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December 19, 2016
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July 11, 2005
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June 22, 1971
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C/AlOe.l/i/-i - 17,1/71 Approved For Relea a 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875R001100100067-2 Secret DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence Memorandum Padilla: Castro's Solzhenitsyn? Secret 22 June 1971 No. 1711/71 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875R001100100067=2 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 WARNING --This document contains information alfec" ng the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of Title 18, sections 793 and 794, of the US Code. as amended. Its lea;?isrnission or revelation of its contents to or re- ceipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. GROUP I t1[CLUUl'n AUTOMATIC nnN Nl111A 11 U14n ANn U~:CI.Al41 TICA TI IIn Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 SECRET 25X1 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence 22 'rune 1971 INTELLIGENCE MEMORANDUM Padilla: Castro's Solzhenitsyn? Summary Intellectuals in Fidel Castro's Cuba have gen- erally enjoyed a degree of freedom that is rare in a totalitarian state. As the Revolution progressed, those authors and artists who found the deteriorat- ing economic situation and the increasing regimenta- tion too distasteful to stomach were often permitted to live abroad with the regime's blessing. Ever when poet Heberto Padilla overstepped the loosely defined limits of politico-literary propriety in 1968 and was censured by the more doctrinaire segment of the Cuban hierarchy, the collection of works for which he was criticized was published. Although his book of poems carried a prefatory note explaining its "political weaknesses," the fact it was published at all testified to Castro's willingness to allow limited controversy in order to retain the support of intellectuals both at home and abroad and to give his regime an aura of freedom. Since 1968, however, the picture has changed radically. Well-intentioned but devastatingly accu- rate criticism of the regime's economic and admin- istrative policies from such highly trusted European leftist intellectuals as Rene Dumont and K.S. Karol reached Cuba in early 1970, just as Castro was be- coming aware that, despite an all-out mobilization, the premier goal of ten million tons of sugar would Note: This memorandum was prepared by the Office of Current Intelligence and coordinated within CIA. 25X1 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : Cl RD 85T00875R001100100067-2 Approved For Release 2005/0R/t*DP85T00875R001100100067-2 not be realized in that year's harvest. Although Castro delivered an oblique but bitter attack on his unnamed critics "in Paris and Rome" on 22 April 1970, he in effect confirmed many of their charges on 26 July when he acknowledged in detail the seri- ous plight of the economy. Even as he set cbout adopting measures to counter the weaknesses and de- ficiencies exposed by Karol and Dumont, he mounted a feeble and ill-conceived campaign to discredit them. At this point, Padilla entered the picture. He was caught, according to his own admission, try- ing to smuggle out of Cuba a manuscript critical of the Revolution for publication in Europe. Castro, r ere Pa- 25X1 more than two weeks had squeezed from him a farcical "self-criticism" in which Padilla identified both Karol and Dumont as "agents of the CIA." The "con- fession" was not released until three weeks later" perhaps to allow Padilla time to recover from the effects of his imprisonment. On 30 April Castro followed up Padilla's confession with a ringing de- nunciation of those who found fault with the poet's detention. di a s arrest on 20 March 1971 and in a little Padilla's Arrest had caused a relatively mild protest from foreign intellectuals, who directed a letter to Castro calling for his release; the ama- teurish and degrading "self-criticism," however, provoked a scathing letter expressing the "shame, anger, and disillusionment" of 60 prominent intel- lectuals in Europe and the Western Hemisphere. The letter barely stopped short of accusing the Cubans of eliciting the confession by torture and said the circumstances surrounding the incident "recall the most sordid moment of the era of Stalinism with its prefabricated verdicts and its witch huntF." Although a few of the foreign intellectuals have softened their attitudes, there is no sign that Castro also intends to moderate his position. Indeed, 25X1 25X1 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875R001100100067-2 Approved For Release 'jtff 25X1 there is evidence that Havana is taking steps that can only further widen the gap. Castro may have whipped the local intellectuals into line, but he has done so at the expense of alienating, perhaps permanently, a significant segment of foreign in- tellectuals who have long given him their unquali- fied and frequently unsolicited support. More ominous is the suspicion that internal political pressures in the Cuban hierarchy forced Castro to pa;t a high price for what in effect is a minor vic- tory. The Padilla affair coincides with the recent trend toward more repression in Cuba and seems to herald a period in which Cuba will be more exposed to the rigors of a Stalinist strain of Communism than to the heretofore more freewheeling brand of Fidel Castro. 25X1 W"URET Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 INTELLECTUALS' FIRST LETTER TO CASTRO "The signers, who support the principles and ob- jectives of the Cuban revolution, appeal to you to ex- press their concern about the arrest of the poet and writer Heberto Padilla and request you be good enough to examine the situation created by such an arrest. Inasmuch as the Cuban Government has not supplied any information up till now on this subject, we can fear the reappearance of a sectarian development stronger and more dangerous than the one you denounced in March 1962 and which Commander "Che" Guevara re- ferred to several times, when he denounced the sup- pression of the right of criticism within the revolu- tion. At a time when the establishment of a Socialist Government in Chile and the new situation created in Peru and Bolivia are facilitating the collapse of the criminal blockade of Cuba by United States imperialism, the use of repressive measures against intellectuals and writers who have exercised the right of criticism in the revolution can only have profoundly negative ef- fects on the anti-imperalistic forces of the entire world and more particularly in Latin America, for whom the Cuban revolution is a symbol and a flag. in thanking you for the attention that you should be kind enough to give to this request, we reaffirm our solidarity with the principles which have guided the struggle in the Sierra Maestra and which the Cuban Government has expressed so many times in the words and actions of its Prime Minister, "Che" Guevara and so many other revolutionary leaders." Carlos Barrel Carlos Fuentes Octavio Paz Simone do Beauvoir Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Anne Philipe Italo Calvino Juan Goytisolo Pigeon Jose Maria Castellot Luis Goytisolo Jean Prontoau Fernando Claudin Alain Jouffroy Rebeyrolles Julio Cortazar Andre Pieyre do Mandlargues Rossana Rossanda Jean Daniel Joyce Mansour Francisco Rosi Marguerite Duras Dionys Mascolo Claude Roy Hans Magnus Enzensberger Alberto Moravia Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Pierre Faye Maurice Nadeau Jorge Semprun Carlos Franqui Helene Parmelin Mario Vargas Uosa Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 INTELLECTUALS' SECOND LETTER TO CASTRO We hold that it is our duty to inform you of our shame and anger. The deplorable text of the confession signed by Heberto Padilla can only have been obtained by means that amount to the negation of revolutionary legality and justice. The contents of this confession, with its absurb accusations and delirious assertions, as well as the pitiable parody of self-criticism to which Heberto Padilla and Comrades Belkis Cuza, Diaz Martinez, Cesar Lopez and Pablo Armando Fernandez submitted to at the seat of the National Union of Cuban Writers and Artists, recall the most sordid moments of the era of Stalinism, with its prefabricated verdicts and its witch hunts. (It is] with the same vehemence that from the very first day was ours in defending the Cuban revolution, which seemed to us exemplary in its respect for the human being and ~n its struggle for liberation, that we exhort you to spare Cuba dogmatic obscurantism, cultural xenophobia and the repressive system imposed by Stalinism on the socialist countries and of which events similar to those now occurring in Cuba were flagrant manifestations. The contempt for human dignity implied in the act of forcing.a man into ludicrously accusing himself of the worst treasons and indignities does not alert us because it concerns a writer but because any Cuban com- rade-peasant, "orker, technican or intellectual-can also become the victim of similar violence and humilia- tions. We would want the Cuban revolution to return to what made us consider it as a model in the realm of socialism. Signers: Le Monde, Paris, 21 May 1971 rla ibel Ale Cl Carlos Franqui Joyce Mansour Paul Reboyrolles g ar Simone de Beauvoir Carlos Fuentes Dacia Moraini Alain Resnais ando Benitez F Angel Gonzales Juan Morse Jose Revueltas ern -Laurent Bost ue J Adriano Gonzales Lbon Dionys Moscolo Rossana Rossanda acq s talo Calvino Andre Gortz Plinio Mendoza Vincente Roio i ria Castoilot i-M Jose-Agustin Goytisolo Istvan Meszaris Claude Roy a do Claudin F Juan Goyti,olo Ray Miliban Juan Rulfo ernan Deutscher r T Luis Goytisolo Carlos Monsivais Nathalie Sarraute a ama r Dosse R Rodolfo Hinezirosa Marco-Antonio Montes de Oca Jean-Paul Sartre oge guerite Duras M Mervin Jones Alberto Moravia Jorge Somprun ar Einaudi Gi li Monti Johnstone Maurice Nadeau Jean Shuster o u nus Enzensberger M H Monique Lange Jose-Emilio Pacheco Susan Sontag ans ag co-Fernandez Santos anci F Michel Loins Pier-Paolo Pasollni Lorenzo Tomabuonl s r Flakoll D i Mario Vargas Llosa Ricardo Porro Jose-Miguel Ullan n arw Jean-Michel Fossey Lucio Magri Jean Prontoau Jose Angel Valente Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2005/08/22 : CIA-RDP85T00875RO01100100067-2