to identify and plot critical information reported, e. g. : ACTIVITY CODE Action AC Agent AG Assassination AS Base BA Approved For Release 1999/09/24. GItA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 ACTIVITY CODE Bombing BM Cache CH Cadre CA Clandestine Meeting CM Communication CN Demonstration DM Enemy Agent _ EA Espionage ES Explosives EX Facility FA Guerrilla GU Headquarters HQ Homicide HC Hospital HS Hostage HT Incendiary Device ID Kidnapping KN Killed KL Prison PR Raid RD Route RU Signal SG Approved For Release 1999/09/24: -CfA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 ACTIVITY CODE Supplies ' SU Supply Cache Sc Terrorist TR Traffic TF Unknown Activity UA Vehicle VH Weapons (Small Arms) WP (NOTE: Vocabulary code symbols given are exemplary only and may be reduced or expanded as the situation dictates. These codes may also be used on combination as appropriate, e. g. , SQ/AB for squad sized ambush. ) j. Supplementary symbols can be added as needed, e. g. , small arrows attached to source code symbols to indicate direction of movement. Example ITC Plot Board Hq TK/TF agq SD CH aPA CO/AB X 30 29 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 46- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 NOTE: Use fine-line ink pens to record symbols on plot board. Make symbols and alpha-numeric lettering as small as possible without being unreadable. 25X1C10c Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1C1Oc Ilk Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Next 4 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1 C1 Oc 11. PRE- CRISES POINTERS 1. Plan im-.ginative delaying tactics that can be used to "stall" negotiations with terrorists and gain time needed to fully explore various options for attaining hostage release. 2. Design contingency plans to avoid premature and unplanned direct confrontation with terrorists. S Approved For Release 1999/09/24: dIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 3. Develop themes for humanitarian appeals designed to persuade terrorists that they are losing support for their "cause. IT 4. Game probable negotiated release situations to determine advance guarantees needed to assure that hostages will be returned unharmed simultaneous with the granting of any concessions to terrorists. 5. Determine transportation and security options assuming terrorists will probably demand aircraft for flight to a safe haven. 6. Establish various contingency reaction plans among and between all governments that might possibly be concerned with any anticipated terrorist action. 7. Take necessary steps to be prepared to control terrorist communications and movement to prevent guidance, direction or assistance from outside sources. 8. Game all possible future actions with various government security elements to preclude uncoordinated panic reaction during any terrorist incident. VI. INCIDENT PROCEDURES 1. PROTECTIVE REACTION CHART TERRORIST ACTION EXAMPLE REACTION 1. Assault Escape, evade, initiate emergency commo and/or Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-006 IIgbdb1'66'( Olc ion - 54 - ' Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 PROTECTIVE REACTION CHART (continued) TERRORIST ACTION EXAMPLE REACTION 1. Assault (continued) until security reaction force can 2. Kidnapping 3. Ambush 4. Bombing break attack. If possible and advisable, attempt to escape and evade. Activate emer- gency or other warning device. If captured, cooperate with your captors without divulging sensitive intelligence or compromising information. In response to kidnapping, pre-planned rescue and/or negotiated release to be attempted. Move away from fields of fire, seek protective cover, and if armed, immediately return fire. Initiate emergency commo and take evasive action avoiding exposed or open areas. Dive for protective cover and lie flat with feet toward explosion. Activate bomb squads and fire teams to attempt to limit further damage. Be alert for second bomb. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 : -C1A-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 TERRORIST ACTION 5. Hijacking 7. Sabotage EXAMPLE REACTION Do not attempt to overpower hijackers unless given a very reasonable chance for success. Avoid attracting attention to yourself. If kidnapped as a result of hijacking, follow above para 2. guidance. Encirclement or entrapment of terrorists accompanied by no-bar- gaining position with demand that terrorists surrender. Armed surrep- titious entry team should be prepared to attempt release of any captives. Attempt to rapidly identify exact type and source of sabotage. Use search and security teams to locate follow-on sabot age actions. Screen personnel with access to target and implement protective security procedures Immediate reaction must be spontaneous defensive maneuver to escape particular type of attack. Then initiate emergency Approved For Release 1999/09/24-: 1A-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 TERRORIST ACTION EXAMPLE REACTION 8. Assassination (continued) procedures and take evasive action until security forces arrive. Practice counter surveillance and good security to avoid future assassination attempts. 9. Deception and threats Take immediate defensive action until such time as proven. false, particularly in situations where deception or threats are a prelude to actual attack. 25X1 C8a Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1 C8a Communication 8. What types of communication are believed or known to be avail- able to terrorists, and how might these be employed for command control? 9. Has action been taken to disrupt terrorist communications, and if not, why not? 10. What types of communication systems are being used by security services, and how are these employed? 11. What capability exists for immediate communication between various services, command elements within government, and/or the responsible leadership ? 12. What is the status of critical communication, and is there a possibility that such communications might be delayed or disrupted? 13. In the case of a hostage, is the victim equipped with any clandes- tine communication system? Physical 14. Where, how, and under what conditions are terrorists deployed? 15. What routes of entry and/or escape might be used to gain access to, or exit from the terrorist's present location? Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 - 58 - ' Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Physical (continued) 16. If terrorists use hostages to demand safe passage, what routes might be used? 17. What physical attributes of the terrorist's present location, or probable movement routes, would facilitate an ambush and/or other surprise action? 18. Have detailed maps, building blueprints, utility layouts, and other physical data been used in answering questions 14 through 17 above? 19. In cases of skyjacking or use of aircraft for escape, what physical attributes of airports and/or aircraft might be used to negate on-going or indicated terrorist action? 20. What are the physical advantages and disadvantages of the terrorist's current location and/or disposition? Logistics 21. What items of equipment are immediately available to support operations against terrorists? (Consider weapons, ammo, explosives, starlight scopes, remote listening devices, cameras, helicopters, ve- hicles and other appropriate items. ) 22. What equipment is now in use by security services ? 23. What equipment is known to be available to terrorists? 24. How might available equipment be employed to negate present and/or intended terrorist action(s)? Approved For Release 1999/09/245:9C1A-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Negotiations 25. Have the terrorists been told that their demands will be met in order to gain time to develop the best possible response? 26. Has every effort been made to conceal the fact that terrorist demands might not be met? 27. What preparations have been made to meet terrorist demands in the event no other alternative is possible? 28. If inaction or a no bargaining position is to be taken, have all the consequences been fully evaluated? 29. How can any bargaining best be conducted to facilitate release of any hostages while increasing chances that terrorists will be captured? Expertise 30. What special skills are available from internal security services ? (Consider bomb disposal squads, snipers, radio direction finding units, teletap teams, camera crews, technical personnel, communicators, and others that might be appropriate to the situation. ) 31. What special skills are available from the foreign community? 32. What special skills have been evidenced by the terrorists, and what others might they probably have? 3. IMMEDIATE RESPONSE 25X1 C8a Approved For Release 1999/09/24.: 4pIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1C1Oc L Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 25X1 C10c 4. HOSTAGE LOCATION 1. If foot movement involved, consider use of trackers and/or tracking dogs. 2. Screen and question local residents near kidnap scene to attempt to determine routes of travel. 3. Be prepared to trace telephone calls and/or surveil couriers as one means to locate general area where hostage is being held. 4. Game possible locations where a specific terrorist; group might hold the hostage in question assuming you have determined who is res- ponsible. 5. Post rewards for information leading to the hostages safe recovery. 6. Organize a systematic search procedure using several small teams composed of local residents to avoid giving terrorists any advance alert. 7. Utilize intelligence /informant networks to attain leads on terrorist safehouses or known locations where hostages might be held. 8. Attempt to monitor all telephone calls and other communications going to or from suspect area(s). Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 9. Consider selective use of remote listening devices to help pinpoint hostage location. (Hopefully, the victim may already be equipped with a self-j=ctivated "bug" so that he and/or the terrorists may reveal their location. ) 5. POTENTIAL HOSTAGE NOTES 1. Maintain your dignity and avoid taking any action which might provoke the terrorists. 2. Start thinking about escape the minute you are captured. Your best chance to escape will usually occur during the confusion of the attack. 3. Do not volunteer information about yourself or any other subject. 4. Attempt to convince terrorists that the only hope of accomplishing their objectives is to assure your safety. 5. Make careful observations regarding the terrorists and the situation so you can provide vital intelligence to your potential rescuers -- assuming a means of communication has been or will be provided. 6. As one possible means of communication, remember "key" words, phrases, and gestures you will need to signal a friendly inter- mediary and/or other contact. 7. Assess the determination of the terrorists with regard to the accomplishment of their mission. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: PJA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 8. In appropriate situations, sympathize with the terrorist "cause" and attempt to convince them of your desire to cooperate, within limits, which would not embarrass you with your government. 9. Avoid any outward expression of fear, panic, or hatred which might stimulate an automatic hostile reaction from the terrorist. 10. Convince the terrorists that patience will gain them at least some of the objectives they seek, that delays or negative responses are inevitable but that, the local government will eventually meet part of their demands. 11. Attempt to buy time with the above techniques and any others you can improvise, as you must give your potential rescuers a chance to fully prepare their response. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 4 - TERRORIST OPERATIONAL EX04F AR CHART Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 MOONS OPF.RANDL INTERNATIONAL PROFILE - LOCAL/' NATIONAL PROFILE 1. Organization Patriotic front, e.g., Palestinian Fedayeen. Communist or other radical organizations. Fanatic individuals. 2. Sponsorship and External to target area. Communist bloc, patriotic Leadership front, dissident elements and/or governments sympathetic to terrorist "cause". Detailed and specific with emphasis on high impact opera- tions having maximum propaganda potential and/or the means to extract concessions, Plans are also designed to directly or indirectly undermine the strength of a particular target, e,g., Israel. 4. Target Analysia Vulnerable to classic or improvised terrorist attack. Target and?llntelligence meeting above planning criteria. Objective with known and fixed pattern of activity, or one exposed to detailed tar- getting assessment by informants, intelligence agents, or other methods. Subject to element of surprise, Unprepared for hostile action, Limited physical defense if fixed, or exposed and undefended if mobile. Known to lack effective intelli- gence and/or counterintelligence capabilities. Meets criteria in 3. and 4, above, Couriers, deaddrops, cutouts, radio, CW, microdot and diplomatic pouch of governments sympathetic to terrorist cause. Usually no direct communication between leadership and operatives. - 7. Coordination Decentralized, compartmented and specifically geared to particular operations. All coordination begins at planning stage and is designed to provide direction for independent support, intelligence and action cells. 8. Funding and Logistics Governments sympathetic to terrorist cause provide clandestine funding and act as a conduit for explosives, weapons, equip- ment, or other items. t:onsidcrable quantities of logistics originate from Communist Bloc countries, but Seldom pass directly to terrorists. 9. Personnel Selection Any fanatic organization may provide sources of personnel. and Training Actual selection depends on individual motivation, skills, and potential cover for access and/or action. General and specific target training generally accomplished within countries sympathetic to terrorist cause, International airlines, stolen vehicles, boats, and/or any other method compatible with cover and movement requirements related to covert preparation to hit a particular target. World-wide network of small clandestine cells designed to provide intelligence and operational support for specific and isolated acts of terrorism. In some cases AL FATAH and possibly other terrorist groups also have legal representation in a number of countries. Individual terrorists may or iiay not he associated with local revolutionary and/or subversive organizations, 12, Documentation Stolen and altered, Obtained under false pretense, Provided by sympathetic governments. Fabricated and/or obtained in name of unwitting or deceased subject. 13. Basing and Staging Generally non-specific and located as required to facilitate attack against a specific target, However, governments sym- pathetic to terrorist cause will usually provide training bases and temporary staging areas as needed. 14. Attack Methods Hijacking, kidnapping, bombing, assassination, seizure, threats and deception, Isolated attacks covering wide geographic area. 15, Operational Execution Compartmented, specific, exacting, with attack group(s) usually isolated from planning or support elements. Terrorist action may be unwitting individual, composite groups or dedicated team, Subversives or extremists. Fanatics and nuts. Armsl guerrillas and/or revolutionaries. Action arm and/,t legal apparrat of international terrorists. 't'hird country groups or individuals. Internal and/or external to target nation. Subver- sives or revolutionaries acting alone or in conjunc- tion with third country governments or movements. General and non-specific with emphasis on operation:+ designed to force a target regime to undertake repressive acts which will alienate a government from their national population. Exposed to type of attack normally employed by loc.,1 terrorist groups. Discriminate or indiscriminate with primary objective being to "cow" a target p,.pu- lation. Intelligence only required for discrimin.ct,? targets and this usually provided by existing net- work of agents and/or informants. Random target of opportunity hit because of im- mediate undefended exposure to terrorists, or dis- criminate and specific target relatively undefended and/or Subject to element of surprise. Selection primarily based on probable impact as regards objec- tive to "cow" population or force target regime to initiate repressive acts. Local mail, bamboo telegraph, couriers or runners, deaddrops cutouts, radio, and direct passage between terrorist cells or from leadership down. Centralized with limited compartmentation and mini- mal directional. control. Designed to provide over all guidance on psychological, political, opera- tional and other objectives for a subversive move- ment in which the terrorists may play a major or minor role. Robbery, theft, extortion and kidnap operations used to raise all or portion of needed funds. Log- istics items are stolen, purchased on black market or clandestinely provided by external sponsors. Recruits are primarily drawn from dissident ele- ments of population who are aggravated with thaa1r personal situation and the target regime. Train- ing of cadre usually takes place in Communist or other revolution exporting third countries. How- ever, many terrorists receive clandestine train- ing within target nation. Primarily by foot, local transportation facili- ties, and/or stolen vehicles. Sustained rate of high mobility. Support cells are usually an integral part of any terrorist or subversive organization. They may or may not have independent functional and/or geo- graphic responalbilities, but are noreslly located within the immediate area(s) targetted by terro- rists. Rural based guerrillas seldom use docv-entation, whereas urban oriented terrorists or .Subversives tend to rely on their cover rather than false documentation. If papers needed, the are usually bought or obtained under falr.~ pretense. Safe areas and houses are normally used to pro- vide fixed facilities where operations may be planned, prepared, and rehearsed. Sins target options limited to confined geographlc area, basing must be relatively static. Assault, ambush, sabotage, and other methods as indicated in international profile. kopetitive attacks usually limited to single national environment. Discriminate, indiscriminate, random, or targets of opportunity usually hit by compartmented ter- rorist cell. Local terrorist elements cites engage in their own planning and support activi- ties. Action may be undertaken by unwitting in- dividual, composite group or dedicated team, as in the case of international terrorists. ~i'ia~f,2ra CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 added AS appropriate, e.g, timing, cover, and access. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Andies, Hellmut Rule of Terror, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969. 2. Assassination and Political Violence, a Task Force of the National Commis- sion on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969. 3. Arther, Richard O. , and Caputo, William C. , Interrogation. for Investigators. William C. Copp and Associates, New York, 1959. 4. Bain, Chester A. , Vietnam -- The Roots of Conflict. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. , 1967. 5. Bennett, Richard L. , The Black and Tans. Boston: Houghton Miffin Co. , 1959. 6. Bern, Major H. von Dach, Total Resistance. Boulder, Colorado: Panther Publications, 1965. 7. Black, Cyril E., and Thornton, Thomas P., Communism and Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964. 8. Bocca, Geoffrey, The Secret Army. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1968. 9. Brown, Robert M. , The Electronic Invasion. John F. Rider Inc., New York, 1966. 10. Browne, Malcolm W. , The New Face of War. Indianapolis: The Bobbs - Merrill Co., 1965. 11. Clark, Michael K., Algeria in Turmoil. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. 12. Cook, Fred J. , The Secret Rulers. Duell, Sloan, Pearce, New York, 1966. 13. Cross, James Eliot, Conflict in the Shadows. New York: Doubleday & Co. , 1963 14. Crozier, Brian, South-East Asia in Turmoil. Baltimore: :Penguin Books, 1965. 15. Davies, James Chowning, ed. When Men Revolt and Why: A Reader in Political Violence and Revolution. New York, Free Press, 1971. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 - 67 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 16, Dienstein, William, Technics for the Crime Investigator. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois;, 1965. 17. Dubois, Jules, Fidel Castro. Indianapolis: The New Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1959. 18. Eckstein, Harry, ed. Internal War. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1964. 1.9. Egen, Frederick W., Plainclothesman. Arco Publishing Company, Inc. , New York, 1963. U. Endleman, Shalom, ed. Violence in the Streets. Chicago, Quandrangle, 1968. 21. Frank, Gerold. The Deed. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. , 1963. 42. Giap, General Vo Nguyen, The South Vietnam People Will Win. Hanoi: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1965. 23. Gibson, Walter B., The Fine Art of Spying. Crossett and Dunlap, New York, 1965. 74. Greene, Lt. Col. T. N., ed. The Guerrilla -- and How to Fight Him. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962. ?5. Gross, Feliks, The Seizure of Political Power in a Century of Revolutions. New York: Philosophical Library, 1958. t,6. Guzman, Campos, Mons. German, Fals Borda, Orlando, and Umana Luna, Eduardo. La Violencia en Colombia, vols. 1 and 2. Bogota: Ediciones Tercer Mundo, 1963. ' 7. Harvey, Malachi L. and Cross, John C. , The Informer In Law Enforcement. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1962. 28. Hazelet, John C. , Police Report Writing Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1960. 29. Heisel, James H. , Counter Revolution. Atherton Press, New York, 1966. 30. Hoover, J. Edgar, Masters of Deceit. Cardinal Edition Pocket Books Inc. , New York, 1961. s1. Hosmer, Stephen T. , Viet Cong Repression and Its Implications for the Future. Lexington: Heath Lexington Books, 1970. Approved For Release 1999/09/24' a A-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 32. Janowitz, Morris, Social Control of Escalated Riots. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1968. 33. Jenkins, Brian Michael, "The Five Stages of Urban Guerrilla Warfare: Challenge of the 1970s". RAND, July 1971. 34. Kirk, Paul L. and Bradford, Lowell W. , The Crime Laboratory. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1965. 35. Kitson, Frank, Low Intensity Operations. Stackpole, 1971. 36. Koontz, Harold and O'Donnell, Cyril, Principles of Management. McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York - Toronto - London, --. 37. Leiden, Carl and Schfrnitt, Karl M. , eds. The Politics of Violence. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, Inc. , 1968. 38. Lenz, Robert R., Explosives and Bomb Disposal Guide. Springfield, Ill. , Thomas, 1965. 39. Mallin, Jay, Terror in Viet Nam. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Co. , 1966. 40. MacCarthy, J. M. , ed. Limerick's Fighting Story. Tralee, Ireland: Anvil Books, 1966. 41. Marx, Karl, Capital. New York: International Publishers Co. , 1967. 42. Masotti, Louis H. , ed. "Urban Violence and DisorderP1, Issue 11:4 of The American Behavioral Scientist, March - April, 1968. 43. Mendel, Arthur P. , ed. Essential Works of Marxism. New York: Bantam Books, 1965. 44. Momboisse, Raymond M., Blueprint of Revolution. Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1970. 45. Momboisse, Raymond M. , Confrontations, Riots, Urban Warfare. Sacramento, California, MSM Enterprises, 1969. 46. Moinboisse, Raymond M. "Riot Protection; Check List for Business" Sacramento, California, MSM Enterprises, 1968. 47. Momboisse, Raymond M , Riots, Revolts, and Insurrestion.s. Springfield, Ill., Thomas. 1967. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 6trA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 48. Moss, Robert, The War for the Cities. New York, Coward, McCann & Goeghegan, Inc., 1972. British edition entitled: Urban Guerrillas. 49. Moss, Robert, "Urban Guerrillas in Uruguay", Problems of Communism, September - October 1971, pp. 14 - 23. 50. Moss, Robert, Urban Guerrilla Warfare. With an Appendix: Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla by Carlos Marighella. (Adelphi Papers, No. 79). London, The International Institute for Strategic Studies, August 1971. 51. Moss, Robert, Urban Guerrillas in Latin America. (Conflict Studies No. 8). London, Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1970. 52. Mydans, Carl and Shelley, The Violent Peace. New York: Atheneum, 1968. 53. Nunez, Carlos and Jose Diaz. The Tupamaros; Urban Guerrilla Warfare in Uruguay. New York, Liberated Guardian, 1970. 54. Oppenheimer, Martin and George Lakey. A Manual for Direct Action. Chicago, Quandrangle, 1965. 55. Oppenheimer, Martin. The Urban Guerrilla. Chicago, Quandrangle, 1969. 56. O'Sullivan, B. Dalton, Crime Detection. The O'Sullivan Publishing House, Chicago, Illinois, 1928. 57. Penkovskiy, Oleg., The Penkovskiy Papers. Avon Company, New York, 1966. 58. Pfiffner, John M. and Sherwood, Frank P. Administrative Organization. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1960. 59. Phillips, R. Hart, Cuba--Island of Paradox. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1959. 60. Pike, Douglas. The Viet-Cong Strategy of Terror. Saigon: United States Mission, Viet-Nam, 1970. 61. Powell, William, The Anarchist Cookbook. New York, Lyle Stuart, 1971. 62. Powers, Thomas, Diana: The Making of a Terrorist. Boston, 1971. 63. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. New York: Bantam Books, 1968. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 7 IA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 64. Reed, David, 111 Days in Stanleyville. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. 65. Riots, Civil and Criminal Disorders -- Hearings before the Permanent Sub- committee on Investigations of the Committee on Govern- ment Operations, United States Senate. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1970. 66. Rosenthal, Carl F., Phases of Civil Disturbances: Characteristics and Problems. Washington, D. C. , Center for Research in Social Systems, June, 1969. 67. Russell, Charles and Hildner, Robert E. "Urban Insurgency in Latin America", Air University Review, September - October 1971, pp. 54 - 64. 68. Soderman, Harry and O'Connell, John J., Modern Criminal Investigation. Funk and Wagnalls Company. New York? 1952. 69. Sondern, Frederic, Jr., Brotherhood of Evil- -The Mafia. Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, New York, 1959. (0. Stahl, O. Glenn, Public Personnel Administration. Harper & Row, New York, 1962. /1. Stoffel, Joseph F. , Explosives and Homemade Bombs. Springfield, Ill. , Thomas, 1962. 72. Stoner, John K. "Riot Control Doctrine", Military Review. February 1965, pp. 40 - 44. 73. Suchlicki, Jaime, University Students and Revolution in Cuba, 1920 - 1968. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1969. '74. Taber, Robert, The War of the Flea. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1965. 75. To Establish Justice, To Insure Domestic Tranquility. Final report of the National Commission on Causes and Prevention of Violence. New York: Bantam Books, 1970. 76. Trotsky, Leon, Stalin. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1941. /7. United States Department of Justice.. Federal Bureau of Investigation, "Prevention and Control of Mobs and Riots. " Washington, D. C. FBI, 3 April 1967. - 71 - Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4 78. United States Mission in Viet Nam. A Study -- Viet Cong Use of Terror. Saigon, 1967. 79. Whelton, Charles, Skyjack? New York: Tower Publications, 1970. 80. Wilson, O. W., Police Administration. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York, Toronto, London, 1950. 81. Wilson, O. W. , Police Planning. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1958. 82. Wilson, O.W., Police Records. Public Administration Service, Chicago, Illinois, 1951. 83. Wolfe, Bertram D., Three Who Made a Revolution. New York: The Dial Press, 1961. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000200250001-4