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Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R00030002000 No Foreign Dissem RETIRED FILE JOB 5-OO(i7j'R BOX FOLDER 0 a DESENSITIZED DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE Inte11ience Handbook BRAZIL 25X1A2g February 1968 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-R?P85-00671 R000300020001-8 WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of Title 18, sections 793 and 794, of the US Code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or re- ceipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 _ mf V URUGUAY Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 56826 10--67 Approved For Release 1999/09/24SF*F85-00671 R000300020001-8 NO FOREIGN DISSEM INTELLIGENCE HANDBOOK 25X6D BRAZIL SECRET Approved For Release 199910/WIVIA85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 CI F P~?~-00671 R000300020001-8 CONTENTS Page Foreword .......................................... xv I. Introduction ................................ 1 II. Historical Background ........................ 5 A. Chronology .............................. 5 B. History ................................. 7 Reading List ................................. 14 III. Physical. Geography ........................... 15 A. Introduction ............................ 15 B. Northern Region ......................... 16 1. General ............................ 16 2. Amazon Flood Plain ................. 16 a. Terrain and Drainage .......... 16 b. Climate ....................... 17 c. Vegetation ................. . 25X6D Land Use .............. . 20 3. Terra Firme ........................ a. Terrain and Drainage .......... b. Climate ....................... c. Vegetation .................... 25X6D Land Use ...................... 23 23 24 26 28 C. West-Central Region ..................... 30 1. General ............................ 30 2. Central Plateau .................... 31 a. Terrain and Drainage .......... 31 b. Climate ....................... 32 c. Vegetation .................... 32 2X6D Land Use ...................... 35 Pantanal ....................... Terrain and Drainage .......... Climate ....................... Vegetation .................... Land Use ...................... 38 38 39 39 39 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 :>Clc-R-DPa5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99 1O9 24rC A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 P age e. Factors Affecting Land and Air Operations .................... 40 D. Northeastern Region ..................... 42 1. General ............................ 42 2. Zona da Mata ....................... 42 a. Terrain and Drainage 42 b. Climate ........................ 43 c. Vegetation .................... 45 25X6D Land Use ....................... 45 3. The Agreste 47 a. Terrain and Drainage 47 b. Climate ........................ 48 c. Vegetation 50 25X6D Land Use ....................... 50 4. The Sertgo .......................... 53 a. Terrain and Drainage ........... 53 b. Climate ........................ 55 c. Vegetation ..................... 58 Land Use ....................... 58 5. Parnaiba - Mearim Area .............. a. Terrain and Drainage ........... b. Climate ........................ C. Vegetation ..................... 256D Land use ....................... 61 61 61 61 62 E. Eastern Region ........................... 64 1. General ............................. 64 2. Central Highland ................... 64 a. Terrain and Drainage ........... 64 b. Climate ....................... 67 c. Vegetation .................... 69 25X6D Land Use ...................... 69 3. Eastern Slope ...................... 70 a. Terrain and Drainage .......... 70 b. Climate ....................... 71 c. Vegetation .................... 75 26X6D Land Use ...................... 76 Approved For Release I 99 tt 9 4'.1 IA RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24_.Cb P$5-00671 R000300020001-8 Page 4. Sao Francisco River Basin .......... 79 a. Terrain and Drainage ........... 79 b. Climate ....................... 81 c Vegetation .................... 81 25(6D Land Use ...................... 82 F. Southern Region ......................... 82 1. General ............................ 82 2. Southern Plateau ................... 83 a. Terrain and Drainage .......... 83 b. Climate ....................... 89 c. Vegetation .................... 90 25X6D Land Use ...................... 92 3. Eastern Slope ...................... a. Terrain and Drainage .......... b. Climate ....................... c. Vegetation .................... 25X6D Land Use ...................... 96 96 98 99 100 Gazetteer .................................... 104 Glossary ..................................... 109 Reading List ................................. 113 IV. Population ................................... 115 A. General ................................. 115 1. Size and Growth .................... 115 2. Distribution ....................... 115 3. Mobility ........................... 116 4. Settlement Patterns ................ 116 5. Demographic Terminology ............ 117 B. Composition ............................. 120 1. Color and Race ..................... 120 2. Immigrants ......................... 121 3. Indigenous Indian Groups ........... 126 4. Indian Culture Areas ............... 130 C. Language ................................ 130 D. Education ............................... 131 Approved For Release 1999/09/24, IP'85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199/p9t2~_F1~-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Page E. Religion ............................... 134 F. Housing ................................ 139 G. Health ................................. 152 H. Occupations ............................ 157 I. Attitudes and Loyalties ................ 160 J. Insurgency Potential ................... 161 Reading List ................................ 182 V. Politics and Government ..................... 183 A. Current Problems ....................... 183 B. Structure of Government ................ 184 1. Central Government ................ 184 a. The Executive ................ 184 b. The Legislature .............. 186 c. The Judiciary ................ 187 2. State and Local Government ........ 187 C. Political Parties ...................... 188 D. Current Administration ................. 190 E. Foreign Relations ...................... 192 F. Subversion and Insurgency .............. 195 1. General ........................... 195 2. Brazilian Exile Groups ............ 196 a. Nationalist Revolutionary Move- ment (MNR) ................... 197 b. Nationalist Armed Resistance (RAN) 198 c. Other Exiles ........ .... 198 3. Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) ... 199 4. The Communist Party of Brazil (CPB) ............. ........... 200 5. The Popular Action (Agao Popular - AP) .............. ................ 201 6. Workers' Politics (POLOP) ......... 201 7. The Trotskyite Groups ............. 201 8. Paraguayan Exiles ................. 202 9. The Role of Cuba .................. 202 10. The Rightists ..................... 203 11. Recent Insurgency Incidents ..... 203 a. Rio Grande do Sul Guerrilla Incident .......... ? ......... 203 b. The Serra do Caparad Guerrilla Group ........................ 204 OR Approved For Release I 999 24- IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 ~ 6AF-Rb* -00671 R000300020001-8 Page c. The Uberlandia Terrorist Group ......................... 205 d. Itaucu Insurgency Group ....... 205 Reading List ................................. 207 VI. Economy ...................................... 209 A. General ................................. 209 B. Agriculture ............................. 210 C. Manufacturing ........................... 211 D. Fuels, Power, and Mining ................ 212 E. Investment, Finance, and Banking ........ 212 F. International Economic Relations ........ 213 G. Prime Economic Targets .................. 215 Reading List ................................. 216 VII. Transportation ............................... 217 A. General ................................. 217 B. Roads and Trails ........................ 217 1. Roads .............................. 217 a. Extent and Characteristics .... 217 b. Numbering Systems ............. 219 c. Regional Networks ............. 226 (1) Northeastern Region ..... 226 (2) Eastern Region .......... 227 (3) Southern Region ......... 228 (4) Northern and West-Central Regions ................. 229 2. Trails ............................. 229 C. Railroads ............................... 231 1. Northeastern Region ................ 231 2. Eastern Region ..................... 232 3. Southern Region .................... 233 4. Northern and West-Central Regions 236 D. Inland Waterways ........................ 236 1. The Amazon and Its Tributaries ..... 237 2. The Rio Sao Francisco and Other Rivers of the Northeast and East ... 240 3. Rivers and Lakes of the South and Southwest .......................... 241 E. Maritime Ports and Shipping ............. 249 F. Air Transportation ...................... 254 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19%91O9~_V-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Page G. Cross-Border Movement ................... 257 1. Movement Across Guianan, Venezuelan, Colombian, Peruvian, and Bolivian Borders ............................ 259 2. Movement Across Paraguayan Border .. 261 3. Movement Across Argentine Border ... 263 25X6D4? Movement Across Uruguayan Border ... 265 Reading List ................................. 273 VIII. Telecommunications ........................... 275 A. General ................................. 275 B. Organization of Telecommunications Services ................................ 275 C. Telephone and Telegraph Facilities ...... 276 1. Domestic ........................... 276 2. International ...................... 277 D. Broadcasting ............................ 277 1. Radio .............................. 277 2. Television ......................... 278 E. Special-Purpose Telecommunications Systems .................................. 278 1. Military ........................... 278 2. Railroad 278 25X6D3? State Police ........................ 279 Reading List .................................. 280 IX. Military and Internal Security Forces 281 A. General .................................. 281 B. Ground Forces ........................... 282 C. Naval Forces ............................. 285 D. 2"'SA [5orce ................................ 288 25X6Drhe Police .......................... 291 Ask Approved For Release 19991)9J24I -eFA=RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-t:?A RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Page 25X6D Reading List .................................. 295 25X6D Appendixes Appendix B -- Recommended Films .................... Tables `fable 1 -- Population of Brazil ................... 163 Table 2 -- Brazilian Cities with Populations over 150,000 ........................... 165 Table 3 -- Immigration to Brazil by Major Sources of Origin .............................. 166 Table 4 -- Culture Areas .......................... 167 Table 5 -- Road Mileage in Brazil ................. 218 Table 6 -- New and Old Numbers of Selected Federal Highways in Brazil ..................... 220 Table 7 -- International Boundaries of Brazil and 25X6D Factors Related to Cross-Border Move- ment ................................... 258 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 : k- i P65-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999 Q4/2 "RCMARDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Photographs (Abbreviated Titles) Figure No. Page 1 Bluffs along flood plain 18 2 Cumulus clouds in Northern Region ....... 18 3 Tropical rain forest 19 4 Forests on Amazon ....................... 19 5 Jute grown on Amazon flood plain ..:..... 21 6 Dense foliage in tropical rain forest ... 21 7 Riverine vegetation 22 8 Side channel of Amazon .................. 22 9 Terra Firme near Venezuelan border ...... 25 10- Rain forest on Terra Firme .....,......... 27 11- Tropical rain forest ..................... 27 12 Subsistence farm ......................... 29 13 Surface of Terra Firme 29 14 High Brasilia Planalto ................... 33 15 Central Plateau .......................... 33 16 Tropical semideciduous forest 34 17 Vegetation on Central Plateau ..,..=...... 34 18= Steep slopes of Central Plateau .......... 36 19 Woodland savanna ......................... 36 20 Tropical semideciduous forest ............ 37 21 Buriti palms of the Patanal 41 22 Sand dunes of Zona da Mata ............... 41 23? Crystalline hills ........................ 44 24- Land use in Zona da Mata ................. 44 25 Sugarcane in Zona da Mata ................ 46 26 Hilly terrain in Agreste ................. 49 27 Small farm in Agreste .................... 51 28 Spineless cactus, Palma .................. 51 29:. Sisal field in Agreste 52 30` Slopes of Chapada do Araripe ............. 52 31 Serra da Ibiapaba ....................... 54 32 Rugged terrain of Borborema Plateau ..... 54 33 Southern Sertao ......................... 56 34, Sa.o Francisco Valley 56 35 The Sertao .............................. 56 36 High-water level in Sertao .............. 57 37 Reservoir in the Sert .o ................. 57 38 ,r Storm in the Sertao ..................... 57 39 Caatinga ................................ 59 40 Carnaiiba grove .......................... 63 41' Serra do Espinhago ...................... 63 42' Southern Serra do Espinhaco ............. 65 43 Rolling area of Serra do Espinhacbo ...... 65 Approved For Release I 999A412 :RC1 - DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/14 &I-P l85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure No. Page 44 ti Serra do Curral 66 45 Peixoto Dam across Rio Grande ........... 66 46 Southern Minas Plateau 68 47' Vegetation on Central Highland .......... 68 48 Northeastern Bahian Plateau 72 49 Campos Plain ................ .......... 72 50 Serra do Mar ............................ 773 3 51 Hilly area of Serra do Mar 3 52 Rugged area of Serra do Caparao~ ......... 74 53 Coastal rain forest ..................... 74 54 Cacao growing on Bahian coast 77 55 Charcoal burners 77 78 56 Harvesting sugarcane and maize .......... 78 57' Escarpments in Zona da Mata ............? 80 58 Shore near Cabo Frio .................... 80 59 Low hills near Sao Francisco River ...... 84 60 Campanha Gaucha 84 61. Plateau southeast of Sao Paulo .......... 85 62_ Hills east of Campinas 85 63 Second Plateau .... ' 86 64' Third Plateau near Londrina, Parana ..... 86 65. V-shaped valleys of Third Plateau 87 66- Flood plain of Rio Parana ............... 88 67 Falls on Rio Igua,u ....... 91 68-' Rio Ibirapuita in flood ................. 69 Parana pine forest ...................... 91 70 The Campos de Guarapuava 93 71 Citrus plantation on Second Plateau 93 72= Grasslands of Campanha Gaucha .... ' ...... 73' Cliffs of Southern Plateau, Parana...... 94 74`~ Great Escarpment northwest of Santos .... 95 Coastal lowland near Santos 97 76, Serra do Paranapiacaba 97 77_ Steep hills of Itajai Basin ............. 78 Mangroves ............................... 101 101 79 Farm on slope of Serra Geral ............ 102 80 Ricefields on coastal plain .????????" .. 102 81- Harvesting rice near Porto Alegre 82 Caboclo family in the North ............. 122 122 83 Caboclo family with stock of farinha 123 84 Gauchos in Rio Grande do Sul 123 85 Cattlemen typical of the sertFSes ........ 86 Fishermen on Amazon at Santarem ......... 125 125 87 Classroom in Rio de Janeiro ............. 133 88 School children in Londrina ............. 138 89 Shrine of African cult in Rio ........... 138 g0 Northeasterner selling charms ........... S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/99/.244RCJA&RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure No. Page 91 Woman carrying water on her head ........ 141 92 Favelas of Rio de Janeiro ............... 142 93 Public water supply in Rio .............. 143 94 Favelas in Rio de Janeiro ............... 144 95 Copacabana Beach in Rio de Janeiro 146 96 Business district of Curitiba 147 97 Lower middle class homes, Sao Paulo 148 98 Houses in Novo Hamburgo 148 99 Stilt house on Amazon ...., ...... 149 100 Wattle-and-daub house 149 101 Houses in Waika village. . . ......150 102 Houses of Xavante Indians...... 150 103 House of Kaxinaua Indians 151 104 Hygiene class in Rio 154 105 Nurses in training 154 106 Northeastern town waterhole~ ............. 155 107 Rubber tapping in Amazon Basin .......... 159 108 Tapirape' family of Amazon area 171 109 Karaja woman of Rio Araguaia area........ 172 110 Krahd Indian women .. . . . 173 111 Indian girl harvesting peanuts ......... 174 112 Krahd Indians on fishing trip ........... 175 113 Indian woman bearing items on trip ...... 176 114 Indian huntsman . . ? . 177 115 Kaxinaua Indians with canoe ............ 178 116 Suya tribal dance .. . 179 117 Xiriana Indians .......... .... 180 118 Makuxi Indians north ofBoa.Vista /?..... 180 119 Indians .... .. poling small canoe 181 120 Heavy traffic in Sao Paulo . . . 221 121 Carreta in rural area, Parana......... 221 122 Donkeys used to transport goods ~......... ~ 222 123 Via Anchieta on Serra do Mar 222 124 Flat stretch on BR-50 . 223 125 Typical red clay road, Parana.... 223 126 Sandy road in Northeast; ......... .. . 224 127 Concrete arch bridge, Sergipe .~ 225 128 Primitive ferry, Mato Grosso 225 129 Madureira Station in Rio de Janeiro ~~~~? 234 130 Passenger train, Sao Paulo . ? ....... 234 131 Funicular railroad on Serro do Mar 235 132 Canoe on the Amazon . 243 133 Canoeists on lower Amazon 243 134 Vessels at Belem ? .. . . . 244 135 Loading ore at P8rtoSantana ........ 244 136 Ship at PCrto Velho . ? 245 137 Bark canoes of Camiuras Indians ......... 245 40 tow Approved For Release 1 99 Id 1 4' 1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/247 CPA--P'5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure No. Page 138 Pier at Cameta ........ . ................ 246 139 Native produce at Maraba ................ 246 140 Small boats on Rio Negro ................ 247 141 Ferry on Rio Sao Francisco .............. 247 142 Rio Iguap .............................. 248 143 Trucks at port of Santos ................ 251 144 Ship loading from lighter, Ilhe'us ....... 251 145 Small-craft basin at Belem .............. 252 146 Port of Paranagua, Parana ............... 253 147 DC-3 at airfield near Foz do Iguap ..... 255 148 Airstrip near Oiapoque, Amapa ........... 255 149 Baggage oxcart at airfield, Maraba ...... 256 150 Bridge linking Brazil and Paraguay ...... 264 151 Bridge at Florianopolis ...... ? ......... 272 Z-6D Railroad bridge over Rio Itajai ......... 272 Following Maps Page 55895 Brazil: Northern Region ................. 55898 Brazil: West-Central Region ............. 55896 Brazil: Northeastern Region ............. 55897 Brazil: Eastern Region .................. 55899 Brazil: Southern Region ................. 57935 Brazil: Population Density, 1950 ........ 57611 Brazil: Socio-Economic Regions .......... 57545 Brazil: Indian Tribes ................... 28 40 62 80 102 116 158 170 Approved For Release 1999/09/245: FC1A-ID'8T5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1992 :FCrA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Following Page 55736 56752 Brazil: Transportation (Railroads, Federal High- ways, Coastal Shipping Routes, and Navigability of Streams) ...................... USAF Chart of Airfields and Seaplane 236 Stations of the World -- Brazil (ACIC Vol 4-OlA) (Runways of 4000' and over) ...... 256 56753 USAF Chart of Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World -- Brazil 56150 (ACIC Vol 4-01) (Runways under 4000') Brazil: Principal Telecommunications Following Map 56752 Facilities, 1966 (Map 1) (Open Wirelines -- Telegraph, Open Wirelines -- Telephone, Submarine Telegraph Cables, Major Radiobroadcasting Sta- tions, and Television Stations) 278 56151 Brazil: Principal Telecommunications Facilities, 1966 (Map 2) (High-Frequency Radio, Microwave Radio Relay, Microwave Radio Relay [Planned], Coaxial Cable, Radiotelegraph, Radiotelephone) Following Map 56150 55894 Brazil: Physical Regions (Including Insets on Population and Administrative Divisions, Natural Vegetation, Land Use and Agriculture, and Mining and 54734 Industry) ........................ 358 Esso Roadmap of Brazil Inside (two sides) ...................... Rear Cover oft E-C2E- Approved For Release 19 9/09/ : C A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 5X6 D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 , Ar 3QF185-00671 R000300020001-8 1. Introduction Brazil, the fifth largest country in the world, has an area greater than that of the continental United States, a population equal to that of the rest of South America, and a culture predominantly Portuguese in origin. It is located in the eastern half of South America and borders all but two of the nations of the continent. It is a land of immense dimensions, dramatic diversities, growing strength and unity, and with a determination to play an international role commensurate with its power potential. Brazil is a federal republic composed of 22 states, 4 territories, and the Federal District. For practical pur- poses, however, it is usually treated in five geographical regions, the North, Northeast, East, South, and West-Central, which are distinguished by variations in topography, climate, and economy. The greater part of the country consists of highlands which fall sharply to a narrow coastal plain in the east and rather gradually to the west to form an exten- sive and almost level plain for the vast rain forests of the Amazon and its tributaries. In 1967 there were some 85.2 million Brazilians. Their distribution, racial composition, and way of life differ widely, but most of them share the Roman Catholic faith, the Portuguese language, and values related to national pride and destiny. Eighty percent of them live within 200 miles of the Atlantic coast, where the principal cities are situ- ated; relatively few have penetrated far inland. To stimu- late westward movement and development the national capital was transferred from Rio de Janeiro to the newly built inland city of Brasilia in 1960. If the country were able fully to exploit its natural resources, it could become one of the most prosperous nations in the world. It is well endowed with minerals, has a well- established agricultural base with heavy emphasis on export crops such as coffee and cocoa, and it has a substantial labor supply. On the other hand, Brazil's topography and climate retard progress. The transportation system, hampered by lack of navigable waterways connecting the seacoast with the hinterland except for the vast and inhospitable Amazon valley, has not advanced sufficiently to adequately exploit and market goods. Progress in some sectors of the economy, such as industry, and in some geographical regions, as in the South and East, has been notable, however, but population increases have absorbed most of the gains. Approved For Release 1999/09/24'-GIARDR85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T The three principal racial groups, European whites, African Negroes, and South American Indians, have inter- mingled and interbred to such an extent that racial or ethnic background plays only a minor role in social and economic advancement. Old cultural and political patterns are being replaced by new ones more suited to the challenges of an exploding population, industrialization, and a growing demand for social justice and an improved standard of living. The gap between the way of life of the relatively small upper class and that of the underprivileged masses is great. About 50 percent of the population is illiterate, poor, and effectively excluded from the political process. This is especially true in rural areas where some 60 percent of the population lives. Attempts to improve their situation through economic development have been underway since the 1930's, but only during the last eight or nine years have they sought a role in politics. Although Brazil's political institutions are still not representative of the broad masses and the political parties serve only in a very limited way as channels for permitting the entry of new groups and interests into the political arena, the balance of power within the national government is shifting away from the older agrarian interests to the urban-industrial and professional upper and middle class. At the same time the urban working class is gradually being organized and is playing an increasingly important role in politics. Conservative forces, nevertheless, feel confident in their own strength and in the support of the armed forces, stanch and reliable defenders of the constitutional process. However, a radical nationalist left has emerged, challenging the vested interests and seeking to mobilize popular support for the reform of existing social and political institutions. National self-assertion, as expressed in pride in history, intellectual, artistic, and economic achievements, and in efforts to assume an independent and leading role in hemis- pheric and world affairs, has been growing for some time especially among the upper and middle classes and has now reached part of the organized working class. It is frequently expressed in an increasing demand for economic independence from the United States and for nationalization of public utilities and basic industries. There is a polarization of public opinion regarding the United States. On the one hand, the United States is acknowl- edged as the principal trading partner, as the source of credit and skills for economic development, and as the representative Approved For Release I 9~ ?tq J22 ~C14-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09N2A_CCI - _1 P85-00671 R000300020001-8 of a material culture to which many Brazilians aspire. On the other hand, the dominating role played by the "northern colossus", its overwhelming wealth, and its value system presumed to be exclusively materialistic, are causes which can be found at the roots of anti-North American sentiment and on which extremists capitalize. Anti-North American for- mulas are being used with increased frequency by political parties and are the principal theme of the Communists, both Russophile and Sinophile. The Communists, of course, capi- talize on nationalist sentiments and recruit a number of their popular supporters from among nationalists, making it extremely difficult to differentiate between subversive Communist ele- ments and genuine nationalists. Although the Communist Party has been outlawed since 1947, Communists have had a powerful press and strong influence in most political and social institutions. Their strongest influence is evident in labor unions and student organizations from where they point their fingers to the United States as the principal cause of social and economic ills. The Communists are established in the coastal Northeast, the oldest and poorest section of the country where the large rural population, composed mostly of plantation workers, has been breaking away from traditional institutions without creating new ones to cope with their problems. Here, and sporadically in other parts of the country, armed clashes between land-hungry peasants and landowners occur. Although regionalism is strong and unrest in the Northeast is growing, it is unlikely that any particular region alone will have a decisive influence on political development in the near future. Approved For Release I 999/09/, ,LcL -J D 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09PNE:-CtA--REP85-00671 R000300020001-8 II. Historical Background A. Chronology This chronology is essentially the chronology to be found in the NIS General Survey, Brazil. Pedro Alvares Cabral, an explorer on his way to India, lands in Brazil and claims it for the Portuguese crown. Bands of gold seekers begin century- long series of expeditions into the interior resulting in vast expansion of Brazil's frontiers. Dom Pedro, son of King of Portugal and regent in Brazil, refuses to return to Portugal and proclaims Brazilian inde- pendence. 1864 - Combined forces of Brazil, Argentina, 1870 and Uruguay win costly war against Paraguay. 1888 1-917 1929 Complete emancipation of slaves decreed. Brazil declares war on Germany. World economic upheaval causes a col- lapse of the coffee market. Brazil plagued by financial and political disorders. 1930 Revolution brings Getulio Dornelles Vargas to power as provisional president. 1934 Constituent Assembly approves new con- stitution and elects Vargas president. 1937 Vargas becomes dictator. 1942 Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy. 1945 Military overthrow Vargas dictatorship. 1946 General Eurico Gaspar Dutra inaugurated president. New constitution promulgated. Approved For Release 1999/09'/214-:CCI-1P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999JjQ.2:9JA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 1947 Communist Party outlawed. Brazil breaks relations with USSR. 1951 Vargas inaugurated as president. 1954 Bowing to military demands, Vargas resigns and commits suicide. 1956 Juscelino Kubitschek inaugurated as presi- dent, Joao Goulart as vice president. 1960 Capital moved to Brasilia. 1961 1962 Janio Quadros inaugurated as president, Joao Goulart as vice president in Janu- ary. Quadros resigns in August blaming domestic and foreignpr'essures; succession of Goulart opposed by many of military. Compromise by Congress permits Goulart succession in September; constitution amended to introduce parliamentary govern- ment, stripping president of important powers. Relations with USSR restored in November. Communist Party dissidents in February form pro-China Communist Party of Brazil (CPB). 1963 Plebiscite in January restores presiden- tial system and full power to Goulart. 1964 1965 Goulart, in March, expropriates certain unused private lands and all privately owned Brazilian oil refineries. Military and civilian leaders, convinced that Goulart with the help of Communist and leftist ultra-nationalist allies is seek- ing to increase his power illegally, move against him. Castello Branco is elected by the Congress in April to serve remain- der of Goulart's term (until 31 January 1966). New government; initiates anti- inflationary measures and extensive reform program. Brazil breaks relations with Cuba in May. Brazil, in April, contributes soldiers to Inter-American Peace Force during the Dominican Republican crisis. Gubernatorial Alk Approved For Release 1999./ /24i-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/0912:-C P85-00671 R000300020001-8 1966 1967 elections in October lead to a political crisis resolved by the issuance of Insti- tutional Act II abolishing all political parties and laying the basis for restruc- turing the political system. Shortly later two broad parties are formed: the pro-government National Renewal Alliance (ARENA) and the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). Arthur da Costa e Silva is elected presi- dent in October. ARENA party maintains its majorities in congressional elections in November. Congress passes stringent new press law in January. President decrees sweeping National Security Law in March. Govern- ment promulgates new constitution in March embodying many principles advocated under the Castello Branco regime. Costa e Silva is installed as president on 15 March. B. History Brazil was discovered in 1500 by Pedro Alvares Cabral, a Portuguese navigator, who landed at Porto Seguro in the southern part of the present state of Bahia. He claimed the new terri- tory for King Manuel of Portugal and called it Vera Cruz (True Cross), a name eventually changed to Brasil, after the red dye- wood pau-brasil, brazilwood, found and exported by the early Portuguese settlers. During the thirty years following the discovery of Brazil, small Portuguese communities gradually grew up along the coast. Reports of the vast riches of Peru and the discovery of gold in Brazil, in small but promising amounts, led to an increase in Portuguese immigration and induced King Joao III to initiate colonization under royal grants. Some fifteen "captaincies," extending from the coast inland to Spanish-held territory, were laid out in 1534 and granted as hereditary holdings to gover- nors who had almost unlimited authority within their respective domains. The excessively decentralized captaincy system was not a success. To inject more vigor into the colonies and provide protection against pirates and other marauders, King Jogo decided in 1548 to place one central political authority, Approved For Release 1999/09P24~-CtA-RrJP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9% /p9t2j_ LQi4k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 answerable directly to the Crown, over the captaincies. Therefore, he purchased the captaincy of Bahia and appointed Tome de Sousa as governor-general of the colony. The gov- ernor arrived at the bay of Todos os Santos in March 1549, and established the city of Sao Salvador (Bahia), which was the colonial capital until 1763 when Rio de Janeiro superseded it. Colonial development went forward at a faster pace under the governors-general. In 1567 the city Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro was established. After 1580, when King Philip II of Spain incorporated Portugal into the Spanish Empire, colonizing; activities in Brazil received scant attention and the colony became the target for attacks by Philip's enemies. Sea. marauders under British, French, and Dutch flags harassed the coast and attempted to occupy territory. Following the restoration of Portuguese independence in 1640, the colony progressed rapidly, and there was a notable growth of national feeling in Brazil. The discovery of gold and diamonds in important quantities in the interior precipi- tated a the regions of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, and Goias, resulting in their settlement and exploitation. From 1750 to 1777, Portuguese colonial affairs were under the direction of the Marquis of Pombal, whose enlightened policies and intelligent promotion of the economic and com- mercial welfare of the colony and the empire earned for him the title of "the great marquis." Local governors, however, far from the scrutiny of the crown officials, were often oppressive, and local resentment sometimes reached a high pitch. This situation, combined with the sharply whetted feeling of nationalism that had developed during the previous century and a half, fostered a growing desire for independence in Brazil. The first movement for independence came in 1789 in Ouro Preto, then the capital of Minas Gerais. The leader of the movement was an enthusiastic idealist, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, better known by his nickname, Tiradentes ("Tooth- puller"), because of his occasional practice of dentistry. He and the other members of the movement were finally betrayed, jailed, and executed. Tiradentes' name became symbolic of Brazilian independence. In 1808 Prince Regent Joao VI moved to Brazil after Napo- leon invaded Portugal. Establishing himself in Rio de Janeiro, Dom Joao instituted many reforms of great benefit to the country. His was a reign of commercial, scientific, artistic, and literary awakening in the country. Approved For Release I 99q/ 91~4R q RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24~T11R85-00671 R000300020001-8 In 1815, Portugal was freed from French domination, and Brazil was declared a kingdom under the Portuguese monarch. The next year, on the death of his mother, Queen Maria, Dom Jogo became King Joao VI. For five year he ruled Portugal from Brazil. His autocratic temperament at times made him unpopular in Brazil, and a strong element in Portugal demanded that Brazil be returned to her colonial status; also, that the King return to Portugal or lose his crown. Rather than lose the Portuguese crown, he returned to Portugal in 1821, leaving his son, Dom Pedro, to govern Brazil as regent. Ignoring orders from Portugal to return, young Dom Pedro, on September 7, 1822, declared Brazil's independence and became constitutional Emperor of Brazil. The new regime was inaugurated without violence or bloodshed and with popular enthusiasm. The new nation had initial difficulties. In 1822 Dom Pedro dissolved the Constituent Assembly, which appeared about to adopt a liberal and almost republican constitution with the Emperor as titular head. Sentiment in the country was not greatly mollified by the Emperor's proclamation in 1824 of a liberal constitution he had drafted. This consti- tution, with amendments, was the one under which Brazil was governed until the proclamation of the Republic in 1889. Liberal opposition was further strengthened by the loss in 1828 of the Cisplatine Province -- now the Republic of Uru- guay. Finally, in 1831, Dom Pedro, worn out and disheartened, abdicted in favor of his five-year-old son, Dom Pedro II, with Jose' Bonifacio de Andrada as regent. Ten years of government by regents representing both of the then-existing parties failed to quiet the country; so the young Emperor, though but fifteen years old, was declared of age in 1840 and proclaimed constitutional Emperor. His fifty- year reign was one of the most important periods in the coun- try's history. With able assistance Dom Pedro II succeeded in bringing about the internal pacification and consolidation of the country, and in scoring diplomatic achievements that increased Brazil's prestige abroad. He encouraged immigration, assisted in the construction of railroads, expanded agriculture, industry, and commerce, and stimulated the intellectual and cultural development of the country. Two foreign wars of con- sequence were fought during his reign. In the first, in 1851, Brazil joined forces with a faction in Argentina to bring about the downfall of the dictator of that country. In the second, 1865-70, Brazil, in alliance with Uruguay and Argen- tina, defeated Paraguay. Approved For Release 1999/09/14" 'O 85-00671 R000300020001-8 -6 Approved For Release I 999 124 Fe -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 In 1831, a law was passed prohibiting slave trade, but it wasn't until 1850 that the government succeeded in con- trolling it entirely. In 1888, all slaves were declared free. Planters, who lost slaves without compensation, joined the republicans and the army in agitating for the overthrow of the monarchy. In 1889, a coup d'etat occurred and a federal republic was proclaimed. Dom Pedro II quietly left the country. A provisional government under General Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca was installed until a constitution could be formu- lated and a president chosen in accordance with its terms. Early in 1891 General da Fonseca was elected president, only to be succeeded in November of the same year by the vice President, Floriano Peixoto. Commencing with the elections of 1894, a series of civilian presidents was elected. From 1930 to 1945, the dominant figure in Brazil was Getulio Vargas, placed in power by a revolution in 1930. In 1942, Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy and was the only South American country to send troops overseas. Brazil also gave naval and air support and provided bases and stra- tegic raw materials to the Allies. In October 1945 the military overthrew Vargas shortly before presidential elections (deferred since 1937) were to take place. General Eurico Gaspar Dutra (1945-1950) was elected president and a new, liberal, and progressive consti- tution was formally promulgated September 18, 1946. After Vargas' reelection in 1950, economic and political diffi- culties became increasingly complex; in 1954 Vargas committed suicide and Vice President Joao Cafe Filho became head of the government. The national elections in 1955 were won by Vargas' politi- cal heirs, the leaders of the two parties he had founded; Juscelino Kubitschek of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) became president, and Joao Goulart, head of the Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), his vice president. Some of the military opposed their taking office, but a countercoup led by War Minister Henrique Teixeira Lott ensured their inauguration. Kubitschek, whose campaign slogan had been "50-years' progress in 5," greatly accelerated economic development projects but neglected social welfare. He constructed, at great expense, the new capital of Brasilia. Kubitschek's term, however, was marked by a steep rise in the cost of living and increased social unrest. In the election of 1960 the voters gave a land- slide victory to Sa.o Paulo Governor Jftnio Quadros, the "man with the broom," who had promised to sweep out the corruption and inefficiency which had grown during the three decades fol- lowing Vargas' accession to power. Approved For Release 199J/b9?2 UTA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 'CFiQ- PP5-00671 R000300020001-8 In his impatience with congressional and other forces that were frustrating his reform efforts, Quadros, in what many considered a ploy to gain a free hand, tendered his resignation. To his surprise it was accepted, and he departed after only 7 months as president. The resulting crisis brought the country to the brink of civil strife between military constitutionalist forces and military and other elements unwilling to allow Goulart to take power; he had sought Communist support and had narrowly won reelection as vice president. The crisis was settled by a typically Brazilian compromise: a modified parliamentary government with circumscribed presidential powers was instituted as a prerequisite to Goulart's taking office. Goulart's conduct during his 31 months in office con- firmed the misgivings of those who had opposed his accession. Even after a popular referendum in January 1963 had restored full presidential powers, he proved a most inept and irre- sponsible administrator, incapable of coping with the serious economic and political problems he had inherited. Inflation mounted rapidly, the country's foreign indebtedness reached critical proportions, foreign investment dwindled to a trickle, and economic growth was sharply reduced. Goulart called for "basic reforms," but the opposition was convinced that he wanted to revise the constitution so that he could continue in power beyond the end of his term in January 1966. More- over, he permitted and even encouraged infiltration of the labor movement by Communists and other extreme leftists in return for their help in exerting pressure on the Congress by political strikes and demonstrations. Among his closest advisers were a number of Communists and other Marxists, and he abetted extensive Communist infiltration not only in the trade unions but also in journalism, education, and in many government agencies. By early 1964 there was a widespread conviction that Brazil was drifting toward economic catastro- phe, that Goulart was incapable of governing, and that he perhaps planned soon to set up either a dictatorship of the Peronist type or an authoritarian regime which might fall under Communist domination. After Goulart had condoned political agitation and mutinous attitudes on the part of noncommissioned officers of the armed forces and after he endorsed an ultimatum by the Communist-dominated Workers' General Command to the Congress to accept drastic reforms by 20 April 1964 or face a general strike, the military, joined by leading state governors, revolted against him on 31 March. His support evaporated within a day, and his flight into exile met with approval or at least apathy among the great majority of the population. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999LO9124-EClA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The Brazilian military has several times intervened in national politics to overthrow dictatorships or otherwise assure the continuation of the democratic process. It has always restored power to civilian authority after a short period. Humberto Castello Branco, a highly respected army gen- eral who had played a leading role in the anti-Goulart plot, was chosen by the Congress to serve for the remainder of Goulart's term -- until January 1966; the term was later extended by Congress to 15 March 1967. The new President pursued moderate reformist policies with a shift towards greater private participation in the economy? He filled the key cabinet posts with experienced, non-political tech- nicians but relied to a great extent on former military colleagues, particularly those of the so-cal__ed "Sorbonne group" -- senior officers associated with the Superior War College -- for advice on policy matters. The government focused its early efforts on checking subversion and eliminating corruption. Several hundred politicians, subversives, and other persons charged with illegal activities were stripped of their political rights, and many public officials, including a substantial number of congressmen, were ousted from office for similar reasons. Political activities by labor unions and student groups were sharply curtailed. Congress, with many of the opposition leaders purged from its ranks, approved most of the admini- stration's bills. The government instituted a sweeping financial stabili- zation and austerity program designed to bring the rampant inflation under control. The program was only partially successful. Major reforms were initiated in agriculture, housing, and the banking system, as well as in other fields, but with varying degrees of progress, ranging from slight to moderate. Although President Castello Branco exercised power with relative restraint, his period of rule was marked by strong executive authority embodied in four Institutional Acts and more than 30 Complementary Acts. In October 1965, for example, Institutional Act II abolished all political parties then in existence. The new Constitution approved by Congress in January 1967 includes many of the special powers employed by Castello Branco. The Constitution was intended to codify the authority believed necessary for Castello Branco's successor, Arthur Approved For Release I 999 9x'24 E to-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09L24:-Cl-RBP85-00671 R000300020001-8 de Costa e Silva, a retired army marshal, to continue the moderate reforms instituted after Goulart's ouster in 1964. Costa e Silva, who took office on 15 March 1967, has given strong indications of following the same general policies as his predecessor. Approved For Release I 999/09/2 CTA D5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19991 24aaAPRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 READING LIST 1. Bello, Jose Maria, A History of Modern Brazil, 1889-1964, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966. U. 2. Young, Jordan M., The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 and the Aftermath, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1967. U. Approved For Release 1 69?/*~4~A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/O9/24g 1PkFfPl?85-00671 R000300020001-8 III. Physical Geography* See Map 55894 A. Introduction Highlands, consisting mainly of tablelands and dissected plateaus, cover almost 60 percent of Brazil. Mountain ranges rise above the general surface level in only a few places -- mostly near the east coast where they have hampered the devel- opment of transportation lines into the interior. Lowlands and valleys, situated primarily within the Amazon Basin, occupy the remaining 40 percent of Brazil. A narrow, discontinuous coastal plain extends along the Atlantic coast, and lowland areas occur in Rio Grande do Sul and southwestern Mato Grosso. The climate of Brazil reflects the tropical location of most of the country. The tropical climate is ameliorated somewhat by elevation in the highlands. Only in the three southernmost states is there a subtropical climate. Tropical rain forest covers most of the Amazon Basin and the windward slopes of the east coast highlands. A large part of eastern and southern Brazil was originally covered by tropi- cal semideciduous forest. These stands have been largely cleared for cultivation or grazing, but scattered tracts of second growth remain. A distinctive Parana pine forest grows in the cool highland areas of southern Brazil. Many of these stands, too, have been cut over or cleared. Savanna extends over large areas in the interior highlands, while thorny scrub is characteristic of semiarid northeastern Brazil. Prairie grasslands are confined mainly to the extreme southern part of the country. For the purposes of this study Brazil is divided into five physical regions: (1) the Northern Region, (2) the West- Central Region, (3) the Northeastern Region, (4) the Eastern Region, and (5) the Southern Region. The Northern Region corresponds essentially to the Amazon Basin and includes slightly more than half the country. It is sparsely populated, and the collection of forest products is the principal economic activity. *A more detailed study of the physical geography of Brazil is available in manuscript form in the Geography Division, Office of Basic and Geographic Intelligence. Approved For Release I 999/O9I * 1A 3 $5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9%WQ9t +:_Pi -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The West-Central Region includes the interior highland area commonly referred to as the Central Plateau. It is a sparsely populated region of savannas devoted primarily to open-range cattle grazing. The Northeastern Region includes the coastal states that form the northeastern bulge of Brazil. The humid, densely populated coastal sector of this region is an important center of sugar production; the semiarid interior is an area of open- range livestock grazing and cotton and sisal production that is subject to periodic calamitous droughts. The Eastern Region is a complex area of rugged hills, basins, and low mountains. It has pockets of dense population, particularly in the southern part, and land use runs the gamut from subsistence farming to heavy industry. Dairying, mining, and the cultivation of coffee, cacao, and sugarcane are impor- tant economic activities. The Southern Region, the smallest of all, is the most populous and the most economically developed part of the country. It leads in the production of industrial goods, lumber, and a variety of agricultural products. B. Northern Region See Map 55895 1. General The Northern Region corresponds to Amazonian Brazil and includes the states of Acre, Amazonas, and Para; the territories of Amapa. Rondania, and Roraima; and parts of the states of Goias, Mato Grosso, and Maranhao. The region as a whole has not been accurately mapped, and very little is known about siza- ble areas remote from the principal navigable rivers. The Ama- zon Flood Plain -- the stereotype Amazon of popular literature -- comprises only a very small percent of the total area. Most of the region lies at elevations above flood level and is called the terra firme (firm ground) to distinguish it from the flood plain. A relatively narrow coastal plain north of the Amazon Delta separates the seaward margin of the terra firme from the Atlantic shore. 2. Amazon Flood Plain a. Terrain and Drainage The Amazon Flood Plain consists of the lowlands that border both the main river and the lower courses of its principal Approved For Release 1 JO9LZ 4. OA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09.2 : c l--R-DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 tributary streams. The flood plain is narrow along the upper course of the Amazon but attains a width of over 125 miles near the river mouth. Lines of bluffs mark its outer margins (see Figure 1). The configuration of the flood plain is irregular and constantly changing, as the river at flood stage frequently shifts its course -- abandoning old channels and forming new ones. Side channels join and rejoin the main channel at varying intervals, enclosing numerous islands. Natural levees of varying width rise above the general level of the flood plain, bordering the present channel of the river and also many of the former channels. The levees are submerged only during the highest floods. Upstream from Manaus there are two periods of high water; a major rise occurs from early May to early July and a lesser rise from early November to early March. Downstream from Manaus the high-water period extends from early March to early September, with the maximum level occurring generally in June. At flood stage the drainage of the flood plain becomes chaotic. Once the floodwaters start to recede the temporary lakes along the abandoned channels are gradually reduced to marsh or meadow- land, lesser connecting channels dry up, and sandy beaches reappear along the riverbanks and islands. A sufficient number of side and connecting channels, however, carry enough water during the dry season to permit relatively free movement by canoes and other small craft. The flood plains of the tributary streams within the upper Amazon Basin are similar in general characteristics to the flood plain of the main river. Within the lower Amazon Basin, however, the lower reaches of many tributaries appear as broad estuaries or lakes. b. Climate The average annual rainfall ranges from 78 to 122 inches at the various stations in the subregion. In general, the greatest amount of rain falls during the summer (December through May) and the least during the winter (June through November). The duration and intensity of the dry season vary considerably in the subregion, ranging froma pronounced dry season in the vicinity of Obidos and Santarem to only a "less rainy season" along the upper river. Cumulus clouds predominate (see Figure 2); frequently they develop into towering cumulonimbus masses on summer after- noons. Fog is rare on the Amazon or its major tributaries; however, low stratus clouds or fog sometimes form over forested areas at about treetop level in the early morning. Approved For Release I 999/09/ 4 : d1A-Rb-Fi85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999fflW21_.Cy4.tDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Ask Figure 1. Bluffs along margins of flood plain. Figure 2. Cumulus clouds in Northern Region. -18- Approved For Release 1999M.9 -gJA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/x: C+A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 ? x ?a iY } p ~r Figure 3. Tropical rain forest. 4,4 ? Figure 4. Amazon Flood Plain. Forests on the flood plain are inundated seasonally. Approved For Release 1999/09 :-CGtA-AE)P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199W0P/?~4 h-4ATRDP85-006718000300020001-8 Calms prevail throughout the subregion in summer; they are interrupted only by the gusts of wind that accompany thundershowers. The trade wind penetrates the lower Amazon during the dry season and has a cooling effect there along the main river and its immediate margins. The average annual temperatures within the subregion vary between 77?F and 82?F. Mean monthly temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, the range between the warmest and coolest months being only about 4 Fahrenheit degrees. The daily temperature range is considerably greater than the annual range -- the average daily maximum and minimum being about 88?F and 73?F, respectively. c. Vegetation Tropical rain forest predominates on the Amazon Flood Plain (see Figure 3). This forest has a nearly closed canopy, 100 to 130 feet high. A few scattered giant trees rise above the main canopy, and smaller trees form two layers below. Saplings, bushes, and tall herbaceous plants comprise the undergrowth. Numerous ropelike lianas (climbing plants) are entwined in the trees, and long air roots hang from many of the epiphytes (air plants) perched on the larger branches or in the forks of trees. The lianas and air roots together form a tangled net. Vegetation is generally densest along the edges of clearings and along riverbanks. Most of the forests of the flood plain are inundated seasonally (see Figure 4); some stands on the lowlands of the Amazon Delta are flooded daily; and in some poorly drained areas where the ground never dries out a true swamp forest exists. Seasonally flooded grasslands occur on. some parts of the flood plain. Grasslands are most extensive on the eastern half of Ilha de Marajo and in the Lago Grande do Curuai area. Mangrove swamps rim the small islands of the delta and the north and east coasts of Ilha de Marajo. d. Land Use Much of the flood plain is forested, and the collection of forest products during the dry season is an important eco- nomic activity. Jute and cacao are grown commercially, and a variety of subsistence crops are raised (see Figure 5). Live- stock are grazed on the natural grasslands. Wherever possible, habitations are built on natural levees or other areas of high ground that are inundated only during the highest floods. Many houses, however, are built on stilts on lower ground. /!- Approved For Release 1999199/-24-~ A2RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 _z_,CtA RDR85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 5. Amazon Flood Plain. Jute is the prin- cipal commercial crop. Figure 6. Tropical rain forest. Dense vegetation impedes movement inland from the river margins. Approved For Release 1999/09/N-iQJARRO-R85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99 i 91A?4RLc1L-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 7. Riverine vegetation. Stands of aninga frequently form natural palisades along the river sides. Figure 8. Side channel. The narrow watercourses paralleling the Amazon are used by the natives as canoe trails. ink Approved For Release 1999924x1 RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24I1. W D#85-00671 R000300020001-8 25X6D 3. Terra Firme a. Terrain and Drainage The terra firme includes the extensive area of higher ground in the Amazon Basin that spreads out to the north and to the south of the main flood plain. It is separated from the flood plain in most places by low bluffs, and it is divided into segments by valleys of the principal Amazon tributaries. The surface of the individual plateau segments is generally flat to rolling; however, scattered hills and mesas rise above the general surface level. The segment adjacent to the Amazon Flood Plain is low and is commonly referred to as the Amazon Plain. It is relatively narrow along the lower Amazon, but widens in the upper basin to embrace most of the vast area between the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro. The segments of the terra firme situated to the north Approved For Release 1999/09/24 ~ecABRDP5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19~9~p_LCIlA-RDP85-006718000300020001-8 and south of the Amazon Plain are higher and more rugged. Northward the land ranges from flat-to-rolling plains to rugged hills, mountains, and high tablelands (see Figure 9). Southward the terra firme is generally more tabular in con- figuration. The plateaus rise in successive steps southward toward massive tablelands situated along the southern border of the subregion. Fingerlike extensions of the high tablelands project northward into the subregion along either side of the Juruena, Teles Pires, and Xingu rivers. The seaward margin of the terra firme north of the Amazon Delta is bordered by a coastal plain made up of several broad terraces. The lowest terrace level is poorly drained and parts of it are inundated during the rainy season. The margin of the terra firme east of the delta is indented, consisting of small peninsulas separated by numerous small bays and inlets. In places a very narrow coastal plain backs the shore. Many tributaries of the Amazon are themselves large rivers, having tributary streams of their own that exceed 500 feet in width for great distances. In addition, hundreds of smaller tributaries rise in areas remote from the principal rivers. Many streams overflow their banks during the height of the rainy season. The high-water level is reached at different times on various tributaries as well as along different sectors of some individual streams because of differences in the rainfall regime. b. Climate The climate of the terra firme is generally similar to that of the Amazon Flood Plain, although there is a wider range in the amount of rainfall and in the duration and intensity of the dry season. The average annual rainfall ranges from 56 to 139 inches. The greatest amount falls on the superhumid western part of the Amazon Plain, where there is no appreciable dry season. The least falls in the savanna areas along the south- eastern and north-central peripheries of the subregion, which experience a pronounced winter dry season. The dry season ex- tends from May through September (the Southern Hemisphere winter) in the area along the southeastern periphery and from October through April (the Northern Hemisphere winter) in the area along the north-central periphery. Cumulus clouds are the characteristic c=_oudform of the subregion. During the rainy season they frequently develop into towering cumulonimbus clouds by noon or early afternoon, culmi- nating in thunderstorms. Fog or low stratus clouds occasionally norm over the forests at near treetop level in the early morning, but they usually lift and dissipate within an hour or two after sunrise. 40 Approved For Release 1999J099 214 G#A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2t'6TA RD %5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 9. Terra Firme. Near the Venezuelan border are high tablelands rimmed by cliffs. Approved For Release 1999/09/I4 rA 14D 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/ J24R-IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Smoke from grass fires restricts visibility in parts of the subregion during the dry season. The fires occur over extensive areas of savanna and, locally, in clearings in the rain forest. The northeasterly trade winds prevail throughout most of the subregion in summer, and the weak southeasterly trades prevail in winter. The trade winds seldom reach the upper Amazon, however, and the local winds there are generally light and variable. Strong surface winds are uncommon in the sub- region, except for the gusty local winds that accompany thunder- storms. The mean annual temperature averages about 77?F, and there is a difference of only about 5 Fahrenheit degrees be- tween the coolest and warmest months. The temperature range between the warmest and coldest parts of the day is about 16 Fahrenheit degrees. c. Vegetation Tropical rain forest covers most of the subregion (see Figure 10). In structure the terra firme forest is similar to that of the Amazon Flood Plain. Three or four layers of trees can generally be distinguished, and the tops of indi- vidual layers are commonly somewhat higher than in the flood plain forest. The understory of saplings, bushes, and tall herbaceous plants is relatively open, but dangling roots and the stems of lianas and epiphytes form tangled nets between trees (see Figure 11). The vegetation is generally densest along the margins of clearings and along riverbanks. Various trees and plants are equipped with sharp spines or thorns that may tear clothing or lacerate the skin and cause infections. A woodland savanna occurs in those parts of the subregion having a pronounced dry season, as well as in some areas having porous sandy soils, such as on the tops of high tablelands. This vegetation is typically composed of grasses, shrubs, and low gnarled trees. The ratio of one to another varies greatly, ranging from grasslands with widely scattered shrubs and low trees to parklike stands of trees that form an open canopy above a grassy floor. Areas of open grassland occur along the middle part of the Rio Branco Valley and on the Amapa coastal plain. Mangroves fringe the coasts of the subregion. Approved For Release I 99,,WO9k ~_CL -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1 %9J1~fAA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 10. Tropical rain forest on Terra Firme. Brasilia - Belem high- way. Figure 11. Tropical rain for- est. Nets of lianas and air roots retard movement. Approved For Release 19 91b92&:-tiA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9g2XW24 EC A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 d. Land Use The collection of forest products is the principal economic activity of the subregion, and the largest revenues come from the sale of rubber, Brazil nuts, and rosewood oil. Agriculture is confined primarily to small subsistence p=_ots, although agri- cultural colonies have developed near the larger centers to supply the urban population (see Figure 12). Two commercial crops of increasing economic value are mallow (a fiber plant) and black pepper. Modern manganese mining operations are car- ried on in the Macapa area, and placer mining for gold and diamonds is common along streams in the territories of Roraima and Rond6nia. The gatherers of forest products live primarily in small villages or isolated huts along streambanks accessible by boat. The tribal Indians construct their primitive villages at some distance from the streams for protection from enemies who 25X6D.vel on them. Approved For Release 1 O9L4.4Q1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 1ARFP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 12. Subsistence farm in forest clearing. Figure 13. Terra Firme. The various surface levels are generally separated by lines of low bluffs. -29- Approved For Release I 999/09IZ cIA R&3R85-00671 R000300020001-8 25X6D Approved For Release 1990/g9=C4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 C. West-Central Region See Map 55898 1. General The West-Central Region is an area of plains, plateaus, and hills. It includes the greater parts of the states of Goias and Mato Grosso, the extreme western parts of Bahia and Minas Gerais, the southern tips of Maranhao and Piaui, and the Federal District (Brasilia). The region has no sharply defined natural boundaries but includes the physiog:'aphic regions com- monly referred to as the Central Plateau and the Pantanal. Approved For Release I 999/ /24R-01A RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09I2-: O4A-RPP85-00671 R000300020001-8 2. Central Plateau a. Terrain and Drainage The term "Central Plateau" is used broadly to denote the series of high plateaus of interior Brazil that extend westward from the Sao Francisco Valley to the lowlands of the Paraguay River Basin (see Figure 14). The plateaus are contiguous, but their surfaces are at different elevations, and generally they are separated by escarpments. Some plateaus are known locally as chapadas. They are high, relatively flat tablelands, bor- dered by steep slopes or escarpments. Other plateaus appear as slightly tilted tablelands (cuestas), bordered by escarp- ments on at least one side. Frequently, parallel lines of cuestas rise steplike, one above the other, as platforms or broad terraces. The steep slopes that border the chapadas and cuestas often appear as low mountains when viewed from below, and locally they are referred to as serras (mountain ridges). Scattered hill groups and isolated hills rise above the general surface level of the chapadas and cuestas. In a few areas, par- ticularly in the northeast, the plateaus have been dissected into complexes of sharp-crested hills of relatively uniform height. Terrain units within the Central Plateau include the Bra- silia Planalto and associated highlands, the Espigao Mestre, the Upper Araguaia and Tocantins Hill Zone, the Goias Depression, the Parana Plateaus, the Alcantilados and Furnas Plateaus, the Serra da Bodoquena, the Rio das Mortes Plateau, the Cuiaba Basin, and the Serra das Araras. The Brasilia Planalto and associated highlands, 3,000 to 4,600 feet in elevation, consti- tute the highest surface level. The Espigao Mestre adjoins the Brasilia Planalto to the northeast, forming the water divide between the Amazon and Sao Francisco river systems. The complex Upper Araguaia and Tocantins Hill Zone lies within the "L" between the Espigao Mestre and the Brasilia Planalto. Another hill zone, the Goias Depression, lies to the south of the Brasilia Planalto. To the west of the Goias Depression, at successively lower ele- vations, are the Parana, Alcantilados, and Furnas Plateaus, and the Serra da Bodoquena. To the north of the Alcantilados Plateau is the Rio das Mortes Plateau, overlooking the Amazon Basin, and to the west of the Rio das Mortes Plateau are the Serra das Araras and the Cuiaba Basin. Streams within the Central Plateau generally are swift and are interrupted by numerous rapids along their upper reaches and by occasional rapids along their lower reaches. Although perennial along their lower courses, many streams carry little or no water in their upper reaches during the dry season. Most streams are confined by high banks and have no flood plains. Approved For Release I 999/09/24 -GW 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999 G9/2A-CI -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The Rio Parana, the largest river, is bordered by a flood plain along much of its middle and lower course arid overflows its banks during the high-water period. In general, stream levels start to rise with the onset of the rainy season, beginning in late September in the southern part of the subregion and between late October and early November in the northern part. The water level starts to drop as the rains taper off in April, but the low-water stage may not be reached until late June. A tropical savanna climate with a summer rainy season and a winter dry season prevails over most of the subregion. The average annual rainfall ranges from 40 to 76 inches, with the greatest amount falling on the higher plateaus and the least on the Espig,o Mestre and in the Parana Basin. The rainy sea- son extends from October through April for the subregion as a whole. Cumulus clouds are the characteristic cloudform in the subregion (see Figure 15). They form during the morning and, during the rainy season, frequently build into cumulonimbus clouds by noon or early afternoon, culminating in thunderstorms. Low stratus clouds occasionally restrict visibility during the early morning. The incidence of fog is not great. Smoke from grass fires restricts visibility significantly during the latter part of the dry season. Northerly surface winds prevail in most of the subregion during the summer, and southeasterly to northeasterly winds prevail during the winter. Strong surface winds are uncommon except for gusts that accompany thunderstorms. The hot tropical climate is moderated locally by the effects of altitude. The mean annual temperature varies be- tween 68?F and 78?F. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 84?F to 97?F in September, the hottest month, and mean daily minimum temperatures range from 48?F to 68?F in June and July, the coldest months. The daily temperature range extends from a minimum of about 25 Fahrenheit degrees to a maximum of nearly 43 Fahrenheit degrees. Within the highlands, nighttime temperatures in the narrow valleys drop significantly below those on the adjacent plateau. c. Vegetation The natural vegetation ranges from grassland through open woodland savanna to dense tropical semideciduous forest. The grasslands and woodland savanna are generally associated with Approved For Release I 999 24 :iCFA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24- PR-E Rff5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 14. High Brasilia Planalto. The surface is flat to undulating. Figure 15. Cumulus clouds over Central Plateau. -33- Approved For Release I 999/09/245: ETA-*D 8T5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/99 2._bC A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 16. Tropical semideciduous forest. Bands of forest extend along the principal stream valleys. Figure 17. Vegetation on Central Plateau. Wood- land savanna, composed of grasses, shrubs, and low gnarled trees, predominates. ta- Approved For Release I 99-JA-l/ - A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09h2+_cl J p 85-006718000300020001-8 the flat surfaces on the plateaus and cuestas, and the forests occur more commonly on slopes and along stream valleys (see Figure 16). Woodland savanna, composed of grasses, shrubs, and low gnarled trees, is the predominant form of vegetation (see Figure 17). It varies in structure from grasslands with widely scattered shrubs and low trees, through parklike stands of low trees with open canopy and a grassy floor, to scrub woodland. The tropical semideciduous forest stands are usually stratified into three layers, but they are not uniform in struc- ture. From 10 to 30 percent of the trees shed their leaves during the dry season. The undergrowth tends to be more dense in these stands than in the tropical rain forest. Lianas and epiphytes are present, their number varying considerably with local conditions. Land Use The herding of range cattle is the principal economic activity in the Central. Plateau. Subsistence agriculture, based on the slash-and-burn method, is carried on in scattered areas -- primarily along river valleys and on cutover forest land. Small-scale commercial agriculture is practiced in a few areas, such as the Triftngulo Mineiro, the Mato Grosso do Goias, and parts of the Parana Basin. Significant commercial crops are rice, coffee, cotton, wheat, and sugarcane. In addition, some mining of diamonds, quartz crystals, and nickel 25X6.? carried on within the subregion. Approved For Release I 999/09 :_C1?JRD '85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999t024_~C~A DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 18. Central Plateau. Locally, movement is somewhat restricted by steep slopes. Figure 19. Woodland savanna. Movement is relatively free on foot or on horseback. -36- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/4 4.6 F85-006718000300020001-8 Figure 20. Tropical semideciduous forest. The dense under- growth retards movement across country. Approved For Release I 999/09/g4 QLP $J 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 25X6D S-E-C-R-E-T 3. The Pantanal a. Terrain and Drainage The Pantanal is an extensive lowland area that extends along the Paraguay River and its tributaries. The flat to undulating surface rises gradually eastward, away from the river. Much of the lowland near the river is inundated during the rainy season and is marshy at other times. Eastward, the surface has a swell and swale appearance, with numerous shallow depressions separated by stretches of slightly higher ground situated above flood level. A belt of low, rolling foothills extends along the outer margin of the Pantanal, near the base of the bordering escarpments. Scattered hill masses and steep mesas occur along the western side of the Paraguay River near the Bolivian border. Streams within the Pantanal are characteristically'wide and sluggish. The winding Paraguay River is dotted with numer- ous small islands. Its banks rise above the general flood level, but those of the tributaries flowing through the marsh- land near the main river are very low and are almost indistin- guishable locally. Numerous short, shallow watercourses inter- connect the many depressions and the main stream network. Many minor streams dry up during the dry season. Even large rivers such as the Rio Negro reportedly dry up during particularly long and intense dry seasons. Some of the depressions contain lakes or ponds throughout the year; others are reduced to marshes or dry up completely during the dry season. The Paraguay River begins to rise in January and good navigable stages prevail from February to September. The depres- sions and extensive flood plains are generally inundated from December to May. Ponds and lakes either expand greatly in size, individually, or coalesce to form extensive bodies of -38- Approved For Release 199q/0~/1~4 C ;RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 0- -R Approved For Release I 999/09 2 : bW_- DTP85-00671 R000300020001-8 water. The inundated flood plains of the Paraguay River and its east-bank tributaries frequently form a continuous sheet of water as much as 15 miles wide and 13 feet deep in places. The water level remains high on the principal streams after the rainy season ends until the excess surface water on the lowlands has gradually drained off into the streams. b. Climate The Pantanal has a tropical savanna climate, similar in most respects to that of the Central Plateau. The average annual rainfall. is somewhat lower in the Pantanal, ranging from about 40 to 50 inches, and the temperature readings are somewhat higher. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 73?F to 78?F, and the mean daily maximum temperatures for the hottest months range from 89?F to 93?F at selected stations. C. Vegetation Grasslands predominate in the Pantanal but alternate with woodland savanna and forests. Grassland and woodland savanna spread out over the extensive lowland area and are subject in varying degrees to alternate inundation and drought. Bands of tropical semideciduous forest grow on the natural levees along the principal streams and on stretches of higher ground that rise slightly above the normal flood level. A distinctive Chaco type of drought-resistant vegetation, including many spiny plants, occurs on dry lowlands along the east side of the Para- guay River southward from Porto Esperanca and on the dry slopes of scattered limestone hills along the west side of the river. It varies from open stands to dense thorny thickets. Tall sedges, some having sharp edges that cut like Florida sawgrass, grow in the permanently moist swales and marshes. Dense stands of reeds 8 to 10 feet tall cover the lowest wet spots, and floating mats of aquatic plants grow on the surfaces of shallow lakes and on quiet lagoons along the main rivers. When the waters recede at the end of the high-water period the floating islands move out toward the main channels and often solidly choke the side channels. d. Land Use Cattle raising is the principal economic activity in the Pantanal. During the dry season cattle graze on grassy low- lands throughout the area. During the rainy season many are driven to poor pastures on higher ground or to fattening pas- tures far away in the western parts of the states of Minas Gerais S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19991Q9 ~-CtA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 and Sdo Paulo. Some cattle are marketed or processed locally. Manganese and iron are extracted from the Urucum mines south of Corumba. Most of the ore is produced for a small al mill Approved For Release 1999769/c24: 6i~-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 B O L I V I A BRAZIL WEST-CENTRAL REGION seu r.~.~o Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Figure 21. waterholes region. ms enc l 1 he sub- The Pantanal. Burlt? pa on the elevated eastern part of t Zona da Nlata. Sand dunes border a lagoon Figure 22. lain. on the coastal p -~11- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999 24-FCFA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 D. Northeastern Region See Map 55896 1. General The Northeast is an amorphous region with boundaries variously defined to suit different frames of reference. In this handbook the Northeastern Region is delimited primarily in terms of terrain, climate, and vegetation and includes not only the six states of the traditional Northeast -- Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, and Sergipe but also the state of Piaui and parts of Bahia and Maranhao. Three low mountain ranges and a dissected high plateau form the skeletal framework of the region. The mountain ranges project northward, eastward, and southwestward from the Chapada do Araripe like the spokes of a wheel, forming water divides between extensive areas of plains arid. 1cw, plateaus. The Serra da Ibiapaba forms the northern spoke, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos the eastern spoke, and a series of ranges including the Serra da Farinha and Serra Tabatinga the southwestern spoke. The high Borborema Plateau lies at the eastern end of the Serra dos Cariris Velhos and constitutes the dominant ter- rain feature in the eastern part of the region north of the Sao Francisco Valley. The climate varies considerably within the region, primarily in amount of rainfall. Variations in natural vegetation and land use are closely related to the rainfall regime. As a result, the subregions within the North- eastern Region correspond more closely to climatic zones than to terrain regions. The Zona da Mata is a humid area along the east coast; the Sert2'o includes the extensive semiarid interior of the region; the Agreste is a transitional area between the Zona da Mata and the Sertgo; and. the Parnaiba- Mearim Subregion is a transitional area between the Sertgo and the humid Amazon Basin. 2. Zona da Mata a. Terrain and Drainage The Zona da Mata, extending along the humid east coast of the region, is 25 to 60 miles wide. It includes three distinc- tive belts -- the narrow coastal plain, the low sandy table- lands (tabuleiros), and the crystalline hills. The sandy coastal plain, seldom exceeding 5 miles in width, extends inland to the steep margin of the coastal tablelands. The shore is generally low and sandy, and the beaches are backed in most places by a belt of sand dunes or raised beaches (see Figure 22). Approved For Release I 9997 /~4 &X-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/2It6Pi5-00671 R000300020001-8 The coastal tablelands range from approximately 5 to 30 miles in width. Their seaward margins are marked by discon- tinuous low cliffs. Streams flowing eastward across the zone have cut steep-sided valleys that divide the surface into parallel blocks -- whence the name tabuleiros. The belt of crystalline hills, west of the tabuleiros, corresponds in general to the sugarcane area and is the most densely populated and economically productive part of the Northeast. The rolling hills increase in height and degree of slope inland (see Figure 23). The area is drained by a few main rivers and a maze of small tributary streams. Meadows and flood plains extend along most of the main val- leys, and discontinuous narrow ribbons of flood plain extend along many of the minor valleys. The principal streams are perennial, but some minor streams may dry up completely during the dry season. The period of high water on the main rivers extends from April through September. The mouths of many of the main streams are drowned, forming small bays. Drowned side valleys or channels branch off some of the bays and reach into the ad- jacent coastal plain, forming lagoons and swamps. The Rio Slo Francisco flows across the Northeastern Region. Its lower course is sluggish and interrupted by sandbars and mud- flats, and an extensive delta has formed at its mouth. Climate A tropical humid climate prevails in the Zona da Mata. The mean annual rainfall exceeds 40 inches throughout the zone and probably exceeds 80 inches in the more humid part of southeastern Pernambuco. Throughout most of the zone the rainy season occurs during autumn and winter (March through August), and the dry season extends from September through January. The amount of rainfall received diminishes from the coast inland until high hills are reached and then increases on the windward slopes. Low ceilings and poor visibility occur in winter in asso- ciation with frontal activity. The occurrence of dense mist or fog is minimal along the coast but increases inland as elevation increases. The discomforting effects of high humidity and tempera- ture are alleviated somewhat by the persistent trade winds and the land and sea breezes, although the latter are relatively weak. -43- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1 /O9I2*1 VA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 23. Crystalline hills. The hill belt is widest and most dissected in southeastern Pernambuco. Figure 24. Land use in the Zona da Mate.. Cane fields generally cover the gentle slopes of the crystalline hills, and forest remnants occupy the hilltops and steep slopes. Approved For Release 109YO /24''CI-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/2 - CfA-- P 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Temperatures are high and fairly uniform throughout the year. The mean annual temperature ranges from 77?F at Salva- dor to 79?F at Natal. The mean daily maximum temperature for the warmest month ranges from 86?F to 88?F, and the mean daily minimum for the coldest month ranges from 68?F to 71?F. C. Ve eg tation The natural vegetation of the Zona da Mata varies con- siderably. The coastal mixture includes sparse beach and sand dune vegetation, coconut groves, mangrove swamps, occasional stands of cashew, and scrubby second-growth forest. In the coastal tableland zone woodland savanna generally covers the level areas on the tops of the tabuleiros, and second-growth forest grows on the slopes. The woodland savanna varies from open grassland with scattered scrawny low trees and shrubs through parklike stands of low trees with open canopy and grassy floor to tall scrub woodland. The second-growth forest consists of a scrubby growth of young slender trees and a dense underbrush. The stands include some semideciduous species that lose their leaves briefly during the dry season. Lianas and epiphytes are present. Most of the land in the zone of crystalline hills is under cultivation, and the natural vegetation is reduced to scattered remnants of tropical forest, mostly second growth, on steep slopes and hilltops (see Figure 24). These forest rem- nants are generally more dense than the second-growth forest on the tabuleiros and contain more lianas, epiphytes, and ferns. The trees are mostly broadleaf evergreens. d. Land Use Coconut groves extend along the low marine terraces and beaches of the Zona da Mata. Numerous fishermen live along the shore -- some in thatched huts scattered among the palms and others in fishing villages. On the sandy coastal plain, scattered subsistence farms are interspersed among areas of low scrub growth. On the tabuleiros the principal activities are lumbering, firewood cutting, and charcoal burning in the wooded areas and open range cattle raising in the woodland savanna. The few scattered habitations of the tabuleiros are generally located along the roads or in small valleys. In the zone of crystalline hills, growing sugarcane is virtually the only economic activity (see Figure 25). Fields of sugarcane cover the flood plains and, in some areas, the adjacent hill- sides. Houses and small garden plots associated with them are 25Dted on land unsuitable for sugarcane. -45- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99911 4 d ATRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 25. Vast sugarcane fields in Zona da Mata. /k: Approved For Release 19 9/~tl9 2 FC1&-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/?4 gLAITFp~85-006718000300020001-8 25X6D 3. The Agreste a. Terrain and Drainage The Agreste is a transitional area lying between the humid Zona da Mata and the semiarid interior (the Sertdo). This relatively small subregion consists of two areas separated by a semiarid corridor along the lower SAo Francisco Basin. -47- Approved For Release I 999/09/24 :mac-R-D &5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9 9/g9/G_4 qj~-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The northern Agreste area is an elongated belt, 15 to 100 miles wide, extending from the northeastern tip of Rio Grande do Norte south-southwestward to the Sao Francisco Valley. It extends along a segment of the coast of Rio Grande do Norte and continues southward along the Borborema Plateau. A line of rugged heights, rising above the flat- to-rolling surface of the Borborema Plateau, forms the west- ern border. The abrupt eastern edge of the plateau has been deeply dissected, forming a ridge-and-valley landscape (see Figure 26). The southern Agreste is located in Bahia. It is a U- shaped area with its base coinciding roughly with the Para- guacu Valley, its eastern arm extending along the inner mar- gin of the Zona da Mata and its western arm stretching along the eastern margin of the Chapada Diamantina. The eastern arm consists primarily of low sandy plateaus similar to the coastal tabuleiros. The western arm includes part of the steep eastern slope of the Chapada Diamantina and an adjacent zone of rugged hill masses separated by relatively broad low- land corridors. The hills have been dissected by innumerable small streams whose narrow, irregularly oriented valleys form a chaotic drainage pattern. With few exceptions the streams in the Agreste are inter- mittent. Most of the larger rivers carry water throughout the rainy season but dry up for at least a short period dur- ing the latter part of the dry season. Many of the minor streams flow only for brief periods after ra_Lnstorms. A few that have their sources on the higher hills carry water most of the year. The Rio Paraguacu is perennial except along its extreme upper reaches. Climate In general, the climate of the Agreste is similar to that of the Zona da Mata, but it differs significantly in terms of amount and regularity of rainfall. The average annual rainfall is less than 40 inches throughout the sub- region, with as little as 25 inches in parts of the northern Agreste. Violent deviations from the norm occur from year to year. In most of the subregion the rainy season occurs during the autumn and winter (March through August). In the southern Agreste, however, there is a gradual transition from an autumn- winter rainfall pattern in the eastern part, through a summer rainfall regime in the central part, to a regime with no marked dry season in the zone along the eastern slopes of the Chapada Diamantina. Approved For Release 1 a9.Wr A i 4E. JA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/24_ C P 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 26. Hilly terrain in Agreste area of northern Paraiba. -49- Approved For Release 1999/09/24-~hCLA. P?5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T c. Vegetation Most of the original agreste vegetation has been cut and replaced by cultivated fields on the arable land and by dry scrub vegetation in areas that are either too steep for culti- vation or have unsuitable soils. The dry scrub ranges from high thorn forest to low thorny scrub. The trees of the thorn forest are only 25 to 30 feet in height, and many lose their leaves during the dry season. A dense undergrowth, including thorny species and cactuses, covers the ground beneath the trees. These stands are frequently separated by grassy areas. Low thorny scrub grows in the driest locations. It is bushy and more open than the thorn forest. Small tracts of second- growth tropical forest occur on some of the humid heights, and limited areas of woodland savanna occur on the sandy tabuleiros in Bahia. d. Land Use The diversified agricultural land use of the Agreste contrasts sharply with the virtual monoculture of sugarcane in the adjacent Zona da Mata and of open range cattle raising in the Sert'Ao. Small farms predominate, and subsistence farm- ing is generally combined with the cultivation of one or more commercial crops and open range cattle raising (see Figures 27 and 28). Range cattle are generally grazed on the poorer land where the low thorny scrub or woodland savanna vegetation is interspersed with natural grassland. The most important com- mercial crops in the northern Agreste are cot;ton and sisal (see Figure 29). Specialty crops such as tomatoes and various fruits are grown in a few favored "oases." In the southern Agreste tobacco and manioc are the most important crops, and beef cattle are raised on improved pastures. Some lumbering 25k%burs on the humid slope of the Chapada Diamantina. ANk Approved For Release I 9 0 / 4 ? C -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/2,4,1kP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 27. Small farm in the Agreste. Hedgerows separate landholdings. Figure 28. Palma. This is a species of spineless cactus grown as a forage crop in the Agreste and the Sertffo. Approved For Release 1999/09'2 : bIX-k6P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199,g1Q9. 4R--QlA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 29. Sisal field in the Agreste. Aoki Figure 30. Steep slopes along northern margin of Chapada do Araripe. Approved For Release I 999 G R61A RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 25XMproved For Release 1999/091244 t -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 4. The Sertao a. Terrain and Drainage The semiarid Sertao constitutes the largest part of the Northeastern Region. Irregular chains of low mountains, table- :Lands, and rugged hills radiate from a central tableland and separate broad areas of plains, basins, and low plateaus into a series of compartments. This overall radial pattern is dis- torted by the basin of the Rio Sgo Francisco, which forms a giant loop across the southern part of the subregion. The Chapada do Araripe, about 2,500 feet in elevation, is the central tableland (see Figure 30). The Serra da Ibiapaba extends northward from the western end of the Chapada do Araripe to within 25 miles of the north coast (see Figure 31). The Serra dos Cariris Velhos reaches eastward from the Chapada do Araripe to the arid western part of the Borborema Plateau (see Figure 32). Lesser chains of low mountains and hills extend northward and northeastward from the Chapada do Araripe into the broad area between the Serra da Ibiapaba and the Serra dos Cariris Velhos. Interior basins are enclosed between these les- ser chains and the main mountain ranges. A zone of lowlands and low plateaus extends along the north coast and penetrates varying distances inland between the several mountain and hill ranges. To the south of the Borborema Plateau and the Chapada do Araripe is the vast southern Sertao. It includes much of the Approved For Release I 999/09 : C+A-RB'P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9WQ9g4 .. J -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 31. Serra da Ibiapaba. A high escarpment marks the eastern edge. Ask Figure 32. Rugged terrain along northwestern part of Borborema Plateau. -54- Approved For Release 19?9LQW24 _EQ A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09 :CIA-RBP85-00671 R000300020001-8 lower and middle Sao Francisco River Basin, the Chapada Dia- mantina, and an area of hills and low tablelands to the east of the Chapada Diamantina exclusive of the Agreste (see Fig- ures 33 and 34). An irregular chain of hills and low mountains, including the Serra da Farinha and Serra Tabatinga, extends southwest- ward from the Chapada do Araripe and separates the southern Sertao from the western Sertao. The latter includes the semiarid part of the upper Rio Parnaiba Basin. Most of the streams that drain the Sertao are intermit- tent and may be dry 5 to 9 months a year. The secondary streams, in particular, have a torrential regime, and flash floods are common (see Figure 35). Most rivers and streams are subject to floods at the onset of the rainy season. Despite these floods, the average volume of flow is relatively small during the early part of the season, increasing gradu- ally as the season progresses. In the northern Sertao the high-water level is reached in March and sustained until May (see Figure 36). In the southern Sertao the maximum level is reached earlier -- late December or early January -- and lasts until March or April. Within a month after the onset of the dry season the streams are usually either dry or reduced to stagnant pools of water occupying depressions along the streambeds. The Rio Sao Francisco, the Rio Grande, and the Rio Itapicuru are perennial streams atypical of the Sertao as a whole. Dams have been constructed on many streams of the Sertao to store water for use during the dry season. The dams and associated reservoirs vary greatly in size, and many smaller reservoirs dry up during the latter part of the dry season (see Figure 37). Climate The climate of the semiarid Sertao is characterized by a short rainy season, a long dry season, and great irregularity in rainfall from month to month and from year to year. In general, the average annual rainfall ranges between 15 and 30 inches; however, higher amounts are received on mountain slopes exposed to moisture-bearing winds and along the lowlands of northern Ceara, and lower amounts are received on the west- ern part of the Borborema Plateau and in parts of the lower Sao Francisco Valley. The rainy season occurs in summer (Novem- ber to April) in most of the area south of the Chapada do Araripe and in summer and autumn (January to June) in the northern Sertao (see Figure 38). Approved For Release I 999/09 .-CtA RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-c-_Rpcpved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-006718000300020001-8 Figure 33. Southern Sertgo. Hills rise above the general surface level to ele- vations of 2,000 or 3,000 feet. Figure 34. Slo Fran- cisco Valley. The river is deeply en- trenched downstream from the falls of Paulo Afonso. Figure 35. The Ser- ta.o. Flash floods are common. S-E-c-Appr9ved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 --56- Apppr6ved dr Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 36. High-water level on stream in northern Sertao. Figure 37. Reservoir in the Sert.o. Dams have been constructed across many streams in the Sert.o. Figure 38. Storm in the Sertao. Most of the rainfall occurs as scattered showers. SApproved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA. DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9 9/p9t2 _ 11 -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Little information is available concerning cloudiness and visibility, but visibility is probably unrestricted 90 percent of the time, except on the windward slopes along the north coast and on the eastern margin of the Sertao in Bahia. The prevailing winds are light and are from the easterly quadrants. The Sertao has the highest average annual temperatures in Brazil, ranging from approximately 68?F on the highest mountains to nearly 82?F on the northern lowlands. There is little seasonal variation in temperature;, daily tempera- ture variation ranges from about 11 to 18 Fahrenheit degrees. C. Vegetation A thorny scrub vegetation (caatinga) predominates in the Sertao. The vegetation in its most characteristic form con- sists of clumps of thorny trees, bushes, and cactuses sepa- rated by open areas (see Figure 39). These open areas are essentially bare during the dry season but are carpeted with grasses and spiny herbaceous plants during the rainy season. Most of the trees are low, twisted, and profusely branched. In the more characteristic clumps of caatinga the branches of trees, cactuses, and bushes are entangled, forming virtually impenetrable thickets. Tropical forest occurs in humid areas on the summit of the Serra da Ibiapaba, and modified thorn forest occurs along the western slope. The thorn forest has a dense undergrowth of high bushes and various cactus species flourish. The stands are discontinuous and are separated by palm groves and grassy areas. The sparse rural population is supported primarily by open range cattle raising, the cultivation of tree cotton, and subsistence farming. Specialty crops such as castor beans, sugarcane, and sisal, as well as various tree crops, are grown HAD favored locations. -58- Approved For Release I 999/0124 - A RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/24~-E R 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 39. Caatinga. Clumps of thorn trees, bushes, and cactuses are separated by open areas. Approved For Release I 999/09/247'tFk- I P85-00671 R000300020001-8 5X6 D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-F3Itr P'85-00671 R000300020001-8 5. Parnaiba - Mearim Area a. Terrain and Drainage The Parnaiba - Mearim Subregion is a transitional zone between the humid Amazon Basin and the semiarid Sertao. It occupies much of the extensive basin area drained by the Parnaiba, Itapicuru, and Mearim rivers. The terrain rises gradually inland from a broad coastal plain through belts of rolling hills and fragmented tablelands to the Chapada das Mangabeiras, 2,000 to 3,300 feet in elevation, at the southern extremity of the region. The terrain also rises eastward from the Parnaiba Valley to comparable elevations along the crest of the Serra da Ibiapaba. Most of the streams are perennial; however, the right- bank tributaries of the Rio Parnaiba become dry or nearly dry during the dry season (June through December). The principal rivers are bordered along their lower reaches by broad flood plains that are inundated during the high-water period. Climate The modified tropical savanna climate has two distinct seasons -- a summer-autumn rainy season and a winter-spring dry season. The rainy season extends from November through April in the southern part of the subregion and from January through June in the northern part. The average amount of rainfall received annually increases from southeast to north- west -- from a minimum of 36 inches to a maximum of 82 inches. The incidence of fog is relatively high along the extreme eastern part of the coast -- from the Parnaiba Delta eastward. Surface winds are variable in the interior, but northeast trade winds predominate along the coast. The mean daily temperature of the subregion is about 80?F. The difference in temperature between the coolest and hottest months is about 5 Fahrenheit degrees. The daily temperature range is considerably greater than the annual range, averaging 11 Fahrenheit degrees near the coast and 22 Fahrenheit degrees at Barra do Corda in the interior. c. Vegetation The natural vegetation of the subregion is transitional between tropical rain forest and thorny scrub, its composition varying considerably from place to place. Mangrove swamps rim Approved For Release 1999/09/24- 1k-85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19992444-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 the bays and river mouths along the coast, and sand dune vege- tation -- sparse grasses and low bushes -- covers most of the intervening coastal segments. An extensive area of marshy grassland subject to seasonal flooding occurs on the low-lying land south and west of Bahia de Sao Marcos. Gallery forests extend along the riverbanks, and discontinuous palm forests grow along river flood plains and in moist depressions on the coastal plain (see Figure 40). Small areas of second-growth forest occur on low hills and stream divides on the coastal lowland and in the adjacent belt of rolling .tills. Various gradations of woodland savanna and dry forest cover the table- lands. d. Land Use Collecting forest products, primarily babassu nuts and carnauba wax, constitutes one of the principal economic activi- ties of the subregion. Large numbers of range cattle are grazed on the tablelands. Rice, cotton, manioc, sugar, and 25X6bsistence crops are grown along the principal valleys. Approved For Release 19 9 0f122 ' CI -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 ATLANTIC 7 Zona de M- 2 Ayrc re 3 sanao a Chapada do Aradpa b Norrhern Mounral. end 11111 Chain, t Northern Law Plareau. and Plain, d Wcrzern Borborama e Southern Sert o Wc.rcrn Scnao 4Parnaiba-Mcarim Paula Afons 2 1 BRAZIL NORTHEASTERN REGION Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-tO+ARDP.85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 40. Carnauba grove. This palm is dominant in the palm forests east of the Rio Parnaiba. Figure 41. Serra do Espinhaco. Mountain ridges mark the eastern margin near Ouro Preto. -63- Approved For Release 1999/09/243: C+A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 25X6D Approved For Release 19991W24-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 E. Eastern Region See Map 55897 1. General The populous Eastern Region is a complex area of hills, basins, and low mountains. It includes the states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and Guanabara, together with southern Bahia, most of Minas Gerais, and the extreme eastern part of Sao Paulo. The region is divided into three subregions: the Central Highland, the Eastern Slope, and the Sao Francisco River Basin. The Central Highland, extending north-south through the center of the region, forms the high main water divide separating the dissected Eastern Slope from the Sgo Francisco River Basin. Central Highland a. Terrain and Drainage The Central Highland consists of two mountain ranges and a broad dissected plateau -- the Serra do Espinhaco, the Serra da Mantiqueira, and the Southern Minas Plateau. The Serra do Espinhaco, 2,500 to about 6,900 feet in ele- vation, extends roughly from Consel.heiro Lafaiete, in Minas Gerais, northward to the Chapada Diamantina. It is a highland belt whose summit area is flat to rolling along some sectors but is dissected into a confusion of ridges, hills, and deeply incised river valleys along other sectors (see Figures 41 through 44). The eastern and western margins of the highland belt are marked by steep slopes in most places. W, AM Approved For Release 19924E-(CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/Z-tE1AAR 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 42. Southern Serra do Espinhago. The interior is hilly near Itabirito. Figure 43. Serra do Espinha~o. This gently rolling high- land area is located between Itabirito and Belo Horizonte. -65- Approved For Release 1999/09/24 -FA413M-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9 O9 24 - C1 -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 44. Serra do Curral. This is a segment of the Serra do Fspinha~o near Belo Horizonte. Figure 45. Peixoto Dam across Rio Grande on Southern Minas Plateau. Approved For Release 1999 /24-:tCI4-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-cCIAERDP85-0067IR000300020001-8 Only the western part of the Serra da Mantiqueira lies within the subregion. It extends from the extreme southern corner of Minas Gerais northeastward along the edge of the Southern Minas Plateau to Barbacena. The south-facing slope of the range rises abruptly 2,000 to 7,000 feet above the adjacent Paraiba do Sul Valley -- the main transportation corridor linking Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The north- facing slope merges with the Southern Minas Plateau. The Southern Minas Plateau constitutes the upper drainage basin of the Rio Grande and slopes gradually northwestward from the Serra da Mantiqueira toward the Parana Basin. Much of the plateau has been dissected into a sea of low hills that rise to a common summit level (see Figures 45 and 46). Most mountain streams of the Serra do Espinha;o and the Serra da Mantiqueira flow through narrow, steep-sided valleys interrupted by rapids and falls, whereas the rivers of the Southern Minas Plateau meander along broad valleys that are marshy in places. Most streams are perennial, although some of the mountain streams originating on dry leeward slopes are intermittent. High water occurs from November through April or May in the greater part of the subregion, and low water occurs in the winter, reaching the lowest level in August or September. The Furnas Dam backs up the waters of the Rio Grande and its tributary, the Rio Sapucai, forming an extensive reservoir in the north-central part of the Southern Minas Plateau. Climate The mild climate reflects the cooling effects of altitude. Distinct dry and rainy seasons are experienced throughout the subregion. The average annual rainfall ranges from 25 to 79 inches -- increasing in amount from north to south and from west to east. The rainy season extends, in general, from Octo- ber or November through March or April. Cumulus clouds predominate over the highlands. During the rainy season clouds may envelop the windward slopes of the higher mountain ridges in the afternoon, when the greatest cloud development normally occurs. Early morning fog occurs along the southern and eastern margins of the subregion on an average of 60 to 90 days per year. Surface winds are generally relatively weak, but high winds may be experienced briefly during thunderstorms. Wind directions are primarily from the easterly quadrants. -67- Approved For Release 1999/09124-c1kp85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199 /Djg44,k-QArRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 46. Southern Minas Plateau. Rugged terrain prevails along the southwestern border. Figure 47. Vegetation on Central Highland. Open grasslands occur locally on flat to rounded summit areas. -68- Ak Approved For Release I 99 W24 :- A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09124-Ci:IkA6O85-00671 R000300020001-8 The mean annual temperature ranges from a low of 53?F on the highest part of the Serra da Mantiqueira to a high of 72?F in the northern Espinha~o. Similarly, the mean maximum tempera- ture ranges from 57?F to 82?F, and the mean mimimum temperature ranges from 50?F to 60?F. c. Vegetation The natural vegetation ranges from caatinga and woodland savanna to open grassland and scattered tracts of second-growth forest. Caatinga predominates in the drier northern part of the Serra do Espinhaco. It consists of clumps of thorny trees, bushes, and cactuses separated by open areas that are covered with grasses and spiny herbaceous plants during the rainy season and are bare during the dry season. The woodland savanna is the predominant vegetation on the middle and southern parts of the Serra do Espinhaco and along the northern margin of the Southern Minas Plateau. It consists of a ground cover of grasses and herbaceous plants interrupted by scattered trees and clumps of trees and shrubs. The grasses flourish during the rainy season but dry up during the dry season. The patches of second-growth tropical semideciduous forest generally occur on the steeper slopes in humid areas of the highland. About 10 to 30 percent of the trees in the forest stands lose their leaves during the dry season. The stands are relatively dense, and numerous lianas are interlaced among the trees. The grasslands, which are characterized by a sparse growth of grasses, mosses, and small bushes, occur on high flat-to- rounded summit areas (see Figure 47). d. Land Use The northern and central parts of the Serra do Espinha~o are sparsely populated, and the principal economic activity is open range grazing. In the southern part the population is primarily centered around the iron mining and metallurgical centers. A sparse population occupies the intervening rural areas, where subsistence farming and livestock grazing are the principal agricultural activities. The Campos do Jord.o area of the Serra da Mantiqueira has become an important health and tourist resort center. Horti- culture is practiced along the broad river valleys of this area, -69- Approved For Release 1999/09/1 O85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/0 //4g-C RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 and range cattle are grazed on the grassy rounded summits. Dairying and subsistence farming are the principal forms of land use on the lower slopes of the Serra da Mantiqueira. Mixed farming and livestock raising are practiced on 2's'[5 of the Southern Minas Plateau. Eastern Slope a. Terrain and Drainage The Eastern Slope, by far the largest subregion in the Eastern Region, encompasses the complex zone of hills, low mountains, plateaus, and valleys between the Central Highland and the coast. In general, the land rises in a series of broad steps from the coast toward the interior, but this progression is interrupted locally by discontinuous low mountains and by complex river basins. The Northern Sector of the subregion consists of a belt of low coastal hills and/or tablelands (tabuleiros) backed by a belt of more rugged hills. These, in turn, are backed by broad segments of the Bahian Plateau (see Figure 48). To the Approved For Release 1909IM24-FCVA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09f4: PL_-RD '85-00671 R000300020001-8 south the deeply grooved Jequitinhonha River Basin forms a transitional zone between the Bahian Plateau and the hilly Central Sector. The Central Sector includes a coastal plain and tabuleiro belt, a complex belt of ridges and valleys situated along the Espirito Santo - Minas Gerais border (the Serra dos Aimores), and the Rio Doce Basin, which cuts back through the ridge and valley complex and spreads out to form a large, hilly basin in the interior. The Southern Sector consists of an irregular zone of coastal lowlands (see Figure 49), the Serra do Mar (known also as the Great Escarpment of the coastal mountain range) (see Figures 50 and 51), the drainage basin of the Rio Paraiba do Sul, and the massive Serra do Caparao and associated highlands that form the water divide between the Rio Doce and Rio Paraiba do Sul drainage basins (see Figure 52). The Serra do Caparao culminates in the Pico da Bandeira, the highest point in Brazil (elevation 9,482 feet). The main rivers of the Northern Sector are perennial, but their flow is greatly reduced from June through August or Sep- tember, when they meander along wide beds strewn with alluvial debris. The secondary streams in the interior have a torrential flow during the high-water period (November through April or May) but dry up during the dry season. The rivers and streams of the Central and Southern Sectors are perennial, and most of them flow along narrow, steep beds interrupted by frequent rapids and falls. The Rio Doce and Rio Paraiba do Sul are exceptions, having low gradients along parts of their middle and lower courses. The period of high water within the Central and South- ern Sectors generally extends from October through April, with the highest or flood level occurring in December or January. Climate The climate of the Eastern Slope is varied -- ranging from semiarid to superhumid and from tropical to subtropical. The amount of rainfall received decreases from the coast inland and from south to north. A summer rainy season and a winter dry season are experienced throughout most of the subregion. In general, the rainy season extends from October or November through March or April, but along the Bahian coast the maximum rainfall occurs from March to August. The length and intensity of the dry season varies markedly, being greatest in the interior of the Northern Sector and least along the Bahian coast and along the seaward-facing slopes of the Serra do Mar and Serra do Caparao. The annual average rainfall ranges from 25 inches to 157 inches. -71- Approved For Release I 999/09/Z4L I RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/0 /24 -CAA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 48. Northeastern margin of Bahian Plateau. Oddly shaped hills with nearly vertical slopes of bare rock occur locally. Figure 49. Campos Plain. This extensive coastal lowland is situated along the lower Rio Paraiba do Sul. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release I 999/09/274 CIAt X85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 50. Serra do Mar between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Figure 51. Serra do Mar. Parts of the backslope have been eroded into a sea of hills. Approved For Release 1999/09/24F--Cbk-ROP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199?/(9/?4ft CIRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 52. Rugged terrain along southern margin of Serra do Caparad. Figure 53. Coastal rain forest on Eastern Slope. -74- Approved For Release I 99910 /24-;RQ~A* DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/2,4 EC*RRpP185-006718000300020001-8 Stratus clouds, low ceilings, and poor visibility may all occur during the passage of cold fronts in winter. In summer, cumulus clouds may envelop the windward slopes of the mountain ridges in the afternoon, when the greatest cloud development normally occurs. Early morning fog occurs on an average of 30 to 90 days per year. The incidence appears to be greatest in areas of rugged terrain and lowest in the larger valleys that open toward the east. Surface winds are generally weak. In the Northern Sector southeasterly trade winds prevail in winter and easterly winds tend to predominate in summer. Winds are variable in the Cen- tral and Southern Sectors. Average annual temperatures range from a high of 75?F in the valleys and low hill belts near the coast to a low of about 55?F on the highest mountain crests. Mean annual maximum tem- peratures range from a high of about 86?F to a low of 65?F; mean annual minimum temperatures range from a high of approxi- mately 68?F to a low of less than 50?F. c. Vegetation The natural vegetation varies considerably from the coast inland and, to a lesser extent, from north to south. Mangrove and beach vegetation extend along the shore. Stands of coastal rain forest cover some of the windward slopes of the rugged hills and low mountains that parallel the coast (see Figure 53). The rain forest gives way to scattered patches of tropical semi- deciduous forest on rugged terrain in the interior of the sub- region. In the Northern Sector caatinga predominates on the western part of the Bahian Plateau. Throughout the subregion extensive areas have been cut over and are devoted to pasture or cultivation. The stands of coastal rain forest are quite similar to the tropical rain forest of the Northern Region. The trees of the upper story form a closed canopy. Lower trees and shrubs crowd the space below the canopy, but no clearly marked stratification is discernible. The undergrowth is dense, and lianas and dang- ling aerial roots form a tangled net between trees. About 10 to 30 percent of the trees in the semideciduous forest lose their leaves during the dry season. There are num- erous clearings in the forest, some in various states of re- growth and others planted in grass or subsistence crops. The undergrowth is generally dense. Caatinga vegetation consists of virtually impenetrable thickets of low trees, bushes, and cactuses, interspersed among generally open areas. Approved For Release 1999/09/2 QJERP_R85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19, 9 O%I2 _ C(A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Cacao cultivation and livestock grazing are the princi- pal forms of land use in the Northern Sector? Cacao is grown on low hills near the coast, and livestock is raised on the plateaus, valleys, and lower hill slopes in the interior (see Figure 54). The basic pattern of land use in the relatively densely populated Central Sector consists of cattle raising and shift- ing cultivation. However, coffee growing is significant in parts of the Rio Doce Basin and on the eastern slopes of the Serra dos Aimores, and some sugarcane is grown along the main river valleys. Mining and metallurgy are important in the western part of the Rio Doce Basin and along the eastern slope of the Serra do Espinhaco. Some of the forests are exploited for wood and charcoal (see Figure 55). Land use is varied in the Southern Sector. Dairying and shifting cultivation are widespread. Coffee, sugarcane, and rice are important commercial crops (see Figure 56). Several industrial centers have developed along the valley of the Rio Paraiba do Sul, and several resort towns are located on the 25LUit of the Serra do Mar. -76- Approved For Release I 9R9t 24_ 4-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/O9/Lc1I-J 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 54. Cacao cul- tivation on low hills along Bahian coast. Cacao is grown in the shade of stands of partially cutover forest. Figure 55. Charcoal burn- ers at work. Approved For Release I 999/09J24 J P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/p9t2 _ Ii -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 56. Harvesting sugarcane and maize. View is along the middle basin of the Rio Paraiba do Sul. Figure 57. Escarpments in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais. -78- Approved For Release I 99 JDD1Z4pQA RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 25X&8proved For Release I 999/09/x2 : C.4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 4. Sao Francisco River Basin a. Terrain and Drainage The upper basin and part of the middle basin of the Rio Sao Francisco fall within the Eastern Region. The headwaters of the river are situated along the northern margin of the Southern Minas Plateau. The basin is bordered on the east by the scarped slopes of the Serra do Espinhato and on the west by the bluffs of the Espig,o Mestre. The upper basin is gen- erally hilly (see Figure 59), whereas most of the middle basin consists of broad, relatively flat surfaces, separated by stream valleys cut below the general surface level. Scattered rocky hills rise above the basin floor at various places. The main river is bordered by a broad marshy flood plain. Most of the tributary streams south of the Bahia - Minas Gerais border are perennial; in contrast only the main rivers are perennial north of the border, where many secondary streams flow only after rainstorms and some may be dry several years in succession. Numerous small lakes, marshes, and swamps are Approved For Release 1999/09/2iAF6A b 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/ /248-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 58. Shore near Cabo Frio. Beaches are backed by sand dunes. ARk Figure 59. Maze of dissected low hills within upper Sao Fran- Ask cisco River Basin. Approved For Release 199JQ924 --c14-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 0 ~P?agora /y Sao Paulo T'6 Mrmlar'' Diamantiti~,' I ' nrpr?,n ~ ;rf ~~~Tr~s naar;ns ~ Y ~ 2b 3 s i uro Preto; Vit6ri v r ~ A~ rti 4f C ~ Conselh iiro Iiep dm Lataiet Erv9lia, lr ~J A 9` I A At r r r 1 BRAZIL EASTERN REGION Physical Division Boundaries Region - Subregion ---- Minor unit Central Highland a Serra do Eapinhee IS er a da Manttqueire I Southern Ml- Plateau Eastern Slope a Northern Sector bCcntral Sector e Southern Sector proved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85- -8 ~~lb tiJ~ v.r Approved For Release 1999/09/24 ~eAPROPv 00671 R000300020001-8 scattered along the flood plain of the main river. The water level on the Rio Sao Francisco usually starts to rise in Novem- ber and reaches its highest level in December or January. The period of low water generally occurs between June and October. The Tres Marias Dam across the Rio Sao Francisco has formed a sizable reservoir along a 60-mile segment of the upper river valley. b. Climate A tropical savanna climate, characterized by a distinct summer rainy season and winter dry season, prevails over most of the subregion. The length of the rainy season varies from 3 to 6 months, increasing from north to south. The average annual rainfall ranges from a low of about 30 inches at the northern border of the subregion to a high of about 60 inches along its southern margin. Little reliable information is available on the winds of the subregion. Normally, there are no high winds other than gusts accompanying thundershowers. Visibility is generally good, except during summer showers. The average annual temperature normally decreases from north to south and from the basin floor to the bordering high- lands. The mean annual temperature ranges roughly from 70?F to 79?F. The mean minimum temperature ranges from 60?F to 71?F3 and the mean maximum from 79?F to about 93?F. Vegetation The vegetation consists mainly of caatinga and woodland savanna, although bands of gallery forest extend along the river valleys. Caatinga predominates in the part of the basin extending northward from the Bahia - Minas Gerais border. Woodland savanna predominates south of the state boundary. This vegetation consists basically of sparse natural grassland with scattered trees and clumps of trees and shrubs. The grass is high during the rainy season but dries up during the dry season. Semideciduous gallery forest border most of the rivers in the basin. These forest belts are relatively broad south of the Bahia - Minas Gerais border and spread out over the flood plain of the Rio Sao Francisco and its principal tributaries. Approved For Release 1999/09/2'4 EdAtUPP5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Releas%1999MW24T, CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 d. Land Use Much land is devoted to livestock grazing. Cattle are raised in the zone of woodland savanna, and goats and donkeys are grazed on the caatinga. Subsistence crops are grown in many localities in the southern part of the subregion and in humid areas in the north. Castor beans and cotton are fre- quently raised as cash crops by subsistence farmers. Fish are caught in considerable quantity from the sandbars along the Southern Region See Map 55899 1. General The Southern Region, consisting of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, and most of S!.o Paulo, is the smallest of the five regions of Brazil. It enjoys a relatively cool climate, and is the most populous and the most economically developed part of the country. Approved For Release 1E999/09Y24 -CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 -EQ4 DPB5-00671 R000300020001-8 The principal terrain units of the region are the extensive Southern Plateau and the Eastern Slope. The Southern Plateau encompasses about 75 percent of the area and varies considerably in surface configuration from state to state. The Eastern Slope consists of the dissected eastern edge of the plateau and the coastal belt at its base. 2. Southern Plateau a. Terrain and Drainage The Southern Plateau rises abruptly above the narrow coast- al zone and slopes gradually westward to the valleys of the Rio Parana and Rio Uruguai. In the northern half of the subregion the plateau is divided into three segments, known as the First Plateau, the Second Plateau, and the Third or Western Plateau. The segments are situated at different elevations and separated from each other by roughly parallel lines of escarpments. These escarpments are breached by the principal westward-flowing rivers that drain the plateau. The Third Plateau is by far the most extensive, and it constitutes the entire plateau in the southern part of the subregion. The plateau decreases in ele- vation both from east to west and from north to south. The low undulating section in the southwestern part of Rio Grande do Sul forms part of the cattle-raising zone known as the Campanha Gaucha (see Figure 60). The First Plateau is hilly, and the relief is generally rugged (see Figures 61 and 62). The Second Plateau is an area of generally low relief, and, in S.o Paulo, it is called the Inner Lowland since it is situated below the general surface level of the other segments of the plateau (see Figure 63). Historically, it has served as a natural corridor of movement -- particularly as the route of the famous cattle and mule drives. The Third Plateau is one of the largest lava plateaus in the world, and it exhibits a relatively uniform tabular relief (see Figures 64 and 65). The steep-sided valleys of the prin- cipal rivers subdivide it into a series of broad, roughly parallel surfaces trending from east-southeast to west-north-. west. Flood plains are generally lacking along the rivers of the First Plateau. On the Second Plateau, however, the main rivers meander along broad, marshy flood plains. On the Third Plateau the valleys vary in width in different sectors, and marshy flood plains occur along some of the wider sectors. In general, the river courses are interrupted by scattered falls and rapids, and most of the minor tributaries on the Third Plateau enter the main valleys over such obstacles. The Rio -83- Approved For Release 1999/O9/24`:-CFA-i 3r8S-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199IO912 -C1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 60. Low undu- lating surface of Campanha Gaucha. Figure 61. First Plateau south- east of Sao Paulo. The Rio Grande Reservoir is in the back- ground. Approved For Release 19R94W24.:4-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/ 1-vQIAFR?P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Hills east of Campinas. Coffee cultivation in Figure 62. ground; and patches the foreground; pastures in the middle g of forest in the background on the hilltop and steep slopes. Figure 63. The Second Plateau. The area is of gen- erally low relief. -85- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: C-IA=RD 3=60671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Figure 64. The Third Plateau. The area is flat to gently rolling in the vicinity of Londrina, Parana. Coffee is grown extensively on the terra roxa soils in this area. A* Figure 65. The Third Plateau. Narrow V-shaped val- leys are cut below the general surface level along the high eastern margin in Rio Grande do Sul. -86- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/O9!2 : C4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 66. Rio Parand and flood plain upstream from Guaira. -87- Approved For Release 1999/09/24'At~P~$5-00671R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999LOW24_ 4- DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 67. Iguacu Falls. Tributaries, such as the Rio Iguacu, enter the canyon of the Rio Parana over falls situated at the heads of short side canyons. Approved For Release 1 1 LCIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09124- cC Q'P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Parana is a broad river of low gradient downstream as far as Guaira, where it flows over spectacular waterfalls (see Figure 66). Below the falls the river is confined within canyon walls, and all the tributaries that enter it along this sector flow over waterfalls (see Figure 67). Rivers and streams are perennial, but minor tributaries are generally quite shallow at low-water stage. In Sao Paulo and northern Parana the period of high water extends from Novem- ber or December through April or May. In southern Parana and Santa Catarina there is a slight spring-summer rainfall maxi- mum; however, the period or periods of high water vary somewhat locally. In Rio Grande do Sul the high-water period extends from April or May through October or November (see Figure 68). b. Climate The climate of the Southern Plateau ranges from tropical savanna in northern Sao Paulo to humid subtropical in southern Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. A zone of tran- sitional climate occurs in southern Sgo Paulo and northwestern Parana. The amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall varies considerably within the subregion. Areas of heaviest rainfall coincide with higher elevations situated in the path of mois- ture-bearing winds. The average annual rainfall ranges from 40 inches to more than 80 inches. In most of Sao Paulo and extreme northwestern Parana, rain falls primarily during the summer (October through March). Rain occurs throughout the year in Santa Catarina and most of Parana, with a slight maxi- mum during the spring-summer period. In Rio Grande do Sul the maximum amount of precipitation occurs during the autumn-winter period. In mid-winter frontal passages frequently bring snow to the higher parts of the plateau in Rio Grande do Sul. Snow seldom remains on the ground for more than a few days, however. Dense fogs and low clouds restrict visibility along the coastal margin of the plateau. Fog occurs here about 9 to 18 days per month during the autumn-winter period (April through August) and with lesser frequency during the rest of the year. Dense fogs also occur from 6 to 12 days per month during the autumn-winter period along the Uruguai Valley and along segments of the Parana Valley. Visibility is generally unrestricted in other parts of the subregion about 90 percent of the time. Surface winds are generally weak. High winds, when they occur, are associated with thunderstorms. Wind direction varies considerably, but winds from easterly quadrants tend to dominate. -89- Approved For Release 1999/09/2 : VA-RD v-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999iA9/-24-RQtA RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The temperature decreases from north to south and with increased elevation. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 60?F to 74?F. The mean minimum temperature ranges from 50?F to 64?F, and the mean maximum temperature ranges from 68 OF to 860F. Frosts occur from 5 to 25 days per year in the southern part of the subregion. The incidence of frost ranges from 5 days a year to 1 day in two years. c. Vegetation The vegetation of the Southern Plateau consists of tropi- cal semidecicjuous forest, Parana pine forest (arauceria) natural grassland, and woodland savanna. ' Some virgin stands of tropical semidec_Lduous forest remain on parts of the plateau in northwestern Parana and along the middle and lower valleys of the principal rivers in that state. Scattered small tracts of forest remain on steep slopes and along stream courses in S,o Paulo. In general, the undergrowth is dense, and lianas and dangling aerial roots form a tangled net between trees. A Parana pine forest grows on parts of the plateau within southern :Parana, Santa Catarina, and northern Rio Grande do Sul (see Figure 69). The Parana pine is a tall needle-leaf evergreen tree with an umbrella-shaped crown. The upper tree layer, consisting primarily of tall pines, has an open canopy. Various broadleaf evergreen trees and shrubs, including the erva-mate, form a relatively dense lower story. The erva-mate' (Paraguay tea plant) is exploited commercially, and in some stands competing tree species of the lower story are cut in order to promote its growth. The forest stands are relatively free of lianas and epiphytes. The grasslands a>e of two kinds -- treeless savannas (campos limpos) and prairie. Treeless savannas extend along the eastern part of the Second Plateau and occur in several areas of high elevation on the Third Plateau in Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul (see Figure 70). The prairie grasslands cover the low undulating surface of the Campanha Gaucha in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul. The scattered small areas of woodland savanna in the sub- region occur mainly on the Second Plateau within Sgo Paulo. The woodland savanna consists of clumps of low, twisted trees and shrubs dispersed over a sparse mantle of grasses and other herbaceous plants. Approved For Release 19~991O 1 F A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: f IA--R13P85 b671 R000300020001-8 Figure 68. Campanha Gaucha. Rio Ibirapuit. in flood. Figure 69. Parana' pine forest. Pines form an open upper story, and various small trees and shrubs form the dense lower story. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: dIk-R40671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release1999IDW24T. CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 d. Land Use Land use varies considerably within the subregion. Tropi- cal crops, such as coffee, cotton, sugarcane, and citrus fruits are grown commercially in Sao Paulo and in parts of northern Parana (see Figure 71) and crops that can withstand light frosts, such as wheat, barley, and potatoes, are grown in the southern part of the subregion. In Slo Paulo commercial crops are gen- erally grown on large plantations; in the southern states they are grown on small to medium-sized land holdings. Mixed farm- ing is common in parts of eastern Sao Paulo on former coffee lands exhausted from extended one-crop farming. On these lands dairying is practiced in conjunction with the cultivation of various cash and subsistence crops. Maize, rice, and manioc are subsistence crops cultivated throughout the subregion. In many areas of the southern part of the subregion hogs, fattened on maize, are produced in conjunction with subsistence farming. Cattle grazing is common throughout. The fattening of cattle on improved pastures is characteristic of Slo Paulo, and the grazing of cattle on natural grasslands is more characteristic of the southern states (see Figure 72). Industry is concentrated mainly within the greater S lo Paulo urban area and in cities located along the fall line separating the first and second segments of the plateau in 25 state of Sao Paulo. Approved For Release' /ti9121V: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Figure 70. The Campos de Guarapuava. One of sev- eral grassland areas on the highest elevations of the Third Plateau. Figure 71. Citrus plantation on Second Plateau near Campinas, Sgo Paulo. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Figure 72. Range cattle on prairie grasslands of Campanha Gadcha. Figure 73. Lines of cliffs separating differe:11t surface levels on Southern Plateau. These sandstone cliffs are at Vila Velha, Parana.. -94- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09kZ+.LcJk-RDDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 74. Steep, forested slope of Great Escarpment northwest of Santos. Figure 75. Coastal lowland near Santos viewed from Great Escarpment. _95_ Approved For Release I 999/09/2 :~C~A -tl P~5-00671 R000300020001-8 25X6DApproved For Release I 999 /24 G A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Eastern Slope a. Terrain and Drainage The Eastern Slope Subregion includes the dissected east- ern edge of the Southern Plateau and the coastal zone situated at its base. The subregion ranges in width from a minimum of about 5 miles in eastern Sdo Paulo to a maximum of about 250 miles in southern Rio Grande do Sul. Its western boundary is the water divide separating rivers that drain eastward directly to the Atlantic Ocean from those draining westward into the Parana - Uruguai drainage system. The Great Escarpment, which marks the edge of the plateau along most of its extent, appears from the coast as a formidable mountain range rising sharply 2,000 to 6,000 feet above the coastal lowland (see Figures 74 and 75). Various local names are applied to the different seg- ments of the range -- the Serra do Mar, the Serra do Paranapia- caba, and the Serra Geral (see Figure 76). This mountain facade has been breached by two rivers, the Rio Ribeira de Iguape and the Rio Itajai, which have carved out rugged upper basins in back of the facade (see Figure 77). In southern Rio Grande do Sul the Great Escarpment curves abruptly inland, and the subregion widens to encompass a broad central lowland -96- Approved For Release 1SMO9 :CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/OP24((JARDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 76. Serra do Paranapiacaba viewed from Ribeira de Iguape Basin. Figure 77. Steep hills along segment of Itajai Basin. _97_ Approved For Release 1999/09/245-tr DO8iv-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R--E-T (the Jacui Valley), a hill zone in the southeastern part of the state, and a broad coastal plain rimmed. by extensive lagoons and a long barrier island. The streams of the subregion are perennial. They descend the slopes of the Great Escarpment to the narrow coastal low- land via precipitous courses marked with numerous falls and rapids. Extensive areas of marsh and swamp border their meandering courses near the coast. The stream network of southern Rio Grande do Sul differs from that in the rest of the subregion. There the principal streams -- the Rio Jacui and Rio Camaqu. -- have longer courses and empty into the coastal lagoons rather than directly into the ocean. The flow of streams descending the Great Escarpment, always swift, is frequently torrential during the rainy season. On the coastal lowland at the foot of the escarpment these streams are generally sluggish except at flood stage. The period of high water occurs from November or December through April or May in the northern part of the subregion, and from May to September in the southern part. Two periods of high water occur on some streams in the transition zone in Santa Catarina and northern Rio Grande do Sul. b. Climate The climate of the subregion is humid subtropical except for an area of superhumid tropical climate along the coast of Sao Paulo. There is no distinct dry season in this subregion. The rainfall exceeds 60 inches along most parts of the Eastern Slope southward as far as Florianopois, Santa Catarina. The amount of rainfall increases with elevation, and exposed locations on the upper slopes of this sector receive more than 120 inches. From Florianopolis southward the rainfall decreases from 60 inches to 46 inches near the Uruguay border. It increases inland to between 50 and 60 inches on the central lowland and southeastern hills of Rio Grande do Sul. The seasonality of rainfall varies within the subregion. Autumn-winter rainfall predominates in Rio Grande do Sul, but a summer maximum occurs in the rest of the subregion. Some snow falls in winter on the south slope of the Serra Geral and in the southeastern hills. The incidence of dense fog and low clouds is relatively high, particularly along the Great Escarpment, with the high- est frequency being from April through August,. The predominant winds in the northern half of the sub- region are from the southerly quadrants. In the southern half -98- F - Approved For Release 199091/2 ECIrA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/W- Ai P85-00671 R000300020001-8 of the subregion the northeast wind is dominant, although it is interrupted periodically by southeasterly and westerly winds. Gale winds seldom blow. The mean annual temperature increases from south to north and from the summit of the Great Escarpment to the coastal low- land. Along the coastal lowland it ranges from about 62?F at the southern extremity to 72?F at the northern extremity. Along the summit of the escarpment it ranges from 60?F to 68?F. The mean minimum temperature ranges from 55?F to 64?F on the low- lands and from 50?F to 57?F on the escarpment. Similarly, the mean maximum temperature ranges from 71?F to 82?F on the low- lands and from 68?F to 78?F on the escarpment. Frosts occur in southern Rio Grande do Sul and at higher elevations throughout the subregion. C. Vewetation The vegetation consists of coastal rain forest, a coastal complex of mangrove and beach vegetation, and a zone of prairie grassland in southern Rio Grande do Sul. Luxuriant coastal rain forest covers the steep slopes of the Great Escarpment, as well as parts of the coastal lowland. The forest is almost as rich and varied in composition as the Amazonian rain forest. Lianas and epipr.,,tes are common. The trees are reduced in size and somewhat deformed in appearance at the higher elevations. Mosses, lichens, and epiphytes are very abundant at these elevations due to the high frequency of rain, mist, and fog. The southern slope of the Serra Geral has been mostly deforested, except for the highest and steepest slop,-,:; second- growth forest in various stages of growth is interspersed among cultivated fields and pastures. Along sandy coasts a thin cover of grasses and creeping plants extends over the inner margin of the beaches and on low dunes. On the higher dunes and on beach ridge plains the vege- tation consists of a dense tangled growth of stunted trees, thorny bushes, and cactuses. Mangroves reach their southern arana - Santa Catarina border. limit along the coast near the Parana' They fringe the shallow parts of bays and river mouths and frequently extend several miles inland along the tidal reaches of rivers (see Figure 78). Prairie grassland predominates on the central lowland and in the southeastern hills of Rio Grande do Sul, although Approved For Release 1999/09/24 JC~A tbP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19991124 FGUk-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 tropical semideciduous forest covers the summits of the highest hills. These forest stands are lower and much less luxuriant than the stands of coastal rain forest characteristic of the Great Escarpment. d. Land Use Primitive subsistence farming and firewood extraction are carried on in some parts of the Great Escarpment. Hogs, fat- tened on maize, and various subsistence crcps are raised in the Ribeira de Iguape and the Itajai river basins and along the southern slope of the Serra Geral (see Figure 79). Along the coast in the northern part of the subregion the population is centered primarily at the ports, and some fishing villages are dispersed along the shore. Along the more densely popu- lated Santa Catarina coast, coffee and bananas are grown on the lower hill slopes, and sugarcane and paddy rice are grown along the river flood plains (see Figure 80). Livestock graz- ing is the principal activity in the southeastern hills and on the central lowland of Rio Grande do Sul, although paddy rice is raised along the Rio Jacul flood plain and on the coastal plain along the west side of Lagoa dos Pates (see Figure 81). Several coal mines are located in the foothills of the Serra Geral in southern Santa Catarina and on the central low- 25X66 d of Rio Grande do Sul, near Sao Jeronimo. Approved For Release 1 9iiO9/2* CJIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/0` 4~d RbP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 78. Mangroves. They extend along the tidal reaches of rivers and fringe the shallow parts of bays. Figure 79. Small farm on southern slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. -101- Approved For Release I 999/09/245: ETA-FD '815-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24c-GIAPjDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 AiXAI Figure 80. Ricefields on Santa Catarina coastal plain. Figure 81. Harvesting rice on central lowland of Rio Grande do Sul, near Porto Alegre. Approved For Release 1999709/24-:ECIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 1c 4, c `~ itiba0r a"~P /"~ \ cemOlnas /Jerd mo da Serra 'ti la.!N pNOU NAS P,grEf 1 q \ ~JOinville' f 1 P J., a "men " L. ;G ~'',~ L ,L,lea v; mains _ sao .aqulm, "p nrnl,an r 2 q 44 ~~ ry U ~ V: M ~ J--. t~ .J U Hamburgo V Ds to ~~ ~~~Pdrto Alegre ~'P~ i : {~c ,Pal ree do Sul BRAZIL SOUTHERN REGION Physical Division Roundarlas Reglon ~?- Subregion Minor unit 1 Southern Plareau a Fk. Plvreeu b sr~aaa Pmta.a Thud lrte. d Cmv.nhe Ge4ch. 2 aaarn siay. Scale 1:4,000,000 i.mli~m~TT. roo ~ ., s, iTease- t09/2~ : C1A=RD 0004-8 d?. ~t J parulbe' 6 /~_~ ~f , ~ Cas`ro/ ~~./ Jr2 P /Ilha Comprid. L~ndia 5X6 D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Gazetteer Place Name Coordinates Alcantilados Plateau 17?00'S 54?00'W Amazon River 00?10'S 49?00'W Bahia de Sao Marcos 02036'S 44?28'W 13ahiari Plateau 140401S 40?30'W Baia de Marajo 01?00'S 48?30'W Barbacena 21?14'S 43?46'W Barra do Corda 05?30'S 45?15'W Belo Horizonte 19?55'S 43?56'W l3orborema Plateau 07?00'S 37?00'W Braganrca 01?03'S 46?46'w Brasilia 15?47'S 47?55'W Campanha Gaucha 30?00'S 56?00'W Campos do Jordao 22?44'S 45?35'W Chapada das Mangabeiras 10?15'S 45?45'W Chapada Diamantina 11?30'S 41?15'W Chapada do Araripe 07?20'S 40?00'W Conselheiro Lafaiete 20?40'S 43?48'W Corumba 19?01'S 57?39'W Cuiaba 15?35'S 56?05'W Espigo Mestre 14?00'S 46?10'W 111orianopolis 27?35tS 48?34'W Furnas Dam 20?40tS 46?20'W Furnas Plateau 17?00'S 54040'W -104- Approved For Release 1999/( 9/?4 I RDP85-006718000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/4 Q A RpP185-00671 R000300020001-8 Coordinates Goias 15?56'S 50?08'W Guaira 24?04'S 54?15'W Ilha de Marajo 01?oo'S 49?30'W Itabirito 20?15'S 43?48'W Lago Grande Do Curuai 02?15'S 55?20'W Lagoa dos Patos 31?06'S 51?15'W Lagoa Mirim 32?45'S 52?50'W Macapa 00?02'N 51?03'W Manaus 03?08's 60?ol'W Mato Grosso de Goias 16?3o'S 49?30'W Natal 05?47'S 35?13'W Ouro Preto 20?23'S 43?30'W Paraguay River 27018'S 58?381W Paulo Afonso 09?24'S 38?13'W Pelotas 31?46'S 52?20'W Pico da Bandeira 20?26'S 41?47'W Priapora 17?21'S 44?56'W Porto Alegre 30?04'S 51?11'W Porto Lsperanca 19?37'S 57?27W Rio Araguaia 05?21'S 48?41'W Rio Branco 01?24'S 61?51'W Rio Camaqu 31?17'S 51?47'W Rio Corrente 13?08'S 43?28'W Rio Cuiaba 17?05'S 56?36'W Rio das Mortes 11?45'S 50?44'W Approved For Release 1999/09/Z .CJARRDFl85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999 0 / 4 ? C DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Ii "- Place Name Rio das Mortes Plateau Rio das Velhas Rio de Janeiro Rio Doce Rio Grande Rio Grande Rio Grande Rio Itajai Rio Itapicuru Rio Itapicuru Rio Jacui Rio Jequitinhonha Rio Juruena Rio Madeira Rio Mearim Rio Negro Rio Negro Rio Paracatu Rio ParaguaQu Rio Paraiba do Sul Rio Parana Rio Parnaiba Rio Ribeira de Iguape Rio Sf,o Francisco Coordinates 15?oo'S 54?001W 17?13'S 44?49'W 22?54'S 43?14'W 19?37'S 39?49'W 11?05'S 43?09'W 20?06'S 51?04'W 320021S 520051W 26?54'S 48?33'w 02?52'S 44?12'W 11?47'S 37?32'W 30002'S 51?15'W 15?51'S 38?53'w 07?20'S 58?03'W 03?22'S 58?45'W 03?04'S 44?35'W 03?08'S 59?55'W 19?13'S 57?17'W 16?35'S 45?o6'W 12?45'S 38?54'W 21?37'S 41?03'W 33?43'S 58?17'W 03?00'S 41?50'W 24? 40' S 47?24'W 10?30'S 36?24'W Approved For Release 199,LQJ/?4R CIArRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24, UkjMl?I85-00671 R000300020001-8 Place Name Coordinates Rio Sapucai 20?43'S 46008'W Rio Teles Pires 07?21'S 58?03'W Rio Tocantins 01?45'S 49?lo'W Rio Uruguai 34?12'S 58?18'W Rio Xingu 01?30'S 51?53'W Salto das Sete Quedas 24?02'S 54?16'W Salto do Urubupunga 20?36'S 51?33'W Salvador 12?59'S 38?31'W Sao Paulo 23-321S 46?37'W Serra da Bodoquena 21?00'S 56?50 'W Serra da Farinha 08?42'S 41?21'W Serra da Ibiapaba 04?00'S 41?00'W Serra da Mantiqueira 22?00'S 44?45'W Serra das Araras 16?00'S 57?25'W Serra do Caparao 200221S 41?48'W Serra do Espinhaco 17?30 'S 43?30 'W Serra do Mar 23000'S 44?50 'W Serra do Paranapiacaba 24?00'S 47?50 'W Serra do Urucum 19?13'S 57?33'W Serra dos Aimores 19?00'S 41?00 'W Serra dos Cariris Velhos 07?30'S 37?00 'W Serra Geral 27?40s 49? 40 'W Serra Tabatinga 10? 25 'S 44? 00 'W Southern Minas Plateau 21?30'S 45?00 'W Approved For Release 1999/09/243: C1-A-RBP-ff5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19,~9t0W2 _~~ i -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Place Name Coordinates `I'ris Marias Dam 18? 1:L' S 45?15 W TriAngulo Mineiro 19?00'S 48000'W Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais 21?301S 43?00'W AOk Approved For Release 1 999JO L2 LE IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19990/24 RCZRDP85-006718000300020001-8 agreste beach ridge beach ridge plain (restinga) caatinga campo limpo campo cerrado chapada cuesta epiphyte Scrub woodland; a type of natural vegetation transitional in nature between tropical forest and thorny scrub. An elongated island comprised of multiple beach ridges extending generally parallel to the coast but separated from the coast by a lagoon, bay, or marsh; the island commonly has dunes and narrow, elongated swampy areas. A ridge of sand and gravel built up along the beach by wave action. A plain consisting of parallel lines of beach ridges separated by narrow swales. Thorny scrub vegetation; a type of natural vegetation character- istic of the semiarid Sertao. "Clean" savanna; open grassland devoid of trees. A tableland, generally steep- sided and more than 600 meters (about 2,000 feet) nigh. A sloping plain or tilted table- land having a scarp face at its raised end and a gentle back slope. An air plant; a nonparasitic plant that grows on another plant but gets its nourishment from the air. Rainfall induced as the result of the interaction of dissimilar masses or currents of air brought together along a frontal surface. Approved For Release I 999/Q9V. -_Q1. DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release J9~9Jc0 24splA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 gallery forest igarape' Bands of forest occurring along both banks of a river in what is otherwise a region of open country. A canoe passage; a seasonal, nar- row waterway occurring on a flood plain and often parallel to the main river (Northern Region). intermittent stream A stream that flows part of the year and is dry the remainder of the year. me s a natural levee nearshore approach offshore approach A woody, climbing, tropical vine that roots in the ground; occurs entwined snakelike about tree trunks and, often, entwined in the tree crowns as well; flexible stems hang down from the crowns like ropes. A type of swamp formed on tidal land consisting primarily of species of mangrove; the common or red mangrove has stilt roots; the overlapping roots of these trees are covered by water at high tide but rise above the mud- flats at low tide forming a "king- size jungle gym". A flat-topped, steep-sided hill or mountain of smaller extent than a plateau. The low ridge sometimes built up by streams on their flood plains on either side of their channels. The sea area wh_ch extends from the 30-foot (5-fathom) depth con- tour to the low--water line of the beach. The sea area wh_ch extends from approximately the 600-foot (100- fathom) depth contour to the 30- foot depth contour. Approved For Release 19i99t0W.2jrrCIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999id4 24 : C1- DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 planalto restinga slough sertao; Sertlo; sertoes pl.) slash-and-burn cultivation tropical semideciduous forest woodland savanna (campo cerrado) A former beach, now elevated above high-water level. See beach ridge plain. A broad term applied to a tropical or subtropical grassland containing scattered trees. A marshy place lying in a local depression of dry land. A shallow, elongated depression that is at least seasonally wet or marshy. Mountain range; applied locally to any topographic feature exhibiting strong relative relief. Backland or remote interior; a subregion comprising the semiarid interior of the Northeastern Region. Shifting cultivation; a form of agriculture in which fields are cleared by burning and are culti- vated for a short period of years until the soil shows signs of exhaustion, after which the land is left to the natural vegetation while cultivation is carried on at a new site. A low, steep-sided tableland. Firm ground; land not subject to inundation. Tropical forest composed mostly of broadleaf evergreen species, but with some broadleaf deciduous species. A type of savanna vegetation con- sisting of grassland with parklike stands of low trees and shrubs; grassland with scattered thickets of deciduous scrub forest. Approved For Release 1999/O9J LC-IA=RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999 124-:FCI-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 xerophytic Drought resistant; capable of thriving in a hot, dry climate, as certain plants and animals. A Approved For Release 1 9"99 "O F ECTA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/O9/94 L IP R 85-00671 R000300020001-8 READING LIST 1. Azevedo, Aroldo de, Brasil: A Terra e o Homem, vol I, Sao Paulo: Companhia Editora National, 19. U. English translation of selected parts available as: US Dept of Commerce, Joint Publications Research Service. Translations on Latin America, no 302, GUO 737, 28 May 19 5. GUO. 2. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, pts I and II, sec 22, "Coasts and Landing Beaches," May - Jun 1957. C/NFD. 3. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, pt I, supp II, "Coasts and Landing Beaches," May 1957. C/NFD. 4. Cowell, Adrian, The Heart of the Forest, London: Gollancz, 1960. U. 5. da Cunha, Euclides, Rebellion in the Backlands, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944. U. 6. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Conselho National de Geografia. Geografia do Brasil: Grande Regiao Norte, vol I, serie A, Rio de Janeiro, 1959. U. 7. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Conselho National de Geografia. Geografia do Brasil: Grande Regiao Centro-Oeste, vol II, serie A, Rio de Janeiro, 19 0. U. 8. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Conselho National de Geografia. Geografia do Brasil: Grandes Regines Meio-Norte e Nordeste, vol III, s rie A, Rio de Janeiro, 1962. U. 9. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Conselho National de Geografia. Geografia do Brasil: Grande Regiao Sul, vol IV, tomo 1, Rio de Janeiro, 1963. U. 10. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Conselho Nacional de Geografia. Geografia do Brasil: Grande Regiao Leste, vol V, serie A, 19 5. U. 11. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 1, "The West Central Plateau and Mato-Grosso Pantanal," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9994 k; lA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 READING LIST (Continued) 12. International Geographical Union. Guide of Excursion 3, "The Coffee Trail and Pioneer Fringes," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 13. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 4, "Paraiba Valley, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Sao Paulo City and Surroundings," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 14. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 5, "The Coastal Lowlands and Sugarcane Zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 1.5. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 7, "Northeast," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 16. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 8, "Amazonia," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. __ 17. International Geographical Union. Excursion Guidebook No. 9, "The Southern Plateau," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 18. James, Preston, Latin America, 3d ed, New York: Odyssey Press, 1959. U. 1.9. Korabiewicz, Waclaw, Matto Grosso, London: J. Cape, 1954. U. 20. Prewett, Virginia, Beyond the Great Forest, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1953. U. 21. Sick, Helmut, Tukani, New York: Eriksson-Taplinger, 1960. U. 22. Siemel, Sasha, phi rero, New York: Prentice-Hall, 1953. U. 23. Union Geographique Internationale. Livret-Guide No. 2, "Zone Metallurgique de Minas Gerais et Val-le du Rio Doce," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. 24. Union Geographique Internationale. Livret-Guide No. 6, "Bahia," Rio de Janeiro, 1956. U. Approved For Release 1 9 9199 24 dA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/ :_c1 J Dp85-00671 R000300020001-8 IV. Population A. General 1. Size and Growth More than half of all South Americans live in Brazil, where the population in 1960 numbered 70,967,185; by July 1966, official estimates set the total at 84,679,000. This increase :reflects a phenomenal rate of growth -- 3.1 percent annually between 1950 and 1960 -- ranking Brazil first among the major nations of the world. Unless birth rates are substantially lowered, there will be more than 120 million people in Brazil by 1980. Because Brazil is so large (3,286,000 square miles -- the fifth largest country in the world) and has vast areas that are virtually uninhabited, the overall density of population is only 25 persons per square mile. As in all Latin American countries, however, actual densities vary greatly from one region to another. According to official computations, the density of population ranges from less than 0.5 per square mile in parts of the Amazon Basin to 130 per square mile for the state of Rio de Janeiro and to 3,927 per square mile for the state of Guanabara -- the urban complex that was the Federal District and national capital until 1960. See Map 5735 for density patterns in 1950, which have remained essentially the same to this date. Except in the South, most of Brazil's population lives within 300 miles of the coast, reflecting the historic settle- ment of the country. Nearly 45 percent of the population is concentrated in the six southern and southeastern states on a tenth of the national territory. More than 18 percent of all Brazilians live in the state of Sao Paulo alone. The East and Northeast, with approximately 20 and 25 percent of the population, respectively, are also densely populated. The remaining 10 percent are widely scattered across the vast sert'~)es of the interior and along the waterways in the endless forests of the Amazon Basin. See Table 1 for population by state and territory in 1960 and 1966 and for the increase of population (in percent) during the period 1950 to 1960. Brazil has always been a predominantly rural country, with agriculture the mainstay of its economy. The rural character of the country is much more pronounced than the rural-to-urban settlement ratios -- 55:45 in 1960 and 64:36 Approved For Release 1999/09/241:-FA.f 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99 / 9/ I -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 in 1950 -- indicate. Many very small and primitive towns are counted in the statistics as partially urban simply because they are municipio or distrito seats. True urban areas are relatively few; only 17 cities have a population of over 150,000 (see Table 2), and only 51 others have more than 50,000. Most cities are not effectively connected with the rural communities by modern transportation and communications facilities. They have little cultural impact beyond their immediate surroundings, and in general they have tended to grow and function quite independently of rural areas. Conse- quently, the rural dweller has lived apart, largely unaware of the city, and has clung to established and traditional ways. The homogenization of these widely d'Lvergent worlds has now begun with the migration of rural dwellers to the cities, the development of new educational, health, and coloni- zation programs, and an awakening stemming from the cumulative effects of modern means of communication. 3. Mobility Internal migration is considered by many to be a Brazil- ian national trait; the economic expansion of the country during the 18th and 19th centuries can be attributed, in large measure, to the speculative daring of the restless settlers who welcomed new ventures. Willingness to migrate to new areas or to new Jobs -- especially among the lower rural classes -- is so readily apparent that foreign observers typically comment on the instability of the Brazilian populace. Migra- tion is the result of: (1) the system of slash-and-burn agriculture, (2) the seasonal movement of workers to the cotton, sugarcane, and cacao areas along the eastern coast, (3) the flight of people from catastrophic droughts which periodically reduce the Northeast to a dust bowl, (4) the opening up of new agricultural frontiers, most recently in western S2[o Paulo, northern Parana, and the newly developing areas around Brasilia, and (5) rural-urban transfers, in which people search better opportunities than the countryside provides, especially in schooling for children. Most notable of all such movements has been the influx of hundreds of thousands of workers into the state of Sr1o Paulo, first as agricultural workers and in more recent yearns to take city jobs. Settlement patterns in Brazil have for centuries reflected the rural, agricultural, and extractive economy which has prevailed, essentially unchanged, even to the present. A journey inland today can be likened to a trip into the past, -116- Approved For Release 199999/24x-C A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Brazil: Population Density, 1950 Population Density Per Square Kilometer Per Square Mile Miles 0 200 400 T~ 0 200 400 Kilometers 15.0-25.0 10.0-15.0 5.0-10.0 2.5-5.0 r.0-2.S 0.5-1.0 Less than 0.5 0 38.8-64.8 25.9-38.8 12.9-25.9 6.4-12.9 2.6-6.4 1.3-2.6 Less than 1.3 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/0912_I _D1P85-00671 R000300020001-8 in which two decades are left behind for each day of travel. Modern communities are largely a phenomenon of the past few decades. Three distinctive settlement patterns prevail: estate villages, line villages, and isolated farmsteads. Villages occupied by independent freeholders are not as common in Brazil as in most countries, nor are they as common as a passing observer might assume. The estate village accommodates large groups of workers on the coffee fazendas, sugar usinas (mills), large cotton plantations, and to a lesser extent the extensive cattle ranches. Typically the casa grande of the landlord dominates the scene. Nearby are all of the crop-processing facilities as well as such essentials as a chapel, commissary, school, and perhaps infirmary. The workers' houses surround this complex. On very large estates there may be more than one such village, but all are subordinate to the property manage- ment. The line village, widely distributed in Brazil, consists of long narrow properties on which the dwellings face a common road or river. Line villages have been characteristic of many colonization schemes, but they also have been developed independently -- in thousands of small cacao holdings along the coast from Ceara to Bahia and in the many riverine settle- ments of the Sl.o Francisco and Amazon basins. The scattered farmstead is the third type of settlement in Brazil. Usually it is associated with areas of poor soil and is sandwiched between large landholdings. Thatched huts are typical. Many owners of these small farms work for hire on the remote extremities of large estates; others are inde- pendent, wresting a bare existence from the marginal soils. The mobility of these people is notable, and every year millions of them move to some new area, taking along little more than the skills required to clear a new plot and erect another wattle-and-daub hut. 5. Demographic Terminology Hundreds of terms are used to designate different elements of Brazilian society. The more widely used of these terms -- knowledge of which would be useful to non-Brazilians -- are listed below along with translations. In certain instances the area in which usage prevails is also indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09,2 ,-_c1A-_RDp85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19,991/04/2_ ECkA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 a. Color Amarelo Yellow Branco White Moreno Dark skinned Pardavasco Brown; dark mulatto Pardo Brown; offic'_al census term for mulattoes, mestizos, and Indians Preto Black Sarara Light mulatto b. Race Cafus, Cafuso, Black/Indian Cabore Cariboca White/Indian Creulo, Creole Black (Negro) Homen de cor Colored man Mameluco White/Indian Mulato Mulatto; white/black Mestico Mixed; usually white/Indian c. Country people of low status Bruaqueira Minas Gerais Caboclo Widely used; originally White/ Indian halfb:^eed Caicara Along Sao Paulo coast; also term for low.-class fisherman Caipira Widely used for uncouth rural dweller; derogatory Cangussu S.o Paulo -118- Approved For Release I 999/ 24 -LCIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Aft Aft Approved For Release 1999/09/24-:~b4P85-00671 R000300020001-8 C ap uava Casaca Casacudo Corumba Guasca Homen de campo Widely used; general term Mamb i ra Mandioqueiro Ploca Praiano Queijeiro Tabareu d. Farm People Agregado Camarada Co_lono Foreiro Gaucho Vaqueiro Iotrudor Morador Parceiro Minas Gerais and Bahia Piaui Along Rio Sa.o Francisco In northeast Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul Minas Gerais Widely used Along seacoast Minas Gerais Widely used; like caboclo and caipira Agricultural laborer who lives on the estate Hired farmer who does not live on the estate Tenant farmer on 1-year contract Squatter Rio Grande do Sul cowboy Cowboy Squatter Squatter Landless farmer, share- cropper Approved For Release 1999/09/21-Cf'AbP~85-006718000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/X J j~ WRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Posseiro Roceiro Sitiante Miscellaneous Bandeirante Cangaceiro Carioca Chapadeiro Garimpeiro Machadeiro Mascato Mat u t o Seringueiro Sertane j o Sertanista Squatter Slash-and-burn farmer Independent rural worker Resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro Plainsman Diamond searcher in streams Woodsman, rubber gatherer Ambulant peddler Backwoodsman Rubber tapper Common man in the sert.o Upper class person in the sertao; also synonym for bandeirante B. Composition Brazil stands first among the countries of the world as an effective "melting pot," a position it has continuously held from the first days of Portuguese colonizat_Lon. For 400 years red, white, and black people were thrown into close physical and social contact, and in the last 100 years millions of Euro- peans and many thousands of Japanese have become a part of the composite whole. The resultant mixture of racial strains defies analysis, and in Brazil color rather than race determines the categories into which people are grouped. According to the 1950 census the population was enumerated as follows: Approved For Release I 9 91 *:-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24L-CW RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Number Percent of Total Brancos (Whites) 32,027,661 61.7 Pretos (Blacks) 5,692,657 11.0 Amarelos (Yellows) 329,092 0.6 Pardos (Mixed) 13,786,742 2b.5 Undeclared 108,255 0.2 These data should be considered approximations, since there is no reasonable way to define color, especially in view of the prestige status attached to light skin. Thus, white probably should be considered "whitish," and black can be assumed to be undeniably black. The determination of the proper category for the many millions of persons in between is a subjective matter. Numerous terms are used locally in reference to the various hues of skin or to blood mixture (see list of terms, pagell8). Pardo, as used by the census, is an unfortunately broad and meaningless term that includes not only all persons of mixed blood (excluding those claiming to be white) but also all pure Indians. The term preto is applied to black-skinned people; "Negro" is used only in an academic sense in Brazil except when meant as a derogatory designation. The prOtos are the descendants of the estimated 3 to 18 million Negro slaves brought from Africa in the 16th, 17th, and 1.8th centuries. Most of the slaves were either Bantus from the Congo and Mozambique or west African Sudanese from former French Soudan. The Sudanese were settled mainly in the area around Bahia, while the Bantus went to the area around Rio de Janeiro and to the Northeast. Over the centuries the two groups melded into one. The zone of greatest African influence in Brazil stretches from the state of Pernambuco southward along the coast to Rio de Janeiro and inland across Minas Gerais, southern Gciis, and northern Slo Paulo. Through- out this area, African traits have spread into local. customs, language, food, music, folk tales, and religious cults. 2. Immigrants Immigrants to Brazil make up only a small percentage of the national population, but despite minority status, they play a significant role in the economic and social makeup of the country. Approximately 5 million immigrants entered Approved For Release 1999/09: dt*Ab`lb85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/A9t24kT IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 82. Caboclo family in the North. These people live on a precarious subsistence level with few amenities. Oak Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-blk 1k,&$ -00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 83. Northeast caboclo family with its stock of farinha (manioc flour). The tipiti across the trough is used to squeeze poison juices from ;round up manioc roots. Figure 84. Gauchos examining prize bull at fair in Rio Grande do Sul. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99 E 24 tI-IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Ask Figure 85. Northeastern cattlemen typical of the dry sertoes. Approved For Release I 969 9~ l k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-IOiA=Rth' v-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 86. Fishermen and children on banks of Amazon at Santarem, Para'. Skins of various hues are characteristic of people along the lower Amazon. Note the variety of boats. S-E-C-R-E-`I' Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19/08124-t CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 brazil between 1884 and 1962, coming primarily from European countries. The greatest influx took place after the abolition of slavery in 1888 and prior to 1934 (see Table 3 for numbers of immigrants from major countries of origin). Since 1934 immigration has been controlled by a quota system based on 2 percent of the total previous immigration from each country. Almost equal numbers of immigrants have come from Italy and Portugal, which have contributed more than 60 percent of the total. Spanish immigrants rank third (about 14 per- cent), followed by those from Japan (less than 5 percent). The yellow race is represented almost entirely by the Japa- nese who came in large numbers in the late 1920's and 19301s. Since World War II some 20,000 more have come. German immi- gration, amounting to roughly 200,000, is of primary signifi- cance because of its cultural impact on a sizable part of southern Brazil. The early German colonizers deliberately isolated themselves from other groups, reproduced very rapidly, and retained their language, customs, dress, types of housing, and attitudes to such an extent that nearby Brazilians appeared to be the strangers. Although this isolation has lessened in recent years, much of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina still has a German appearance. Sao Paulo State has the greatest number of foreign set- tlers, it having been most successful in attracting agricultural colonists after the abolition of slavery. As of 1950, 56.6 percent of all immigrants lived within its confines. Immigrant groups included the Japanese, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Dutch, Turks, Syrians, and Portuguese. The Federal District of that time ranked next with 17.2 percent of the total, fol- lowed by Rio Grande do Sul (6.4 percent), Parana (6.3 percent), and the state of Rio de Janeiro (3.2 percent). These areas contained all of the nationalities resident in Sao Paulo as well as scattered groups of Poles. Small settlements of Spanish, Turkish, Japanese, and Italians were located in Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, and Bahia, and the Japanese, Turks, and Portuguese had made their way into the Amazon Valley. The Northeast Region and most of the East and West-Central Regions have had little attraction for immigrants, and even today non-Brazilian types in these areas are considered outsiders. Indigenous Indian Groups Millions of Brazilians today can claim Indian blood as a result of 400 years of continuous fusion of Indian with Portuguese, and to a lesser extent, with Negro racial strains. In addition, innumerable cultural traits in modern Brazilian Approved For Release 199?691~44-6IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/Z4 ECbA pPr5-00671 R000300020001-8 life are identifiable as Indian in character. The strict use of the term "Indian," however, is limited to those groups in Brazil who think of themselves as Indians and who are considered so by others because of tenacious loyalty to their ethnic background. Such groups are located throughout Brazil, except in the densely populated parts of the South. In northeastern and southwestern Brazil nearly all of the Indian tribal groups have become acculturated to a great extent, but their core groups still retain their Indian identity. Brazilian ethnologists estimate the total number of Indians in Brazil today to be somewhere between 65,000 and 100,000 -- a staggering decimation of the 1 to 2 million believed to have inhabited the area when the first Europeans came. The small number of remaining tribes would be of little relative consequence were it not for the fact that the great majority of them are the primary inhabitants of vast areas of the interior. Not only are they the most knowledge- able about these areas, but they also determine the degree to which outsiders may move about, develop extractive industries, or establish settlements. These tribes also constitute the best source of untapped labor in the remote areas. It is estimated that about 65 percent of the Indian population is located in Amazonia; 20 percent in Mato Grosso and northern Goias; 8 percent in the South; and the remaining 7 percent in the East and Northeast. It is impossible to determine exact population figures for specific groups (except in integrated communities), since census enumerators cannot reasonably contact those that are in remote areas. A 1957 study, however, estimated that approximately half of the Indian groups contain 250 persons or less; at least another third had between 250 and 2,000 persons each; and the remaining few groups may have numbered as many as 4,000 to 5,000 each. Sometimes groups may be further divided into small villages. Estimates also were made to determine the amount of contact that exists between Indians and their Brazilian neigh- bors, that is, whether they are seldom or occasionally in contact, are permanently in contact, or have been essentially integrated as laborers into Brazilian settlements. Based on minimum numbers, it was calculated that at least 21,000 Indians remain isolated, having essentially no contact with outsiders, either because of the remote locations of their villages or because of their previously hostile and bloody conflicts with civilization; some 8,000 to 10,000 have only intermittent contact, because their lands, often economically Approved For Release 1999/09/21-LCdA ?P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09124: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T marginal, have only recently been penetrated by Brazilians; approximately 13,500 have permanent contact with settlements in rural Brazil; and 24,500 are integrated as indigenous "islands" in the national populace -- such as in Sao Paulo State or in the Northeast. At least 35 independent Indian languages, divided into more than 100 mutually unintelligible dialects, are spoken in Brazil. All stem primarily from six major linguistic stocks: Tupi Most widespread. Originally spoken along the coast and the Amazon Valley, it was adopted as the lingua franca during the first 200 years of coloni- zation and is still used in remote areas. Aruak Spoken along the upper tributaries of the Amazon and in souther Mato Grosso. Karib Spoken north of the Amazon. Je Spoken along the Xingu, the Araguaia, and the Tocantins rivers, and in the South. Pano Spoken along the upper tributaries of the Jurua and Purus rivers. Xiriana Spoken north of the Rio Negro. Ordinarily Indians communicate with outsiders in Portu- guese, which is also frequently used between tribes whose languages are unintelligible to each other. In the Northeast, where acculturation has existed the longest, most Indian groups spears Portuguese to the exclusion End loss of their own native tongues. All Indian groups fall under the custody of the Indian Protective Service (Servico de Proterao aos Indios -- SPI), established in 1910 and an autonomous federal agency under the Ministry of Agriculture since 1939. By the time of the inception of the SPI, Indian tribes were in danger of extinc- tion. As the SPI began operations it faced several monumental tasks, including: (1) the pacification of belligerent tribes whose deep-seated hatred of the white man had generated savage and destructive attacks on outlying settlements; (2) the protection of Indians from unwarranted abuse, both in the appropriation of their lands and in the utilization of their A"k ARK Approved For Release 199992.: A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/O9/ ~,;cdARRp. 85-00671 R000300020001-8 labor, particularly in such economic ventures as the rubber "boom"; and (3) the education of Indians so that they might understand the advance of civilization and appreciate the ultimate goal of the government -- the assimilation and con- version of the Indian into productive citizenship. The SPI can be credited with effecting a large number of peaceful adjustments between settlers and previously hos- tile Indians. It has establisned throughout the country more than 100 reservations (SPI posts) on which the Indians may adjust to "civilized" life. Nevertheless, many more reservations are needed. The SPI also assists with legisla- tion, whenever possible, to solve the serious problems of land use and occupancy that still arise in remote areas. Two other groups have done significant work with the Indians. Since World War II, Orlando Villas Boas -- a unique and dedicated Brazilian -- and his two brothers have worked in the area known as the Upper Xingu. In this area one of the world's most remarkable examples of intertribal acculturation among primitive peoples has taken place. Retreating from the pressures of early colonization on the north, east, and south, Indian groups from four linguistic stocks (Tupi, Aruak, Karib, and J(~) coincidentally converged into this region of central Brazil and evolved an amicable adaptation of cultural traits. The Villas Boas brothers have devoted their efforts to pacifying and protecting these tribes; through their efforts an 8,500 square-mile National Park (Parque National do Xingu) was established in 1961. This park is a living museum of history and Indian culture wherein tribes can remain without threat to their survival and into which strangers cannot enter without hard-to-get permits. Some tribes outside the area, threatened with extinction, have elected to move in, and the Villas Boas brothers urge others to do the same. The Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), also referred to as the Wycliffe Bible Translators, has also done notable work with the Indians. This organization of nondenominational linguists has as its worldwide objective the enscribing of previously unwritten languages, followed by translations of parts of the Bible. In Brazil SIL teams, each consisting of two women or a married couple, have worked with some 40 dif- ferent tribes since 1956. Usually these teams live in a village for several months at a time. In 1964, at the request of the SPI, they surveyed most of Brazil's Indian tribes and provided data for a report that contains the most accurate and complete estimates of tribal locations, numbers, and linguistic families ever produced. Approved For Release 1999/09/24, 2C A RDR85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19g9/LQW2f _ l k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 4. Indian Culture Areas The immensity of the area over which these tribes are distributed (more than 2 million square miles), the high degree of intertribal acculturation that has occurred, and the small size of the individual groups make it difficult to summarize significant factors about the Indians if enumer- ated tribe by tribe. Consequently, they are presented according to a system of Culture Areas devised in the 1950's by the Brazilian ethnographer Galva-o. The criteria used in determining these Culture Areas included geographical simi- larities, the integration of common cultural traits, and the degree of Indian contact with outsiders. Eleven such areas have been identified: seven in the tropical forests and grasslands of the Amazon Basin, three in the subtropical forests and Pantanal of southern and southwestern Brazil, and one in northeastern Brazil. See Map 57545 for the deline- ation of Culture Areas; the locations of individual groups, their numbers, and linguistic families; the locations of Summer Institute teams; and the areas in which hostile Indians live. Table 4 summarizes for each Culture Area its geographical nature; the number of Indians in each linguistic family (includ- ing some besides the six major families); characteristic cul- tural traits such as occupations, type of rivercraft, type of house, and religious practices; and the level of contact and attitudes toward outsiders. C. Language Brazil is the only country in the Western Hemisphere in which Portuguese is the national language. Although it was the official language in the early days of colonization, the language of the street was the quickly adopted Tupi tongue of the coastal Indians which was energetically oromoted as the lingua franca by Jesuit missionaries. Not until the Jesuits were expelled in 1759 did Portuguese become the commonly used language. Tupi and several other Indian languages are still used by the indigenous Indians, although all but the most isolated tribes speak Portuguese to a limited degree. The common use of Tupi left a permanent impression on the Brazilian language, especially in place names, topographic features, and the names of flora and fauna. Similarly, African Negroes have contributed words and phrases to the language of Brazil, as have European colonists through the past 100 years. In 1943,Brazilian Portuguese was officially adopted by the government, with simplifications in spelling and differences Ink Approved For Release 1999IM24-IOIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/O9124 : GGl fr lP85-00671 R000300020001-8 in usage from the original language. In spoken "Brazilian," variations in pronunciation and in slang reflect regional differences and cultural levels. Regional dialects are quickly identified by Brazilians just as Americans can deduce a person's native region by his speech. Final vowels are dropped in the North, natives of Rio de Janeiro tend to slur their words, and Bahians are frequently quite blunt. The spoken Portuguese of Brazil differs from that of Portugal much as the English of America differs from that of England. The large numbers of Europeans who poured into Brazil in the late 1800's and early 1900's maintained their native languages in the isolated colonies they established. With the advent of World War I, attention was focused on the wide- spread use of German and Italian, especially in Brazil's remote colonial schools. Educational reforms were then instituted, and by 1938 it was required that all pupils study the Portu- guese language and that all lessons be taught in Portuguese by Brazilian-born teachers. Immigrants are now expected to learn Portuguese as quickly as possible, and new colonies, institutions, businesses, and other establishments must bear Portuguese names. At least 30 percent of the population of all new colonies must be native-born or of Portuguese origin, and no other single nationality group may exceed 25 percent of the total. Such laws and the natural inclination of Brazilians to accept newcomers have promoted cultural assimi- lation. Only the Japanese tend to remain culturally consoli- dated, and even they use Portuguese in business transactions. Thus, few places can be found in Brazil where Portuguese is not spoken by nearly everyone. Educational standards throughout Brazil are deplorably low at all levels, and educational opportunities are inade- quate except in the larger cities. As a consequence, the majority of the rural populace normally completes no more than 2 or 3 years of elementary school education. Travelers in some areas experience difficulty in finding persons who can read or write. Approximately 45 percent of Brazil's population was defined as illiterate in 1962. The actual amount of illiteracy was undoubtedly much higher, however, since literacy was determined by the ability to sign one's name and an oral declaration of reading ability. Illiteracy is higher among adult females than males, but it is about the same among female and male children. It varies greatly among age groups, directly reflecting the lack of basic schooling in the past. Approved For Release 1999/OJ,/24 144RIQP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99 /09/ 4 R 9A~RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Thus, illiteracy among people over 50 years of age is much higher than it is among younger people who have had better educational opportunities. Far more people are illiterate in the northeastern states (70 percent) than in the southern and southeastern states (30 percent), and the percentage of illiterates among rural dwellers is three times as high as it is among their urban counterparts. Racial differences are also notable. Less than 20 percent of persons in the yellow race (mostly Japanese) and 34 percent of those classed. as white are illiterate, while 69 percent of the pardos (mes- tizos, mulattoes, and Indians) and 73 percent of the Negroes are illiterate. The school system includes a free elementary school, in which 4 years are theoretically compulsory and 3 more years are encouraged; academic and vocational secondary schools, which offer 4 years of ginasio (roughly junior high school) followed by 3 years of colegio (senior high school); and a number of universities with courses lasting from 1 to 6 years. Despite official programs to promote education and to reduce illiteracy to 5 percent of the population by the year 2000, the rapid increase of the population makes progress toward these goals difficult. The situation today is only slightly better than it was in 1950, when it was determined that 82 percent of the population over 10 years of age had not completed any level in the school system. Of those completing elementary school, less than 15 percent were pardos or Negroes. This is explained, in part, by the distribution of existing schools, most of which are in urban areas. In the rural areas, where the population consists largely of pardos and Negroes, schools are fewer and the percentage of graduates is very low. In 1960, of the 2,764 municipios in Brazil, only 275 had secondary schools through the colegio level and 1,359 had no schools beyond the elementary level. The schools (escolas isoladas) in many remote areas consist of one ungraded classroom, with an inadequately trained teacher and little if any equipment for the motley assortment of pupils who live within walking distance. The school dropout (evasno) is a serious educational problem. A 1960 study indicated that 50 percent of Brazilian children quit school after 1 year or less of elementary edu- cation, and less than 5 percent complete 6 years. Although school conditions are poor in some of the large cities, instruction is better and programs are more organized than in the small towns. In many small communities good teachers are hard to find or keep, and impractical curriculums make Approved For Release 19991OQ9124A-GJARDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-oM RDP185-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 87. Elementary school classroom in Rio de Janeiro. The children are of various racial back- grounds. Figure 88. School children in Londrina, Parana. 't'heir faces reveal that they are of German, Japanese, and Italian parentage. Approved For Release 1999/09/4IJC(IA tbPr85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/?4rI~-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 school seem like a waste of time for children who can be use- fully employed at home. As of 1963 there were 27 legally recognized universities in Brazil, of which 19 are supported by the government. Most are located in the southeastern and southern states. Brazilian universities follow a pattern typical of several Latin American countries, in which many of the professors teach only part time, depending for their livelihood on income derived from two jobs. Students also generally attend part time, and many of them hold jobs while attending the university. Brazilian student unions are highly organized and wield considerable influence in the university and nation- ally. Student academic centros (centers) within each school are affiliated into so-called central student directorates, which in turn are organized on a state and national level and receive financial subsidies from the government. From this unique position of strength, students can and do influence national affairs, and from the hierarchy of student unions many of the nation's political leaders emerge. E. Religion The overwhelming characteristic of religion in Brazil is the blending of folk religions with elements of Christianity, especially Catholicism. Four centuries of fusing African and native Indian magico-religious practices, Spiritualism, and Christian monotheism have produced a heterogeneous mixture of religions that almost defies analysis. Although regionally there are wide variations both in degree and outward mani- festation, folk religion is prevalent all over Brazil and permeates the daily behavior of a very large percentage of the population, even devout Catholics and Protestants. The degree of adherence to folk religions can be equated to a large degree with social and racial factors. Moving from the white upper classes down through the color and social scale, one may note the shift from intellectual Christianity to the conscious mingling of Christian principles with some fetish rites until, at the bottom, the beliefs in magico-religious cults reaches its zenith. Geographically, African influences predominate in the Northeast and East -- reflecting the largest, influx of slaves in colonial times -- while European influence and adherence to accepted Church dogma is evident in the southern part of Brazil. Large numbers of active Catholics and Protestants are found in urban areas where education and social status reach a sophisticated level. The rural Brazilian has absorbed religious concepts and practices from several directions, with -134- Approved For Release I 9991Q9 4~_ 1-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/4: O4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 little if any guidance or restraint on the spiritual inter- pretations that seem to suit his needs best. Unacculturated Indian tribes of the interior observe primitive rites that differ in detail from group to group, but all are character- ized by animistic beliefs, shamanism and other powers of the supernatural. brazil is nominally a Roman Catholic country (nearly 95 percent) despite a tradition of religious freedom that has existed since colonial times. If the 1960 census figures are accurate, Brazil has more declared Catholics than any other country in the world -- nearly 68 million. In view of actual religious practice, however, most of these are "margi- nal" Catholics who combine some aspects of folk religion and mystical rites with the rituals of the Church. According to the Catholic clergy, only 6 to 8 million Brazilians may be strictly defined as practicing Catholics. In addition to these, some 245,000 persons belong to the Greek Orthodox Catho- lic Church. A somewhat larger number of Syrian immigrants are Maronites, adhering to an Eastern Mediterranean branch of the Uniate Church. The city of Salvador is the center of the Catholic Church in Brazil and the residence of the primate, the Cardinal of Bahia. Countrywide, the ratio of priests to parishioners is about 1 to 8,000, based on the estimated number of actual practicing Catholics; if based on the recorded number of Catholics, the ratio is 1 to 60,000. Nearly half of the clergy, however, are located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais, leaving the balance to serve the large remainder of the country. In some rural areas, one priest may serve as many as 20 to 30 churches. Because churches are widely dispersed, he may conduct Mass in any given church only once a year or less. Consequently widespread laxity in religious matters is the normal pattern, and the impact of the Church on daily living is much less effective than in most Latin American countries. For much of the nominally Catholic population, conformity to traditional custom -- especially at weddings, funerals, and the numerous holy days -- reflects acknowledgment of the role of the Church as a catalyst rather than any dependence upon it as a bulwark of spiritual strength. Because the Church historically has had less authority and prestige under the Portuguese pattern of colonization, it has played a much less influential role in the development of Brazil than in such countries as Peru and Mexico. The caliber of the Brazilian clergy has been unfortunately low, often drawing on recruits having little education or few moral Approved For Release 1999/0912 : b1~-IiD'P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99, 1Q9I 4R--C14-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 qualifications. Indifference toward religious proprieties is common, and a generally low degree of respect for the clergy has produced a somewhat lax attitude toward the formalities of the Church. The past two decades, however, have witnessed determined efforts by the Church to raise its standards, especially by more careful selection of new priests and greater depth in ecclesiastical training. The increased participation of the Church in local reli- gious, social, and political activities has led to the devel- opment of Catholic action groups. These groups support pro- grams to eliminate slum conditions and to improve rural welfare and land reform, and they also urge the participation of laymen in cooperative ventures, particularly banking, storage, and marketing. The Catholic-sponsored Rural. Labor Unions and Institute of Rural Leaders are examples of Church programs designed to counterbalance the more radical, Communist- influenced Peasant Leagues and other leftist, groups pressing for social reforms. The Protestant Church is relatively unimportant in Brazil, despite a membership of nearly 2,000,000 -- the largest number of Protestants in any Latin American country. Sixty percent of all Protestants are members of either the Evangel- ical Lutheran Church or the Assembly of God, each having about 500,000 members. The remainder belong to some 70 churches, the strongest being the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Methodist. Protestants are concentrated mostly in the southern states. Smaller groups are scattered through the eastern states, and missionary groups are in the rural areas to the west. In the nearly 8,000 Protestant churches in Brazil, the ratio of ministers to members is 1 to 250. The common fundamentalist precepts of the leading Protestant groups are not generally appealing to the Brazilian temperament, and many converts need continuing inspiration. Other large religious groups include 680,000 Spiritual- ists, according to the 1960 census, but some estimates indi- cate that there are actually three times that many; Brazil has more Spiritualists than any country in the world. Buddhists, tabulated in 1960 at 175,000, probably are even more numerous than that and are found among the rural Japanese population, which totals over 400,000. Approximately 1L'0,000 Jews live in Brazil, mostly in cities. No official figures are available for the number of persons (mostly Negroes) who belong to the cults that were brought to Brazil from Africa, as many of them identify themselves as Catholics or as Spiritualists despite adherence to primitive groups. As result, the many variations of folk religion throughout Brazil are difficult -136- Aak Approved For Release I 99/09 ~-C A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/I4B:-Chk-i BP85-00671 R000300020001-8 to isolate or evaluate statistically as identifiable religious movements. The most dominant of the cults that abound in Brazil are the numerous versions of the Gege-Nago religion introduced by Sudanese Negroes. The core aspect of these Sudanese cults is the grigri or fetish which is a "prepared material object" endowed, through special rituals, with the presence of a spirit. The ceremonies of such cults are known as macumbas in the Rio de Janeiro area, candombles around Salvador and xangos and catimbos in the Northeast. They include spiritual communication with one or more of the numerous dieties or orishas that embody specific spiritual realms. Communication between human beings and these gods presumably can be effected through male or female mediums or sacerdotes, people who have special attributes and make special preparations. An inner group of devotees is consecrated to the cult of the orishas and undergoes involved rites of "initiation." Drum-dominated music and dances, many of which are of African origin, are integral parts of the magical rituals that may last for hours and even days of hypnotic trance, culminating in the total physical and emotional collapse of those possessed of the spirit of the fetish. Bantu religious culture is also evident in these Brazilian rituals, but its original theological framework was never as complex in Brazil as the Gege-Naga. Its primary contribution to Brazilian religion has consisted of a cult of the dead, ancestor worship, a belief in transmigration of the soul, and many beliefs that relate it to the practices of spiritualism. Bantu macumbas are simpler in ritual and physical setting than those of the Gege-Nago, and their high priests,called quimbandas, are often referred to as "mediums" because of the spiritualistic influence. The amalgamation of Gege-Nago, Bantu, aboriginal Indian, Spiritualist, and Catholic forms of ritual has been taking place during the past 300 years, with more emphasis on one or another ritual in different locales. It is practically impossible to trace back the various elements of the rituals to their original, pure form. Throughout Brazil a strong belief in the supernatural prevails, and in every locale there are mysterious beings who exist in the minds of the populace as friends or enemies. The pe de garrafa (bottle-footed man) lures herb collectors until they are lost in the woods of southwestern Mato Grosso; the mal d'agua (water mother) attracts men to their doom in lakes or rivers, and her masculine counterpart -- the boto -- similarly lures women. The lobis homen (werewolf) is feared in rural Brazil, and anemia is an indication that one has been S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999IO9 24I-M k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 89. Christianized shrine of African cult in slum area of Rio de Janeiro. Shrines such as this attract regular wor- shipers and are the scenes of highly emotional religious cere- monies. Figure 90. Northeasterner selling leather charms that are presumed to guard against snakes. Note the Indian, European, and Negro features of the Brazilian bystanders. -138- Approved For Release 19$9/99R _P14-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/O9/24- G P85-00671 R000300020001-8 victimized by such a fiend. In some areas the curupira is a vicious little man feared because his feet are backwards, leaving tracks that lead victims into his destructive arms. Many other beings figure daily in the monotonous lives of rural Brazilians throughout a large part of the country, pro- viding emotional outlets for fear, anger, frustration, or even rejoicing and adding some zest to the simple subsistence pat- terns of living that prevail. F. Housing The miles of ultramodern skyline of Brazil's major cities are a false facade for the miserable hovels that are typical for the country as a whole. A study based on the 1950 housing census (still largely valid) showed that only 15.6 percent of all homes had running water, only 24.6 percent had electricity, and 33 percent had indoor toilets. If urban homes are excluded from the analysis, the comparable percentages for rural homes were 1.4, 3.6, and 10.4, respectively. The "public utility services," in small towns fortunate enough to have them, fre- quently serve only public buildings and, perhaps, the few per- sons able to pay high rates . In 1963 estimates indicated that 5.25 million new houses were needed and that 2 million existing houses were unfit for habitation. The population expansion has for years completely outdistanced the construction of new houses, and the result has been overcrowding in inadequate quarters. The outstanding example of housing shortage is the growth of the favelas in Rio de Janeiro -- conglomerations of shacks pieced together out of zinc sheeting, canvas, packing cases, rough tile, or anything else that can be gotten cheaply or at no cost. These shacks are often so small that there is no room for beds. Described by one authority as "communities of squalor," the favelas occupy precipitous slopes and are separated by crooked paths. There is no effective sewage system; occa- sional rainstorms wash away refuse in the gullies between and through the shacks. One survey in Rio de Janeiro located 194 favelas in which nearly a million people live -- almost a third of the city's population. Although many people who live here work at respectable jobs, they can find no better dwellings in the overcrowded city. Water is the greatest problem; some favelas are a kilometer away from the nearest public spigot, and 5-gallon cans of water are carried daily up the steep slopes. Similar clusters of shanties are called corti os in Sao Paulo, malocas in Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte, and mocambos in Recife (where 50 percent of that city's population live ; all of these settlements are inhabited primarily by migrants from rural areas. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1 ",TQJ21 C A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The more stable elements of society in Brazilian cities live in considerably better circumstances, even if by American standards the houses are small and crowded. Typically, the houses are connected to one another and constructed flush with the sidewalk. Each has several rooms a--_ong a long hall which leads to an open patio in the back. Only the wealthy have open ground around their houses, usually in the elegant suburbs. Recent decades have seen the construction of high- rise apartments in the larger cities. Services unfortunately have not kept up with the new structures, and dependable water supplies, electricity, sewage systems, and garbage collection are often lacking. Rural homes are typically 2- or 3-room wattle-and-daub houses constructed with wooden frames filled with mud and roofed with thatch. The best of them are coated with a lime and soil plaster that retards deterioration somewhat, but none last many years. Windows are simple openings, usually without glass. Floors are ordinarily bare dirt, often with puddles of dirty water and littered with kitchen refuse, but sometimes have raised wooden, cement, or brick floors. Open hearths without chimneys are used for cooking, and the smoke seeps through cracks in the soot-covered walls and roof. Knowledge of hygiene does not exist, and. ordinarily there are no sanitary facilities either indoors or outside. Consequently, water and food are polluted, and vermin breed in the wattle- and-daub walls and thatch roofs. Not all rural dwellers live in abject poverty, but there is little incentive or opportunity for the average family to alter its circumstances. The casa grande of the fazenda is a structure of comparative splendor, having numerous amenities unknown to the workers nearby. Midway between the large land- owners and ordinary caboclos, are a few prosperous, small landowners -- particularly among the southern colonization areas -- who have comfortable houses not unlike those in the part of Europe from which they came. Houses along the flood plains of the tropical Amazon Basin are built on stilts to protect both family and animals during periods of high water; walls of dwellings are woven of palm to permit free air circulation. The ent;ire structure is simple and suited to the transitory life of subsistence farmers. Houses of the primitive Indians scattered throughout the Amazon Basin are similarly temporary, usually built with no walls, having only heavily thatched roofs supported by timbers. Approved For Release 1 A9/-E6tA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/24 ELi4 P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 91. Woman transporting 5-gallon can of water on her head in typical Bra- zilian fashion. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 Ci R-DP8'5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999 24 : LIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 92. Favelas on steep hillsides of Rio de Janeiro. These slums have no water, sewage, or unused space. Approved For Release I 999 24 :'CF RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24CAA44DR85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 93. Residents of slum area in Rio de Janeiro obtaining water at public water spigots. -143- Approved For Release I 999/09/ #'~'#9A*jf 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1992IOW241 -GJA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figures 94a and b. Favelas in Rio de Janeiro. Some houses are supported by the roofs of houses below. Approved For Release I 999 9 24R-CFA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24:-CI RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 -145- 94b Approved For Release I 999/09/2 : l~k--k i5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199P/(9/?4R CLA~RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 95. Copacabana Beach in Rio he Janeiro, ringed with elegant apartments and backed by sprawling favelas on the hillsides. Ask -146- Alk Approved For Release 1999/E 124' -CIA RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09h14-cQIARDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 96. Business district of Curitiba, Parana. The modern skyscrapers are typical of most of the growing cities in Brazil. -147- IMPF, Approved For Release I 999/W/~4~. &IAE F DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199J?912W: C4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 97. Poorly maintained lower middle class homes in Sao Paulo. Homes like these are served by public utilities. Figure 98. Residential street in Novo Hamburgo, a progressive Dutch colonization settlement in Rio Grande do Sul. Ask Approved For Release 1 99,JT /f24 &&AT-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09P2 - to--A 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 99. Stilt house along the Amazon. Such houses are typical where the wide flood plain is inundated seasonally. Figure 100. Wattle-and-daub house, characteristic of much of interior Brazil. In many sections thatch is commonly used for roofs instead of tile. Note manioc in the fore- ground. -149- Approved For Release 1999/091 4': t1Ai DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1998/L4jkjqWRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 ANk Figure 101. Thatched-roof and frame houses in a Waika Indian village in Roraima. Figure 102. Typical houses of Xavante Indians on the Rio das Mortes. An intricate wooden framework supports the dense cover of thatch. -150- Approved For Release I 999/019f2 I O1A RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/21-LCdAFR?PB5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 103. Thatched-roof house of Kaxinaua Indians. This house is long enough (85 feet) to house a dozen or more families, each in its own section with a separate hearth. Approved For Release 1999/09/2` r`cfAFRbT5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T G. Health The general state of health of the population throughout Brazil is poor. Ignorance, poverty, polluted water and food, lack of sanitary facilities, inadequate means of food preser- vation, improper diet, insufficient medical facilities, reli- ance on folk medicine, and many similar conditions make improvement slow and costly. The government has for several decades been aware of the urgent need for widespread health controls, and numerous programs under the Ministerio de Saude (Ministry of Health) and other organizations are gradually raising health standards. Health conditions in the cities are far superior to those in smaller towns or rural areas, but even in the urban centers sanitation facilities and health services are not available to the poor. Diseases that have long been con- sidered under control in most modern societies -- typhoid fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria -- are still endemic in many parts of Brazil. Nevertheless, improved health conditions are clearly measurable from year to year as a result of the continued efforts throughout the country, especially those of the rural postos de saude (health posts), active since 1942. Between 1950 ET-11-9-6-0-average life expect- ancies were increased by 10 years in the North and West-Central regions and by 20 years in the South. Infant: mortality is only a little over 100 per 1,000 births for the capital cities but ranges between 300 and 400 per 1,000 live births in the North- east. If infants born in backward areas escape tetanus, acquired by unsanitary practices of midwives, they often succumb to mal- nutrition, since no milk is available and they eat a regular adult diet (black beans, manioc meal, and jerked beef) as soon as they are weaned. The principal causes of death during the first 4 years are gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and parasitic diseases. The high death rate among all age levels in Brazil stems from widespread conditions that are conducive to a variety of chronic or fatal diseases. Schistosomiasis (liver fluke) is extremely difficult to control, especially in the Northeast where the host snails and mollusks are common foods and the drinking water is ordinarily polluted. The wattle-and-daub houses typical of the Brazilian countryside are infested with the insect that transmits the incurable Chagas' disease that reportedly affects 4 million Brazilians, and control measures are difficult to administer. Malaria still occurs, although it has been eradicated in all urban and most rural areas; the same is true for bubonic plague. Ordinary yellow fever was considered eradicated by 1954, but a jungle variation of the Aft Approved For Release I 99 10 / 4 ?C -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09,ZC:- C..LA DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 disease still occurs sporadically in the Amazon rain forest, where mosquitoes breed and certain species of monkeys provide the vehicle for the complete cycle of the disease. Brazil has recurring epidemics of smallpox and continuing incidence of leprosy and trachoma, although control measures are becoming more effective every year. Venereal diseases are widespread. Parasitic diseases are the rule rather than the exception for the entire rural populace; over 90 percent of the children in the Northeast are reported to have some worm disease, par- ticularly hookworm which is easily acquired by walking bare- foot in the polluted soil. In order of importance the prin- cipal causes of death due to illness throughout Brazil are heart diseases, gastritis and enteritis, influenza and pneu- monia, cancer, tuberculosis, diseases of the central nervous system, and parasitic illnesses. Respiratory ailments account for 25 percent of all deaths. Use of narcotics is not uncommon in Brazil, creating serious social problems, especially in urban areas. The con- sumption of marijuana is most widespread and cocaine ranks second. Marijuana is grown as a secondary crop on plantations in the Northeast where its use is traditional, but it is widely sold in the South; 5 tons are estimated to be consumed annually in Sao Paulo alone. Little is done to enforce the law pro- hibiting the sale of narcotics, and a maximum sentence of 5 years does little to deter its promoters. Brazil has about 40 doctors per 100,000 persons -- nearly average for Latin American countries. The World Health Organi- zation reported in 1959 that 27,111 physicians were serving either on hospital staffs or in health services; at that time 31 medical schools were graduating about 1,600 doctors annually. In addition, six schools of public health enrolled approximately 300 students per year. Beginning in 1959 the National School of Public Health provided graduate training in all branches of medical practice. Over 60 percent of the country's physicians are located in the states of Sao Paulo and Guanabara, where they serve only 28 percent of the population. The distribution of the remain- ing 40 percent of the physicians is therefore sparse in many sections; for example, in 1963, 25 percent of the municipios in the state of Pernambuco had no resident doctors. Although highly respected, most physicians are poorly paid and often combine government and private practice to increase their incomes. The lack of available doctors has placed undue depend- ence on pharmacists, who dispense advice, home remedies, and drugs across the counter without prescriptions. In rural areas, people consult doctors rarely if at all. Midwives are relied Approved For Release I 999/09/ -~#4ARR $5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999109124RC1ARDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 104. Residents of Rio de Janeiro favelas attending hygiene class. Figure 105. Nurses in training. Nursing is still considered a very lowly occupation in Brazil. -154- Approved For Release 199 F2AR:-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 r :JAR 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 106. Northeastern child leading donkey from town waterhole. All over Brazil daily water supplies are procured from such easily polluted sources. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP- 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999LA~/22_ C,14-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 _ n-1 upon to a great extent, and efforts are being made to get basic instruction to them on simple first aid and hygiene. The native healers (curandeiros and pages) are commonly con- sulted, but no training has been instituted to modify their magical and superstitious practices. Qualified nurses are scarce in Brazil, and most of those that are adequately trained serve in the better-paying private :institutions. As a result, partly trained or even untrained nurses staff many public hospitals, often performing beyond the limits of their professional capability. Thirty-seven professional nursing schools produce graduates at varying levels of competency, and 53 schools offer a 6-month nurse's aid course for elementary school graduates. As of 1960, Brazil had only 2,622 hospitals of all types, more than two-thirds of which were in the six southernmost states. There were at that time a total of 233,403 hospital beds -- less than four per 1,000 Brazilians. The 18 percent of the total number of hospital beds that were located in institutions run by the government or other nonprofit organi- zations were generally filled. The 82 percent of the beds that were in private hospitals were often empty. A wide range of public health services is available in Brazil, and overall governmental expenditures for health account for approximately 5 percent of the total national budget. The Ministerio de Saude is responsible for medical care and disease prevention, and it is augmented by the Servi9o Especial de Saude Publico (Special Service for Public Health), which runs 400 health stations throughout the country. The best of these stations offer X-ray service, laboratory examinations, dentistry, home visits, syphilis tests, prenatal advice, immunizations, and instructions regarding sanitation, but because of the limitations of personnel and equipment many stations offer little more than first aid. State departments of health also provide health centers, the best of which are manned by doctors, nurses, and a small staff; the poorest are operated by nurse's aids. In addition to the health centers, there are some 450 medical posts and about 1,800 child welfare posts. At the latter, prenatal clinics, milk dispensaries, and examination stations strive to raise the level of child health. The Ministry of Education and Culture has instituted health examinations of school chil- dren in some states. Attention to the health of children, as well as mothers, has always been predominant in Brazilian efforts to improve health conditions. -156- Ank Approved For Release 1 9 0~/2 G#A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/94 gLklD~85-00671 R000300020001-8 Industries, some of the larger agricultural enterprises, and labor organizations also provide their personnel with clinics, medical services, and occasionally private hospitals. A very complex system of social security institutes -- under the general supervision of the Ministerio da Trabalho e Previ- de"ncia Social (Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare) -- also provides clinic and hospital services, some in the institute's own facilities but most under contract to independent hospitals. H. Occupations Brazilian workers are predominantly agricultural; in 1950 (latest data available) 58 percent were engaged in agri- culture, herding, and forestry. Other occupations of the economically active (in percent of the total) were as follows: Manufacturing and processing 9.6 Wholesale and retail trade 5.6 Transportation, communication, storage 4.1 Domestic service to Construction Extractive industries 3.4 Social activities (educational and church) 2.5 Public administration National defense and security Real estate, banking, insurance Professions Other services 1.4 Estimates in the late 1950's indicated that the increase in industrial activity since 1950 had caused an influx of workers into industry, many of whom shifted from the agricul- tural labor force. On the other hand, the 200,000 annual migrants to the urban areas are generally ill equipped for work in the cities, and a third of them migrate home again. Trends and proportions indicated by the 1950 census are still essentially valid. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 qA RpP185-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19;W09/24_EC4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Occupational statistics in Brazil are difficult to inter- pret, as it is customary for those in moderate and well-to-do circumstances to hold down more than one job. Reports for 1950 illustrate this confusion since the small percent of the working force that indicated supplemental employment was from domestic or agricultural groups rather than from more sophis- ticated levels. Another complicating factor was the inclusion of 6,308,567 children, aged 10 to 14, with no cross-tabulations by age, making it impossible to evaluate the dimension of the productive adult working force. Only a small proportion of the populace was registered as self-employed,. The census also revealed a high correlation between socioeconomic status and color; whites and Japanese ranked highest in employer status, and Negroes ranked highest in the employee category. A 1960 study of human activities on a regional basis divides the country into nine socioeconomic regions (see Map 57611) based on economic and occupational. factors, as follows: Zone Activity Typical worker Northeast Pastoral Cattle fazendas Mamelucos, Vaqueiros Southern Pastoral Cattle and agriculture Gauchos Northeast Sugar usinas Mulattoes Agricultural Cattle, small farms, Ilamelucos extraction of precious stones Cacao Cacao Mulattoes and Negro migratory workers Plateau Mineral Mining and Metallurgy Mamelucos, Mulattoes, Jews Foreign Coloniza- .Diversified farming, Europeans and Japanese tion Japanese truck farms Coffee and Indus- Coffee, cattle, Whites, Mestizoes, trialization industries Mamelucos Subsistence crops, Indians, Mestizoes rubber, nuts, timber -158- Approved For Release 15910?/2 p CA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Brazil: Socio-Economic Regions NORTHEAST PASTORAL SOUTHERN PASTORAL NORTHEAST AGRICULTURAL WEST CENTRAL CACAO PLATEAU MINERAL FOREIGN COLONIZATION COFFEE AND INDUSTRY AMAZON Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09 34-(:1A=R 85-00671 R000300020001-8 107c Figure 107. Rubber tapping in Amazon Basin. The slit bark (10'(a) yields dripping latex (107b), which is reduced to huge balls that are spot checked (107c) for quality before shipping. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release I 99 O9 :-C-A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 I. Attitudes and Loyalties Defining the basic attitudes and loyalties of a people that are dispersed geographically and diversified economically and socially demands oversimplification. Brazilians have a well-established reputation for tolerance, warmth, and candor. They have a flair for the speculation that has dictated much of their historical expansion into new fields of endeavor. They are notorious opportunists, not only in business and politics, but in personal situations as well. Abundantly endowed with a keen sense of humor, even when directed at themselves, Brazilians tend to maintain a genuine attitude of cordiality under the most difficult situations. One of the characteristics for which Brazilians are best known is the ability to compromise -- a trait which has guided the country's political history through numerous transitions without the violence typical of most of the rest of Latin America. Brazil's national unity has been called its chief miracle, particularly in view of the fact that some of its regions surpass in size most of the neighboring countries. Regional differences have resulted in several identifiable "types" among the Brazilian people. In the south the gaucho is sym- bolic of the frontier spirit of individualism and energy. Here also are found the most concentrated groups of immigrants in Brazil, primarily from Europe, and they are characterized by individual initiative and propensity for hard work. Strong loyalties abound among the mineiros of Minas Gerais, the rluminense of Rio de Janeiro state, the famous cariocas of Guanabara State and the city of Rio de Janeiro, and the capixa- bas of Espirito Santo. Political rivalries exist between Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, and competition is always rampant between Paulistas and cariocas. Regional consciousness in the Northeast is less pro- nounced than in any other settled part of Brazil. The constant struggle for existence by the lower classes and the power of the absentee landowners have reduced loyalties in that region, and migration from it has been constant for many years. The development of social and political consciousness among the poor and underprivileged of the area has been a significant development, however, and their collective attitudes -- as yet relatively passive -?- may ultimately emerge as one of the domi- nant social forces of the country. The West-Central Region of Brazil is a pioneer fringe, where settlement is slowly being pushed westward into the interior. The development of Brasilia has initiated a new surge into this area, bringing a new level of sophistication into the back country. Approved For Release 1496167&4 'c1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09d4rt1ARRrJE 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Brazilians in the Northern Region lack regional aware- ness, being woodsmen, boatmen, or collectors in the forest living on the most elementary level in Brazil. The outstanding characteristic of Brazilian life is the lack of racial discrimination in a society once divided into masters and slaves. Although there is a very distinct class structure in Brazil, its levels are based on attainment rather than race. Wealth, education, talent, social manners, dress, family background, and cultural activities all are factors, but Brazilians do not automatically identify class status with race. Thus, persons of dark skin may belong in the upper class while others of light skin may fall far lower in the class structure. While it is true that most Negroes are in the lower classes, their lot has not been cast by the color of their skin. J. Insurgency Potential Throughout its history, Brazil has endeavored through nonviolence and compromise to cope with economic and political conditions that would have produced inflammatory reactions in the more volatile Latin American countries. Brazilians have traditionally avoided disruptive revolutions, championed law and order, bowed to authoritative control, and sought peaceful, if inadequate, solutions to critical problems. Still, there can be little doubt that a dormant potential for dissidence exists in the complex social, economic, and political dimen- sions of the country. The army has a long tradition of loyalty and patriotism, and the armed forces can be expected to counter any threat to the Constitution or to representative government in an orderly manner. The revolution of April 196+ against Jolo Goulart's leftist regime was conducted quickly under consti- tutionally sanctioned procedures, and there was little violence beyond the few incidents that occurred during mass demonstra- tions. Goulart, himself, had gained power in a similarly tense but nonviolent and adroit shift in government when Quadros resigned unexpectedly in 1961. Recent decades have brought profound changes in all phases of economic, social, and political life, thereby alter- ing established social patterns and value systems. A restive element among Brazilian youth is responding to leftist agita- tion. Massive internal migration from rural to urban areas has permitted previously passive and extremely poor peasants to discover the possibilities for change in their traditional way of life. Intense social problems are developing in urban Approved For Release I 999/09/ 4 '_1A' RJbi 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19MMU-1EC1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 slums, such as Rio de Janeiro's favelas, and in the overcrowded and intolerable sections of the Northeast. A growing trend among the masses of underprivileged Brazilians has been called a "revolution of rising expectations," which is based on the desire for a higher standard of living and is stifled by the inability to achieve it. The rural peasant has had little or no experience with firearms and is typically uninformed about national affairs. A 1960 poll revealed that one-half of a rural. sampling could not name the president or president-elect. Throughout vast areas, the peasant has always looked to his patroo (patron, landowner) for solutions to his needs, and any shift from this traditional pattern would require strong; evidence that it would be for the better. If he were persuaded to become involved in some action of a paramilitary nature, his role would be one of minor support rather than active, intelligent, or responsive participation. Little in the way of support for established order could be expected from the primitive indigenous Indians. Although some groups have had ample practice in their own brand of hos- tile behavior, their motivations have been aimed at tribal isolation and self-preservation, and issues of vital concern to the Brazilian populace are beyond the comprehension or con- cern of the unacculturated Indian groups. Approved For Release 1910?12 EC A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/24 :r It-RR8'5-00671 R000300020001-8 Population of Brazil Percent Increase Population In Thousands State or Territory 1950-60 1960 196 (est) Sao Paulo 42 12,974 15,845 Minas Gerais 27 9,798 11,189 Bahia 24 5,991 6,750 Parana 102 4,278 6,450 Rio Grande do Sul 21 5,449 6,340 Pernambuco 22 4,137 4,620 Rio de Janeiro 48 3,403 4,259 Guanabara 39 3,307 3,977 Ceara 24 3,338 3,755 Maranhao 57 2,493 3,234 Santa Catarina 38 2,147 2,579 Goias 73 1,955 2,565 Paraiba 18 2,018 2,211 Para 40 1,551 1,857 Espirito Santo 38 1,189 1,427 Piaui 21 1,263 1,397 Alag8as 16 1,271 1,380 Rio Grande do Norte 20 1,157 1,274 -163- Approved For Release I 999/09/24 : GtA- P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199091=CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Table 1 (Continued) Percent Increase Population In Thousands State or Territory* 1950-60 1960 19 5 (est) Mato Grosso 76 910 1,254 Amazonas 41 722 870 Sergipe 18 760 834 Serra dos Aimores 140 384 640 Acre 40 160 193 Rond8nia (T) 92 71 103 Amapa (T) 84 69 97 Roraima (T) 63 29 39 Fernando do Noronha (T) 139 1 2 Brasilia 0 142 na Total 70,96'7 85,141 Territories are designated by (T). -164- Approved For Release 19999LW241-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Aft Approved For Release 1999/09/241,-QWRDl?85-00671 R000300020001-8 Brazilian Cities With Populations Over 150,000 1960 City Population Rio de Janeiro 3,223,408 Slo Paulo 3,164,804 Recife 788,569 Belo Horizonte 642,912 Salvador 630,878 Porto Alegre 617,629 Belem 359,988 Fortaleza 354,942 Curitiba 344,560 Santos 262,048 Santo Andre' 230,196 Niteroi 228,826 Campinas 179,797 Duque de Caxias 173,077 Natal 154,276 Manaus 154,040 Maceio 153,305 -165- Approved For Release I 999/09124 :OC P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/ ,9/2 : I -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Immigration to Brazil by Major Sources of Origin 1884-1962 Country of Origin Number o:' Persons Italy 1,479,295 Portugal 1,407,062 Spain 654,512 Japan 235,338 Germany 185,380 Russia 110,988 Austria 88,385 Turkey 78,854 Poland 53,771 Rumania 40,058 France 39,570 United States 34,224 England 29,460 Lithuania 28,665 Argentina 26,823 Yugoslavia 24,130 Syria 22,959 The Netherlands 1.3,049 Approved For Release 1999JO J? C4A,1RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 U) cd U) 0 O cd O cd 0 4H E-A 0 rn H Q) Q) -N 4) 43 4) s ~ ~ s c o O (d a) F-1 FaO N 10 O Q) 3 U ?H ^> ?ri 1 'd cd FA -F-~ 0 cd U) O U)HH4) n F~ Cd cd F U] ?r-i ?ri -i 0 cd O N Q (1) rn I bD m W cd ~ cd (1) a) 0, ~. r-i 'rl ? Q) cd (D ?H FI -N ?O o 9-1 CUd -N 3 +3 Q) 4) ?H -I-) 4-i U) Q 4Z- 0 0 0 0 4--~ U) cd E bO S~ d m m b0 Y) ui Q) Fa Q) u) cd CO 4-) Q) 0 bO d r Eq ? l 1 (1) cd O cd ? ^ ~i -1 4-D O Cd cd r-I U) Z 0 rd r~; ho -H 0 4-) N Q) E r~ .(-.' 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(D a) +) H H -rA u d ri H -4) (1) : 0 N J F-a a) 0 O U) J) ?n U .Q Fa H Cd Cd O O H 0 41 U U) cd (1) -N '~ ?ri O O F1 cd ?ri H a) .Q O 91 ?ri Ci a Cd 4 4- U Fa 4 0 U) CH F U cd Ci a) bU !-) ?Q H . n O 4-) H ?ri d a >S F co 4-3 4~ U a) U) a) a) ?ri ?~ co a) LO ?ri r 60 ?r, H a FA O ?ri ?ri rd ?H C~ cd O Fi Cd O -) C3 a co P, d Fi p m U) a) Cd E o ~?i u) 4- 0 Cd 0 Cd Q a) 0 , H U : U (1) a) Cdrd ~ Q 0 d o 0 S: (1) J-) 0 .i n 0 U ?ri CO a) ? 4) bU ?r1 d N H O ?ri rd U U (D ?ri 'd Cd Fi F?a , O ri U) m F:, ? O 0 d cd co C~1~::) N o rl O O 0 C) Cn O O C'S - `O 'Cd cd cd i Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 d 0 .,i U) -4-~ -4) F-1 .1i O cd H Cd H ~Q 4-3 H Cd E- U zy 0 .t) N 0 Fi CCdd?~ri O O F-i fi-1 $ cn cd bD U) ci Q) -7-) 4-) CO ' 4) O ? ) 4) Q) ~4) cdcoO ,Q gC . n ?H ?H U) Q) U) ? O H 4-) U] O .H H -P 0 U] 4.) U) N Cd U] E ?H U] U) Cd U O O O Cd O Q v] O sz W H N H O O r, bD 4) pa 4) O R. O 443 co U1 u H ?H ?H i O -P O cd w O O b0 H Q, cd H U > -~) fi4 r, 5 ~ ? -i ?ri 0 'd ?H ,c 0 F-i W 3 W U S P Sz! C~A F-A (d 0 H Tao H H O +) 0 cd r-1 H cd ~1 0 cd ?H cd Q, ? -P 0 'd .Q rl 4-1 N -P bD ? ' ?rl ? 1 co -P CU ?H 0 O O N U] H -I-) S~ ~,-I -F) O ?r1 CO F-I Q O ?ri O (1) cd d CO 4 'd H 0 cd 60 ?r1 U] 44) S"-. U] .S: Q, O r" r T3 r:i C) Q) H ?rl l Q. 0 (1) -4) ?rl tO cd 4-) -P > ; td) 'd Cd O 4) -I-) lc$ .H :d ca U) -F) S: Sy Q. Q) Cd O (L) U] F-I (1) r'v `cd >, .H O (1) co c0 Q Z. Q, O O H bO d CJ F ?H ?rl 'H H 1~ -1 0 I~ 'D d co 'E~ (d .S. ~. E-I H U] H as E n 71f] P'I ? n H 0 H d H 0 Q Q pa cd u) ? ? cd ?H ?H Q) H Cd bD Q) ? Cd O O 4 bD N S-I Cd E' co H ?r1 bO U $-I Q) ? H M H 'd Cd Q, Cd 4) O E bD .rl 0 E U) H (1) F-1 (1) U) b0 U 0 (1) .,-1 ?ri .G Q Q, cd 4-i (1) QQ 0 ~I 0 Z Q) +) , 1 H U co (1) CCi (1) O F-I ?rl S-, Cd t] U) ?ri 0 cd H O 9-1 cd H 0 H 4-) Q Q) rd a' ~LA ~ N ca O \.0 -1- N H cd Cd 'H -4) 0 C~ H ANN O 00 I Cd N U rc$ 4) I I U) Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09 +._q RQJP85-00671 R000300020001-8 1. Movement Across Guianan, Venezuelan, Colombian, Peruvian, and Bolivian Borders Smuggling on a smaller scale is carried out overland with the Guianas. Diamonds are brought from Guyana (formerly British Guiana) to buyers in Boa Vista in northern Roraima, and small- scale prospectors known as garimpeiros probably make frequent illegal boundary corssings in search of minerals. Illegal transit of the border for those who can afford air passage has been facilitated by the establishment of small landing fields associated with trading posts in the frontier zones. All other movement, legal or illegal, between Brazil and the Guia- nas is by water or trail, as there are no roads or railroads. Inland waterways and trails also provide the only means of transportation in the Brazilian border zones with Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru. The Rio Negro is the principal avenue for movement in the Brazil - Venezuela - Colombia trifrontier area, but traffic is very light. Farther south, where Brazil, Colombia, and Peru come together, the Amazon forms the main transportation artery and cross-border traffic is heavy. Much of the local trade focuses on the free port of Leticia, Colombia's only outlet on the Amazon. Nearby is the small Brazilian frontier post of Tabatinga. Oceangoing ships continue up the Amazon to Iquitos, Peru, some 300 miles from the border, or call at Benjamin Constant on the Rio Javari a short distance upstream from its juncture with the Amazon. The Javari forms over 500 miles of the boundary between Brazil and Peru and is a major route for contraband traffic between the two countries. The Rio Jurua and the Rio Purus with its tributary, the Rio Acre, provide additional navigable routes between Brazil and Peru. The Acre also serves as a route between Brazil and north- ern Bolivia's forest-covered Pando Department. Cobija, capi- tal of the Pando, is located on the right bank of the Acre directly across from the Brazilian town of Brasileia. Small launches ferry passengers back and forth across the river. No immigration or customs checks were reported on either side as late as May 1963, and people and goods move freely in both directions. At times during the dry season (May through August), the Acre is fordable between Cobija and Brasileia. Brazil's only surface connection with northern Bolivia, other than the Rio Acre, consists of navigable tributaries of the Rio Madeira system. Chief of these is the Rio Mamore. The Mamore, forming some 160 miles of the boundary between Bolivia and Brazil, is noted as an avenue for contraband. Approved For Release 1999/09: D+A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199P/(~9/F4 9lP RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Thousands of head of cattle as well as dried meat are brought into Brazil from Bolivia via the Mamore every year. Guajara- Mirim, on the right bank of the river, is the principal Bra- zilian port, whereas Puerto Sucre (also known as Guayamerin) on the left bank, is the principal Bolivian port in the area. Guajara-Mirim is linked by road and railroad to POrto Velho on the Rio Madeira. Puerto Sucre is connected by trail with Riberalta near the confluence of two navigable rivers, the Rio Beni and its tributary the Rio Madre de Dios. The Beni is navigable to shallow-draft boats for nearly 600 miles southwestward in the direction of La Paz while the Madre de Dios is navigable to small stream launches throughout its course in Bolivia and for 50 miles in Peru to Puerto Maldonado. Cuban-trained subversives, after transiting Brazil and Bolivia, have used the Madre de Dios to enter Peru. The Rio Guapore, a major tributary of the Mamore, forms approximately 500 miles of the boundary between Bolivia and Brazil. Traffic on the river is extremely light, but regular service is maintained from Guajara-Mirim on the Mamore all the way upstream to the town of Mato Grosso at the head of navigation on the Guapore. There are few settlements in the area other than small Indian villages and scattered outposts for gathering rubber. From Mato Grosso numerous trails extend into Bolivia and a road (BR-416) runs southeastward to Caceres on the Rio Paraguai. During 1964 guerrillas operating in Bolivia's Beni and Santa Cruz Departments were reported to have crossed the Rio Guapore into Brazil often. Crossings are said to have been made in the vicinity of Principe da Beira and at several other points along the river. Supplies for the Bolivian guerrillas reportedly were flown in from Brazil by Catalina- type flying boats, which used some of the many small lakes in the frontier zone south of the Rio Guapore. The only rail link between Bolivia and Brazil is the meter-gauge Santa Cruz - Corumba line, which enters the State of Mato Grosso from eastern Bolivia. It has been said that the Bolivian border town on the line, Puerto Suarez, practically exists on smuggling. Goods brought to Puerto Suarez by rail reportedly are smuggled across the border at night to Corumba, Brazil, where they demand good prices. In addition to the usual cigarettes, whisky, and perfume, machineguns and ammunition concealed in sacks of salt were recently discovered being shipped into Corumba from Bolivia. Approved For Release 199/09/4 R CjATRDP85-006718000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/091UE:-CIA--R1 P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Regular ferry service is maintained between Puerto Suarez and Corumba. Ladario, near Corumba, serves as headquarters of the Mato Grosso Naval Command on the border, and its facili- ties provide maintenance for the gunboats that patrol the river. A number of small lakes along the border give Bolivia access to the Rio Paraguai. For a short distance the Rio Paraguai forms the southernmost part of the boundary between Bolivia and Brazil. 2. Movement Across Paraguayan Border The Rio Paraguai forms nearly 200 miles of the Brazil - Paraguay boundary. Transportation facilities along both the Brazilian and Paraguayan sides of the river are very limited. Several narrow-gauge lumbering railroads extend back into the Paraguayan Chaco from minor ports on the river. Most of the other settlements on the river have few or no landing facili- ties. At Bahia Negra and Olimpio, for example, boats simply tie up to the river bluff. Going downstream on the Brazilian side the first town of any importance is Porto Murtinho, which has a road connection (BR-267) running eastward to join the main highway network of Mato Grosso. Isla Margarita, a small Paraguayan island in the river near Porto Murtinho, has allegedly been the site of considerable contraband activity. River vessels tie up directly to the beach. About 25 miles south of Porto Murtinho the boundary is formed by the Rio Apa, a left-bank tributary of the Rio Para- guai. Bela Vista, on the Brazilian side, is the only sizable town on this river. It has an airstrip and a road (BR-74) that runs northward to Jardim to connect with the rest of the road system of Mato Grosso. On the Paraguayan side, opposite Bela Vista, is Bella Vista, which also has a small airstrip and a poor dirt road that leads southward to Concepcion. Recent plans call for a bridge over the Rio Apa to connect the two towns. Southeast of Bela Vista, beyond the headwaters of the Apa, the Brazil - Paraguay boundary follows a drainage divide as far as the Rio Parana. At a number of places in this seg- ment, settlements actually straddle the boundary. For example, Ponta Porgy. (Brazil) and Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay) are practically a single town, with the boundary extending down the main street. The movement of people or goods from one town to the other is not controlled, and the place has long been the center of a flourishing contraband trade. Coffee, cotton, electrical appliances, and other items have entered Paraguay through this border town, whereas whisky, drugs, cloth, and firearms reportedly have moved in the other direction. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 iA 1 b 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19, 10P6L pC4A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Since the Brazilian revolution of 1 April 1964, however, mili- tary checkpoints have been established along the roads out of Ponta Porn, and these may have reduced the flow of contraband. Jeepable roads parallel the border on the Brazilian side north and south of Ponta Pora, and a federal highway (BR-86) runs northeastward to Dourados. A branch line of the Northwestern of Brazil Railway extends from Ponta Fora to Campo Grande, where it joins the trunk route from Bauru to Corumba. An airfield with gravel-surfaced runways is located a short distance south- east of Ponta Porl. Transportation facilities on the Paraguayan side of the border are more limited. Roads are usable in good weather for trucking out coffee, but there are no railroads, and the all- weather road to Concepcion is still under construction. A small airfield southeast of Concepcion is used for semiweekly flights of DC-3 aircraft of the Paraguayan Military Air Trans- port service. Reportedly, many of the contraband goods that arrive in Pedro Juan Caballero continue their journeys to other destinations by air. The relationship between the border villages of Antonio Jogo (Brazil) and Capitan Bado (Paraguay) is similar to that between Ponta Porn and Pedro Juan Caballero, though the villages are smaller. The boundary runs down the main street, and commerce between the two sections is probably completely free. Roads on the Paraguayan side are little better than trails. On the Brazilian side a dirt road extends to Amabai and connects with the highway leading to Ponta Por5.. A small airfield is Located about a mile north of Antonio Joao. During the wet season (November to May) small, shallow-draft; boats can navigate the nearby Rio Iguatemi for about 130 miles downstream to its confluence with the Rio Parana. The Rio Parana forms the boundary between Brazil and Paraguay for about 130 miles -- from just above the great waterfalls known as the Sete Quedas downstream to the mouth of the Rio IguaQu. Several minor ports -- Guaira, Porto Mendes, Porto Britania, Porto Santa Helena, and Foz do Iguagu -- are located on the Brazilian side of the river but, except for a few primitive landings, most of the area along the Paraguayan side includes nothing but dense forests. The Brazilian river ports are connected by secondary roads to the main road network of Parana, and a short railroad runs from PC--to Mendes to Guaira as a bypass to the Sete Quedas. The few small settlements on the Paraguayan side of the river are connected by foot trails and logging roads. -262-AW: Approved For Release I 999L 24 :LcIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/2 2fdkR 85-00671 R000300020001-8 A recently opened international bridge spanning the Rio Parana just north of Foz do Iguazu provides an important highway link in the Pan American Highway system between Brazil and Paraguay (see Figure 150). Completion of the bridge opens a route all the way from Asuncidn, Paraguay, to the port of Paranagud. on the Atlantic coast. The Paraguayan Military Air Transport service makes regular flights to a small airfield at Puerto Presidente Stroessner, a new village at the Para- guayan end of the international bridge. On the Brazilian side of the river a small airstrip near Foz do Iguazu is used regu- larly on flights between Brazil and Paraguay. Many tourists land at this airfield and visit the famous Iguazu waterfalls a short distance upstream on the Rio Iguazu, especially in the period from May to November. A gravel road (BR-277) runs northeastward from Foz do Iguazu to Cascavel. 3. Movement Across Argentine Border The Rio Iguazu forms part of the boundary between Brazil and the northeastern tip of Argentina. Large national parks of Brazil and Argentina occupy the densely forested country immediately north and south of the river. Puerto Iguazu, near the confluence of the Rio Parana and the Rio Iguazu, is the only sizable town on the Argentine side. An outboard motorboat ferries passengers across the river from Puerto Iguazu to the village of Porto Meira on the Brazilian side. From PSrto Meira a road leads to Foz do Iguazu, a few miles away. Argentine Route 101 extends from Puerto Iguazu to Cataratas del Iguazu near the waterfalls, which has an air- field and a hotel. Small boats can cross the river a short distance above the falls. From Cataratas del Iguazu, Route 101 continues to Bernardo de Irigoyen, about 60 miles to the southeast on the Brazilian frontier. Another gravel road, Argentine Route 12, extends from Cataratas del Iguazu south- westward along the Rio Parana to Posadas. Rio Santo Antonio, a tributary of the Iguazu, forms about 40 miles of the border between Parana and Argentina's Missiones Province. On the Brazilian side, a gravel road runs southward to Santo Antonio and on to Barracao, a border town at the headwaters of the Rio Peperi Guaju. From Barracgo, dirt and gravel roads radiate into Argentina (northeastward to Puerto Iguazd and southeastward to Posadas) as well as eastward through Parana and southward into Santa Catarina. The Rio Peperi Guacu, flowing southward from Barrac.o, constitutes most of the boundary between Argentina and Brazil in the Santa Catarina State segment; it is navigable by shallow- draft boats for a short distance above its juncture with the -263- Approved For Release 1999/09/241~ -GIARRDR85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999qI-RDP85-006718000300020001-8 Figure 150. Recently completed international bridge over the Rio Faran4 between Brazil and Paraguay near Foz do Iguacu. With a central concrete span 951 feet long, this bridge is one of the longest of its kind in South America. Approved For Release 19a9ffl.9.Z_ 14k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/2*1 O1AAR]DA85-00671 R000300020001-8 Rio Uruguai not far from Itapiranga. The Rio Uruguai forms all of the remaining 445 miles of the Brazil - Argentina boundary. Moving downstream along the river, settlements become larger and their supporting transportation facilities correspondingly better developed. Sffo Borja and Itaqui on the Brazilian side and Santo Tome and La Cruz in Argentina have airports and road and rail connections, as well as minor river port facilities. Sdo Borja is the export point for Brazilian timber and grain destined for shipment across the river to Santo Tome; it also handles the importation of a considerable amount of Argentine salt. Contraband trade reportedly has thrived in the vicinity of SSo Borja. Farther downstream, at Uruguaiana, is the only bridge across the Rio Uruguai between Brazil and Argentina. It is a combination railroad and highway bridge that extends from Uruguaiana to Paso de los Libres on the Argentine side. A dual-gauge track across the bridge provides an interconnection between the standard-gauge line on the Argentine side, which runs from Buenos Aires to Posadas, and the meter-gauge line of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway on the Brazilian side, which extends eastward to Santa Maria. Roads parallel the river north and south of Uruguaiana, and an all-weather gravel road (BR-290) extends eastward to Alegrete. 4. Movement Across Uruguayan Border The Brazilian border with Uruguay is approximately 525 miles long. Slightly over two-thirds is defined by rivers, streams, and other water bodies, and the remainder -- the central segment -- is defined by drainage divides and other terrain features. The Rio Quarai (known as the Rio Cuareim in Uruguay) forms most of the western third of the boundary. It is navi- gable by small craft for only a short distance above its con- fluence with the Rio Uruguai, and its upper reaches are fordable in numerous places except during high-water stages. Both railroad and highway bridges cross the Rio Quarai between Barra do Quarai and Bella Union. The meter-gauge Rio Grande do Sul Railway extends southward from Uruguaiana and makes an international connection at Barra do Quarai where a dual-gauge line crosses the Rio Quarai to Bella Union, Uruguay. A stand- ard-gauge Uruguayan line continues southward to'Montevideo. There are also rail and road connections farther upstream between the towns of Quarai (Brazil) and Artigas (Uruguay). A gravel road and several dirt roads extend into Brazil from Quarai, and a paved highway (Uruguay Route 30) connects Artigas with other points in Uruguay. Small airfields are located about -265- Approved For Release 1999/09/241FC-ik=RPa5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999J24 CIlA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 a mile northeast of Quarai and a short distance southwest of Artigas. Continuing to the southeast along the border, the Brazil- ian town of Santana do Livramento is separated by a street from the Uruguayan town of Rivera. Two lines of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway system focus on Santana do Livramento -- one running southwestward from Rosario do Sul and the other west- ward from the deep-water port of Rio Grande. A dual-gauge track connects these meter-gauge lines with a standard-gauge line extending from Rivera to Montevideo via Tacuarembo. An airfield is located about 6 miles northwest of Santana do Livramento, and three other small ones are situated within 5 miles of Rivera. Two gravel roads and numerous dirt roads radiate from Santana do Livramento, and a paved highway (Uru- guay Route 5) extends southward from Rivera to Tacuarembo. Dirt roads cross the border at several places southeast of Santana do Livramento, but the only significant border- crossing point northwest of Jaguarao is at Acegua where a gravel road runs northward to Bage' and southward to Melo, Uruguay. Beginning at a point not far from Acegua and extend- ing southeastward to Lagoa Mirim the boundary is formed by the Rio Jaguaro. This stream, like the Rio Quarai, is navigable for a relatively short distance above its mouth, and its upper reaches are usually fordable in numerous places. The Brazilian town of Jaguar2[o is situated about 14 miles upstream from the mouth of the Rio Jaguardo. It is connected by a combination rail and highway bridge with Rio Branco on the Uruguayan side. With a total length of 6,900 feet, the bridge is one of the longest in South America.. A meter-gauge branch line of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway extends northward and connects with the trunk line to Rio Grandde; a standard- gauge line extends from Rio Branco to Montevideo. Port facili- ties at Jaguarlo and Rio Branco are used by small coastal ves- sels and river steamers. A small airfield is located about 4 miles north-northwest of Jaguarfto, and another airfield or landing site is probably located near Rio Branco on the Uru- guayan side. In addition to several dirt roads that radiate from the two towns, gravel roads extend northeastward to Pelotas and westward to Mele, Uruguay. From the mouth of the Rio Jaguarlo southward the boundary between Brazil and Uruguay runs down the center of Lagoa Mirim and, for a short distance, along a small stream at the southern end of the lake. Lagoa Mirim is used mostly by shallow-draft Brazilian trading vessels and Uruguayan fishing boats. Reportedly, the lake and surrounding area have been the scene of considerable contraband traffic. Approved For Release 1 99/ 9 4iQiJA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24- C iRP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The bordering towns of Chui (Brazil) and Chuy (Uruguay) are situated midway along the short segment of frontier stretching from the extreme southern tip of Lagoa Mirim to the Atlantic Ocean. A street marks the boundary between the two towns. A gravel road (BR-471) runs northward out of Chui and along the dune-bordered tract separating Lagoa Mirim from the sea. Uruguayan Route 9 extends southward along the coast. The nearest known airfield to this segment of the border on the Brazilian side is a grass field about 2-1/2 miles northeast of Santa Vitoria do Palmar, which is approximately 10 miles northeast of Chui. It is used in civil light trans- port operations and is the southernmost airfield in Brazil. A privately owned pasture on the Uruguayan side of the border, near Chuy, has also been used as a landing field by light air- craft. After shopping in Chui, Brazil, Uruguayans return across the border and depart from this field to avoid the customs checkpoints on the access roads to Chuy. -26 7- Approved For Release 1999/09/24-FC-WP85-00671 R000300020001-8 5X6D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Next 3 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999IM241-CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Figure 151. Hercilio Luz bridge connecting Floriano'polis on Ilha de Santa Catarina with the mainland of Santa Catarina State. Figure 152. Railroad bridge over the Rio Itajai near Blumenau on the trunkline of the Santa Catarina Railway. -272- Approved For Release 169?1 91$4E-dIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24 - --R -00671 R000300020001-8 READING LIST 1. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 31, "Railway," Aug 1963. C/NFD. 2. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 32, "Highway," Oct 1961. C/NFD. 3. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 33, "Inland Waterway," Mar 1959. C/NFD. 4. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 35, "Ports and Naval Facilities," Aug 1964. C/NFD. 5. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 36, "Merchant Marine," Jan 1962. C/NFD. 6. CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 37, "Civil Air," Mar 1964. C/NFD. 7. DIA. LOC, Brazil, Sep 1963. C. 8. Railway Gazette. "Brazilian Railways," Overseas Railways 1964, London, 1964. U. 9. Estradas de Ferro do Brasil -- 1960, supp to Revista Ferroviaria, Rio de Janeiro, 19 0. U. 10. Conselho Nacional de Estatistica. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, 1966, Rio de Janeiro, 1976-. U. Approved For Release 1999/09/24 YAAbP 5T00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24it-ARDR85-00671 R000300020001-8 A. General Brazil's common carrier telecommunications system is seriously inadequate in relation to national needs. For domestic telephone and telegraph service, most users must depend mainly on open wirelines and high-frequency (HF) radio facilities, which are relatively low in both capacity and reliability. Modern high-capacity transmission media, such as microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, are avail- able only between several of the larger cities in south- eastern Brazil. In addition to common carrier facilities, the armed forces, police, and railroads operate special- purpose telecommunications networks; for the most part, these specialized networks are not accessible to the general public. International communications and broadcasting services are relatively better developed than domestic common carrier telecommunications. Brazil is connected by open wireline to neighboring countries in the south and by HF radio and sub- marine telegraph cable to more distant points. Brazil's broadcasting facilities number more than 800 radio stations and about 60 television stations. The Brazilian reception base consists of about 10 million radio sets and approximately 2.5 million television sets. B. Organization of Telecommunications Services Over 500 companies, both governmental and private, operate Brazil's telecommunications system, under the supervision of the National Telecommunications Council (Conselho Nacional de Telecomunicag('es, or CONTEL), created in 19 2. The principal telecommunications enterprise owned by the government is the Department of Posts and Telegraphs (Departamento dos Correios e Telegrafos, or DCT), which operates an extensive tele- graphic open wireline system and some HF radio stations. The major private firm is the Brazilian Telephone Company (Companhia TelefOnica Brasileira, or CTB), which operates about 75 percent of the country's telephone service. The CTB has been under government intervention since 1962. Other important private firms are the International Radio Company of Brazil (Radio Internacional do Brasil, or RADIONAL) and the Radio- telegraph Company of Brazil (Companhia Radiotelegrafica Brasileira, or RADIOBRAS) which provide domestic and inter- national high-frequency radio services. Also noteworthy are are Italcable Cable, Telegraph, and Radio Services (Italcable Servizi Cablografici, Radiotelegrafici, e Radioelettrici S.A.) and the Western Telegraph Company, operators of coastwise and international submarine cables. Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release I 9P9~p 24_;LQ1 k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 C. Telephone and Telegraph Facilities 1. Domestic Brazil's domestic telephone and telegraph transmission media consist of a mixture of open wirelines; HF radio, micro- wave radio relay, coaxial cable, and submarine cable (see Maps 56150 and 56151). The open wireline system, although quite widespread, is of generally poor quality and inadequate to fulfill the telephone and telegraph transmission needs of the country. Most of the open wirelines are owned by the DCT and are used for telegraph transmission. The DCT, how- ever, does lease some of its lines to private firms, and in the southeast private firms own and operate open wirelines providing telephone services. The public open wireline system is supplemented by the open wireline system of the railroads. This network is integrated into the public net- work and, thus, extends telecommunications services into areas of the country not reached by the DCT system itself. In addition to open wirelines, a network of HF radio facilities also handles telephone and telegraph traffic. These facilities are operated primarily by RADIONAL and the DCT. The HF radio network provides telephone and telegraph connections among the more widely separated major cities and constitutes the primary means of communi- cations for many of the towns of the interior. Brazil's most modern and efficient telecommunications media are located in the geographic triangle described by Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Brasilia. They consist of microwave radio relay routes and coaxial cable lines with capacities ranging from 120 to 420 voice channels. As shown in Map 56151, microwave radio relay routes radiate from Rio de Janeiro to Sao Paulo, Campinas, and also to .3rasilia via Belo Horizonte. Coaxial cables of high capac- ity augment the microwave radio relay system by providing connections between Rio de Janeiro and Petropolis and also between Sao Paulo and Santos. Submarine cables capable of single-channel telegraph transmission connect the coastal cities of Rio Grande, Floriandpolis, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Vitdria, Salvador, Maceio, Recife, Natal, Fortaleza, Sao Luis, and Belem. By 1966 Brazil had approximately 1.3 million telephones ror a population of about 84 million. This ratio is not only far below those of North America and Western Europe, but is -276- Approved For Release I 999 24- C1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/24tz cJktR 85-00671 R000300020001-8 also substantially lower than comparable ratios for Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Most of Brazil's telephones are located in the southeast, the most industrialized part of the country. More than 50 percent of them are con- centrated in just two cities: Rio de Janeiro with about 375,000 and Sao Paulo with about 300,000. Telephone exchanges in Brazil are generally automatic in the major cities, except for Rio de Janeiro, where 68 out of 95 exchanges are manual. 2. International Brazil uses a variety of media for international tele- communications, including open wirelines, HF radio, and submarine telegraph cables. International telephone and telegraph connections via open wireline run from southern Brazil into the adjoining countries of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Submarine cables provide international tele- graph links to North and South America, Europe, and Africa from terminals located in Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Santos, Recife, and Sa'o Luis. Brazil's chief means of international telephone and telegraph communication, however, is HF radio. Both RADIONAL and RADIOBRAS have HF facilities which provide connections with major cities in North and South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. RADIONAL's transmitter site is located at Marapicu (near Rio) and the RADIOBRAS transmitting facility is located at Sepetiba (also near Rio). The inter- national receiver sites of both companies are located at Jacarepagua, a Rio suburb. The DCT also operates HF radio- telegraph links from other cities in Brazil to adjoining countries of South America. All of these international facilities are tied into the domestic telecommunications system, enabling them to handle traffic to and from the cities of the interior. D. Broadcasting 1. Radio Radiobroadcasting is the most extensively developed telecommunications service in Brazil. Brazil has more than 800 AM broadcasting stations and about 115 FM stations, most of which are privately owned. The vast majority of these are low-power facilities designed for local listening. Brazil has no well-developed broadcasting network system, although the government does operate "Radio Nacional" stations in Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo which broadcast the official viewpoints of the Brazilian government. -277- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E- Also, the government requires the private radio stations to broadcast regularly the government program "Aggncia National." In addition, the Catholic Church owns or controls a group of approximately 90 radio stations, located for the most part in the smaller towns of the interior. There are about 10,000,000 radio receivers in Brazil. 2. Television Brazil has about 60 television stations, most of which are concentrated in the populous southeast area of the country. As with the radiobroadcasting stations, most of the television stations are privately owned and operated. The government does, however, operate "Radio Nacional" television stations in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. There are approximately 2.5 million television receivers in Brazil. E. Special-Purpose Telecommunications Systems Brazil has several rather extensive special-purpose telecommunications systems, the most important of which are those of the military, the railroads, and the state police forces. 1. Military The army, navy, and air force each operate telecommunica- tions systems designed to service their own specialized needs. These systems use HF radio, microwave radio relay, and open wirelines. All of the networks have HF radio links between regional headquarters and their respective ministries in Brasilia. The air force has greater communications cap- abilities than the other services, since it is normally responsible for civil aviation control. During an emergency the navy can enlarge its communications system by taking over the networks of the merchant marine and the oil industry. 2. Railroad The railroads operate an extensive network consisting of open wirelines, HF radio, and microwave relay. The open wireline system provides telegraph circuits between minor stations, while the major stations are linked by HF radio. This system interconnects with the public network, thus extending common carrier communications into the more isolated areas of Brazil. -278- Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09424=C fIP85-00671 R000300020001-8 3. State Police Many of the state police forces of Brazil have HF radio networks which connect the state capital with other state municipalities. For many of the smaller towns, this is the only telecommunications link with the outside world. At present, the state of Minas Gerais has a 58-station network and the state of Goias has an 11-station network. Many of the state police networks now are being improved and expanded with the assistance of the US Agency for International Develop- 25 Approved For Release 1999/09/4 CIA-F P,85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199 Q9/~4R_ I. ~-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 LEADING LIST 1. CI.A. NIS 94, Brazil, sec 38, "Telecommunications", Jan 1965. C/NFD. 25X1A8a p 2. Broadcasting Stations of the World, pt I and 3. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Current Economic Position and Prospects of Brazil, vol IV, "Telecommunications," 11 May 1965. OUO. Approved For Release 199924 :CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24z-CW-RD@85-00671 R000300020001-8 IX. Military and Internal Security Forces A. General The Brazilian military establishment, the largest in South America, consists of an army of 150,000, an air force with 28,100 personnel and nearly 900 aircraft, and a navy with 20 major combatant ships and 39,900 men, including 9,500 marines. These forces are supplemented by state mili- tary police forces totaling 114,050. The armed forces are capable of maintaining internal security and of defending the country against attack by neighboring countries, but they would be incapable of sustained defense against substantial forces of a major military power. The armed forces could conduct effective offensive operations against any neighboring country, with the possible exception of Argentina, but would be seriously handicapped by logistic difficulties except in the southern portion of the country. With outside logistic support, they could assist materially in hemispheric defense and provide a small expeditionary force, as they have in the past. The strengths of the armed forces include a strong esprit de corps, the discipline of the enlisted men and their capa- bility to operate under conditions of physical hardship, the generally high level of education of officers, and the experi- ence of some of the officers in World War II, the Dominican Republic, and in the United Nations mission in the Gaza Strip. Weaknesses include dependence upon foreign sources for aircraft, naval vessels, and other major military items; the scarcity of specialists, technicians, and highly qualified noncommissioned officers; the illiteracy of many enlisted personnel and the frequent turnover of conscripts; the heterogeneous nature of equipment; and a restrictive military budget. The armed forces of Brazil, especially the army, have been a major force in the efforts to consolidate the country eco- nomically and politically and to develop its communications and bring civilization to the underdeveloped regions of the interior. They have generally played the role of protector of the nation's traditions and defenders of constitutionality. The post of Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces is held by the President of the Republic. He directs all activi- ties concerned with national security and appoints the service ministers and chiefs of staff. He is assisted by the Presi- dential Military Staff, the National Security Council, and the Armed Forces General Staff. Approved For Release 1999/09/24-1C1k P85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999fO9 24R-Cb -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The presidential Military Staff serves as the President's personal staff, assisting him on military matters, including relations with high military authorities. It is also respon- sible for his safety. The National Security Council advises the president on matters of security, war planning, and conduct of war. The Council consists of the president, as its head, the ministers of state, the Chief of the Armed Forces General Staff, the chiefs of general staff of the army, navy, and air force, plus such other high-ranking officers and officials as the president may appoint. The Armed Forces General Staff prepares plans involving joint organization and employment of the armed forces, provides staff support for wartime operational command of the armed forces, and assists in total mobilization in time of war. The Chief of the Armed Forces General Staff is a general or flag officer appointed by the president; the chiefs of the general staffs of the army, navy, and air force are also members. Subordinate to the Armed Forces General Staff are the Superior War College, the Brazilian Delegation to the Joint Brazil-United States Military Commission (JBUSMC), and wartime theaters of operations. Except for the wartime functions of the Armed Forces Gen- eral Staff, none of the president's advisory elements has operational control over the armed forces. Final responsibility and authority in army, navy, and air force matters are vested, respectively, in the Minister of the Army, the Minister of the Navy, and the Minister of Aeronautics. Ground Forces The Brazilian Army, the largest in South America, is capa- ble of maintaining internal security and of defending the coun- try against any combination of South American countries. The army has traditionally considered its principal mission to be defense against attack from Argentina. Its major troop concen- tration is in southern Brazil. The army makes an important contribution to the national economy through the construction of roads, railroads, and dams, the suppression of smuggling, and flood and other disaster relief activities. A significant part of the army's effort is spent on civic action projects such as providing the general population in remote areas with medical care, instruction in reading, and assistance in land settlement. Since 1961, when organized rural unrest in northeastern Brazil appeared to offer An- Approved For Release I 9991 12 - 1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24-1'85-00671 R000300020001-8 favorable opportunities for Communist exploitation, the army has given increased emphasis to internal security. Most of the independent units of less than division size scattered throughout Brazil have internal security as their primary mission, and the army is capable of controlling any overt internal threat to national security. Although its combat capability compares favorably with that of other South American armies, the army has a number of weaknesses. Its funds are insufficient for the acquisition of new equipment, and many weapons are obsolete. Combat training is largely theoretical. The army is weak in organi- zation, planning, and experience at division level and above, in noncommissioned officer leadership, and in all support services. It lacks the weapons and equipment required for mobilization and is dependent upon foreign sources for most heavy equipment. The army, however, has certain important strengths. Esprit de corps, particularly among the officers, is strong, and military training is good in comparison with that in most Latin American armies. Many key senior officers had active combat experience in Italy during World War II. More recently, others have acquired useful experience with the Inter-American Peace Force in the Dominican Republic and with the UN mission in the Gaza Strip. Enlisted men are willing, amenable to dis- cipline, and inured to hardship. The army is divided into four numbered territorial armies and two special commands -- the Amazon and the Brasilia Military Commands -- all of which are directly under the Ministry of the Army. Subordinate to the armies and commands are 11 military regions. The numbered army is the highest tactical echelon. The division is the basic major unit and the echelon directly responsible for the tactical training of troops. Except for cavalry, division organization is based on US models. The army's strength averages about 150,000, with 14,000 officers, 30,000 career noncommissioned officers, and the remainder conscripts (82,000) and volunteers (24,000). It is organized into 12 divisions (7 infantry, 4 cavalry, 1 armored), 1 mixed brigade, 3 coast artillery groups, 6 independent regi- ments (3 cavalry, 1 infantry, 1 airborne, 1 field artillery), and 41 separate battalions (20 infantry, 2 coast artillery, 2 field artillery, 3 armored, 1 anti-aircraft artillery, 3 military police, 7 engineer, 3 signal), and various service units. -283- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 9~% 992 _~CLf#-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Over 40 percent of the army is concentrated in the three southern states, with about one-third of total strength in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul. Over 30 percent are in the four key industrial and agricultural states around Rio de Janeiro and S.o Paulo. Of the remainder, about half is in northeastern Brazil, and the balance is dispersed through- out the rest of the country. Brazil has a growing capability to produce small arms and ammunition. Various models of pistols, revolvers, rifles, carbines, and submachine guns are now being manufactured by Brazilian industry in small quantities. In spite of this, the military and police still rely primarily on European and Ameri- can small arms. The principal foreign small arms in use are: the Belgian FN FAL 7.62mm rifle, the Belgian M1908 Mauser 7mm rifle and carbine, the Belgian FN M1949 .30 cal. rifle, the US M1903 .30 cal. rifle, and the US M-1 .30 cal. rifle and carbine. Most mortars, artillery, and military equipment are of US WWII vintage, but there is also a large inventory of widely differing, generally outmoded European equipment of French, Swedish, German, British, Danish, and Swiss origin. Brazilian industry supplies most mortars, artillery, ammunition up to 155mm, and light military vehicles. Brazil has no long-range agreements with governments other than the US for supply of weapons or equipment. Before World War II, training followed European, particu- larly French patterns. Since 1942, US methods have been intro- duced, especially through the Joint Brazil-United States Mili- tary Commission and the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Brazil. Since about 1950, MAP-supported units have followed US Army training programs, but progress has been slow. Although there are qualified instructor personnel, training is handicapped by insufficient funds, a shortage of facilities, much obsolete and nonstandard equipment, the low educational level of trainees, limited field exercises, and overreliance on theoretical instruction. Most of the first 3 months is devoted to close order drill, improvement of health and stamina, and instruction in reading, writing, and citizenship. Little time is available for unit training because of the 8-month conscript cycle. Unit training normally takes place in unreal- istic small-scale field exercises held annually by various units and lasting a week or less. Noncommissioned officers of the combat arms are trained in the School of Sergeants of Arms at Tres Coral es, Minas Gerais. ANk Approved For Release 1 9W09I24-EQ A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24F;-CII DFP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Advanced and specialized courses are provided in armored, coast artillery, medical, veterinary, physical education, communications, specialist training, airborne, and anti- aircraft schools. Most officer candidates are trained at the Military Academy at Resende in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Higher schooling for officers is provided at the specialized schools mentioned above, at the Officers Advanced School at Vila Militar in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and at the Army Com- mand and General Staff School at Rio de Janeiro. Selected officers receive more advanced training at the Superior War College, also in Rio de Janeiro. In recent years, many offi- cers have received advanced branch and general staff training in the United States, and some officers and noncommissioned officers have been trained at the US Army School in Panama. The army makes excellent use of personnel trained by the United States, assigning many of them as instructors. A limited number of officers are sent to French and German military schools. C. Naval Forces The Brazilian Navy vies with the Argentine Navy as the largest in South America. It is capable of defending Brazil from seaborne attack by any neighboring country, but could offer only limited resistance against a modern naval force of comparable size. The missions of the navy are to protect sea communica- tions, coastal. shipping, and river traffic and to defend the country against attack from the sea. Brazil is, in addition, committed to the defense of the Western Hemisphere in a patrol and anti submarine warfare (ASW) capacity. ASW capabilities have improved in recent years with the transfer of destroyers and submarines from the United States, and the participation of the Brazilian fleet in combined ASW exercises with US, Uruguayan, and Argentine naval forces. The lack of naval base facilities outside of Rio de Janeiro has been a serious limiting factor in naval operations. The navy has begun a program of building outlying bases (notably at Belem, Salvador, Natal, and Recife) and is improving the relatively extensive facilities in Rio de Janeiro. There are drydocks in Rio de Janeiro and Belem capable of handling the largest navy ships, and naval and commercial facilities capable of handling all but the largest ships have been or are being built in other ports. -285- Approved For Release I 999/09/2 ~-'CWtO 5-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 199924 : BCA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 General policy matters are the responsibility of the Mini- ster of the Navy. Overall control of the forces afloat is vested in the Chief of Naval Staff, who delegates authority for operational matters to the Vice Chief of Naval Staff. The Ministry of the Navy and the Naval Staff are mostly located in Rio de Janeiro. Parts of the ministry and staff have moved to Brasilia. The headquarters of the operational forces are also in Rio de Janeiro. The fleet is composed of several commands: cruiser division, destroyer flotilla, submarine flotilla, and mine force. Other operational forces afloat are The transport force, the hydrographic survey ships, two coastal patrol forces, and two river flotillas. The navy's one aircraft carrier operates directly under the Chief of Naval Staff. Brazil is divided into seven naval districts each headed by a commandant. Headquarters of the districts are at Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife, Belem, Florianepolis, Ladario, and Brasilia. The naval district commandants exercise command over the ships, installations, establishment, forces, and naval personnel assigned to the districts. The personnel strength of the navy is approximately 39,900 of which about 30,400 are in general service (4,000 officers and 26,400 enlisted men) and about 9,500 are in the marine corps (400 officers and 9,100 enlisted men). Some 12,500 officers and enlisted men serve afloat. A majority of naval and marine personnel, afloat as well as ashore, are based in Rio de Janeiro and its environs. The Brazilian Navy consists of the following ships: 1 ASW support aircraft carrier (CVS), 2 light cruisers (CL), 9 destroy- ers (DD), 5 destroyer escorts (DE), 3 submarines (SS), 3 small submarine chasers (SC), 2 river gunboats (PR), 4 old coastal minesweepers (MSC [0]), 3 coastal surveying ships (AGSC), 2 sur- veying ships (AGS), 1 oceanographic research ship (AGOR), 2 gasoline tankers (AOG), 4 transports (AP), 3 auxiliary ocean tugs (ATA), 10 fleet ocean tugs (ATF), 1 battle damage repair ship (ARB), 1 floating drydock (ARD), 2 small, auxiliary floating drydocks (AFDL), and 34 service craft. Most combatant ships were built in the US, UK, or Brazil. Many are of WWII or earlier construction. The condition of ships ranges generally from fair to good. The major part of the fleet is based at Rio de Janeiro. The river gunboats, attached to the Mato Grosso Flotilla, are based at Lada'rio on the Paraguay River; 1 SC and 2 ATF are based at Recife; and 4 ATF and several service craft are based at Belem. Approved For Release 1 irO9 ~dA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/?41J CIA F~D~85-00671 R000300020001-8 The Brazilian Naval Air Arm (BNAA), a small, integral part of the Brazilian Navy, is under the Directorate of Naval Aeronautics, the Director General of which is directly respon- sible to the Chief of Naval Staff. The BNAA is composed of 84 naval air personnel and 43 helicopters. It is not formed into tactical units. The air- craft carrier Minas Gerais is used jointly by aircraft of the navy and air force. All helicopters belong to the BNAA,and all fixed wing aircraft are in the air force inventory. Joint usage of the Minas Gerais has already improved ASW capability, but considerable basic and advanced ASW training will be neces- sary to develop this capability to its full potential. Enlisted men receive basic training at apprentice seamen's schools. These schools offer a 10-month program, with courses in general grammar school subjects, elementary seamanship, and physical education. The effectiveness of basic training is seriously limited by the poor education of the recruits and by lack of equipment and qualified instructors. Enlisted person- nel may be selected for specialist training after they have served 5 years in the fleet. Candidates for commissions in the line, marine corps, and supply corps pursue a 4-year course at the Naval Academy. The academy courses are followed by a year of practical training before commissions are awarded. US Navy training influence has been strong in the Brazil- ian Navy. There has been a US Naval Mission in Brazil almost continuously since 1922, and the Brazilian Navy has relied heavily on the United States for training and advice. In addition to the mission, there is a naval communications tech- nical group and an air utility unit which give training support. Selected naval personnel are sent to the United States for specialized training. Various joint exercises have contributed to the close ties between the two navies. The navy has approximately 30 days supply of ammunition, fuel, spare parts, and provisions on hand at all times, and the fleet can maintain itself at sea cruising at 14-16 knots for approximately five days. The navy itself has no tankers but has the ability to refuel at sea; if it refuels from the carrier and the two cruisers, it can extend the time at sea to 10 days. The Naval Arsenal at Rio de Janeiro, the navy's major yard, has an extensive complex of facilities. It has assembled destroyers from imported parts and has built a number of ships, -287- Approved For Release 1999/09/24; 1A445-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 99, 191 4R L -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 including patrol escorts (PF) and coastal surveying ships (AGSC). The Naval Arsenal can repair or overhaul any of the ships in the Brazilian Navy. Naval or commercial drydocks in Rio de Janeiro and Belem can accommodate any of the naval ships including the aircraft carrier. The Corps of Naval Riflemen or marine corps has its own commander and is operationally subordinate to the Chief of Naval Staff. The primary missions of the marine corps are to provide security and defense of naval installations and to conduct land and amphibious operations essential to the prose- cution of naval campaigns. The headquarters of the marine corps is at Rio de Janeiro. The Fleet Marine Force, also based at Rio de Janeiro, provides a mobile amphibious force in readi- ness and is the nucleus of a marine division.. Guard units and security detachments, some of them embarked in the larger ships, provide a light infantry potential. Present strength of the marine corps is approximately 400 officers and 9,100 enlisted men. They are moderately well trained and in a fair state of readiness. They would be capable of conducting amphibious landings with up to two battalions if the necessary sealift, air, naval gunfire, and logistic support were made available. D. Air Force The Brazilian Air Force (BAF) is the largest air force in South America. Despite budgetary limitations and short- comings in logistics and training, its general capabilities are greater than those of any other South American air force. However, it would be ineffective against an attack by a major air power. The missions of the BAF include air defense, sup- port of ground forces, internal security, protection of coastal shipping and the sea approaches to Brazil, the maintenance of essential air service in areas where private airlines do not operate, and the provision of civil aviation services of the type performed in the US by the Federal Aviation Agency and the Civil Aeronautics Board. The BAF fighter squadrons, equipped with Meteor F-8 and T-33 jet aircraft, have demonstrated effectiveness in ground support exercises. The pilots are proficient and frequently give excellent demonstrations of precision acrobatics in for- mation. The Meteor and T-33 pilots have demonstrated high accuracy in air-to-ground firing with machineguns and rockets and in low-level bombing with napalm and high-explosive bombs. Although all fighter squadrons conduct tactical training, the absence of mobile ground-air communications equipment precludes Approved For Release 1999tM24 :.iC1A-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09 +-G k-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 fully effective support of ground forces. Recently organized special commando flights of armed T-61s, assigned to the com- manding officers of several airbases, are increasing the air force's counterinsurgency capabilities. The BAF does not envision the strategic employment of its bomber squadrons -- they are used mainly for training, reconnaissance, and commu- nications -- and their aircraft have only a limited bombing potential. In air defense, the BAF would be almost completely inef- fective, since it has no all-weather fighters or early warning/ ground-controlled intercept (EW/GCI) system. Its two air defense radar direction centers lack the equipment and trained personnel to become operational. Air defense would be hampered further by the lack of a coordinated antiaircraft artillery command, and the scarcity and obsolescense of antiaircraft weapons. The BAF reconnaissance squadrons have enough aircraft and combat-ready crews to support the other tactical units but are limited to visual observation. They can provide effective reconnaissance for army units. A search and rescue unit, which provides assistance in civilian disasters, could also support the ground forces. BAF capabilities for antisubmarine warfare (ASW) are fair, but have been steadily improving since joint usage of the air- craft carrier Minas Gerais became a reality. Capabilities for antishipping operations, aerial mining, or support of amphibious operations are slight with no signs of any significant improve- ment in the near future. Although the bulk of the air transport fleet is outmoded and half theC-47's are regularly grounded for maintenance and lack of parts, the BAF can fulfill its own requirements for air transport. It can also provide airlift for army paratroop operations and aerial resupply in the event of an internal uprising. It has successfully executed drops of from 150 to 300 paratroopers. To improve BAF air transport operations, the Ministry of Aeronautics purchased six AVRO 748 turboprop medium transports from the United Kingdom in 1962 and five C-130's from the United States in 1965. Under a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with the United States the BAF has received both grant aid and reim- bursable military assistance. Spare parts, electronic equip- ment, and technical advice are also provided under the MAP. The Brazilian Air Force is headed by the Minister of Aeronautics, usually a senior air force officer. He reports directly to the president but is subordinate to the Chief of -289- Approved For Release 1999/09/4':-dfARR 85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 19~9/EQ9924 _ECl -RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 the Armed Forces General Staff on matters affecting other services. He directs the activities of the air force through the Air General Staff, eight directorates (personnel, train- ing, health, quartermaster and finance, materiel, engineering, air routes, and civil aeronautics), the commands (Army Tacti- cal, Tactical Navy, and Air Transport), which are, with the six air zones, the operational commands. Headquarters for each air zone is located at the most important BAF base in the zone -- Val de Cles, Guararapes, GaleAo, Cumbica, Gravatai, and Brasilia. All air force tac- tical units, services, establishments, and activities located within an air zone are under the control of the air zone com- mander, a general officer, unless specifically exempted by the Minister of Aeronautics. Air zone commanders report directly to the Minister of Aeronautics, but they also deal with the directorates and the Air General Staff, as appro- priate. Each commander has considerable latitude in dis- charging his responsibility for maintaining, training, and employing the units assigned to his zone. The BAF has a personnel strength of approximately 28,100 including some 1,250 pilots, over 200 of whom are jet quali- fied. The aircraft strength is nearly 900, including about 100 jets, many of which are often nonoperational. Most BAF personnel are volunteers. Officers are pre- dominantly graduates of military schools, but, a few are from civilian universities. There are no organized reserve units. The BAF training system and facilities are good in com- parison with those of other South American countries, but they are inadequate for a modern air force. The principal short- coming is the absence of a program to provide progressive training in a particular specialty to individuals at different levels of experience and ability. Inefficient administration and the low educational level of the average trainee are addi- tional complicating factors. The US MAP is aimed at improving the training system and expanding capabilities. Brazilian Air Force training is supplemented by the advisory support of the USAF Air Mission in Brazil and by the specialized training (advanced pilot training and instruction in maintenance and supply operations) of selected students in USAF schools in the United States and Panama. Logistics is the responsibility of the Air General Staff. In general, the BAF logistic organization is characterized by poor planning and control. A major task of the USAF Section of the Joint Brazil-United States Military Commission is improvement of supply procedures and organization. Approved For Release 1 %9W0 L24 j CZIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/091, -C1 -PiDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 The BAF is almost completely dependent upon foreign sources for aircraft and related equipment. Most of its aircraft are imported, principally from the United States; the Meteors and AVRO 748's came from the United Kingdom. Domestic factories 2596bduce liaison and trainer aircraft. 2. The Police The Federal Department of Public Safety (DFSP) is directly subordinate to the Ministry of Justice and carries out its operations through eight regional offices located in Rio de Janeiro and other major cities. The principal functions of the DFSP are: a. Controlling land and ocean borders and supervision of maritime, aerial, and border police. b. The prevention of crimes against the properties, works, and interests of the govern- ment. c. Providing for protection of the presi- dent, diplomats, and official foreign visitors. The DFSP is the most effective government agency employed against Communist and other subversion. It works in close cooperation with the National Intelligence Service and the Intelligence Section of the Army Ministry. The DFSP operates the National Police Academy, which pro- vides training for all law enforcement agencies in Brazil. Approved For Release I 999/09/$4 /1 O85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1 199f24- cIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Another DFSP department, the National Institute of Criminology, provides scientific and technical facilities for all police services. The DFSP's National Institute of Identification serves as a central repository for all criminal and civil identification records, which are made available to other police organizations. Most normal law enforcement is carried out by the police forces of the 22 states and the Federal District Security Forces. Each state maintains military police forces (policia militar -- military police, not to be confused with the regular military police in the army) and civil police, both of which operate on a statewide basis. The civil police can arrest, commit, and prosecute throughout the state but operate pri- marily in the capitals, while the military police concentrate on the hinterlands. Personnel strength ranges from several hundred in the smaller states to approximately 25,000 military police and 14,000 civil police in the state of Slo Paulo. In mid-1967 the total number of state military police was about 105,000 and civil police about 45,000. The military police, organized along army lines, are frequently headed by an active duty military officer and constitute a reserve component of the armed forces in times of emergency. State police organi- zations usually include a variety of special units such as highway police, railway police, forest police, and bank police. Training, equipment, and files are usually inadequate for both the civil and military police. Communications facilities range from radio and teletype in the larger cities to telephone in the smaller but are often poor or nonexistent in rural areas. Many high-level officials are political appointees, not career officers, and the civil police, very poorly paid, are open to bribery. The public distrusts the police; in some areas citizens prefer to forego justice rather than request police assistance. The military police, which is better trained and disciplined and also assists in educational and sports programs, is more respected than its civil counterpart. Censorship of communications media, particularly motion pictures, is conducted by the Censorship Office of the DFSP. There is rather strict censorship of theater, cinema, and television, based on both political and moral standards. In addition to the normal units each state police force contains a security organization; in Guanabara and Sao Paulo, for example, this component is called the Department of Political and Social Order (DOPE). Although lacking in modern equipment Approved For Release 1 ?9?1*d 4F--'IA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/0912 : bW_*6P85-00671 R000300020001-8 and small in size -- the DOPS in Guanabara has approximately 300 members -- these units are usually among the more effec- tive organizations working against Communists and other extrem- ist groups. The DOPS also is charged with investigating political and social crimes, controlling the use of firearms and explosives, surveillance of aliens, and protecting the 25X6[ransportation system. Approved For Release 1999/0912k: EIA-I'DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 5X6D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999/09/, 4L,:-c1 - oF85-00671 R000300020001-8 READING LIST 2eX6D CIA. NIS 94, Brazil, "General Survey," Aug 1967. S/NFD. Approved For Release I 999/09 .-CtAi DP85-00671 R000300020001-8 5X6D Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Next 13 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Q) O ?H N ~ cd ?H ?H O H Fi U) ?H Q Q O Fi CH 'd 0 O (1) bO ?H (L) ,u 4i -I~ cd U) CC$ cd 44 O O H S:i N ~ ?H SC U O r U) rd a) 0 H r - u H w Cd() S." 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O (1) O N 4 I a~ ?r 1 a~ ^ bo N U) -1) ,O ^ d O -N ?rl cd c 3 cd cd 4-) -0 O - U) a) U N ?ri Pa Z U) Lc-\ co ?ri '> cd ?ri rd Ul -P 01% O .H rd cd ,Pa cd cd,O U 0 cd U) ~, cd cQ ?ri Q) U) Cd (1) ?ri r-1 1) Cd i 4) c~ N Q) cd 'd 4--) 4-) cd > (1) ^ O U) 4-3 -H H ~j cd H Z1 'd cd 'd U U) ,~ c0 cd 0 I Pb U N V] -P ?ri 'd 0 0 0 bO cd Q) O z }=, 4-' CO pa Q ?H ul U) 9A 'd 4-t 4-3 cd 5 O 0 ?r1 Z CO Q) .H H O ?H '$ 4-) 0 ri H cd U) ?, m -p 4 cd U U) U) U) I ?ri (1) rl N U) cd ~ 0 H U) 0 cd 4t 1 Q) cd O m - bo ?ri U) rd ?ri u 0 0 bOU, -N J-) O ?r-I (1) (1) U) H 04 E co ?rl r-1 U Q) Pa CO U) U) H Q Cd 3 0 H U) 0 i~ Jft~ Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Next 40 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Appendix B Recommended Films 1. Amazon Awakens. Walt Disney Studios, 1944, 16mm, sound, color, 33 min. CIA Film J7080. 2. The Amazon Family. International Film Foundation, 1961, 16mm, sound, color, 19 min. CIA Film P7063. 3. The Amazon -- People and Resources of Northern Brazil. Encyclopedia Britannica Films, 1957, 1 mm, sound, black & white, 22 min. CIA Film N6271. 4. Brasilia -- David Brinkley's Journal. NBC/TV, 1963, 16mm, sound, black & white, 29 min. CIA Film 56215. 5. Brazil. NBC/TV, 1962, 16mm, sound, black & white, 16 min. CIA Film R6499. 6. Brazil. US Army, 1953, 16mm, sound, black & white, 17 min. CIA Film j6726. 7. Brazil -- The Gathering Millions. National Educational Television, 1965, l6mm, sound, black & white or color, 60 min. CIA Film V6500. 8. Brazil -- People of the Highlands. Encyclopedia Britannica Films, 1957, 16mm, sound, color, 19 min. CIA Film K6995. 9. Brazil -- Rude Awakening. CBS/TV, 1961, 16mm, sound, black & white, 54 min. CIA Film P7001. 10. Brazil, the Takeoff Point -- Changing World. National Educational Television, 1964, 1 mm, sound, black & white, 59 min. CIA Film V6247. 11. Brazil, the Troubled Land. ABC/TV, 1964, 16mm, sound, black & white, 27 min. 12. Forty Million Shoes: A Report on Brazil. Canadian Broad- casting System, 1961, 116mm, sound, black & white, 61 min. CIA Film R6188. 13. Geography of South America: Brazil. Coronet Films, 1961, 1 mm, sound, color, 14 min. CIA Film P7027. -357- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release I 999109/ 4- C11 caDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 14. Have Patience, Brazil is Big. ABC/TV, 1964, 16mm, sound, black & white, 34 min. CIA Film T6787- 15. The Head Men. National Film Board of Canada, 1963, 16mm, sound, black & white, 28 min. 16. The Thin Edge -- Chet Huntley Reporting. NBC/TV, 1962, 3mm, sound, black & white, 33 min. CIA Film 56072. 17. Three Apprentices. National Film Board of Canada, 1963, lGMm, sound, black & white, 28 min. AM, -358- Approved For Release 19990%2 RCA-rRDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 proved for.-Release 1999/09/24-:-#IA-RD~85-q iVRQ0 001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 S% ved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8 NO FOREIGN DISSEM Secret Approved For Release 1999/09/24: CIA-RDP85-00671 R000300020001-8