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DOWN, V-A-; XUZIMSOV, B*I.; NASZMW. D.N. Investigating the growth of a layer of an n-type samicondnotor at -a oadLinn-selenium contact. Fisetvarstala I no.5:734-739 MY '59- (MMA 12:4) 1. LeningradsklZ fisiko-tathnichaskly inett",ut AN SSSR. (Cacimiuml (Selenium) (semiconductors) 5(2) 05889 AUTHORSt Doring Ve A@$ Tartakovokayaj P.M. SOV/78-4-11-42/50 TITLEs The Reduction of Titanium Dioxide in the Presence of Titanium PERIODICALs Zhurnal neorganicheskoy khimJ.iv 19599 Vol 4, Nr 11, pp 2635w2637 (USSR) AESTRACTs The reduction of T10.2 has so far always been carried out by means of direct contact of the reagent with T1026 In the present paperp the authors report on.thereduction of T102 by means of.Ti without contact between the two substances. Ti, in a qaarts oontainerg was submergod into the quartz test glass filled with NO 2 so that the reduction could only take place by way of the gaseous phase. The behavior of the TiO 2-modifications rutile and anatase was investigated at temperatures up to 11000(Tables 192). The color changes observed at rising temperature are caused by Ti 3+-ions. After.heating for five hours, the rutile had the Card 1/2 composition TiO 1-936.* Traces of Ti 305 appeared at 10500 . The Reduction of Titanium Dioxide in the Presence of Titanium A089 V;P SOV/78-4-11-42/50 The anat4se was transformed Into rutile. The reduction of TiO 2 in the presence of Ti takes place within a wide temperature range* By corresponding variation in temperature and reaction time, dioxides with any deviation from the stoiohiometrin ratio can be obtained. Herep the TiO 2 becomes a semioonduct4ro The authors thank D&M, Naeledov for the attention paid to the paper. There are 2 tables and 5 references. ASSOCIATIONt Leningradskiy fisiko-iekhnioheskiy institut Akademii nauk SSSR (Leningrad Physical-toohnioal Institute of the Academy of Sciences# USSR) SUBMITTEDs April 22p 1959 Card 2/2 66(,22 S/126/60/009/02/007/033 E1&14E335 AUTHORS: Dorin, V.A. and Filaretova, "77-- Sulphid'al on TITLE; Investigation of the Growth of a Lead Film, Lead in Contact with Liquid Sulphur PERIODICAL: Fizika metallov i metallovedeniye, 1960, Vol 9, Nr 2, Pp, 195 - 201 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The 8rocess of growth was studied in the range 175 to 300 C by placing lead samples in liquid sulphur. X-ray analysis showed that the film formed consisted of one compound only with the composition of PbS.~l Figure 1 shows a micrograph of the sulphide film obtained at 200 0C. the thickness was measured by a comparator IZA-2. Figure 2 shows that there is a linear relation- ship between the thickness and time. The rate of growth has an exponential relationship with temperature (Figure 3)o The effect of impurities in both the lead and sulphur was studied.* .The iliObtained on lead containing 1 at. % Sn, Cd or Zn were very thin. An addition of 1 at. % of Cu had no effect. Experiments Cardl/2 in vacuo showed that the presence of air considerably 68622 s/126/6o/oo9/02/0O7/O3.%0 Investigation of the Growth of a Lead 161J~Jaj5Film on Lead in Contact with Liquid Sulphur increased the thickness of the film. It was shown that oxygen and not nitrogen was the cause of this increase. The presence of selenium or tellurium in the sulphur also gave a marked! increase in growth. It was demonstrated that the growth of lead sulphide took place at the lead- lead sulph1de interface. The rate of growth of the film is determined not by the diffusion through the film but by the rate of formation of lead sulphide. Acknowledgments are expressed to Professor D.N. Nasledov for his continued interest and for his comments on the results. There are 5 figures, 2 tables and 12 references, 4 of which are English, 3 German and 5 Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Leningradskiy fiziko-tekhnicheakiy institut AN SSSR (Leningrad Physico-technical Institute of the qSc,USSR) SUBMITTED: July 13, 1959 Card 2/2 80531 S/126/6o/oo9/05/011/025 EQ21/E335 AUTHORS: Dorin. V.A. and Filaretova, Mrs. TITLE: The Growth of a Lead Selenido Film PERIODICAL: Pizika metallov i metalloiredeniye~ 196o, Vol 9, Nr 5, r.P'718 - 721 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out on the diffusion of liquid selenium in contact with solid lead. The apparatus used (Figure 1) ensured that no diffusion could take place in the time taken to heat up to the eyperimental temperature. The apparatus was evacuated to 10 -) min Hg and placed in a thermostat. The diffusion layer formed after several minutes consisted of two parts. Figure 2 shows the selenium I , a porous PbSe layer 2 , a compact PbSe layer 3 anO lead 4 . X-ray analysis showed that both the diffusion layers contained PbSe. Figure 3 shows the structure of the porous layer which consists of a network of lead selenide crystals, the pores of which are filled with amorphous selenium. Microhardness m2asurements confirmed this, giving values of 75 kg/mm for PbSe and Cardl/3 57 kg/mm2 for So. The thickness of the compact layer 80531 S/126/6o/oo9/05/011/025 The Growth of a Lead Selenide Film E021/E335 was always the same under the same conditions but the thickness of the porous layer varied even when prepared tuader exactly the same conditions. With increase in time of diffusion, the compact layer increased in thickness and the porous layer decreased. A similar picture was obtained with Increase in temperature. Oxygen had a p.Tonounced effect on diffusion. The layer produced with the apparatus filled with air was several times thicker than that produced in vacuo. Only a thin compact layer (and no porous layer) is formed with solid selenium in contact with lead. The mechanisro of film formation with solid and liquid selenium are obviously different. Lead &oms diffuse into the liquid selenium to give the porous layer. This was confirmed by carrying out tests with lead covered with lead sulphide. There are 4 figures and 6 references, I of which is English and 5 are Soviet. Ir Card2/3 80531 S/126/60/009/05/011/025 The Growth (if a Lead Selenlde Film E021/E335 ASSOCIATION: Fizilco-tekhnicheakiy institut AN SSSR, Leningrad (Ehysics-engineering Institute of the Ac.Sc., USSR. Leningra ) SUBMITTED: JulY 13, 1959 -- initiallyi December 7, 1959 - after revision. Card 3/3 S._02 /00 80227 8/076/60/034/04/18/042 BOIO/BO09 AUTHORS: Doring V. A., Naeledov, D. N. Tartakovskaya, F. K (Leningrad) TITLE: Preparation of a Titanium DioxidAemiconductor on Titanium at Low Oxygen Pressures PERIODICIL: Zhurnal fisichookoy khiaii, 1960, Vol- 341 No- 4P PF- 609 - 814 TEXT: The oxidation of titanium in a gaseous phase obtained by heating powdered titanium oxide wait investigated. In this way a gaseous phase containing only small amounts of oxygen was obtained. Titanium foils (0.6 ma thick, 20 X20 =2) with at most 0.08% C, 0.08% N 29 0-5% ?a + Nil and traces of Cu were oxtdized. The titanium oxide powder was annealed at 800 0 for three hours prior to use. In the firpt series of experiments anatase powderLwas used, in the second, rutile powder. Work- ing temperature@ ranged from 7000 to 11000, the weight increase In the titanium foil undergoing oxidation was determined by weighing. In the first series of ex- periments the color of the oxide film was observed to change with temperature, i.e., at 650-8000 'the oxide in light gray, but changes into dark gray and, at temperatures above 6500p into dark blue. in X-ray analysis showed that at VK Card 1/2 80227 Preparation of a Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor on 8/076j6O/O34/04/18/042 Titanium at Low Oxygen Pressures BO1O/BOOq temperatures UP to 650-9000 an oxide film with a rutile structure foram. At 11000 two oxide layers were found, namely a thin upper layer of Ti305 and a lower layer the X-ray picture of which was different# although Its composition is likewise Ti OV . The dependenoe of the growth of the oxide layer upon time was found to be pailliop while the temperature dependence is governed by an exponential law. The results of the second series of experiments (Table) show that the sample weight inoreas** at 700-9000 only. The oxidation of titanium takes place while the titanium dioxide powder is greatly reduced. The oxide film forming duritLg the process has an electrical conductivity of the electronic type. This"electric- al conductivity depends on the temperature at which the oxide film is produced. G. P. Lidahkin andS._q._U'jA are mentioned in the text. There are 5 figures, referenoest 4 of which are Soviet. SUBMITTED: Juni 271 1958 Card 2/2 .BAKAYE. , A.V.1 GELLER, I. Kh.j DORIN, V.A.: ZAKHAFOV, M.P.j NASLEDOV, D.N.; SOIDVIWIV R.A. Method for investighting potential distribution in selenium rectifyizig cello. Zav.lqb. 27 no.10:1240-1242 161. (MIRA 14:10) 1. LeninjTadskiy politakhnicheskiy institut im. M. I. Kalinina. (Selenium-Electric properties) S/I 3 -)/63/()00/001/012/027 C202/F.420 AUITORS: Bakayov, A.V., Gollor, I.Ah., ov'P.M Zakhar Naslodov, D.N,, SolovIyev, R.A. strA ti n.' TITLE: Di u o of potential in selenium roctifying clements botwoon eloctrodas PERIODICA1,: Izvestiya vysshikh uchabnykh zavedeniy. F:Lzika, no.1,.1963, 78-84 TO:T. Results oj.* measuring-potential distribution in solonium rectif'ying elements in the conducting direction are di3scribed, 'To explain in detitil the mechanism of potential disitribution between' the clectrodes, mOnsurements were carried out at points separated by a distance of 15 )1 Since the thickness o:r selenium layer varies from 50 to 1001L :Lt was necessary to ineasure the potontial at 10 to .20 points. Xn order to carry.out the measuroments the layer of selenium and the j)-n junction rogion ifere stripped and a transverse soction prepared Both types of rectifiers, i.e. those with p-n junctiori between iho upper electrode and the layer of selenium, and those in which the p-n junction lies between the layer of sclenium and the base were investigated. The. method was based on Card l/ 3 s/139/63/ooo/ool/012/027 Distribution of potential B202/E420 measuring the diff erence of Potential between one of theelectrodes' and a probe, the lattor being placed at varioms points on -the .-surface of the transvorso section of the element. A special instrument incorporating a microhardness gauge, of the diamond pyrt'Amid typa in which the latter was replaced by a steel wedge- slig%pad probe was used. During-measurements the probe was pressed into tho..nelenium in-order-to.obtain reliable results. The width of the indentation' made by tho' probe was 1'. 5 to 2 IL , hence the i potential could be measured A .t points separated by a distan e of' RJL~ c Since the probo'.cogtact with selenium has a considerable resistance, ~!I.l or the order. of 10 to 109 ohmm, a high resistance voltmeter was used in'the~ measurements. .. This comprised a potentiometer with a center zero eloctrometer sensitive to a current of 10"11 A. The ..,,-measuronsonts had an absolute error of 0,001 V, Considerable care -J:wastalcon in the preparation of the transverso sections. ~The results have shown that the main fraction of the potential Applied lement'in:the conducting direction falls over the p-n to the e ;.-Junction, region, an the other hand,the layer of selenium accounts for not mora than'25q, of the abovo~fall. In~additiort to plotting !-'Card 2/3 J, f, JD 13207 AOMSIM MR1 AP3W. , 1 Ir AUMOR: Wring V. A114 Pm:tvWwTmp At Tsi# TM& Tweatigaction at 8240trie'al dumaletaristics of !NLC*mt&Ct vith Q _ X Intermediate, lumaaftig IMer A. SOMM-2 FirAka'tvardA)6O %'A0. So 1963,p 0(45-2069 TOPIC IMOS: . electrici3L-coutact obaracteristio., electrical chmracteristAoi -,mt- - taot characterietle..:titanium mddap titanim-oxiae coutact characteristic. =TMVt Ste'electrioal chareateestles art TIO -Agwmtaatv1tbLaAj=ujat4w-~,~ : - ;19 A: -e and . at 4M. - The eharmc-.!: ing layer.have been investigated at room temper : teristics Obtairad vexil Coulvarea v:L+,h thme of a system -.1thout am lumilaft-A layer, It vu-Toundtliat unipolar.oonftativity exists vp to 5000 vith inwilating leger ~ Plactifleation, takes place In the was, of cxwtact with 'the iMermedlate leyer,at At 3WO tha Coaftotilfity specimen W in lboth Airections. In. tbe. region of lov voltages the volt-aMere charanter-, isties of the spealmens 1"loated that the Introduction 01! an Inmilating layer.,-, 77~ Cwd -1/2 ACCESSIM-HR: AP300590, -*I~ _iam teiWratwe ad* Wotoes the-rejIntijoce of-the or Kim* Vb*I Ifith On :LUSUISti* lWr Its bettted to 4= - the re&Af leation'l aetor is W am :100 mv. An analysis of s harste sections of the volt, apperet eharsat the reverse direction ehm.4,thst the current Increased proportionally with tate+ in--rease of voltage up to dppWx1ztateIy 1 Y, Above 4 Y,, A *qonential depend- Once takes place'elther at low or bJL*L temperature, The eme dependence Ves o*Uerved in the contact area of Ag-TiO at lower voltages. ' Thus, the Intro. (hiction of so ~,~imulaftng letter consisi-IM of a material dMerent from no ature does not change the qualltaidys Vi of the characteristIcs.. it serves to elevate the teqpersture (by 900-2500) xt uhich rectification takes ~plsce. Orig. art. ban: 5 flgt~woss -5 tomilas. and jWSOCIATION: FIZIko- y InStItut Is. A. T.'Ioffe A*,S=,,. (IajMVA F sic2LAchnIc&ItmtItut*, AN SWR smam, eW*x63 DAn Aoqt 068op63 BUS COM., PH TIO W/ 8071 006 Card ASA" DORIN, V.A.; PATRAKOVAt A.Ya.; TARTAKOVSKAYA, F.M. Effect of an insulating layer on the electrical properties of rectifiers with a TiO base. Radiotekh. i elektron. 8 no.8tl462-1465 M le3x. (MIRA 160) 1. Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut im. A.F.Ioffe AN SSSR. (Electric currsht rectifiers) DAVIDOVICH, N.M.; DORIN, V.A. Electric Investigation of TiO 2tz d4ftusion layers on titanium Fis. met. I metalloved. 16 no.2t$1/3-277 Ag 163. (MIRA 16;8) . I. 1. Leningradskiy fiziko-tekhnichesl~y institut im. A.F. Ioffe AN MR, I 4ffusion coatings-Electric properties) (TitanAum oxide) DORIj1,j_YAA.;AUZ%TSOV, B.I. Device for perforating orifices in electron microacope preparation sieves. Zav.lab. 29 no.8:IC-12 163. (1URA 16:9) 1. Leningradokiy fiziko-takliniclieskiy institi)t imeni AJ. Ioffe All SSSR, (Zlectron microscopy) DORIN, V.A.; X0710V, M.M. Measurements of potential distribution in semiconductor rectifiers by means of a probe. Izv. vyo. ucheb. zav.; fiz. no, 31 97-101'~- 164. (MI RA 17 19) 1. Loningradskiy politekhnicheskiy institut imeni Kalinina. t iACCESSION NRt AP4054052 S/0126/64/Oi7/004/0536/0540. ~AUTSORS# Doring Ve A.1 Tartakoyakayst re Me TITLEt A study of the influence of oxygen genexated during the reduction of TiO2 on: tho*oxidation or titanium ISOURCE: Fizika metallov i metallovedeniyog Y. '170 no, 4, 1964, 536-540 1 I'TOPIC TAGSt titanitux oxidot titaniump annealing, sodium fluoride, hydrochloric soid, ,:oxide formation# rutile tiWium H TABSTRACT: The effects of oxygen (produced by reduction of T102 powder) on the iphysical properties of the oxide layer and on the rate of its growth ware studied. ;'It was ertabliched that it is possible to change the electrophyeical properties of the TiO*__ layer by immersing titanium in the oxide powder, Circular plates of Til 10 mm i~ ,diameter and 1.2 mm thick and with less than 0.1~ impurities, werp used ! for the oxidation experiments* Before oxidationt the plates wore annoaled at 1000C .for I hourp degeeaned, and then pickled in an aqueous solution of 5FA KaF with.,12% "IC1. These plates we:ro set vertically in porcelain debitensee and covered-with T102- [powder pro-annealed at 8000 for 3-houres Oxidation occurred in a tubular furnace hrough which a constAint current of steam wan petooods Riorophotographs of cut Lt, Ca 1/2 ACMSSION NRt AP4034052 sections were taken at 8000. Radiographic study of the structure of the material showed that V~a layer contained dioiide with rutils structure. As observed-earlier ,.by D. I. Layner mid Us Is Tay*pin (Fop 1960p 10, 5113), the oxidation of titanium in' air proceeded through molecular oxygen, whereas in ateam it proceeded through atomia oxygen. The formation of atomic oxygen during the veduction of T102 explained the 1:similaritiee in the physical properties of the layers formed in steam and in a Istea'm-air mixture# The increase in the contribution of atomic oxygen'in the oxide jayer was responsible for, the growth of this layer with significant deriation in the ~etoichomntric properties,' Orig. art. haw 5 figurest I formula, and 1 table. ASSOCIATIONs Leningradskiy fisiko-tokhniohook insUtut is. A, F, loffe AN SSJR Leningrad MVeico-toohnical Institute, AN SSSH ISUMITTEM 2SApr63 ENCM 00' So CODEt IN 10 MW 80vt 005 OTMR 1 001 Cari ACCMI011 HHj AP4013307 S/OD32/64/030/002/020(J/0206 AUTHORS-: Dorin, Ve Ae; Kozlovj~ H, Me T17U.- Silicon carbide prob.a for*testing Bemiconduct~r materit SOURCE: Zavodskaya laboratoriya, V. A no. 2j, 1964, 2o6 TOPIC TAGS: silicon carbide, silicon carbide.probe, semiconductor probe ABSTRACT i A silizon carbide probe with a -vesistivity of 10 *hm-cm ban been devised for testing hard semLconduotor materials, The probe (see Fig, 1 of Enclosure) consists of a sharp point (1) which is fixed with .;iA in a copper holder (2)o The holder is attached to fluorine-bearing plates (3) irith a screw (4), The poInt scribes a line about 1,5ju wide, The contaot restitance of the probe is 10Y ohm* This instrument can be used for testing selenium wid titanium dioxide. Orig. arts has: I figure. ASSOCIATIM Leningradakiy politekhnichookiy institut (Leningrad Folyteohnical Institute) Card 14 1 76~~ 003 sm, A* R TIIU* Oh4ooil t I- ~TZ~m -, At" ioftl- repU m -without- d frm ths mArfants- NNW#, S"Lass UUMIUms m4 soms of ttoir chemical ths compoun"O a VW= 0 to be IjOila-s-Ilm-4 a! dAmAs tw! brittle to bo M Wed irrAos Iamb Is Uhs am aa for -%ho =41ftW 13M 6f ~IITW Is 104 aid -fte"w'procossim dj fftVAIGM-SB& 026*t'vom miamove surements no reW-"a plrd~ boto --t" jj*jjrMl; Ampm 00 00 We cm M, ir ard 7~114. 7 L ~5~-66 ACCESSION M APW478 MVOLT916510001001011210115 AUTHOR: Dorinp-,Tt_A.3, Koz1orp M. M. TITLE: The e of defeds In a p-n Junction an tbo drift phenomenon In tielentun rectifiers SOURCE: 1AM. Fizikmp no, 4p 1965, 112-115 TOPIC TAW.- selenium rectifier# current stabiliziLtionp pn junitionp rectificstionp electric conductlyl-tyOVS) Avg ABSTRACTs The drift of selenium rectifiers TV$ mid AVO was investigated from tho point of view of the behavior of the channels of Iocal conductivity in a p-n June- tion. The fan-off of ~the voltage was wasured f(w a constant current. An au%*- Maticoreca#W3g potentiometg~(ZPP-40 with an Input resistance of 10" obm was used.' The current amroc was a battery of dry ce31s with a total emf of 1000 Y. The voltage on the rectifier did not exceed 40 ve The Investigations vers carriod,' out on Ae-nCdGe and pile-NCM hatem junction 40 31: 40 ~= in size. It was found that the resittame or a rectifier increases In time at sms.31 currents &M do- creases at large currents. The drifting Is due to a large degree to local Inhomo- geneities whose conductivity varies with time. For some rectifiers there are several current values at which there In so drifting. This a" b* attributed to Card 1/2 277h6;&6 EW(11 w&2 ftwh JDAT - .ACC NRs AP6001590 SOURCE CODE: 1YR 0 /012 /65/000/006/0189/0190 AUMOR: ORO: Leningrad Poty~echftioal'Institute (]Aningradskiy polilhekhnioh eskiy, institut) TITM A devi o*e- indiciating the position cif the p-n Junction in silicon rectifiers,, SOURCE:' Oribory i t khnika eksperimentai no. 6, 1'D659 189-190 TOPIC TAGS: orystal rklotifier, phydioe leiboratory instrument ABSTRACT., A simple.system is described for measuring the potential Jump at the P-n Junction in a thin sil.foon crystal plate. The transi- tion region.'was.measured with a preoision-of one micron. The p-n positionwas fixed by ~!qing a probe needlo made of a tungsten wire. The adjustment of the ntledle poir.";' o the right position Owes made by means of the M191rosOopes,6f the PhIr- iorohardness-meterland of the horizon- 8"i 4cro- tal.1ZA-Woomparator he else rioal circuit'included a storagibattery a recOrdihg EPP-4NVe eotrometer with a resistanoe of 1011 to 10 ohms and a d-~o el-e-o-E-romher amplifie 6f M-2 type. The arrangement was out--. t lined in a diagram. The distribution of potential illustrating the.p-n position was shown in a curve. Orig. art. has: 2 figures. SUB CODE: 09 BMW DATE: 5NoV64-/ ORIG REF: 003 OTH REF: 001 UDC: 537,33 -A Cord L 01821,'-66 T P( c MD ACCESSION M, AP5020130 uR/mg/65/010/008/150/1522; 539.293-011.)1l AUTHORt Dorin, V. A..;Xoz1ovj M. M. TITLE: Jnvestfgation,of the potentialdistribution in the reverse direction in a -Se 14er adjacent to n-CdSe p SOURCE: Radiotekhnika i elektronika, v. 10, no. 6, 1965, 1518-1522 f r. TOPIC TAGS: selenium~-%admium selenide, electric potential,p n..J~~q~:Lqn, semicon ductor device ABSTRACT, The potential was measured at the polished end of a S ayer 80-100 0 thick. Se conductivity was 1-10 ohm.m. A thin (under I u) fllm~i of n-CdSe obtainea by a reactive-diffusion process formed a J~~('!'tion with Se. A voltage of 30-35 v was dpplied to the specimen, and a steel probe was set at 4 v from the junction. Potential-distribution curves were measured. It was found that 1) the space chnrge~_._ at.a distance of It 0 from the junction iv pructically nil; 2) the reactive-diffusion-. produced contact is, in fact, a defective helero-p-n iunction (conducti-ng channels can be found in the junction) and 3) the nonuniformity of the p-n junction can be DAVIDOVICII, N.M.; DORIN, V.A. Screw dislocations in diffusion layers. Fiz. met. i metalloved. 19 no.4z626-627 Ap 165. (MIRA 18:5) 1. Leningradskiy politakhnicheakiy inatitut imeni Kalinina. LORVII V,A,) KOZI.CVp M.M. Detente 1n p - n-junation3 affecting- creep In sclu,"--n milfieri. Izv. vy9* uohebe z&v.; fiz. 8 no.41:112-115 165. ~ MT RA I A; I?., 1, Loningradikly poll tekhnicheukly Institut, Sulmitte-A ~fm-.,-,ry 8F 1964, 25(l) PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITATION SOV/1593 Dorin, Vasiliy Ivanovich Toohnlya shtampovka detaley optiko-=ikhaniche,..:ikh priborov Precision Cold-pn3ssing of Parts for Optical-mechanical Devices) Moscow, Oborongiz, 19!58. 458 P. 7,050 copies printed. Ed.: V*Yao Shekhter, Candidate of Technical Sciencesl Ed. of Publishing House: A,.G,, Kuznetsova; Tech* Ed.: V.P. Rozhin; Managing Ed.: A.S. Za*ovskaya., Engineer. PURPOSE: This book Is intended for iongineers and technicians in optical and mechanical plants who deal with metal stempings. It may also be used by engineers in the instrument and watchmaking Industry and by stwients interested in this branch of mechanical engineering. COVERAGE: The book deals with the cold working of metal,, in particular with the stamping of small precision parts for Card 119 Predision Cold-pressing of Parts (cont.). SOV/1593 photographic cameras and optical equipment manufactured in the USSR. Modern methods of precision stamping on compound and progressive dies and some theoretical as- pects of metal shearing are dese-ribed. A new method is mentioned which is said to combine stamping and machining of parts while the parts are still in strip form. Lo- cating parts for subsequent ope:rations is accomplished by means of perforations along the edges of the strip@ Basic forging.. drawing., and upsetting operations are explained. The use of dies on an industl~ial scale basis, the number of dies available, and the most efficient use of these tools are discussed. Explanatox7 illustrations, diagrams, graphs and tables are provided, There are 52 references# of which 49 are Soviet and 5 Ge:nnan. Foreword Ch. I& Classification of Die Operatlons, Dies, and 3 Fields of Application 5 1. Classification of cold-working operations 5 2. Yields of application of cold-working 17 Card 2/0 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cont.) SOV/1593 Cho 11. Materials Used in Cold-Working in the Optical and Mechanical Industry 21 1. Sheet and strip steel 22 2. Aluminum and aluminum alloys 34 3. Magnesium alloys 38 4. Copper and copper alloys 39 5- Nickel and nickel alloys 45 Ch. III. Shearing Sheet Metal With Shears and Dies 48 1. Shearing with shears 48 2. Shearing with dies 50 3. Determination of forces involvod in shearing on dies 52 4. Triming operations on dies 57 5. Lay-out of parts for stamping 59 Ch. IV. Bending on Dies 65 1. Determination of the miniolm bending radius 66 Card 3/9 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cont.) SOV/1593 2. Determination of bending forces 3. Spring-back 4. Clearance between punch and die in bending TO 5. Determination of the size of the part In bending 711 6. Dies for precision bending 71 Ch. V. Drawing 77 lo Determination of the number of operations and selection of the coefficient of drawing 77 2. The use of pressure plate 80 3. Clearance (punch and die) 80 4. Punch and die corner radii 81 5. Blank for drawing 6* Lubrication in drawing operatiorz 83 7- Power requirements in drawing operations 84 Ch. VI. Stamping in Compound Dies ST lo Stamping flat parts in compound dies 89 0 2. Stamping shaped parts in compound dies 10 3. Trimming drawn parts in a die with horizontal or vertical movement of the punch or the die block 131 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cont.) 307/1593 Ch. VII. Stamping in Progressive Dies 142 I Stamping in progressive dies of flat parts 144 2: Stamping in progressive dies of shaped parts 155 Ch* VIIIe "Post-operatiowall Stamping Witil a Perforated Strip 169 1. Making flat parts 1T2 2. Making shaped (throe dimensiona3.) parts IT8 Ch. 3:X* Cold Working Dies 210 10 Classification, characteristics and application of die cold working 21Q 2. Examples of making parts for optical and mechanical instruments with the use of die cold working 224 3. Die design for die cold working h r- 2 rj Ca;d ~/q. Precision Cold-pressirgof Parts (cont.) SOV/1593 Ch, X, Some Problem of Quality Control in the Production of Precision Parts for Optical and Mechanical Instruments le Organization of quality control in the shop and the Instruments used 270 2* Inspection of precision parts vrith. projectors 272 3. Preparation of scribed templetts for quality control with a projector 278 4, Defects of parts produced in dies and pre- ventive measures 281 Ch. XI. Some Problems In the Design and Making of Precision Dies 28-6- le Preliminary data 286 2. Shape and size of die components and determination of tolerances 9?89 3. Standard design of strippers Emd ejectors 296 4. Sectional die blocks and punches for precision dies 298 5, Making sectional die blocks and punches 304 Card 619 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cont.) SGV/11593 6. New methods of fastening die blooks and punches 309 Making die blocks and die molds 'by squeezing 311' Materials for die components 313 , 9: Die sets for cold working 314 Ph,, XII. Organization of the Die Maintenance-Services 326 lo Sequence in accepting and delivering dies 326 2. Keeping records of dies 330 3. Storing dies 332 4. Issuing to the shop, return, and checking of -ubability of.dies 333 Mounting and setting-up dies on presses 335 Overhauling dies 339 7: Service life of dies and methods of increasing it -340 8. Safety in working with dies and presses 342 Card 7/9 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cont.) SOV/1593 Ch, XIII. Mechanization and Automatization of Cold Working in Optical-nechanical Instrument Production, 346 1e Basic trends in the development of mechanization and automation of cold working 346 2. Mechanization and automation of strip and band stock feed into the die 34T 3. Mechanization of feeding separate blanks into the die 367 4* Mechanization of stripping and. ejecting finished parts 382 Ch. XIV. Mechanization of Some Auxiliary Operations 391 1. Arrangement for cutting-up scrap 391 2o Machines and arrangements for cleaning operatidns 392 3. Machines for deburring flat parts 396 4. Mechanical sieve for separating finished parts in tumbling barrels 399 Card 8/9 Precision Cold-pressing of Parts (Cogit.) SOV/1593 Ch. XV~ Equipment for Cold Working 401 1. Presses 403 2. Preparatory equipment used in. cold working 445 Bibliography AVAILABLE: Library of Congress GO/rj !5-28-59 455 Card DORIN, Viktor Sergeyevich; HEYLUXAS, V.Y.otvetetvany redaktor-, -- 'G.i;',-redaktor; KAHOLOVA, V.M.,tekhnichesIdy radaktor [How and why a ship floats] Kak i pochemu plavaet sudno. Leningrad, Goo. soluznoo izd-vo sudostroit. promyshl., 1957 113 P. (MIRA 10-.-N) (ships) DMN, V,69, kand, takhn, nauk Using differential might equations, Sudostroonle 25 no*7:7-10 J1 159- (MIR& 12-12) (Naval architecture) SM4M.OV-TYANSHANSKIY) V.V., doktor tekhn.nEiuk; DORIS, V.S.j kand.tekhn.nauk Problems of ship reserve buoyancy and stability exalnindd at the Conference on the Revision of the Intemational Convention of 1948 .on the Protection of Hunan Life at Sea. SudoBtroenie MY 162. (MIRA 3,5:7) . (Lifesaving-Congreoses) (Stability of ships) .I.,-- DDRIN-j-V.S#-j -kindIt'k$ , inzh. .. 4bn.ns:#; VOLKOVj B.N.. Standardi2ing the re-erve buoyancy of seagoing ships* Sudostroenie 28 no*5:4-12 My 162. (MIRA 15:7) (Stability of ships) kand.tekhn.naukl ARAKELIYAN, G.V., inzh.; L-OGACHEV, S.I., inzh.; NIKOLAYEV, M,M,, inah, Advantage of designing large-tonnage taWc vessels with excess metacentric height. Sudostroenie 29 no.7:5-8 JI 163. (MIRA !6o) (Tank vessels) (Naval architecture) , LORINOVSXAYA, A.Pe ED(MYNOTSIXA, A.P.) Zffect of drWinduoed sleep on erylihropoissiR during, the ost- hemorrhagic period [with onmmnz7 in W:11sh] Fisiol.shur. rzo 4 noa3*.339-147 MY-Je '58 (NIU 1117) 1. Sverdlovskly medichniy Institut, knfedrn patologichnol fistologii. (SLW) (IRYTHROCYTES) DORINOVSKAY-k, A.P.,, Cand I(ed Sci - (diss) "Zffe(,t of lk",~ sleep tN:wM regeneration of the blood in experimental anemia." Sverdlovsk, 1959, 15 pp (S%vrdlovsk State Med Inst) 200 copies (KL, 33-59, 121) - 61 - DORIS, Spalatin Cruioeo with the Jadrolinij~L shipe. Modun transp 8 no.6:416-418 Je 162. IZVASHOVA,L.B.; DORIYENNO.Ye.P.; DBGTYAREV,V.7. Radioactive tracer study of cobalt thiocyanate distribution between immiscible solvents. Zhur.ob.khtm.25 no.6:lo66-1072 Je 155. (MLTIA 8:12) 1. Urallskiy politekhnicheakiy inatitut (Cobalt thiocynnates) KHILINSKIY, F.A.; LOTYSHEVI I.P.; LEBEDENKO, G.B.; SHAVKWIOVA, N.D.; J)MIZO.,, A.F.; TERNOVAYA, K.G.; ANTIPOV, A.S... obshchestv. red.j BABAK, Yu.M.p tekhn. red. (Goryachly Klyuchl Goriachii k1luch. Izd.2., ispr. I dop. (By] F.A.Khilinskii i dr. Krasnodarsk, Krannodarskoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1963. 84 p. (MIRA 17:2) 1. GlavrWy vrach sanatoriya No.2 Kurorta Goryachiy Klyuch~ Kavkaz (for Lebedenko). 2. Sanatoriy No.1 Kurorta Coryachly Klyuch, Kavkaz (for Shavkuncva,Ternovaya).3.ZarestitalI gla-vnogo vracha po meditsinskoy chasti sanatoriya No.2 Kurorta Goryachiy Klyuch, Kavkaz (for Dorizo). GOYA. I., BUJMTR, N., DMU, N., RUB, D. (Bukharest) P-MOMMUM"Wo Interrelations of rheumatic arteritle, periarteritis nodoea and rheumatic diseases; preliminary report. 36 no.lot68-75 0 158 (MIRA 11;11) (MM14ATISM, compl, arteritia, relation to -.firlarteritis nodoea (RUBD (ARTERITIS. etiol. & pAthogen. rheum., relation to peria-Aeritis nodoea (Rua)) (P)MIARTERITIS, NODOSA relAtion to rheum. arteritis (Rua)) .~=DMIN Vosiliy Grigorlyevich:[Dorking.T.R.1; =50OVe.Do [Ukensaug Do]@ red.; 7_UM . I 2 . -Vwkhrr.~-f [Selecting and training collective-farm ipeoialists] Padbcr I vykhavanne kalhasnykh lmdrau. Kinsk, :Dsiarsh.vyd-va BSM, Red.manava-palit.lit-ry# 1960, 32 p, (MIRA l413) (Oollective farm@) (Agricultural education) 20904 1,61,30 s/l44/6l/ooo/oo3/oo4/oo4 9194/E435 AUTHORS: Lifanov, V.A., Cand1date of Technical Sciences, Docent, Read of Department of Electrical Machines and Instruments and Senior Instructor TITLE: An Investigat 'ion of Commutation Armature Reaction in d.c. Machines using Hall-Effect Pick-ups PERIODICAL: Izvestiy& vysshikh uch nykh zavedeniy, Elektromekhanika, 1961VNO.3, Pl).109-115 I TEXT: This article describes a method of obtaining curves of magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a d.c. machine using Hall-affect pick-upa. Hall-effect pick-ups used in this work were single crystals of germanium made in the Laboratoriya elektricheskikh mashin ChPU (Electrical Machines Laboratory of ChPU) and their dimensions were 10 x 4 x 0.45 ow. Calibration work showed that with inductions in the range 100 to 15000 gauss and currents of 30 to 50 mA, the signals obtained could be measured in an ordinary electromagnetic voltmeter without preliminary amplification. The pick-up was used to investigate magnetic fields in the air gap of a motor typa T114-10 (PN-10) Card 1/ 4 20904 S/144/61/000/003/004/004 An Investigation of Commutation ... E194/E435 it was attached to the outer surface of one of the armature teeth. The pick-up was connected to a terminal bosird by flexible leads arranged so that the armature could be turned through a dou6le pole pitch. Smooth armature rotation was ensured by a worm drive. Curves of magnetic field distribution in the air gap of d.c. machine type PN-10 are plotted in Fig-3, in which curve 1 corresponds to the armature field, curve 2 to the field of the main poles and curve 3 to the resultant field. Determination of the m.m.f. of commutational armature reaction is then considered. When the commutation in d.c. machines is accelerated or retarded there arise m.m.f.'s of commutating currents of the short-circuited armature sections which either strengthen or weaken the flux of the main poles. The fundamental theory of the effect is described in order to explain the basis of the experiments. The test circuit used is shown in Fig.4 in which the machine investigated, denoted M M in the diagrom, can act an a generator or motor, it being if the same shaft as the auxiliary machine denoted BM. In this case the Hall-effect pick-up was attached under the middle of the main pole of the machine studied. The test consists in taking voltage curves at the output of the Hall-effect pick-up with the - L 20904 5/144/61/000/003/004/004 An Investigation of Commutation Z194/E435 machine acting as both generator and motor. Under both conditions the speed, armature and field currents are the same. The work was done on a d.c. generator type nw-loo (PN-100) of 115 V, 13.3 W, n6 A, 1480 r.p.m. N single crystal germanium Hall-effect pick-up made in the Inatitut poluprovodt-ikov AN SSSR (Semiconductors Institute AS USSR) was used, its dimensions were 5 x 3 x 0.45 mm. The operating current during the test was 10 mA*. The results are plotted in Fig-5. The point of intersection of the generator and motor curves corresponds to the case when the fluxes in the machines are equal in both cases. This in valid provided only that there are no m.m.f. or commutating currents, which corresponds to straight line commutation. Fig-5 also plots the difference between the generator and motor voltages and so in effect shows the change of voltage on passing from the generator to the motor conditions. This change is due to the m.m.f. of commutation currents. This m.m.f. may be determined by a special test which consists in taking a curve of the voltage on the output of the Hall-effect pick-up as function of the field current at no-load. The curve, Fig-7, is then readily constructed; it shows the relationship between the m.m.f. of commutational armature Card 3/4 20904 S/144/61/000/003/004/004 An Investigation of Commutation ... E'L94/E435 reaction and the boost current in the d.c. motor. It will be seen that the boost current of 3.6 A corresponds to straight line commutation. It in concluded that this method of determining the magnetic field in the air gap of a d.c. machine in simple and easy and can be used both on the factory teist bed and in teaching laboratories. The proposed method-of determining the m.m.f. of commutating currents permits rapid and accurate assessment of machine commutation. There are 7 figures, 2 tables and 4 references: 3 Soviet and 1 non-Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Kafedra elektricheakikh mushin i apparatoy Chelyabinskogo politekhnicheskogo instituta (Department of Electrical Machines and Instruments of the Chelyabinsk Polytechnical Institute) SUBMITTED: October 6, 1960 Card 4/4 LIFANOV, V.A., kand.tekhn.nauk; PCHM, A.G. inzh, Use of RnII transducers for meazw-ing the rotor angle of synchronous machines. Vest. elektroprom. 34 no,2:62-63 F 163. (MIRA 16:2) (Electric machinery, SpchronouB-44eaBurements) WFANOvk V.A., kand. tak-hn. nauk, dotefin'l-j Wf(M, A.G., InA.j ROTENBERG, M.I., Who Method for the automatic synchronization of synchronous machines. lzv. vys. uchob. zav.; energ. 7 no.10:84-87 0 164. (MIRA 171l2) 1. Chelyabinakly politekhricheakiy institut. L 01132-M ACOMION NM AP5011467 UR/Oi44/65/000/006/0718/0720-""-- 621-313-33+621.3-947: AUTHORs Lifanovs V. A. (DooenO; Dorms A. Gs~(Sonior lecturer) TITLEe Measuring and oacillographing the slip in induction maohinos SOURCEt IM Elektromakhanika, no. 6* 1!)65, 718-720 TOPIC TAOS: induction machine* slip ABSTRACT: A method of measuring the Blip:of an induction machine by means of.a. commutator-type:taoh6moter generator meoltanically coupled to the michine is suggested. The tachogenerator stator has, distributed 3-phase winiling whose _qqqals~~tq .that- of -th~-JliL_'; _both are -- connected ;q or, of -D machine; -thi - -tidhogenwatot brushes dir tly pr o o ~same a-c-s-upply.-MW46roffs 00 op Al nal to Lithe slip of the induotion. machine,, can bi) easily measured by an oscillograph* Osoillograms of the sliP Of a 3.6-kw, 38)-vp 2890-rpm induction motor when the ,rated load was suddenly thrown on (or va:~iod),&re presented. An auxiliary use of I a Hall generator is also suggested, Orig, art, has: 6 figures and 6 formulas, c,,,d 1/2 L 01132-M ACCESSION MRs AP5017467-'-'---'------ 'ASSOO.TATIOM t Chelyabinakly politekhnichafty institut (Chelyabinsk Polytechdo :Institute) ;SMWLTTTEDi 2MoT62 EXILt 00 SUB-CODRI IM !NO REF SOVa 001 OTM i 00 BIRYLYL,, I.N., kand.tekhn.nauk, dotsont; DORM, F.A., ilzh. Adjustment and study of the comutation of largo d.c. generators. Energ, abor. no.2:3-12 159, (MIRA 15:1) (Electric nerators) (Comanitation rElectricity)) DOMMOVI H Petr Andre eviob; MIKHALKOV, Alaksandr Vladimirovich; IMrAr taoillyevich; POYARKOV, K.M., red.; BORUN640 VO,Io,p tekbn, red, [Mamfacture and maintenance of gas-discharge light fixtures) IzgotovIenie i obsluzhivanie gazosvetzWkh ustanovok. Moskva, Gosbnergoizdat, 1962. 54 P. (Bibliotaka elektromontera, no.72) (MIRA 15:12) (Fluorescent lamps) (Fluorercent lighting) DORMAKOVIC111 P.A. Methods for detecting faults in gas-discharge lamps in commercial signs. Prom. energ. IS no.llt6O N 163. (MIRA 16:12) SHP,MER# L.Ta.; DORM, 1J. ladle travel In one-lip castirg of iron, Metallurg 5 no. 12:10-12 D 160. (KIRA 13M) 1. Magnitogorehy ustallurgiobeekly kombinat. (Blast furnace~-lquipment and supplies) LESHCHINSHY, L.Z.; KIYASIKO, V.S.,- BAKSIIRIOV, A.S.; UJKASIIOVA, A.N. Pneumatic deliveiry of specimens of cast ironp steel., and slag to the chemical laboratory. Meti-Ilurg 9 no.10:12-13 0 161. (MIRA 18:1) 1. Magnitogorskiy metallurgicheskiy kombinat. ROGANOV, Boris Ivanovieb, doktor tekhn. nauk (deceased.1; DZHABAROV, Gafar Dzhabarovicbs kando tekhn. zutukj KOTOV, Dmitriy Androyevich# kand. tekhn.nauk; BALTABAYEV, Sultan Dusayevich, kand. tekhn. nauk; SOLOVIYEV, Nikolay Dmitriyevich, inzh.; DORMAN.. I.M.p retsenzent; DUKIIOVNYY, F.N.., red.; SOKOLOVA, T.'Y -0'&' 't - r a d *- ~ (Primary processing of cottonj Perv-.1chnaia obrabotka klilopka. [D~rj B.I.Roganov i dr, Moskva, Legkaia industrila, 1965. 485 P. (MIRA 18:12) ~ 1 -, - - .'gr adie to, dur '4ulyl 1963 n ing .1 age*, f0 3 4 ~Vbj i protmwm and -4A or, proto'14- ind f lart- hao: 13 formilaao--l :tm expeo" 0 coal paritiole -iiii 1, and 0-7 Bovo -W ti~idities of in the and &.~O Clw: oil -Ipsrticlea~: a v( im- tha second case aqd. L 16028-M NWT(1)1JWA(b)1YC0 OW 'ACC HR: AT6003522 SOURCE CODE: UR/3184/65/000/007/0005/0017 AUTHOR: DormjM, I. V.; Dorman, L. 1. (Dr. of Physico-Matb,!matical Sciences ORG: none TITLE, Investigation of the 11-year 1;02~sc,~ cycle (from data of observationsr at sea level) SOURCE: AN SSSR. Mezbduvedomstvenn ofiEi.Skikqkjy y Kosmicleskiye luchi, 7, l969=,-17-. TOPIC TAGS: cosmic ray, geomagnetism, sunspot cycle, magnetic rigidity ABSTRACT: Data from a world-wide network of neutron monitors, ffeasurements of lati- tude effects in the neutron and hard components of cosmic rays at sea level, and stratospheric measurements of proton and a-particle fluxes in the low energy region made from high altitude balloons are used as a basis for ane-lyzing the 11-year co'.%-. mic ray cycle. It is found that the amplitude of the 11-year variation increases with a reduction in the geomagnetic cutoff hardness R which indicates that the pri- mary spectrum of the 11-year variation decreases with an increase in R. The lag in Card 1/2 L 16028-66 ACC NR: AT6003522 10 :changes of cosmic ray intensity with respect to changes in solar activity increases. with a reduction in the penetrating power of the particles. There is a close rela- tionship between cosmic ray intensity, the number of sunspots and radiation flux at 10.7 cm. When considering variations for shorter periods of t.-*m , there is a closer relationship between the intensity of cosmic rays and the index of magnetic ac- tivity, while longer time intervals show a closer correlaAn letween Intensity and ~the number of sunspots. Hysteresis phenomena are studied on the basis of neutron monitor data and observations in the stratospheiv. For R>3 Bev the energy spectrum ~for the 11- ear cycle is given in the form dD(R)1D(R)-R-(V-8-0-9) which is steeper y for R>13 Bev with y>2. The spectrum of the 11-year cycle was considered together 'with delay phenomena to determine the scattering path as a function of particle hardness and the dimensions of the modulating 'space. The magnetic field intensity in scattering Ronhomogeneities is determine'd for various assumptions an the rela- tionship between the average dimensicns of nanhomogeneities and the distance between them. The contribution of variabil 'ity in the.lag effect is evaluated. Orig. arta has: .8 figures, 16 formulas. SUB CODE: 08/ 04 .4 2" ~ V_Z, SUBM, DATE t00/'." 1 'M OTH mr: oig 7 S P 11r fig L (1954)1 nukes It - dw for LN wmw wm 114 temrcratum vaeatiom cot, (wou 4V, IM 'to mbbum, Odwry proton cwgy lea: cnew cuj*t wwrm 2X)-OtcV USSR/Nuclear Physics - Cosmic rays in meteorology Card 1/1 Pub. 147-3/16 Author : Doman,.. L. I.; Kuzlmin, A. I.; Tyanutova, G. V.; Feynberg, Ye. L.; -, 6~ake-r , Ya., G. Title : Variations in the intensity of cosmic rays and the role of meteorological factor Pe::iodical : Zhur. eksp. i teor. fiz. 26, 537-544, May 1954 Atstract : Briefly expound the results of an experimental and theoretical study of the influence of meteorological factors on the observed (at sea level) intensity of the hard component of cosinic rays. Show that knowing the distribution of temperature in the atmosphere above tiie observation point one can allow for the meteorological factors with an accuracy up to 0.1 to 0.2% in the intensity of cosmic rays. Here the remaining divergence lies within the limits of error of the gLven meteorological sounding. It turns out that the seasonal variations in the intensity of the hard component are due t:) mrteorological factors. The daily variations are essentially masked by these factors. Submitted October 27, 1953 --- ~-.# LA . I v "On the Theory of Meteorological Effects on Cosmic Padiation." Dokl. Aked. Nauk SSSRJ* V. 941 No. 3, 433-6, 1954. An analytical expression relating,the /4-meson intensity at. a given height to various meteorological factors. ir deduced. Sci. Res. Inst. Terrestrial Magnetism. I J U- IMMUM. i IU . i . "On the Temperature Effect of the Hard Component of Cosmic Pays." Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Vol. 95, No. 1, 49-52, 1954. Duperier's theory of this effect does not, in general, lead to values of the temperature coefficient which are in agreement with experiment. 3P 11. KOYAVAj V. K.) .;11;d,-iT1, Yu. G. and 11171,1, B. F. "Observation of the Large Cosmic I'lay Increase of February 2.1. in the 'USSR." VScientific Research Institute of TLrrestrial tbgnetiam (moscow) Sverdlovsk Geophysical Observatory Tbilisi Cosmic Bay Station Yakutsk Affiliate of the Academy of kictices of the TT33R Cape Schmidt Coamtc Ray Station Nuclear Physics, 1. No. E, 1956, 1.). 5~5-592 0s4 THE oftion. ar VARLMON-i ML2E.WC FLA -L 7 F7 r-~-d ~f %d Irl, dT r,-cu,~. fne OUSInk-0 &,*P.Lf the Inl4new: pm~verzies ~f current4; --freeavir, cl tite currents to rmzm~t;c flcld-~ divisfougifeurrenti into two types. o,,r tvjj~ car7%,n, f- to-C)e aear the earthi rnax~-., rigid, tively to ahe mo atd I--- i4m.,t ,j f,,rmuii- -ad r-mr,.rsLtvPly ~ezllObl-- J,-d- - f -t ..d Ule gT rong ro Qt4amed cwccrn:rg the turt~41jvw 1, 1 Of hCferOgenettleS in SDI&r chromnrpheric er-_.p~t-.s r,,, !!.~- values of ~he magnetic, (lcld3 -ftoLen" it, Lf~_M. Me 91'-Ml gAlactic aisgmetic fle!d, aLrd the dictrIWtion f cov,rAc r1y i sources in It. (R. VJ.) _OE "Unusual Surge of Cosmic Ray Intensities." Pr1roda, 45, 85-7, 1956 An unXsual surge of cosmic-ray intensity was observed Feb. 23 1956. The scale showing the distribution of the cosmic-ray intensitiev indicate stronger con- centration of Intensities at higher latitudes (Moscowl and considerable lowering of Intensities at the lower latitudes (Japan). 'The observed surge was 5 to 10 times stronger than the ones observed in 1942 or 1946. The surge of cosmic rays was combined with powerful chromospheric sun eruption and interrupted all short-wave radio communications. It is assumed that the eruption took place on the northwest tip of the sun where a great deal of activityl large number of spots, and chromospheric eruptions we. observed before and after the elent. Research Inst. of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Distribution of Radiawaves. DOPUMA1111, L. Iand F"EYMERG, Ye. L. "Variations in Intensities of Cosmic Rays." Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 59, 189-228, 1956. Variations of cosmic-ray Intensities caused by the atmospheric conditions and by acceleration, slowing dawn, and scattering in the corpuscular streams emmitted by the sun) and by large and small sun eruptions are reviewed. Analyses of various phenomena and methods of study are discussed. pm DaRM,, IeY - lsaskcvich; GRIG(ROVA, V.A., rodaktor -, AKHIAMOV. S.N., takhaichs- --- ULLy rUUMLIGO& [Variations in cosmic rays] Variateii kosmicheekikh luchat. Xookva, Gos.izd-vo takhniko-teoret.lit-i7. 1957. 492 p. (MLItA 10: 8) (cosmic rays) 83800 cl/035/59/000/003/006/039/ 3. Moo AOOI/AO01 Translation from: Referativnyy zhurnal, Astronomiya I Geodeziya, 1959, No. 3. pp. 30-31, 19D2 AUTHOR- Dorman, L. I. TITLEt Information on Irolar Corpuscular Fluxes, Obtained from StudyirW Variations in Cosmic Radiation -If PERIODICALt V sb.s F1z. aolneohn. korpuskulyarn. potokov I ikh vozdeystviye na verkhnyuyu atmoaferu Zemll, Moscow, AN SSSR, 1957, pp. 112-125, Discuss. 125-128 TEXT: The author points out that the study of variations in _^c!imle radiation makes It poesiblo to obtain information on physical conditions in the 1), \1~inter~te-_lar and interplanetary media, on processes on the Sun, and other data of astrophysical nature. Tho,,onnection between astrophysical and geophysical phenomena (flares on the Sun,ymagnetia storms, 11-year solar activity cycles, eto.) on the one hand, and changes In the intensity of cosmic radiation, on the other hand, Indicates a great role of the Sun in the origin of cosmic rays. ^ - __3 .11-4 83800 3/035/59/000/003/006/039 A001/AO01 Information on Solar Corpuscular Fluxes, Obtained from Studying Variations in Cosmic Radiation However, distortions introduced in the observed variations by changes of meteorological conditions and by contributions of secondary particles originated In the atmosphere, make It difficult to discover the true connection between variations of cosmic radiation and astrophysical factors. At present a method has been developed of excluding meteorological factors. Moreover, a method of I! connection coefficients" has been developed which makes it possible to deter- mine variations of the primary flux from the observed variations In secondary components of cosmic rays. The performed analysis of sol&r-diurnal variatiors of cosmic radiation, connected with the geomagnetic and solar aotivitles, and its connection with corpuscular fluxes warrant some conclusions or. tne nature of these fluxes. There exist two.types of corpuscular fluxes. The first type fluxes carry comparatively weak magnetic fields (.-- lo-5 erg near the Earth) . are of low density (a few particles per 1 em3 near the Earth) and induce weak and moderate magnetic disturbances on hitting the Earth; on an average, 5-10 fluxes are ejected simultaneously, and this number depends only slightly on the solar activity. The fluxes of this type are due to high-latitude formations on r'. - -3 1-1 /1 83800 8/035/59/000/003/006/039 AOO1/AOO1 information on Solar Corpuscular Fluxes, Obtained from Studying Variations In Cosmic Radiation the Sun and are ejected approximately symmetrically with respect to the sola-- equator. The solar-diurnal variations are connected mainly with the coamit rays of this type. In t the second type the ntensity of magnetic ~0_fluxes4of 103 cm-A; they give rise to field is higher than 10- 2xl0_ erg, density - intensive and very intensive magnetic atoms on the Earth. The number of second- type fluxes ejected by the Sun is well correlated with Wolf numbers and varies considerably during the cycle of solar activity; these fluxes are connected with low-latitude formations (possibly with sunspots). 27-day variations of cosmic rays, reductions of intensity during magnetic stoma, dependence on solar activity, etc. are due to the fluxes of the second type. There are 30 references. M. I. Pradkin Translator's note: This is the full translation of the orIginal Russian abstract. Card 3/3 AUTHOR: Blokh, Ya. L. and Dorman, L. 1. 120-2-13/37 TITLE Meteorological Coe f clents for Of and 21rCounter Telescopes. (Mete orologiche skiye Koeffitsiyentydlya Kubicheskogo i Polukubicheskogo Teleskopov.) PERIODICAL: Pribory i Teklmika -Eksperiinenta, 1957, No.2, pp. 46 - 48 (USSR). ABSTRACT: Complex telescopes for continuous registration of the cosmic rays intensity will be extensively used during the coming I.G.Y. 'The author determines the theoretical values of the barometric pressure coefficient and of the tempera- ture coefficient which can be used with cubical telescopes at the sea level and to the semi-cubical telescopes under the surface of the earth, at depths of 25 and -5m of the water equivalent. The use of these coefficients will free experimental data from the distorting influence of the varying meteorological conditions. According to the theory (Ref. 1) the relative change h 6N9IN ~I = mbar bho + ~o Wt(h).6T(h)dh, of ji-mesons intensity due to a relative barometric change Card 1/3 6h0 at the observation level and the relative temDerature 120-2-13/37 Meteorological coefficients for 41r and 2frCounter Telescopes. change 6T (h) is given by eq.(1). This expression has two coefficients a bar atmospheric pressure coefficient in %/millibar and WT(h) density of the temperature coefficient in W/10C atia. Both coefficients can be determined from the two equations (2), where WT(h,e) and a bar W ore the meteoroloLical coefficients for directed intensities. The vclues of W kh,e) for subterranean measurements were obtained in iWf.2 and for the sea level measurements in Ref.3. Results of a calculation of a bar (e) are gIven in the form of a graph (Fig.2) for various assumed values of the effective index n of the differential spectrum of Jr-meson production. UsiiiI3 mbar (e) end ' 111T(h,e) as defined in eq.(2), the required coefficients are presented graphically in Figs. 3 and 4 (cf. Ref.2). The meteorological coefficients should not depend in practice on the latitude of the observation point, nor oil the Card 2/3 local climatic conditions. Six Graphs of numerical 0 1~20-2-13/37 ,MeteoroloL),icFjl coefficients for 41Y and 2Tr Counter Telescopes. reference are given. are Slavic. There are 7 references, 5 of which SUBMITTED: November 3, 1956. ASUCIATION: Sciontific and Research Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, of the Ionosphere end of Radiowave PropaSations. (Nauchno-Issledovatellskiy Institut ZemnoLo MaLnetizma, Ionosfery i Resprostraneniya Radiovoln.) AVATT-A T, : Library of Congress. Card 3/3 'DR M r) N, PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITATION 881 Akademiya nauk SSSR. Yakutskiy filial Variatsii intensivnosti kosmicheskikh luahey (Variationa of the Intensity of Cosmic Rays) Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1958. 168 p. (Seriesi. Its: Trudy, seriya fizicheskaya, vyp. 2) 1,500 c'op.Les printed. Resp. Ed.: Shafer, Yu.G., Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Ed. of Publishing House: Fradkin, M.I.; Tech. Ed.: Pavlovskiy, A. PURPOSE: This collection of articles is for scientists and students of cosmic rays and meteorology. COVERAGE: This issue contains articles on experimental methods in the continuous registration of cosmic rays, the investigation of meteorological effects of the different components of cosmic rays, and the connection between variations in cosmic ray Intensity and solar and magnetic activity. Part I describes apparatus used in Card 1/6 Variations of 6e intensity of Cosmic Ra ys 881 measuring cosmic ray intensity on and under the earth's surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere, and specifically discusses the ASK automatic ionization chamber. Part II discusses the theory, methods and results of the investigation of meteorological effects of the various components of cosmic rays. Part III discussea the characteristics of daily variations In cosmic ray activity. The following scientists are mentioned in the introduction: S.N.Vernov, Corresponding Member of the AS USSR, Professor Ye.L.Feynberg, and N.L.Grigorov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. The articles are accompanied by diagrams, tables, and bibliographic references. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface 3 Card 2/6 ..Variations of the Intensity of Cosmic Rays 881 PART I. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING VARIATIONS OF INTENSITY OF COSMIC.RAYS Shafer, Yu.G. Continuous Registration of Variations in the Intensity of Cosmic Rays by an Ionization Chamber With Automatic Control 7 Shafer, Yu.G. Further Improvements in Automatic Cosmic Ray St-ations 23 Kuzlmin, A.I., Scripin, O.B., Yarygin, A.V., Installation for Studying the Energy Characteristics of Cosmic Ray Variations 34 Kuzlmin, A.I., 'farygin, A.V. Apparatus for Subsurface Measurement of Variations in Cosmic Ray Intensity 36 Belomestnykh, V.A., Shafer, Yu.G. Methods of Registration and Study of Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in the Stratosphere 4T Card 3/6 Variations of the Intensity of Cosmic Rays 881 PART II. METEOROLOGICAL EFFECTS ,Dorman. L.I.- Concerning the Theory of Meteorological Effects of the General Ionizing and the Soft Components of Cosmic Rays 59 Dorman L I. Concerning the Theory of Temperature Effect of Ivi Neutron Component in Cosmic Rays 68 '~Kaminer, H.S. Problem of Temperature Extrapolation in the Lower Stratosphere Region 73 1 okolov, V.D. Methodology of Applying Temperature Corrections S in the Intensity Measurements of the Hard Component Cosmic Rays Using the Atmospheric Temperature Profile up to Elevationsof 5-6 km 78 6-Tyanutova, G.V. Preliminary Results of Comparing Data on Measurement of Global Intensity Variation of the Hard Component of Cosmic Rays with Instruments ASK-1 and S-2 81 card 4/6 Variations of the Intensity of Cosmic Rays 881 Kovallskaya, A.I. Problem of Seasonal Variability of the Barometric Coefficient of the Hard Component of Cosmic Rays 85 Kovallskaya, A.I., Krasillnikov, D.D., Nikollskiy, S.I. Preliminary Results In Determining the Barometric and Temperature Effects of Extensive Torrential Rains Near the Sea Level 88 PART III. NATURE OF VARIATIONS IN COSMIC RAY INTEPSITY Glokova, Kaminer,~ N.S., Miihina, N.A. Cyclic and Seasonal fa-rrifiona of Diurnal Wave of Intensity of Cosmic Rays 95 Kuzlmin., A.I.j Skripinj ON, Relation of the Diurnal EfCoot of Cosmic Ray Intensity to Geomagnetic and Solar Activity 107 F~ks'"L.A., Shva'rtsman,B'.F. Temperature Effect in Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of the Hard Component of Cosmic Rays From the Data Collected on Shmidt's Promontory Station 118 Card 5/6 Variations of the Intensity of Cosmic Rays 881 Sokof8v, V.D. On the Nature of 27-day Variatiorle in Cosmic Ray intensity 123 Dorman, L.I., Freidman,, G.I. Interpretation of the Cotimic Ray -S-u-r-e-E-Uf-76-bruary 23, 1956 129 List of Symbols Used AVAILABLE: Library of Congress MM/whl 1-21-59 170 card 6/6 PHAM I BWK MUW17ATION SOV/3762 Konferentsiya, po, magnitnoy gidrodinandke. Riga,# 1958. Voprosy magnitnoy gidrodinamiki i dinamiki, pl&%W; trudy Konferentell. (Problems It MsgnetoIrjdrodvumks ani Plasma Dynamics; Transactions of a Coiference) Riga., Izd-vo AN Latviyokoy SSR.. 1959. 343 P. Irrats, slip inser'.ed. lpOOO copies printed. Sponsoring Agency: Aksdemiya nauk I-atviyekoy SM. Institut fi-siki. Witorial Board: D.A. Fr&nk-KswienetskIy,, Doctor of Physics and Kathematicsp Professor; AJ. Volldeks Doctor (if Technical Sciences., Professor; I.M. Kirko., Doctor of Physics and Matbematicu; V.Ya. Veldre., Candidate of Physics and Nath~tics; Y.G. Vitol., CandIdate of Physics and Xathematics; Yu.M. Krumint; and V.Ya. Krarchenko. Zda A, Teytellbazzm; Tech, Zd,-. A, layavinya PURPOSE: This book is intended for physicists vorking in the -field of magneto- hydrodynamics and plasm dynamics. Card l/ lie 6- Problem inftnetohydrodyna"Cont.) 807/3762 COVIRACM: This volume contains the transactions of a conference held in Rigap .Tune 1958j, on prcbl~ in applied and theoretical magnet ohydrodynamics. The o'bJqlcts of the confetence werv the inventigation of the basic trends in theo- retical and applied magnetob,,rdrodynamdco, establishing contact between the people doing research in diVerent branches of magnetobjdrodynamics.. and YX ting the participation of theorttical physicists In problems in applied magne~ohydrodynamics. More than 160 persons fr differvnt parts of the SoTiet Union took part in the conference,, and 55 papers were read. Similar conferences are to be held regularly In the fut=*; the next ouch conference is scheduled to be held in Riga in June 1960. In this present collection of the transactions of the conference,, most of the papers and comments on papers are presented by the authors themselves in an abridged form. The bojk is divided into two parts* the first part deals with problems in theoretical magnetohydrodynamics and ;lasma dynamics,, and consists of 3,13 articles on such aspects of the problem as the appli- cation of sopetohydrodyna=Lco in astrophysics (D.A. Frank-Kamenetakiy)v magneto- hydrodynamics and the investigation of cosmic-ray varictions (L.I. Dormanj acceleration of plasma in a magnetic field (G.V. Gordeirev and A*.I. GubaWvjP stability of shock waves and magnetohydrodynamics (A.I.. Akhiyeze.). The second partp consisting of 33 articles.,. deals with prdDlems ot ei-perimental magneto- hydrodynamics., including tha application of physical sLmaation for investigation of electromagnetic processes in liquid metals (I.M. Kirko) and the development of ele ,!!~rcziagnetic pw*s P.G. Kirl-Ilar):. at the Institutx! of Physics of the car&' P/ 3~9 Problem in Magnetohydrodynamics(Cont) SOT/3762 Aca&*r of Sciencesj, Latvian SM. Several articlet are devoted to induction ptm", electromagnetic crucibles, electreimagnetic titirrers for molten metals, and their application in the metallurgical industrr including schematic diagremi of their power-supply system, Referenceii an given at the end of most of the articles. or OF COMMS: Toz* rd PIMLM IN TMOMICAL NAGWMffMD=AMICS AND PLAM DYUXICS 3 Frank-Komnetakiyj D.A. The Role of Magnetchydrodynamics and Pla"M Dynantics in Certain Problem in Astrophysics 7 _2~r~=n L~I. Magnetohydrodynamics and Research in Cosmic-Ray Variations 13 Byrovatskiyp B.I. The Cosmic-Ray Spectrum and the Hignificance of Gd~dynamice Comic R&7z in Cosmic 45 Card 3/10 f- Problem In YAgnetohydrodynamics (Cont) SOV/3762 Veli4w,, Te.P.- The lidluence of a XWetic Field. on the Flaw Stability of a Condqcting Fluid 49 Terletskiy., Ta.P. . Certain Problems of the Movement of Rarefied Plan= Jm a Magnetic Field 59 Sagdeyevs R.Z. On Nonlinear Steady Flow of Rarefied Plasma in a Magnetic Field 63 Braginskj.7,8.I. One Criterion for the Applicabi2lty of Magnet,.,,- hydrodynmic Zquations to Plasma 67 Pblovinp R.V. Conments on the Paper 71 Gorde7",, G.V.j, and AJ. Gabanov. The Problem of Plasma Acceleration in a Magnetic Field 73 GordeMp G.V. Com.-nts on the Paper 74 Dormn,, L.I.,, and G.I. Freydman. On the Possib'ility of Charged- -P&--r-UcU7AZ-celeraticn by Shock Waves in Magnetized Plasma TT Card 4/ig r, Problem In Magnetohydrodynanics(C ont) SOV/3762 _Do man L.~I On Chm-ged-Particle Acceleration Diring Poverful 1_~ Imyulse Discharges and the Collision of Magnetized Clouds 83 Konyukovj, N.V. The Effect of longitudinal Magnetic Fields on Klectron Temperature in Plama 89 M2olevj, S.R, Research on Certain Characteristics of Flasms, of %awn and Argon Behind a Powerful Shock Wave 93 Granovskiyj V.L.0 K.P. Ry=inap V.I. Sayoskinp and G.G. Timofeyeya. Investigation of an Xlectrodynamically Pinched Arc With the Aid of am Electron-Optical Converter 10T Akhiyezer,, A.I., G.Ya. Lyubarsklys and R.V. Pblovin. On the Stabili- ty of Shock Waves in Magnetohydrodynamice 116 Kontorovicb,v V.X. On the Interaction of Small Disturbances With Discontinuities and the Stability of Shock Waves In Magnetohydrodynamice 13.7 Card 5).~& r 9 elf f ;Ef F A 'a. 54 IN 4r. - 4i 51, cl Zi DOWN L. 1. "(,MVMNM 'THE ENERGY SPECTPUM OF THE VARIATIONS AND DURATION OF THE INCREASE EFFECT FRECEDING MAGNETIC STORMS" L. 1'. Darman To explain the effect of cosmic ray intensity increases preceding magnetic storms, a mechanism of accelerating particles by a shock wave formed by the front edge of the solar corpuscular stream is suggestel. The shock wave Is propaRated In Inter- with a velocity of approximately 1.3 times that of the stream and reaches the Earth earlier than the stream. It is therefore r, sort of "forerunner" of the magnetic storm. Calculations are made of the energy spectrum of the particles evoklr4; the increase effect and of the duration of this effect. It is shown that with decreaso in rigidity of particles the amplitude of this effect should increase and the duration should decrea.9j)- Thus, the expected duration of the effect for particles with a rigidity of 3.10'Lu ev/c is approximately 8 hours; it Is about 20 minutes for particles with a rigidity of 109 ev/c, and approxi:mately 2 minutes for particles with a rigidity of 10 ev/c (in the latter case, the afolitude of the effect shoiild be quite appreciable and approach 100%). E~r means of correlation coefficients, calculations are made of' the expecteti variations of different canponents at different latitudes. A prelirtnary comparison of the ob ained results and the experimental data Is made, and other ponsible explanations of this effect are discuslied. report presented at the International 1, osmic Ray Conference, Morccv, 6-11 July 1959 DORM-AN L.T. 'THE POSSIBIJITY OF FRF~ACCELMATION OF COSMIC RAYS irr TYE PINCH F~T MEANISM" L.I.Dorman A m,x1el or charged particle acceleration between two approachinr half-SPOC03 with "frozed" magnetic fields is considered. Aasuiring tho absence of malmetic field between the half spaces, the law of energy chunre with time Is detwemined, as well as t)-e maxJmum relative acceleration a:s a function of initial particle momentum, the distancei between the half spaces ani the Intensity of the "frozed" magnetic field. An ovaluntion is mnde of the conditions of Injection, the acceleration of part- icles with different Z Is compared ani the energy spectrum, for the acceleration from thermal energies with Initial Maxwell distribution is determined. The varietions In the results a e evaluated for the case when the discus-wed model In -eneralized to cover real magnetic cloud collisions and pinch effect in the plasma. On the Irasis of A. B. Severny's ol-servarions, and on results, tho significance of the mechanism considered is discussed for per-acceler-ction of particles in solar flares and super- novae and also for collislofis of magnetized clouds (in particular fcr collision$ of galaxies). The assumption is mede that further acceler.-tion of particles to higher enerples Is accomplished by'Fermi's statistical mechanism. report presented at the International Cosmic Ray Confererce, Moscow 6-11 July 1959