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CH.A.YKOVSKIY,,,,q,~.N?. - Experience in the surgical treatment of cholecystit1s and its late results. Vest. khir. 93 no.12:24,29 D 164. (MIRA 18; 5) 1. 1z kbirurgicheskogo otdeleniya (zav. - T.As Grasmik) 3-y gorodskoy bollnitsy goroda Nizhuego Tagila (glarky-j vrach - M.M.Famin). ACCESSION NR: AP4041720 S/0181/64/006/007/~131/2145 AUTHORS: Kovarskiy, V. A.; Chaykovskiy, 1. A.; Sinyavskiy, E. P. TITLE: Quantum-kinetic equations for processes with nonradiative recombination SOURCE: Fizika tverdogo tela, v. 6, no. 7, 1964, 2131-2145 TOPIC TAGS: recombination coefficient. quantum,statistics, kinetic theory, phonon, polaron, nonradiative recombination ABSTRACT: Several reasons for the inadequacy of the standard kinetic-equation formalism to non-optical transitions between dis- crete spectrum states are pointed out. The authors then propose to describe the processes accompanying multi-phonon nonradiative com- bination by means of a system of integral quantum-kinetic equations based on the formalism of the quantum density matrix, a formalism in which.the quantum-mechanical and statistical calculation stages !Card 1/3. ACCESSION NR: AP4041720 are combined. The method used is essentially that of Kubo (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, v. 12, 570, 1957). A graph representation is obtained C for the recombination coefficients.with the aid of the technique of Konstantinov and Perell (ZhETF v. 39, 197, 1960), modified by Lang and Firsov (ZhETF v. 43, 1843, 1962) to cover multi-phonon jumps in the case of low polaron mobility. The free relaxation of the band carriers, which are in quasi-equilibrium with.the crystal lattice at the initial instant of time, is considered. .A criterion is considered for the applicability of perturbation the ory to the theory of multiphonon-nonradiative transitions. "The authors thank Yu. A. Firsov and I. G. Lang for valuable information in con- nection with the covputation procedure, and also A. I. Ansellm !and Yu. Ye. Perlin for a discussion of the calculation of the re- combination coefficients*" Orige art. bass S figures and 76 for-. Mulas., .ASSOCIATIONs Zn~tLtut :fLsikL L watemsWiL AN NOMMAS Ushumm (trosti- Card ;:ACCESSION NR: AP4041720 ~tute of Physics and Mathematics, AN XoiwR) SUBMITTED: 27Dec63 ENCL: 00 ISUB CODEz GP REP SOVs 009 OTMOU 002 k I-Cw.d -3/3-.-. KOVARSKIYF V.A.; ~ ~AYKOV~SKIY, ~J.A. Generation-recombination noises In a magnetic field. Fiz. tver. tela 7 no&8r2499-2504 Ag 065. Recombination relaxation An a quantlzed magnetic field. lbid.:2505-2512 (MIRA 18tq) 1. Inatitut prikladnoy fiziki AN Moldavskoy SSR~ KiahJnev. I I I L 6329-66 EWT(I)/EP'A(m)-2.' IJP(c) AT ACCESSION NR: AP501071 UR/03.81/65/007/008/2499/23(* VVI 5 AUTHOR: Loy~arskiyy V. A. 2_1~40= k.". x TITLE., Generation-recombination noise In a magnetic-field no. SOURCE: Fizika tverdogo tela)-v. 196~, 2499-2504 a) ~ 1" - Tti2p fit 70PIC TAGS: electron recom'bin j correlated noise, quantum oscill ion, spectral distribution., autocorrelation function, strong magnetic field ABSTRACT; This is a continuation of earlier work (Tez. dokl. VI coveshchanlya po teorii poluprovodnikov. Izd. "Kartya Moldovenyaske., " Kishinev,, 1964) dealing with singularitiesof carrier recombination in a quantized electric field. In the pre- i sent article, the theory of quantum fluctuations developed by one of the authors with Ye. V. Vitin ibid; Izv. AN MR, ser. fiz. No. 12p 111 1964) is applied to an investigation of the influence of the magnetic field on the frequency, ,spectrum and the relative magnitude of thenoise connected-with carrier recombina- tion and generation processes. 'By introducing an autocorrelation function for the quantum fluctuations and enTlaying a diagram technique., the authors obtain an ex- pression for the spectral density of the noise intensity# An analysis of the re- sults shows that the noise level depends on the magnetic field. It is Vointed out that there are still not enough data to determine the numerical parameters in the qard 6330-66 EWT(1)/,EPA(w),A;2/EWAW-2 IJP(c) AT 2 ACCESSION MR: AP501072'' U*18l/65/oo 7/008/. 505/25121," ~AUTHOR: V. A.; T Eovarskiy_ < TITLE:, Recombination relaxation in a quantizing magnetic field SOURCE: Fizika tverdogo tela. v .7,,no. 8, 1965, 2505-2512 .TOPIC TAGS: strong UZI' -"&I' Petic pld lectron I carrier dexisityp matrix function,, _!~ ------ recombjMtionj relaxation process.,.phonon interaction., carrier lifetime. ABSTRACT: The density matrix method is used to investigate the recombination re- laxation of carriers which-are initiaLly in a state of quasi-equilibriun with the crystal lattice. The calculation is based on the Fermi quasi-level method. The ,recombination mechanism is assumed to be a single-phonon (or single-phaton). capture! :by local levels. It is established that the time constant depends on Vhe magnetic ifield. An example in which the lifetime of the carriers is delayed bythe quan- tizing magnetic field is presented. "The authors thank A. 1. Ansellm Vho called their attention to the possible signqlar##s~ of recombination kinetics in a quanw. tizing magnetic fieldj, and Y. L- Bonch-A12~eb_for a valuable discussion of the . S-S resultso" Orig. art. has: 1 figure and 43 forwig~s.' 9V ASSOCIATION: Institut prikladnoy fiziki AN MSSRj, Kishinev (Institute. of Applied 'Plwsics Ali MSSR) d 312 c a ACC NRi A216024010. SOURCE CODE: oooo/65/000/000/0033/0040* UBI AUMOR: PWkwvsklyp I._ A. =3 ------ TIM: Derivation of quantum kinetic equation for pmesses with sinale-phonon re- combination SOURCE: Al Nold=* Institut ]MiNjgftM fl%W6 Teoreticheskiye I eksperiment&I'Mye IssWovanlys, fiticheskIM waystv pd1npravod*ikovykh materialm I druSikh kristallm (Mmoretical and =Werimm*al studies an ftileal prcparties of semiconductor materi- au and abber emssu). nal"Vo 216." aw"a Mum"F011% jpub 38650 33-40 TOPIC TAGS: quantum statistiess, Boltzmann equation,, integral equation, electron scat- tering# electron recombination# electron capture, electron emianion, phonon interac- tion ABSTRACT: In view of the ftet that Boltzmann's kinetic equation, which In customar used for the description of recombination In Impurity semiconductors has a licdted re- gion of application, especial1y In tAe Presence of a quantizing Mwetic field, the author derives a set of quantum kinetic equations, in which the quantum w3a statist.1- c&l approaches are combirAdj, using for the derivation the wthod of 0. V. Kanstantinuw~ and Ve Is Perel* (MMF v. 39P IM, 2960). 2w system treated Is a crystal containift- Impurity levels at & single depth that does wt mood the magnitude or the Debwe rho=. He thn Introftm the K=xtutlaw-Farell. slogliep-particle mistrices OA 06- 3/2 tablishes for then a system &; differential equations of the Djrson tnw. 7h9 dingram technique and the correspondence rules are the same as established by Kanstantinaw and Perell. These integral equations describe the kinetic phenomena of scattering# capturep and emission of electroins for the crystal vith Ingwity centers. A dis- tinpishing feature of this system of equations In that the explicit form of all the coefficients contained In then In k=m. the equations for the diagonal Ustrix ele- ments are used to estimate the .toutribution of the recombination mechanism of the im- purity wAtterir4g. Vaile a gwmral soIntion, of the rema;tant Jvb eneous integral equation Is difficult to cbt4dz# some simplification can be obtained by maki use of the fact that watterin by oselUstlaw (or bV imurities) and recombimtIon scattww ing are Awsically Indepeadwit. 2he final wwression for the awrent shMS that the main camtributiou to the reembimtIon sce;ttering isedlansin is made by a term inverso- ly propor lonal to the qantas-aUtIftical probability or caTler ca;ptv" by the in- I purity center. 2be autbor p.Um to use the darived equations to investigate the kizatles or tb4 scousto-elecAvIcal ezYwt In arlstals. 2M wAthar thanks V. A. Xb- _UX*&X Ow eowtl~ lubmat In the vwk. Orig. m%. bass 9 figures and 2,9 rar%- M CM: 2D/ DA2B% 9SMW =Mrs W on M W2 CUYKOVKIY. I.Yee-, YATSIKOs N-P, N&nufacture of glued beat frame fOr ch&irs. Der-pron. 9 n0-10.'8- 9 o 160. (MIIU 13: 10) (Vocdvorking mchinery) MDROZOVp N.A., kand;tekhn.nauk; USHERENKO, Z.I., inzh.; CHAYKOVSKIY,_I.Ye. inzh. Semiautomatic Ane for machining bent and glued parts in the manufacture of furniture. MekhJ avtom.proizv. 16 no.8:10-14 ,' Ag 162. (MIRA 15:9) (Furniture industry) MOROZOVS N.A.# kande tekbno naukj USHERENKO, Z.1., inzh.;,, CRA YKOVSKIY I*Yoo# Who Now zaabines for manufacturing bent and glued furniture parts. VWkh. I avtom. proizv. 18 no.L18-23 Ja 164. (MIRA 17:8) CHAYIPTS11Y, I.A., inzhener; VERN K, A.B.. inzhener. -- Devices for hoisting In lastall1mg hydroelectric power station .equipment. Makh.trad.rab..10 me.4:28-29 Ap 156. (KM 9:7) (Holsting.muchisery) 14- CHAYIOVKIT,'K.iA.. inz mar. bort knockout grating. Lit.prolsw. no.4:15-17 AP 157. (MLRA 10:5) (Foundry mochinery &ad supplies) OWN" OVA U uot &6V ;~~5 40 00 - C Same. tug too 400 GUSTO ISS0110 the tot) tic Ote"O Cox WOO' IOAOteTp tat tue *"0-. .$.ti SVOO ;4~W!S- ihe" tus 'MOV voew ~'t %eve - apao VAO Th4-% exi-cal to caw sit* gel-~ Ot tap$ C~OaMce sa& tug fall ;Vc~~Of V, t of tag .~Mowrs ;miex saw 4eve -- - ---- -- - - --- --- -- --- - - - - A f ModernizatiOix or the Magnetic Uniory Device (Cant.) SCW/5158 2. Operation or *lowntary circidto used In to)pe control devices 13 3. Control device fitted vith a cold-cathode tube 23 AVAnMIX: Library or Congress (MWSM) Card 313 " ft 91 GOLTSHEV, Leonid Konstantinovich,, inzh.; CHAYKOVSKIY, L.F.j, inzh., ea retsenzent; KOVILICHUKI LeYa., J MATUSEVICH, S.M., tekhn. red. [Electronic calculating machines] Elektron:nye vychislitell- iWe mashirq. Kiev, Gostekhizdat USSR9 1963. 425 P. (HIIIA 17: 1) (Electronic computers) GOIYSBEV., Leonid Konstantinovich; CHAYKO-yg~ml , L.F., inzh... retsenzent, [Electronic digital computers] Elektromye tsifrovye vychisli- tellnye mashiny. Izd.2.v ispr. i dop. Kievo Tekhnikaj, 10,65. 40 p - (MMA 18.5) I Card .2/2 L~ I . . , CHAYKOVSKIY, L.P.9 inah. Pegulated d.c. voltage converter. Pribornstro-erde n:,.7i24-25 J-1 165. (MI-RA 1817) CHAYKOVSKAYA*.,M.A..[Chaikovslka, M.A.] Effect of various preservatives on microorganJsms. Farmatsev. zhur. 1.9 no.1,04-38 164. (tM 171ll.) 1. Kafedre tekhnologii lekarstvemykh form J. galenovy'kh preparatov Kiyevukogo inrtdtuta usoverslienstvovaniya vr%%rhey (zaveduyusho-hA-Y kafedroy prof. G.A. Vaysman (Vaisman, H.!.]). Omoymay. Pa. the **nett-totion of pulpefangers..Sakh-Prom. 30 nOO9S 9)k ~ 156i (KM 10:3) 1. Naydansiskly sum- ayy savodi AaaW lidustry-SqcLipmat and supplies) CIIAYKOVSY,IY2 S. [Chaikovs!kYip S-I~ ROMANENKOs, I.p inzh.-mekhanik Speed up the production of tiles. Sil.. bud. -11 no. 2.16 F t6l. (HIRA 14,,2). 1. Nachallnik Kirovagradakogo ob3mzhkolkhozproyekta (for Chaykovskiy), 2e Upravleniye stroiteltstva Kirovogradskogo oblaellkhozupravloniya (for Romanenko). (Kirovograd Province--Tiles) NARUSOV, Yu.B., inzh.; CHAYKCVSKII.L S-A-, inzh.; KAMENTSEV, V.P., kand. tekhn. nauk Sectional vibration tray for manufacturing blocks of spans for bridges. Transp. stroi. 15 no.7t25.-27 J1-165. (MIRA 18:7) 1. Dmitrovskiy zavod zheleznodorozhnykh konstruktsiy (for Narusov, Chaykavskiy). 2. Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatellskiy institut transport- nogo stroitellstva (for Kamentsev). -IN v v a FN x OVRUTSKIY, M.Sh.; CHAIKOVSUT. S.I. TawAng of heat-stable youfts, Leftays Proin, 12, Wo.5, 23-4 157.. (CA 47 n0,19810257 153) (MMA USSR/General Problems. Methodology. History. Scientific A Institutions and Conferences. Instruction. Questions Concerning Bibliography and Scien- tific Documentation Abs Jour Fef Zhur-Xhimiya, No 3, 1958, 6837 Author A. Mal'skiy, V. Qjj~jy~ski~j L. Tvlel'tser, S. Chuk-lin Inst Odessa Technological Institute of Food and Refrigeration Industries Title Odessa Technological Institute of Food and Refrigeration Industries Orig :,-ub Kholodillnaya tekhnika,, 1957, No 3, 32-33 Abstract To the 40th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. A general review of tui- tion and scientific activities. Card 1/1 P,5(2) SOV/66-59-5-4/35 AUTHORS: Chaykovskiy, V., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Shmyglya, A., ---m%Tn-e-e-r-,-1'av-76-v, K. , Engineer TITIE-. Comparative Tests of Valves of.Various Designs PERIODICAL: Kholodil1naya tekhnika, 1959, Nr 5, pp 17-21 (USSR) ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the serviceableness of valves of various makes and designs, as used in Freon machines, a series of comparative tests have been conducted in the laboratory of the Odessa Refrigeration Machine Building Plant im.Stalin. The valves were divided in 4 groups: The ist and 2nd groups comprised various types of the suction and discharge valves. The 3rd group contained valves manufactured by'the Austrian firm HSrbiger and the 4th group valves designed by Engineer A. Shmyglya. Thecharacteristics of the 4 types of valves are shown in Table 1. The tests were conducted with compressor 2FV-10 at certain fixed initial and final temperatures, -15 Ob and 300 C. A timing device recorded the time necessary for bringing the pressure in the receiver from 0 to 5 atmospheres. The best time - 22.5 seconds - was made by group 4 valves. Table 2 shows the results of comparative tests obtained by the 4 groups at temperatures indicated. The highest volumetric and Card 1/2 energy coefficients of the compressor 2FV-10 were obtained with valves j Comparative Tests of Valves of various Designs SOV/66-59-5-4/35 of group 4 with reduced dead space. The discharge coefficient of the Freon compressor falls sharply with the increase of dead space starting from 3.5% for example. The reduction of dead space in Freon comDressors of average output to below 2% holds practically no advantage. There are 4 photos, 2 tables and 1 graph. ASSOCIATION: Odesskiy tekhnolbg 1cheskiy institut pishchevoy i kholodillnoy promysh- lennosti (Odessa Technological Institute of the Food and Refrigeration Industries) (Chaykovskiy, V.), Odesskiy zavod kholodillnogo mashi- , nostroyeniya imeni Stalina (Odessa Refrigeration Machine Building Plant im. Stalin) (Shmyglya, A. and Savkov, K.) Card 2/2 KAI-TMTBW. V.; CHMOVSKIT, F. - SHKTGLTA, A. ~ *IIW,.of testing platon-type refrigeration compressors. Khol.tekh. 37 2003:61-63 MY-Je 160. (MIRA 13:7) (Air compressors) 'ViRyKov SK%Y, wqwuvw 4 0 as ad aw 3wimi i *"*, Z% Ti. ~tr 004 ca to wwgb aw pw . ..... meow. is tome of %b9 Reve famel am aim aw vow ftn' OPP. waWW and, of do b" .1" wali-d by wal 00 S, Asm am ad 1118 CHAYKOVSKIY-, V. D. and IDROUSHKO, P. 0. "Refinery of Superior Quality Production," Sakh. promo., 26, No 3, 1952 1. CHAYNOVSKIY, V. D. 2. TJSSR (600) 4. Efficiency, Industrial 7. For more accurate work and economy of material. Sakh.prom. 26 no. 11, 1952. 9. Monthly Lists of Russian Accessions Library of Congress. March 1953, Unclassified. (-Iq.kYIK0V-.1,IY, V. D. CHAYKOVcKIT, V. D.: "Methods of teaching surface areas and volumes in recondary schools", Kiev, 1955. Kiev-4te+e Pedagogical Inst imeni A. M. GorIkiy, Chair of Methodology in Mathematics. (T)issertation for the Degree of Cindidnte of Science of Peaagogical Sciences) SO: Knizhnava betolAsO, No. 41, IR Oct 55 LTUIMILOV, D.S. (Vinnitea);g4k .(Berdyansk);KUNINOV, G.I.(Shadrinak) Problem with prv~ctical contents. Nat. v shkole no.6.*QO N-D 159 (NathomtIcs-Problem, exercises, etc.) (MIU 13:3) +&u2SRRj- INow ymdH. r t~/., F E-ppi R92385 Kholodil'rWye rriashiny. i ustanovkd dlya sellskogo khozyayBtva by L. Z. Vielltser V. F.-Chakovsk . Kiypv,'YLasbgiz, 1956. 103 P. diaFrs., tables. CHAYKOVSKIY, V.F., kand.takhn.nauk, dotsent Designing apparatus for testing refrigerating compressors. Trudy OTIP I W 8 no.1:37-42 '57. (HIRA 12-8) lo Kafedra kholodlllzwkh mashin Odesekogo tokhnologichookogo instituta pishchavoy I kholodil'nov prorWahlennosti. (Compressors-Testing) -- -49HAi~~ - - -V- RO Y411~, , V, za. . . C H41 "The Volumetric Efficiencies of Refrigerating Compressors having, a Varying Capacity." Report submitted for the 10th Intl. Refrigeration Congress, Copenhagen, 19 August - 2 September 1959- IVIIUKLIH, S.G., prof.;-CHAYKOVSKIY. V.F.. dotsent "Refrigeration engineering. Vol. 1. Techniques of the production of artificial cold." Reviewed by S.C. Chuklin, V.F.Chaikovskii. Khol. tekh. 38 no-5:66-67 S-0 161. MRA 15:1) 1. Zaveduyusbcbiy kafedroy IholodII'nykh ustanovok Ode5skogo tekhno- logicheskogo instituta pishchevoy i kholodil'noy promyshlennosti (for Chuklin). 2. Zaveduyushchiy kafedroy kho)odil'nykh mashin Odesskogo tekhnologicheskogo instituta pishchevoy i kholodil'noy promyshlennosti (for Chaykovskiy). (Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery) CHAYKOVSKIY, V..F., kand.takhn.nauk, dotsignt; SHMYGLYA, A.A., inzh.; VODYANITSKAYA) - - I-- N.I., inzh. Values of the meaft temperature of the walls of a Freon uniflow compressor. Trudy OTIPiKhP 12:33-36 162. (HI.RA 17:1) 1. Kafedra kholodillnykh mashin OdessIcogo tekhnologicheskogo instituta pishchavoy i kholodillnoy promyshlennosti. CHAYKOVSKIY, Y.F~-A,*And.tekhn.nauk, dotsent; KUZISTSOV, A.P., inah.; LOS', V.I., V.D., inzh. Enthalpy-concentration diagrnm for the Freon 12 - Freon 22 mixture. Trudjr--OTIPiKhP 12:37-47 162. (MIRA 17:1)- 1. Kafedra kholodillnykh mashin Odesskogo tekhnologichoskogo institutA pishchevoy i kholodillnoy promyshlennosti. CHAYKOVSKIY, V.F., kand.takhn.nauk, dotment; KUZNETSOV, A.P.p inzh. - -- j- ! -1 1 Low-temperaturs generators of cold. Trudy OTIPiKhP 12:22-32 162. . (MIRk 17tl) 1. Kafedra kholodilvnykh mashin Odesakogo tekhnologicheskogo initituta pishchavoy i kholodillnoy proaWshlennosti. CHAYKOVSKIYO V. F. and OZIETSOV, A. R. Utilization of Refrigerant Mixtures in Refrigerating Conmression Machines. report presented at the Ilth Intl. Congress of Refrigeration, Munich, Gemuny, 27 Aug - 4 sept 1963. .GHAMVBKIYP V.F., kand,tekbn.nuk; XUZNETS01j, I.F.., inah. Mlization of refrigerant mixtures in compression refrigeratIM19,6Ptems, lbol.takh. 40 no.l.-9-n JA-F ~63. WU W3) 1. ,~desskiy tekbuologicbeekiy institut pishcbevoy i kholodillnoy pro4ablennosti. (Refrigerants) SAVKGV, K.I., inzh.; GHAYKOVSKIY V.F kand. tekhn. nauk Determining the angular velocity of the shaft of refrigerator compressors. Khol. tekh. i tekh. no.1:43-47 165. (MA 18:9) (A) SOURCE CODE: UR/0413/66/000/00410024/0024 AUTHOR: Chaykovskiy. V. F Kutnetsov, A. P.; Dankovskly, V. B. ORG: none TITLE: A refrigeration unit which mses a two-component coolant. Class 17, No 178031 SOURCE: Izobreteniya, promyshlennyye, obraztsy, tovarnyye znaki, no. 4, 1966, 24 TOPIC TAGS: refrigeration equipment, coolant, vapor condensation, gas compression, refrigerant gas ABSTRACT: This Author's Certificate introduces.a refrigeration unit which uses a two- component coolant. The device contains a compressor for the two-component vapor, a water- or air-cooled condenser where the high-boLling component is li~quified, a vapori. zing condenser for liquefaction of the-low-boLling element by vaporization of the high- boiling component, 4 vaporizer for cold production and regenerated heat exchangers in which both components are recooled. The overall dimensions are reduced and the power indices are improved by using a booster at the input of the ccmpressor for compressing the vapor of the low-boLling component. UDC: 621.574.9-146.2 CHAYKOVSKIY, V.G. Eliminate shortcomings in the system of loading arches, Transp. stroi. 14 no.4:59-60 Ap 164. (MIRA 17%9) A.JTHORS: Byg, L.S,,,and Chaykovskiy, V.G. 120-6-11/36 T'MB: On the Working Li.e of Argon-Ck(OCH 3)2 Filled Counters of Radioactive Radiation (0 sroke sluzhly schetchikov radioaktivnogo izlugheniya s argon-metilalevym napol- neniyem) PERIODICAL: Fribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta 195~, No.6. pp. 49 - 54 ?USSR - i~,>~'TRACT: The working characteristics of self-quenching counters deteriorate with age. A number of workers (Refs. 1 and 2) have noted that these changes are: increase in the threshold voltage, increase in the plateau glope, etc. Such changes are usually observed after 107 to 10 pulses a~d determine the working life of a counter. High-voltage self-quenching GM-counters are usually filled with an inert gas such as argon plus a small proportion of some organic vapour such as ethyl alcohol, iso- pentane and others. At the moment of recording of an ionising particle, dissociation of the organic molecules takes place. As a result of the irreversible breakdown (in the discharge) of the organic molecules the working characteristics of the counter c4ange. ccording to the existing ideas in each dis- harge 10'; to M 6 organic molecules are broken down. In Card 1A 120-6-11/36 On the Working Life of Argon-C%(0CH3)2 Filled Counters of Radio- active Radiation. counters of normal dimensions there are 10 20 molecules of the quenching material *Rd therefore all these molecules ought to dissociate after 10111 counts. However, normal working of the counter is disturbed much earlier. In the present papew the authors give results of a mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas mixture during the working of the counter. The counters which were used for this experiment were of the usual co-axial form. The tungsten anode was 0.1 mm. in diameter and had a working length of 80 mm. The cathode was in the form of a layer of copper deposited on the inner wall of the glass envel- ope. This system is shown in Yig.l. Counters were filled with 15% (by pressure) chemically pilre CH2(OCH 3)2 and the pressure was brought up to 100 mm HS by the addition of argon. Two groups of counters were used. The first group consisted of 60 counters and was used to study changes in the chemical composition of the filling and the characteristics of the counter as functions of the number of counts. The second group, consisting of 70 counters, was used for both the above purposes Card 2/4 120-6-11/36 C.~. the Working Life of Argon-CH2(OCH3)2 Filled Counters of Radio- a,Aive Radiation. and the study of changes in the amplitude and the count ate as functions of the number of recorded counts. Results of these measurements are summarised in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Fig.2 shows the change in the characteristics of counters as a function of the number of recorded counts. It can be seen that the threshold voltage increases by 50 to 60 volts, the length of plateau decreases by about 260 V and the plateau slope increases from 2 - 3 to 18 - 20% after 2 x 100 counts. Mass spectrometric analysis has led to the conclusion that the amount of dissociating organic molecules is proportional to the number of recorded counts. In the gas mixture of the counter, sub- stances with mass numbers 16 and 28 appear, and these worsen t!.Le counter characteristics. There are reasons to suppose that Ghe mass number 16 corresponds to oxygen which has a strong influence on counter characteristics. The ageing of the counter is connected not only with the dissociation of the organic component but also with changes in the surface of the cathode. The present experiments have shown that, with the right exploit- ation of argon-CH2(OCHI,)2 filled counters, they can be used for Card3/4 recording up to (1 to 2") x 108 counts. 120-6-11/36 On the Working Life of Argon-CH2(OCH 3)2 Filled Counters of Radio- active Radiation. S.A. Vekshinskiy and M.I. Men'shikov collaborated in this work. There are 6 figures, 2 tables and 6 references, 2 of which are Slavic. SUBMITTED: May 3t 1957. AVAIIABLE: Library of Congress Card 4/4 SOV/120-59-1-15/50 AUTHOR: Chaykovskiy, V. G. TITLE: Thermal Stability-of Halogen Counters (Termostoykost' galog- ennykh schetchikov) - PERIODICAL: Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta, 1959, Nr 1, pp 65-66 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Three groups of counters were investigated; Group I. In this group the counters had nickel cathodes, 10 mm ii! diameter, kovar anodes 0.5 mm in diameter, the work- ing length of the anode beingogO mm. They were outgassed and subsequently heated to 25 in chlorine. In order to remove volatile products, additional heating at 140-1500C was carried out before the final filling at a pressure not -4 exceeding 10 mm Eg. The counters were filled with a mix- ture of Ne, Ar (0.1%) and Br2 (0.03%) at a total pressure of 600-650 mm Hg. Group II. Counters of identical construction. The addit- ional heating to 1500C not carried out. Group III, Counters of Type STS-1 with the geometrical di- mensions as the above but having stainless steel cathodes. Figs 1-3 show the results obtained. Fig 1 shows the depen- Card 1/3 dence of the threshold voltage on temperature for the CTC-1 Thermal Stability of.Halogen Counters SOV/120-59-1-15/50 counter (2) and the Group I counter (1). Fig 2 shows the dependence of counter characteristics on temperature of the surrounding medium. Ciiiwe 1 shows the dependence of the be- ginning of the plateau on temperature for a STS-1 counter and a Group I counter, and Curve 2 shows the dependence of the end of the plateau on temperature for a similar pair of counters. Curve 3 shows the dependence of the efficiency of Group I counters on the temperature of the surrounding medium. It is concluded that changes in the characteristics of halogen counters as the temperature increases are due to the evaporation into the working volume of the products of interaction cC the halogen with the material of which the counter is made and desorption of excess chlorine. Prelim- inary removal of these products by heating,extends the thermal Card 2/3 SOV/120-59-1-15/50 Thermal Stability of Halogen Counters stability of thecounters up to 170-2000C. There are 3 figures and 2 Soviet references. SUBMITTED: November 21, 1957. - Card 3/3 o5435 SOV/120-59-3-6/46 AUTHORS: Dmitriyev, A. B., Tolchenov, Yu. M., Filatov, A. I~, and Chaykovskiy, V. G TITIE: Coroi~-a-Cotnt-01~6-Tf~~bngly ionising particles (Koronnyyeschetchiki sillnoioniziruyushchikh chastits) PERIODICAL: Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta, 1959, Nr 3, pp 35-40 (USSR) ABSTRACT: A description is given of a number of corona counters designed on the basis of the work reported in Refs 3 and 4. The SAT-7 a - particle counter is shown in Fig 3. It consists of a glass envelope with a ferrochrome ring. A 10-*ll It thick mica plate is attached to this ring and forms the end-window of the counter, The ring serves as the output contact for the metallic cathode which is evaporated onto the glass and the mica. The anode is in the form of a hemisphere 1 mm. in diameter (in Fig 3, 1 is the glass envelope, 3 is the anode, 4 is the cathode, 5 is the ferrochrome ring, and 6 is the mica window), The SAT-8 counter is designed to measure the Card 1/4 intensity of beams of strongly.ionising particles, Its SOV/120-59-3-6/46 Corona Counters of Strongly Ionising Particles cathode is in the form of a metallic cap made from ferrochrome which carries a mica window 3 4 IL thick and 4 mm in diameter. The anode is similar to that in the SAT-?. The slow neutron counter SNM-9 has the usual cylindrical geometry, Its cathode has a diameter of 18 mm. and is made of stainless steel. The element sensitive to slow neutrons is a layer of amorphous boron deposited on the inner surface of the cathode, The thickness of this layer is grj8ter than the ranGe of the products of the reaction B (na) Li?. All the three counters are filled with a mixture of neon with a small admixture of argon (not greater than 2%). The corona noise usually does not exceed 5 mV in SAT-? 15 MV in SNM-9 and 25 mV in SAT-8 counters and can be easily cut off with a suitable discriminator,, The maximum amplitude of the working pulses is 100 -' 300 mV which corresponds to a gas amplification coefficient of Card 2/4 about 1000 -:- 3000,, Fig 5 shows the dependence of' the 0505 SOV/120-59-3-6/46 Corona Counters of Strongly Ionising Particles a - particle pulses and noise on the supply voltage in the case of the SAT-7 cou4ter. Best results are obtained with a load of 5 x 1OF34 -~'-109 ohm. With such load resistances,'the voltage ranges are 450-.'1000 and 700 2500 volts for the SAT-8 and the SNM-9 counters respectively. The plateau slope is practically zero. In the case of the SAT-7 counter a 1 Meg resistance is sufficient and the length of the plateau is 300 -* 450 volts. The counters have a resolving time of about 1 ji see. The efficiencies are as follows:- SAT-7, 25 -' 30% (uncollimated 5 Mev alpha particles), SAT-8. 100~(uncollimated 2 Mev alpha parti-c:les), SNM-9, 0.25% (thermal neutrons). L. S. Eyg, L. K. Pyatibokov, V. I. Vinogradov, V. I. Popov, V. T. Fedoseyev, V. N. Korneyev and L. A. Card 3/4 Fomina are thanked for their assistance, 0505 SOV/120-59-3-6/46 Corona Counters of Strongly Ionising Particles There are 7 figures and 8 references, 5 of which are Soviet (1 a translation from English), and 3 English~ SUBMITTEDg April 25, 1958 Card 4/4 05438 SOV/120-59-3-9/46 AUTHORS: Dmitriyev, A. B-, Peskov, D. I.,, Kheyfets, A.B. and Chaykov.skiy, V. G. TITILE: Dose Characteristics of Low Voltage Halogen Counters (Dozovyye kharakteristiki nizkovolltnykh galogennykh schetchikov) PERIODICAL: Pribory i tekhnika eksperimental 195.9, Nr 39 pp 47-49 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The dose characteristics of the low-voltage halogen counters STS-1, STS-2, STS-5, STS-6, STS-8, SGS-5, SGS-69 SBT-10 and SGS-7 have been measured and are now reported. The parameters of the first six counters were given by Dmitriyev (Ref 2. a review paper), The SGS-6 counter is similar to the SGS-5 but its cathode has a longer working length. The SBT-10 s designed to detect soft P-radiation and has a 30 cJ mica window, It consists of ten sections placed in a common envelope. The cathode of each section is in the form of a half- cylinder, 5 mm in radius. The anode of each section is 55 mm long and has a separate output terminal. In the SGS-7 counter the cathode and the anode are in the form of discs 10 mm and 0.5 mm in diameter, respectively, Card 1/4 The gap between the discs is 1 mm. The electrical 05438 SOV/120-59-3-9/46 Dose Characteristics of Low Voltage Halogen Counters parameters (threshold, length-and slope of the plateau) of SBT-10,, SGS-6 and SGS-7 are analogous to the parameters of all the low voltage halogen counters described in Ref 2. Table 1 gives the main parameters of the counters. The first colilmn gives the type of the counter, the second column the cathode diameter in mm and the third colimn the working length of the anode in mm. The counting rate was measured using the PS-10000 meter, the input sensitivity being 0.1 V and the resolvingotime 1 11sec. The irradiation was carried out using Go sources whose activity was 0,01-5 Ra g equiv, The dose was determined to within + 10~6~ In the experiments the SBT-10 counter was connecTed as shown in Fig 1. while all the remaining counters were connected as shown in Fig 2. The dose characterist cs and the plateau slope were determined using R = 1A Ohm, Figs 3 and 4 show the dose character- istics of the'above counters measured at the working voltage. It is clear that in the majority of the counters there is a maximum counting rate on the dose characteristic, Card 2/4 This is explained by the considerable reduction in the 05438 SOV/120-59-3-9/46 Dose Characteristics of Low Voltage Halogen Counters pulse height at-large counting rate. Under these conditions the potential difference across the counter is not fully established. Since halogen counters give pulses with unequal amplitudes (Ref 3) it follovis that some of the pulses may fall below the threshold of the detecting device. Table 2 gives the dose characteristics of the counters, where column 1 gives the type of the counter, column 2 the dose range in lir/sec, column 3 gives the counting rate at the appropriate dose in pulses/sec and column 4 the maximum counting rate in pulses/see. Table 3 gives the dependence of the plateau slope on the dose, in which the first column gives the dose in jLr/sec and the second and third columns give the plateau slope in percent/Volt for the STS-5 and SGS-5 counters, respectively (the headings of columns 4, 5 and 6 are the same as those of 1, 2 and 3). Table 4 gives the resolvIng time of the counters. Column 1 of this table gives the type of the counter, columns 2 and 3 the resolving time in jisec at 100 pulses/sec and at maximum counting rate, respectively (columns 4, 5 and 6 have the Card 3/4 same headings as 1, 2 and 3). The load resistance has a 05438 SOV/120-59-3-9/46 Dose Characteristics-of Low Voltage Halogen Counters great effect on the dose characteristics (Figs 5 and 6 in which the curves are plotted in ascending values of the load resistance). In the detection of large doses, the anode voltage must be well stabilized because in this case the plateau slope is considerably increased. It is noted that the plateau slope and the character of bits change with increasing counting rate differs from counter to counter since it largely depends on the technology of manufacture and the conditions under which the counter is used. However, it follows from Table 3 that the plateau slope increases with increasing dose (i.e. increasing counting rate). There are 6 figures. 4 tables and 4 Soviet references9 one of which is a tianslation from English. SUBMITTED: April 4, 1958 Card 4/4 c26. a2c2 9 k i AUTHORS.-' Tolchenov, 20680 S/120/61/000/001/014/o62 E032/E114 Yu.Me, and Chaykovskiy, V.G, TITLE: A Gas Discharge Gamma-Ray Detector With a Logarithmic Sensitivity PERIODICAL: Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta, 1961, No*l, PP-51-52 TEXT: The detector (counter) is in the form of a two- electrode gas discharge system with a strongly nonuniform electric field. The counter can be filled with any of the non-self- quenching gases normally used in Geiger counters. P1g.1 shows the arrange~nent for the recording of y-rays by the corona counter. A voltmeter which measures the potential difference between the electrodes is connected in parallel with the counter. In the simplest case, an electrostatic voltmeter can be employed. if the applied voltage exceeds the voltage necessary to initiate the corona discharge, and the load resistance R is greater than or equal to 109 ohm, then in the absence of ionizing radiation the voltmeter will indicate a constant voltage Vs. The introduction of a y-radiation leads to an increase in the current through the counter, and consequently the voltage indicated by the voltmeter Card 1/ 6 20680 S/12o/ 61/ 000/001/ 01 4/o62. E032/E114 A Gas Discharo; e Gamma-Ray Detector With a Logarithmic Sensitivity changes by, say, &V. LW depends logarithmically on the intensity of the y-radiation, and its magnitude reaches 100 volts or more when the intensity changes by an order of magnitude. Qualitatively, the operation of the counter can be described as follows. When the applied voltage is less than VS, the counter operates as a proportional counter. Under these conditions the volt-ampere characteristics are as shown schematically in Fig-3. In the absence of y-radiation the volt-ampere characteristic has the form of a rapidly rising curve which for V > Vs goes over into the usual characteristic of a corona discharge, which is not very dependent on the y-ray intensity. The dotted lines in Fig-3 show the dynamic characteristics of the counter for various applied voltages and loads OMI > R2). The introduction of radiation leads to the displacemat of the working point from A to B (or from A, to Bt, etc.) and the current passing through the circuit changes from ii to some value i which is determined by the y-ray intensity. At the saine time, the anode potential decreases by 6V = V - Vs. The new position of the working Card 2/6 20690 S/1.20/61/000/001/014/o62 E032/E114 A Gas Discharge Gamma-Ray Detector With a Logarithmic Sensitivity point (HO) corresponds to the proportional region. Two factors influence the change in the current, namely, an increase in the y-ray intensity gives rise to an increase in the cut-rent, but on the other hand this increase in the current in the proportional region reduces the gas amplification coefficient (Tolchenov, Ref.2). As a result, the dependence of &V on the y-ray intensity is logarithmic. As can be seen from Fig-3, the higher the supply voltage the lower the load resistance R and the higher the upper working limit of the instrument. Fig.2 shows the change in the anode voltage &V as a function of the y-ray intensity (r/hr) for different values of R (ohms) as shown. These results were obtained with a cylindrical counter, 26 mm i= diameter and 130 mm long, filled with a mixture consisting of Ne + 2% Ar at 500 mm Hg. The value of Vs was 700 volts and the applied voltage was 750 volts. The lower working limit under these conditions was about 0.1 r/hr. Fig.4 shows the change in the anode voltages &V as a function of the y-vay intensity (r/hr) for a counter 26 mm in diameter and filled with helium, Card 3/ 6 2o68o S/12o/6l/ooo/00.1/014/062 E032/Eii4 A Gas Discharge Gamma-Ray Detector With a Logarithmic Sensitivity argon and krypton respectively (pressure = 300 nun Hg).. With a suitable design, a range of 0.01 to 1o6 r/hr may be covered. Acknowledgements are expressed to Yu.N. Sachkov for discussing the method of measurement, and to V.N. Korneyeva for assistance in the experiments. V.G. Khrushchev, K.A. Trukhanov and A.D. Turkin are thanked for laboratory facilities provided. There are 4 figures and 2 Soviet references. SUBMITTED: February 1, 1960 Card 4/6 S -M I 10 ~ 20680 S/120/6.1/000/ooi/oiW62 ~EOWE114 A Gas Discharge Gamma-Ray"Detector With a Logarithmic Sensitivity AV w ACCESSION NR- AP40068 Iz SIOIZO/631000/0061000510OIZ AUTHOR: Tolchenov, Yu. M.; Chavkovskiy, V. G. TITLE: Corona counters for slow neutrons SOURCE: Pribory* i tekhnika eksperimenta, no. 6. 1963, S-12 TOPIC TAGS: corona counter, neutron detector. slow neutron, radiation measurement, neutron counter, neutron detection, slow neutron counter ABSTRACT: A short description of Soviet-make corona. counters is offered. Their advantages over proportional counters are seen as: (1) High gas - amplification factor not much affected by variations in the supply voltage; (2) Stable operation in the presence of a strong gamma -radiation background; (3) High theirnal stability. Table l in Enclosure I gives the fundamental charac-1 teristics of the couniers; Table 2.esents schematic data for the circuit diagram shown in Enclosure Z. T7e high gas -amplification factor of the corona ceird I ACCESSION NR.' AP4006812 counters permits using low-sensitivity (30-50 mv) recording devices. it is claimed that corona counters can replace proportional counters in most applications. Orig. art. has: 12 figures, 3 formulas and 2 tables. ASSOCIATION: none SUBMITTED: 29Jan63 DATE A(^Y. 24J&n64 ENCL: OZ SUB CODE: NS NO REF SOV: 004 OTHER: 002 cam 2/f ACC N.R: AP5027009 SOURCE CODE: UR/O12O/65/OOo/o05/o0T1/OO73 AUTHOR: Klyukvina, Ye. F.; Chaykovq%_ V,. G. Rikollekiy, A. Po; Yevlanov. I. Ya. ORG, none TITLE: Construction and technical.characteristics of a proRortipnal Rgunter SOURCE: Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta, no. 5, 1965, 71-73 TOPIC TAGS:, gas discharge.counter, proportional counter ABSTRACT: A proportional counterdesigned for detection of 1-10-kev x-radistion is, described. To meet the requirement of a large-area input aperture of minimum thick-.., ness, the design contains acathode equipped Iwith two 10-p Al film apertures 25 x 16 m each. To reduce attenuation of fluorescent radiation by the surrounding air, the counter itself is placed in a vacuum while the remainder of the unit is sxxbjected to' normal atmospheric pressure. Provisions are made,for connecting the output of the counter to a scintillation counter.. The active elements of the counter are a stain-* less steel cylindrical cathode 25 mm in diameter, a tungsten wire anode 0.05 i3~m in diameter, and a gas mixture of 90% Ar and 10% CH4 which is passed through the counter 'interior at a rate of 5-20 cm3/min. Fig. 1 shows the output pulse height as a fun.c- tion of the.ap~lied potenti al,' The linear region corresponds to a gas avalanche fac- tor range of (1.3-1.6) x 104. The efficiency of the counter ab a function of wave- length is shown in Fig. 2. The effectiveness of the counter in detecting hard radia- Card 1/2 UDC: 539.1.o74.822.3:621.386 L 4968-66 CHAYKOVSKIY V.G. Repair of bridge spazwo Pat' i put.khos. 7 no.1:23 16;. (MIRL 16:3) 1. Nachallnik proizvodstvenno-tekbnichookogo otdela mostopoyesdo6 stantsiya Brest Belorwmkoy-dorogi, . (Railrcad, bridgew-Mmintenance and repair) CHAYKOVSKIY, V. 1. CHAYKOVSKIY, V. I.: "An analysis of the interference-reBiStance of the autocorrelation metbod of receiving impulse signals". Kiev,, 15~559 Min Hig7her Education Ukrainian SSR. Kiev Order of TA-mi n Polytechnic Inst,, Chair of Radio Receiving Equipment* (Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate MIECHNICAL Sciences) SO: KhI Letopis' No& 51, 10 Decenber 1955 LI.SSR/Electronics Card 1/1 Author Title lnfor,-,ation Theory Periodical Abstract Pub. 90-2/9 FD-2494 : Chaykovskiy, V. I., Active Member, kNORiE : Reception of pulse signals by the mutual correlation method : Radiotekhnika, 10, 16-20, Jun 55 : Determination of the ratio of signal to fluctuating noise during the reception of pulse signal, applying the mutual correlation method is discussed. The aim of this research was to analyze the noise rejection of pulse signal reception with the aid of the mutual correlation method. The values for the signal-to-noise ratio thus-obtained are compared to the corresponding values of the output of an ideal band-pass filter. An expression is derived which shows that the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of a correlation receiver under certain conditions is more favorable than that of an ideal filter. Graphs. Five references: 2 USSR institution : All-Union Scientific-and Technical Society of Radio Engineering and Electric Communications imeni A. S. Popov (VNORiE) Submitted : November 16, 1954 IA r/x c X)!~, r-- I yV, .Category : USSR/Racljophysics - Statistical phenomena in radiophysics 1-3 Abs Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957, No 1808 Author : Chaykovskiy, V.I. Title : Rolbe Rejection o a Filter Auto-Correlation Receiver for Pulse Signals Orig Pub : Radietelchnika, 1956, 11, No 4, 20-30 Abstract The signal-to-noise ratio is determined at the output of a simple cor- ri,6ation receiver, which has aq averaging element consisting of a low- pass filter. By signal-to-noi~e'ratio is meant the ratio A of the square of the maximum increment in the de component at the output of the receiver in the presence of a useful signal to the average square of the fluctuations at the output in the absence of a useful signal. Assuming that the fluctu- ation noise has a uniform spectral density, and assuming the input (band)' filter of the receiver and the averaging element to be ideal filters, the author derives an expression for the dispersion of theLlIuctuations and for the maximum value of the increment of the dc component at the output of the system under investigation. These values make it possible to determine A. It turns out that the opti;mum value of the time delay'r at which A = Amax, depends on the bandwidth -of the input filter. If the input-filter has an optimum bandwidth, the above system has no advantages over a receiving set with a square-law detector. Increasing the Vandwidth of the input filter Card 1/2 Category : USSR/Radiophysics - Statistical phenomena in radiophysics 1-3 Abs Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 195T No 3BOB i (4~) a.,;i- 43, where a is the duration of the usef~xl-signal pulse), one can obtain a certain improvement in the noise rejection (up to a factor of 2) over a receiver with a square-law detector-. Card : 2i2 PA - 2293 AUTMR1 KAMOVSKrrX,I,., CUMVBKIY,V.I,, Regular Members of the Society for Radiotechnoiogy. TITM The Method of Increasing the I-mmity frcs Disturbance of the Auto- correlation Reception of ImptAlso Signals. (Xetod povysheniya pamek- houstoychivouti avtokorrelyatsionnogo priyama impul'anykh signaloys Russian). PIWIMICAL: nika, 1957, Vol 12, Nr 2. pp 22-27 (U.S.S.R.) Received: 4 / 1957 Reviewed: 4 / 1957 ABSTRACT: It is shown that, with the aid of a'samewbat complicated construction of the correlation reception system, it in possible to eliminate the usual faults and to increase the J-1nity from disturbance of the system. (Usual faults: if time of delay in greater than the optimum time, the immunity from disturbance of autooorrelation reception decreases to zero if the time or delay boomen equal to the duration or the useful aIignal).'This in attained by switching an a synchronous key-devioe into one of the channels of the system. The range of application in, however, limited by the class of the synchronous pulse system. kt first it in shown merely by approximation that the dispersion of the noise integral is diminished in the case of re- generative reception* and that therefore the 4-unity from disturb- anoe increases in the moo of the method suggested. This is proved with accuracy in the course of the second part of the paper. Yrom cut 1/2 the attached diagram it may be seen that a regenerative autooorrela- PA - 2293 The Method of Increasing the Immi ty f rom Disturbanov of the Auto- correlation Reception of Impulse Signals. tion. system warrants an additional improvement of immunity from dis- turbance amounting, to = 30% in the case of the optium value of the transparency band of the input filter and a proper selection of the time of delaye whereas the latter is somewhat less than the immimity from disturbance of an integral system in the came of the ordinary autooorrelation system. Prom the diagram it may further be seen that in the case of a brgadening of the transparency band the aforementioned improvement increases still. further and becomes equal to two in the case of a band of infinite breadth. (5 illustrations). MODUTIM. Not given PROM= Dr: SUAKITM: 10 100 1956 AVAUANA Library of Congress Card 2/2 SOV/142--58-5--5/23 ~490) AUTHORi Chaykovskiy, V.I. TITLLPt Noise-killing FeatUre Of an Integral Self-Correlated Reception System PUTODICALs Izvestiy vyssikh uchebuykh zoved9a$yr%diotekhnika, 1958, Nr 5, pp 5511-554 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The article presents one of the possible variants of a correlated reception system , an integral self -correlation system with detect- ing of the impulse signal and black-our. ox tne Iluctuating dis- turbance. Following the principal scheme of the elementary self- correlating reception system (Fig.1), the last apparatus has to register the short-time self-correlation factor miscellany of the signal and the disturbance y (t). The~presence of a synchroniza- tion channel allows the realization of the coincidence of the neutralization interval T with the interval of active transmis- sion. The advantage of the signal disturbance relation at the ' output of this receiving syMtm in comparison with the correspond- ing relation, at the output -of & normal integral receiving system Card 1/2 has its place only at the transparency band of the input filter, I SOV/142-58-5-5/23 Noise-ki1ling Feature of an Integral Self-Correlated Reception System pushed to an optimum by Siforov (jdW d >8.6). The maximum advan- tage appears as a conserquence of weakening the disturbances at the installation output, combined with a barely'existing reduction of the useful signal. The disadvantage of the system is, that in case of absent synchronism between the intervals of useful transmission and the intervals ofineutralization, not all the advantages of the method appear.,The article in reco=ended by the Kafedra radio- priemnykh ustroystv KiyevLjjq7W!n& Lenina politekhnicheskogo instituta (Chair if ip ices at the Kiyev Polytechnical Institute of the Order of Lenin~. There are I block diagram, I graph, 15 equations and 6 references, 4 of which are Soviet and 2 ,English. SUBMITTEDs February 21, 1958 Card 2/2 9(2) SOV/142-58-6-4/20 AUTHOR: Chaykovskiy, V.I. TITLE: Determination of the Minimum Detectable Ratio of Signal to Noise at the Input of a Radiometer (Opre- deleniye minimallno razlichimogo otnosheniya sig- nala k pomekhe na vkhode radiometra) PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vywhikh uchebnykh zavedeniy - Radiotekh- nika, 1958, Nr 6, pp 659-664 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The purpose of the article is to determine the cor- relation between the intensity of a treshold signal of random nature, acting on the input of a radio- meter with a square-law detector, and the probabili- ty of detecting this signal at the output of a re- gistering instrument during a given time of analysis, and with a known intensity of noise in the radio- meter channel. The probability of correctly deter- mining the fact of the absence or presence of,the desired signal is a function of signal intensity, noise intensity, and the time of analysis. Deter- Card 1/4 mination of this functional relationship is one BOV/142-58-6-4/20 Determination of the Minimum Detectable Ratio of Signal to Noise at the Input of a Radiometer purpose of the article. A block diagram of the radiometer circuit (Figure 1), consisting of in- put filter, detector, averaging device, and re- gistering instrument, is very briefly discussed by the author. Readings of the registering instru- ment are proportional to the output voltage of the averager, and as both signal and noise are of a random nature, these readings will also have a random nature over a finite time of analysis. Readings will fluctuate about a certain average value, equivalent to the value of the average power of the mixture of desired signal and noise. Pres- ence or absence of the desired signal can be de- termined from the magnitude of a particular value of reading; a reading higher than a certain con- trol value corresponds to the presence of the Sig- nal, and vice versa. Taking the probabilities of Card 2/4 correctly determining the presence or absence of SOV/142-58-6-4/20 Determination of the Minimum Detectable Ratio of Signal to Noise at the Input of a Radiometer the desired signal as equal, the author derives expressions for the minimum detectable ratio of signal to noise for a radiometer with the averag- ing device, and a radiometer with a low-pass filter in its place (eq. 10,11). It is concluded that as small a signal as desired may be detected pro- viding sufficient averaging time or a sufficient- ly narrow pass-band in the averaging filter; at a given signal/noise ratio, an increase in the probability of detecting the desired signal de- mands a corresponding increase in the duration of the analysis; improvement of the signal/noise ratio at the output of the radiometer in comparison with the corresponding ratio at the input is greater; the greater the relative analysib time, or in the case of the radiometer with a low-pass filter, the less is the ratio of the band of the averaging Card 3/4 filter to that of the input filter; with appropri- SOV/142-58-6-4/20 Determindtion of the Minimum Detectable Ratio of Signal to Noise at the Input of a Radiometer ate choice of averaging interval (time) and pass band of the averaging filter the maximum sensitiv- ities of a radiometer ideal integrating device and a radiometer with low-pass filter do not prac- ticall-y speaking differ from each other. This article was recommended by the Kafedra radiopriygm- nykh ustroystv K1,yevskogo ordena Lenina politekh- nicheskogo instituta Pair of Radio - Receiving Equip- ment of the YJ4w Order of Lenin Polytechnical In- stitute). There is 1 block diagram, and 4 refer- ences, 2 of which are Soviet and 2 English. SUBMITTED: February 21, 1958 Card 4/4 24374 S/142/60/003/005/001/015 E192/Z382 AUTHOR: Chaykovskiy, V.I. TITLE; Methods of Experimental Determination of Correlation Functions PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshlkh uchebnylch zavedeniy, Radiotekhnika, 1960, Vol- 3, No. 5, pp. 425 - 434 TEXT: The mixed moment of the second-order W-ri) , which represents the average value of the product of two random functions fl(t) and f,(t) shifted in time by an amount ~M , is of importance in 4.110 statistical theory of communi- cations. Pov the stationary processes this moment can be obtained as a result of the time-averaging of the product of these two functions, shifted in time by in the following form +T F12(,t) = lim f1(t)Yt + 't-,) dt T_,tcx,~ 2T _T Card 1/10 sA42/6o/oo:04/001/015 Methods of .... E192/E382 The ergodic theorem shows that M(L-) and FCO are equivalent. In the case when f I(t) = f2(t) , Eq. (1) represents the so-called autocorrelation function F 11 (-"') . It is known from the Wiener-Khinchin (Ref. 3 - A.M. Yaglom, UMN, 1952, 7, No. 501), 3; Ref. 4 - U.R. Bennet, Basic Concepts and Methods of Theory of Noise in Radio-engineering, Sov.Radio,1957) that the autocorrelation function of a random process can also be represented as + M, F11h.) PW cos w'%, dw - Ck-- where PW is the energy spectrum of the function. The equipment employed in the evaluation of correlation functions can be divided into three groups, depending on the underlying principle of their operation., A) the devices based on the principle of the two-dimensional. Card 2/10 Methods of .... 24374 S/142/6o/003/005/001/015 E192/E382 probability density; b) the devices employing the principle of the spectral function, and c) instruments based on the multiplication principle. As regards the devices of the first group, their basic element is a system for determining the two-dimensional probability density W2(fIf2t in each point of the three-dimensional space fl, f2, -c, This usually consists of a device determining the conditional probability density of the signal f1 (or f.) for a fixed 'r- and an instrument determining the unidimensional probability density of the signal f. (or f2). In this type of equipment the signal fIand signal f2 . delayed by an amount ^t~, , are applied to the device which determines the conditional probability den.9ity W(f 1/f2) which, together with a multiplier M, I integrator I Card 3/10 2-14374 s/142/6o/oo3/oo5/ooi/0l5 Methods of .... E192/E382 a generator of linearly changing voltage LG, forms a system evaluating the conditional average value of f I in the interval of f, , which comprises the region of the most probable values of the process and its vicinity. A second channel of this type of correlator consists of a device determining the probability density of the quantity f2w(f 2) a multiplier M2 and another generator of linearly changing voltage LG, . The signal at the output of the second channel is proportional to the quantity f 2 W(f2) . The voltage of LG2 changes within the same limits as the voltage of LG, but the rate of its change is much slower, so that the voltage of LG, can be regarded as constant during one period of LGIL a The generators LGl, LGV. and integrators I, and I. Card 4/10 24374 5/142/60/003/005/001/015 Methods of .... E192/E382 are synchronized by a signal provided from a synchronising circuit. The output signals of the two channels are multiplied by a multiplier M3 and are integrated with respect to f2 in order to determine the average value of fl(t)f2 (t 4 + M), which is equal to the correlation functlon for a fixed-~_-. +00 +010 1 M (PC) f2w(fddf2_~ fJLW(fl./f2)df, If the delay time C. is varied, the signal at the output of the device'represents, therefore, the cross correlation function for f. and f2 . The principle of a corvelator can be based on Eq. (2). In this case, the equipment consists of an automatic spectrum analyser which produces the amplitude spectrum of the input signal; this is followed by a squaring Card 5/10 S/142/60/OC~V&5/001/015 Methods of .... 1:192/E382 circuit where the power spectrum is obtained; the amplitude spectrum of the latter is then produced by another automatic spectrum analyzer which is equivalent to the autocorrelation function of the investigated process. The correlators based on the multiplication principle can be of two types: those operating sequentially and those performing instantaneous analysis. In the second case, it is necessary to employ a set of fixed delay elements for N&T, with a monotonically increasing delay. As regards the correlators of the first type, these simply consist of a delay circuit, a multiplier and an integrator (with an indication circuit). This correlator is much simpler than that based on the instantaneous analysis principle. However, the sequential-analysis correlator has the disadvantitge that the time taken by it for determining the value of the correlation function is n times longer than that of the more complex correlator. Multiplier correlators can also be designed differently. Thus, for example, the correlator can be constructed as follows. The investigated signal f and a portion of the signal f 1 2 Card 6/1o S/1112/6o/003/005/001/015 Methods of .... E192/E382 (with suitable polarity),j76 applied to a subtraction circuit i!!~, ; the amplitude and polarity control of f2 is performed by means of a calibrated sy=.netrical potentiometer and a phase- inverter circuit. The difference produced at the outputaCA. is: A(t) = f1W 2(t) and this is applied to a squaring circuit, an integrator and, finally, the indicating device. it can be shoi-m that the minimum of the mean square value of 2 A (t) corresponds to the case when the multiplier a is equal to the correlation coefficient 11,,, Consequently, the measurement of the correlation coefficient is equivalent to the setting of the above instrument in such a way that its indicator gives a minimum; the 6oefficient a is then read on the calibrated scale of the potenxiometer. The above multiplier correlators are not suitable for the measurements of the autocorrelation functions of slowly changing processes* Card 7/10 Methods of .... 2,4374 s/142/60/003/005/001/015 E192/E382 In this casev it is possible to base the correlator on the following formula: N F 5' anh11 (t) n=O The resulting correlator consists of N channelsi the investigated signal fIis applied to the input of these channels and their outputs produce expansion coefficients a a a Each channel consists, therefore, of a of JL9 n filter having a suitable impulse response hn(t) , a multiplier N nand an integrator In . The correlator also comprises another set of filters having impulse response hof hjq h. whose input is excited by a short pulse 6(t) Card 8/10 24374 S/142/60/003/005/001/015 Methods of .... E192/Z382 Consequently, periodic signals corresponding to hol his h2v ... are formed at the output of each filter. Another set of multipliers M2 perform the multiplication of the n expansion coefficients a n and impulse responses hn . The products of the multipliers are then added in a summation circuit. The resulting signal is equivalent to the auto- correlation function of fjL . The determination of a correlation function can also be performed by digital devices. In this case, each point of the correlation function is evaluated by averaging a sufficiently large number of the pairs of products of the values of the investigated process f(t); the correlation function is given by F(T) a b CO nn N n=1 Card 9/10 2437h 5/142/60/003/005/001/015 Methods of .... R192/E382 where a. and bn are discrete values of f(t) , shifted in time by 'r- with respect to each other. Instruments of this type can have a very high accuracy (error of less than 1%). There are 9 figures and 19 references: 9 Soviet and 10 non-Soviet. The four latest English-language references are : Ref. 6 - T.M. Burford and V.C. Rideont, J. Brit. Instn. Radio Engra., May, 1955, 15, No. 5; Ref. 7 - T.M. Burford, J. Applo Phys. Jan., 1955, 26, No. I.; Ref. 13 - T.P. Goodman, J. Applo Phys. July, 1956, 27, Noo 7; Ref. 14 - D.G. Lampard, P122, PC, 1955, 102, No. 1. ASSOCIATION: Kafedra radiopriyemnykh ustroystv Kiyevskogo ordena Lenina politeklinicheskogo instituta tChair of Radio-receiving Devices of the "Order of Lenin" Kiyev Polyteelmical Institute) SUBMITTED: December 21, 1959 Card 10/10 CHAYKOVSK.IY V red,,; POLYANSKAYA, L.O., red.; STPURODUB, T.A., [Determination of the parametersi of random processeslopm- delenle pam-etrcyv sluchkinykh protsessov; sbornik statel. Kiev, Gostekhizdat USSRj 1962. Translated from the English. (MIRA 15:9) (Random processes)