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I ~ ~ I ~ ~ 1. . - - . . - ETM, V'Lktor CFMSTHr -~ , , i - .2 1%4 .%',,KOV.r;KfYp E.; v., teminik Univorsal fas,fining of molds to vibrating platTorms. kit.clor. 28 no.3.,15 Mr 1.."5. 1 t:)U 2 P5) 1. Nachallnk tsentrallnoy laboratori; U 1.4,. 1 - r-, 4 a u- 0 tva No.9 Glacrnogo iipmvl~miyrt p.-) o-rcig onyi.,znoar) znaf.!her;.Iva (Por t.-a-riyzi tlpravli~n~lya stlro4-tell3fva No.') st,r~)J.',~,Ilstvu avtomoblllnyr', dorc)[I ITTINGER, Alfred; CHYIJWSKIo Vlodzimiers XzIology, pathogenesis, ol W cal aspects, and prevention of occupational skin disease in dye workers. Przogl. dorm. 4 no.11 31-37 Ja-F '54. 1. Z Kliniki Deimtologlasnej Akadomii Modycvuej w lodzi. Dyrektor: prof. dr S.Kapuxeinmki. (DYSS, Injurious effects, *skin dim, In workers) (OCGUPATIONAL DIUASIS, *skin dim, in'dre workers) diseases, Ooccup. 4ye lesions In workers) w w Ile j it M of a, It a a Al Jot mu us baravdif cu do of 00 1.1-1 Lao's a I W -A I I AIR 0 a & a* T Tl N E. so ., 00 Dfit"Simajim of Aluminual in altered Neva Rivet as mategaww4laigtothmmethisdo(HittfictIl A.1-I'llinur *a l"kh 1939. K.- so a 11imp, 2. S., I.-A-11I It "1" 1.1 11-1 .00 1 1 l , 41 list itS 1 CAUWI tit dcId. 'Ahvil %n 11M f-41WI .4 A S.d. 11'.. AI~0111% ssm-1 W- keill Isis kv III I-Ir -rif their 111111 list gel mate. W. K It. Are 0 -4#6 me* as' as' am Iraq ;-0* ~Iljlr .00 tt-#14.KIIt tilt.414,.t 4t.111FICAVIC4 tie 0 It. .9 IAL 10- W-3- I Ise 17 IV Dr Of a a Is Of if a Ill If IV I so T44 00*00 040000404::0:4160: al A. I I- I- Alt 0 IVX ~WAX a A -a A L **A 41 Squipmost tat alka,11dog wstef with mUk of Unit. Z. 00 *1. Va. Goti-h%hchrr and A. I. Ftlics-ii. Ii &JOIst. leik. 15. (4 Cat, A j$ MiSIM With the W*Itf in the k~WtT fAU19 JIM I pumied 4 lip into it st"aller UP tank equipped with a di-hArgr = 1 DVtld&W, 'MC itiStAlUti.11 W41 Valve luid consi, uwd In the tipti. pUng ot the LeningfAd WAti-ir Mnkmi to det. lit effect of C&O on the coagulation 4 the Nevis t It. (;Ulna oil 00 00 z t.00 .00 400 see ;: so I L A VETALL VFCKAL 0710,611,41 0 '5 -AM IF IN I aa 11 1 IF it a, M, 9 of ct Al it C4 rela A 1 Re 0 0 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 no a 0 0 0 0 a 0 0:0 0 0 4 4 0 14 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 0 111 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 A.~i-~ BULCIL', A., G0-0DI:;,ECFH, Z., and ETTII,`3Z:t, A. "Contamination oC sand of a hi.ll-spted riona: -.ita'ino filLer, a - .., u u nd c!!r,-:Acal rct;.odo of Lt." -a.t.~rialy po khoz-vu, l()41), Collection 2, P. 30-36. JO: U-4Y)3, 19 Au~;us~ 53, (Letupis lZhurnal Inrkh ;Iat,--yi, No. 22, 1104J). E.-VT 1IN Cr C R, fi- I 1. PONONAPIEVA, V. V,j ETTINURO A. I, 2, USM 600 4. Neva River - Water - Composition 7. Nature of organic substances dissolved in Neva waters, Dokl. AN SSSR, 88, Koo 1 1953. 9. Monthly List of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, April 1951, Uncl. Xweva wittat. V. V, Pormuovit 9-u' J, Appl. Pm, U.S.S.R. 27, AID F - 3656 Subject USSR/Medicine Card 1/1 Pub. 37 - 2/19 Authors Bolotnyy, V. V., Ettinger, A. I., Kupperberg, L. S., Scientiric Work Title Disinfection of drinking water by hydrogen peroxide Periodical Gig. 1. san., 11, 7-9, N 1955 Abstract Describes investigation and experiments on the use of a filter for disinfecting Neva water by hydrogen peroxide. The results of the experiments are presented in a table. Institution : Leningrad Scientific Research Institute, Academy of Municipal Services im. K. D. Pamfilov Submitted : S 9, 1954 41 I$ of 11 it *1 If I x off U" b.4 Ir goo-I 4,dj4w a PW o8ii 00 b L-1 .4-4--X- L a m V I R _I It A Is (A a Ilia a 41 .1T#. -00 Aj A60. S: A6 WWA) (J- OWL 1UL um.. 917, ;P~~Wk is na ob- Noir" KNO#- so J! liou pbmw wo .9 KNOj, N&NO&- roe so sow see LL~ coo so* WWI! too* AI&ALA of WtVP(;A(AL LITINAUff CtASUPKAYMN ;w0 V. 14.1 4w 0-1 11, 1.1)a1 -f N-a-W, W T-W-W-i T U VL AT 10 is a a a r, A 10 To a f0to 016( lid 11 a x a a IS KW n I 9"A 4". 0 fie 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 fifit tilt'! t.Ij A- A #.I.. 1 6 1 1.,' 1 1 PIMIllij A-up I 00 "0e 00 Wbmw in -00 A. L RMAT4M, M. A. lu*W.A (J. Gow Ch". U.-W-1pil I =00 00 a 2416 -41 V%" me ~ 1 moll fm the sploau 00 Nei 400 as ~raww roo Alflwo 00 4 Coo am SM60, mw X%M-W. R. T. *00 009 COO :'Go ZOO Ives i=ee woo %~ Al/ Gv Olt ad 0-1 It, I ; . . I $A L s v w 0 JTT3-1-1--w -;O0 0 -- I I U It AT 10 AS19' a ; a, KW " a tic: 0:0000000000000000600060000000000000000000 ;Zoi-u: 0 0 a 0 0 a 0 0 0 0-0 0 0 0 0 0 0 jL2u6mAAq o o f 0 o 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 had cost. 1. L. milinxrr. 06del. TrW--AWU1049~ 1719-22: cf. C.A. 43, 873%.- N wait frec-1 from 0 by passing ever litcandewent Cu sh4vings. and through a asin. of andium dithlotlite. and from HIS by a win. of Na plum. bite. and dried over CuCh and soda time. Kuznetsk c*al WAS subjectest to evacuation for 1.4 montlis under a premm of about W-mus.stfA'. For each of Ilse gAmpfesof nsul, representing diffitrent waxes of metamorphism. isotherms were obtained, at 25" and at 40% The point of sorption equil. was coosplettly revermble; this tevrr'ihility wersi; I') 4,s,clfirM the esilste"M Of PhYll. VAn der Waal's sorption its witritst to clicincaurption. However, the % sorplilln iso. cruls We" - dally different trom the Sorption ito- "erms of Old reported previously. All but I of the N L i~olbermz were "ght lilies; thus Sorption of X follows I itfiry*0 Imse. The goep4i,m istemi4es with the devre of carbonizaiiiin of the CIA: I.C. As thc degree of in'tz"o"r- phism of the coal increases, the Webl"S Surface Incirt-AM. C.Udys S. Macy UM/Geology coal Gas Apr 49 "Gases of Coal Deposits," G. D. Lidin, 1. L. Ettinger, 10 pp "Priroda" No 4 DIscusses (1) nature of gases and their occurrtnce in carboniferous deposits, (2) gas formation 'in mine dhafts, (3) prevention of gas in mines, (4) problem of forecasting gas abundance in mines,(5) controlling gas formation in.mines, avd (6) utili- zation or gases. Discusses historical background 4M 57/49T46 USSR/Geology (Contd) Apr 49 of subject. . Illustrates how the dangerous gas, metbane, can be converted into a useful mineral product by proper measures. 57/49T46 1:2) E- M 'Jul 49 Mgt%& "Sorption of Methane by Kuznetsk Basin Coale," M.' L. Ettinger, VAning lust, Aced Sol USSR, 5 pp *fz Ak Nauk SSSR, Otdel Tekh Nauk" No T Yound. Talues for zethane sorption by luznetsk basin coals in pressure Interval 0 - 800 zm/ner- aur7 and temperature range 0 - 400C. Compared data on Kuznetsk coal with data frcm other sources on Donets ooals, English coals, Belgian coals, and Belgian anthracite. All bave roughly Ob 52/49T90 WSR/Mlnes (Contd) Jul.49 the same sorption properties. Submitted by Aoa& 4!_A.-5kocbinskiy, 5 Alw 49. 52/49T90 ~ vri-rihah, 1. L. ..., I . ~ 1 . I , , - ~ 36U3 Vydayushchiysya dayatell rumakoy nauki akademik A. A. SKochinskly. (K 75-letlYu so dr*ra rozhdeniya). Priroda, 1949, No. n, S. 70-71o S portr. 130: Latopial Zhmnall mfth Statey. No. 49, 1949 usmt/ximing - coal May 5 0 Aced Sci USSR A. - br ,Orpt:,on of C02 by Mineral Coals," I. L. Ettinger, Mining Inst, Acad Sci USM ZZ Ak Nauk SSSR, Otdel Tekh Nauk" No 5, PP 721-728 Investigates absorption Of C02 per unit mass of vari- ous coals (anthracite, lignite, graphite, fossil, etc3 as function of pressure (0-900 =a/Eg) for vari- Ous temperatures (20, 30, 4oo c) and various sources (Sub-Moscow, Karaganda, Kureyka, Ceylon, etc). rinally, inakes scattergrm of all aata for C02- absorption vs volatility V (0-45%). Long, MM/Xining - Coal (Contd) PAY 50 rectangular -hyperbolic "sequence" is noted for an- tra-acite coalls, while lignite and long4lame coals are scattered in a s-11 localized cluster. Sub- ititted U Jan 50 by Acad A. A. Skoch:Lnskiy. .163T66 ETTIWM.. 1. L. WSR/Hining - Coal, Testing Aug 50 "Influence of the Moisture Content on Sorption of Methane by Coals," 1. L. Ettinger, G. D. Lidin, Inst of Mining, Acad Sci USSR "Iz Ak Nauk SSSR, Otdel Tekh Naukr No 8, pp 1198- 1203 Studied of methane by dry and moist coals on three samples. Demonstrated: permeability to methane de- creases vith increase in moisture contint; decrease is determined mainly by sorption water. Natural moisture content must be considered when calculating methane-beariug ability of coal seams. Submitted by Aced A. A. Skochinskiy. 168T59 i68T 59 USSR/Engineering - Coal Mining Mar 52 "Zasic Factors Deetermining the Gas-Bearing Capacity of Coals at Atmospheric Pressure," I. L. Ettinger "Iz Ak Nauk USSR, Otdel Tekh Nauk" No 3, pp 423-432 Discusses sorption capacity of coals in respect to gases, concluding that such capacity is basically determined by magnitude of inner surface, i.e., n- ber of ultra-pores accessible for molecules of gases Developme-nt extent of inner surface is result of metamorpbic processes in coal bed during geological periods. Sorption capacity of coals increases in 244T60 transition from low-metamorphosed gas coals to an- thracites. Submitted by Acad A. A. Skochinsk:Ly ?0 Aug 51 244T6o FTJ-%O~TE-Q, ~-L- 1./ATTINGER, 1. L. 2. USSR (600) 4. Coal - Analysis 7. Index of the tendency of coal to eject suddenly coal and gas. Ugoll 27 no. 10, 1952 9. Monthly List of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, _January 953. Unclassified. LZU/Nining - coal., me+%* 23. Jan 52 ,,ftthod for Apprazimate calculation of the, Borptive capacity of Coals in Res W t to Methane at Atmos- pheric Pressurej" 1. L. Ettinger) Inst of Minin Acad Sci USSR "Dok Ak Nauk SSSR" Vol LMWI, No 3, pp 427-430 Suggest empirical eq for calg methane content of coal at various tempap if values for methane sorption of this coal are known at least for 2 temps. Isobars of metha sorption vere plotted for coals of Donets, KaraganAa and Xuawtsk basins) end sugpsted eq is expression describing those Isobars. Submitted by Aced A. A. SkochInskiy. XMINGER, I.L.; PROTODIYAKONOT, U.K. W - W 101 M'W"t. Change of the hardness of coal by saturation with mathane. Doklady AkLd. Nauk SOS-S-R- 84, 1233-7 132. (KT,'RA 3:7) (CA 47 noalq1694 1~3) ' 6. - 1. XVINGER, I.L.; SIIITERENBERG, L.YE.; YABLOKOV, V.S. 2. U35R (600) 4. Coal 7. The relation between the structure of coal 3eams and the rate of methane yield by coal, Izv. AN WSH. Ser.geol. no. 2, 1953. 9. Monthly List 2.f Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, APRIL -1-953, Uncl. HOVIKOV, X.P.; ETTINGYAR, I.L. Conference on Prevention of spontaneous coal and gas combustion In coal mines. Izv.AN =JL Otd.tekh.nauk no.7:1074-1076 a '53. (MLRA 6:8) (Combustion, Spontaneous) k 14 1. ETTINGER, I. L.;SHTERMFRG, L. Ya.; YABLOKOV, V. S. 2. USSR (600) 4. Methacrylic Acid 7. Effect of the intensity of stirring on the rate of heterophase polymerization of methylmethaerylate in solution, Zhur. prikl. khim. 26 No. 4, 1953. 9. Monthly List of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, April, 1953. Uncl. MINM, I.L., imadidat kbiniahoskikh nauk; SHTXRMIW, I.Te., ala"My nauohWy not YARZIOKOV, T.S., kandidist geologo-mineralogicheskII& nauk. Connection between the structure of coal semm and sudden ejection phenomena. Ugoll vol.28 no.11:28-31 9 153. NLRA 6:11) L.IrAtitut geologicheskikh nauk Akadeviii nank SM (for ghtersubarg and Tablakov). 2. Institnt gornogo dels. Akadexii nank SM (for Ittinger). (Coal) of methane and Metfkyl ale6hol V-spot by c'o*Tx'.'! 'V. V. AuWt. -'i. L. Rttingcr, anti Al. 11, Yanovskaya., USS R 0414dy AW. 309-11(1053).-Attgarp- . I I I II (16a mp.1city of coats lot Cill and AteOH Is decd, by tt:r of hiltmports slid not by the dimcnilotu a(' the crystallites. Hard coals and anthrakitei (< volatile coustItuents) way be regarded as rigid adsorbeatts. Saft C04113 > 4WO volatile constituents) exhibit an acom. alousty hlg~.' adsorption ability and cannot be regarded as tiipd e6orhents. Expd. tWiniques are thme pre- viousfy describtd (L L. Ettinger, C.A. 47, 6631h, Khodut and VanovsLaya, CA. 46, 11620f). 1. P.- 4-:771Aj6 27~-' 4991 DEMISKITION -OF'RATE Cp MIRL U SS ERUFriff, W-4111 III CUL Si~kLlq, LI'lins U.",- 14TJ;RF"A,p ZhupakMtlao C.S. n.WSaZ-rW-V. LAC4 Wiz-A -31). A cl t~aklnc ewl (cop Dec. 19%, 21 The motho ~rcmovtn& the IWAIng fps, -,atur,-,t Ing th(n vqIth af--Uwni~s~ rnl m muring the lnttl;~l rz-u of En3 tX11S.Mki-I ri,-l ?iFjdlCd f~'r months to a scim in CLuml Da-Arml, T 1; 0 ft I, ".'a L r Ia -.,;, i crvptlcri Inarcamen vilth thlo rato of cns L-J-snlt~n w~s v-ntini,o ,-.i swo sizeest fia predlu I ctv% ET ~ W (Or E. R, I - L, - /ATTINGIM, 1. .: L."; ZHUFAKHINA, Ye,S. , ." , I Initial gas formation rate in coal seams indicating gas and coal outburst hazards& Trudy Instagorodela 1:165-172 154. ()aJU 7: 12) (Coal mines and mining) (mine gases) ITTINGZR, I., kandidat khimichookikh nauk. Id Ar, outstanding scientist. Wat.ugl. 3 no.7:24 JI 154. (KLRA 7:7) (A.A.Skeohinskli) L~Ie~StZV - Coal Carl 1/1 Autators I Title Publ. 22 - 45/63 i Ettinger, I. L-s Iamba,'S. G-i and Adamov, V. 0. I The'role of gas as a reducer of coal solidity Peziodical i Dok. AN SSSR 99/6, 1057-1060. Doc 21, 1954 0 Abstract i Experiments were conducted to determine the causes for coal softening (louG in'solidity) under the effect of gas pressures and to explain the connection between solidity reduction of coal and their geological disturbance, Re- sults showed that the softening of coal Is connected with their gas absorp- tion and that the Change In caft solidity In the mass during cut-off venti- lation la imnected with the Increase in partial gas pressure and reduction in Intensity of goo desorption from the coal. Eight USSR references (1936- 1954). Tables; drawing. tution : Acadezror of Sciences USSR, Mining Diatitute by : Academician A. As Mcochinakiy, J'ulY 7, 1954 YESILOVSKIY, V.S.; BVINGER, LL kwAidat khImicheekikh nauk, redaktor-, 9 .-A., redaktor; SINKINA, U.N.. tekhni- cheekly radaktor. [Chemical nature of mineral fuels] Xhimichaskals, priroda goriuchikh isko"aemVkh. Moskva, Isd-vo Akademit nauk SSSR, 1955. 423 P- (rugl-Analysis) (MLRA 8!12) (Mineralogical chemistry) '+ 4- / tjo- ) I . L- . USSR/kels C1 FD-2623 Card 1/1 : Pub. 41-9/21 Author : Lamba, Ye. L. and Ettinger, 1. L., Moscow Title : Measurement of the sorptional properties of coal during its oxidation Periodical : Izv. AN SSSR, Otd. Tekh. Nauk 4, 110-119, Apr 1955 Abstract : Studies the reasons for the changes in gas separation indices. Takes into account the fact that in newly developed coal basins the specimens do not undergo laboratory investigation immediately upon uncovery. Examines the rate of desorption of methane during coal storage. Describes method of determining Initial degree of gas separation. Proposes reasons for the decrease in the gas separation index of coal during storage. Lists properties of coal taken from various mines and regions. Graphs, tables. Ten references, 9 USSR. Institution Submitted November 22, 1954 Til. lb ancl Coal Ab,Xvl~ 44~ iC . ; El Gas Medium in Coal-Breaking Destruction Processes. the same time.The &athors investigated the solidity of WIhan loo samples and of 5 different types of derangement of the struc- ture in the airt C02 and OH4 under pressure of 4o atm.over pres- sure.The physical adsorption for C02 and CH is characterizing. The quantity of dust developing on the occalion of crushing the coal. was measured in all of the three gases.From ill.1 it is e- vident that solid sorts of coal have less micro-craks and there- fore their solidity is not injured by gases. Weak and easily cru- shable coals, on the other hand, are weakened even more by the action of CHI and C02- Ill.2 shows(in semilogarithmic coordinates) the average istance between micro-craoks and the dust develop- ment in C02' On the occasion of a mechanical influence on coal in gas mediy also the micro-cracks, with the exception of influences on large surfaces, have an effect.1f such preliminary derangement is lacking, the gas alone is not able to produce new cleavage planes between coal and gas and thus to promote the destruction of the coal along these planes. Methane has a similar, though we- aker effect than C02.1n the seam the coal is saturated with gas. Here the gas has no weakening effect but prevents the hardening of the coal.A very fine methane cover(nearly loo% methane) is blown away on the occasion of active ventilation. Ilthough the methane supply from deeper layers intensifiest it stays behind the escaping of gas. The gas pressure in the exterior coal layers de- Card 2/4 creases, the decomposing gas-effect int the micro-craks dimini- t AUTHORt Ettinger, I.L., 2()-5-281% TITLEt Variation in the Sorption Properties of Genetic Series of Fos- sile Coals (Izmeneniye sorbtsionnykh evoystv v gensticheskikh ryadakh iskopayemykh ugley) PERIODICALs Doklady Akad. nauk SSSRq 1957P Vol- 115, Nr 5, PP- 953-956,(USSR) ABSTRACTi Most of the coal deposits are saturated with gas. The role of the sorption energy, which causes the gas concentration on the surfa- oe of coals is important for the creation of a balance between coal and gas. In the course of the conversion process of coal sub- stances which was different in the various coal depositat the sorp- tion activity of fossile coals also changes. The change affects the binding character of coal and gas and the gas-saturation of coal layers, i.e. the potential factors which decide the emittan- ce of gas in mines. Therefore it is very important to define the mathematical interrelationship, the change of sorption properties with the origin of pit coals and their metamorphism. The author studied about 250 samples of the major coal deposits of the U.S.S.R. He analyzed them and found a sorption capacity for methane at 3oO of temperature and I atm of pressure. The connection between this capacity and yield of volatile substances is shown in figure I (for CH4) and figure 2 (for C02). The genetic processes in coals lead into different directions and overlap one another. Their Card 1/13. sorption properties change in a simular way. This all brings about Variation in the Sorption Properties of Genetic Series of 20-5-28/54 Fossils Coals. with the yield of volatile substance of 35-4o% cannot be explained by: the dispersion of the results of the experiments. It is a fact that in the above mentioned range field the increase of the sorp- tion property takes place independently of the main direction; this confirms the fact that the series of molecular association in the Moscow- and Central Asian brown coals are parallel to the se- ries of pit coals, thanks to the overlapping by the factor of sub- terranean oxidation. If the adsorption of brown coal (bituminous coal) and long-flame-coal is of importance it is necessary to de- fine also their natural activation through a change in the chemi- cal composition. The existence of 2 directions in the diagram "yield of volatile substances - sorption capacity", however, shows no significant dispersion in the results of experiments. They can only be explained by the fact that, &part from the natural factors which activate coals, there exist also such as have a contrary ef- fect. There are 2 figures and 7 Slavic referances. PRESENTED BYiSkochinskiy, A. A., Abademicisn, March 19, 1957 SUBMITTED: March,19,1957 AVAILABLEt Library of Congress Card 3/3 SKOOKINSKIY, A.A., eked.; KHODOT, V.V.,Imnd. takhn.nauk,; GHOSHINSKIY. V.G., at. nauchW sotr~dutk, kaol. tokbo.nauk,; LIPATET, Tu, A., ml. naucbrWy motrudnik, ; PRJMLER, Tu#S.. ml. nouqhny,7 sotrudaik, -X21191CRo. ~I-L. at. nauchnyy sotrudnik. kand. kbim.nauk,; TANOTSKAYA. M.T.. at. nauchzWy sotrudnik. kand. tekhn. nauk.; RIKOLAYN, V.F., red. izd-va.; FROZOROVSKAYA. V.L.. tekhn. red.; ILIINSXATA, G.M., tokhn. red. (Methane in coal beds] Xqtan v ugol'nykh plastakh. Moskva Uglatekhisdat. 1958. 255 P. (H~U 11:12) 1. Rukovoditall Iaboratorii vuezapnykh vybronov Instituta gornogo deU AN =R (for.Khadot). 2. laborato t prognoza i upravleniya gazov7deleniyom Instituta gornogo delarT (for Zttinger). (Methane) (Goal) E=OR) I. L. "The Sorption PiApertiee and Structure of Fossil Coals." paper to be submitted for the Symposium an the Nattire of Coal, Dhanbad, India) 7-9 Feb 59. (Inet. of Mining) fioad. Sol. USSR, Moscow.) 5(2) 307/32-251-4 -29/7 AUTHORS: Ettinger, 1. L., Zhupakh1naj Ye. S. TITLE: New Methods of Determining the True and Apparent Spezific Weights of Porous Bodies (Novyye metody opredeleniya istinnogo i kazhushchegosya udellnykh vesov poristykh tel) PERIODICAL: Zavodskays. Laboratoriya, 1959, Vol 25, Nr 4, Pp 453-455 (USSR) ABSTRACT: For.determining the apparent specific weight, i.e. the weight of I cm 3 of a porous body including the pores, conditions must be established which absolutely prevent the pycnometrical medium from entering the pores. In the present case, a method of this kind was developed for coals and bitumina. The pycno- metrical liquid is water with 0-05-0.1% of the wetting agent OF-7, which reduces the surface tension at the water-air boundary from 73 to 33 erg/cm2. OP-7 is a mixture of poly- ethylene glycol monoalkylphenyl esters. The results of de- termination obtained by the described method, and with helium are given for 12 samples of different coal types (with a con- tent of 1-7-44-5~ volatile component) (Table 1). The method is Card 1/2 applied in the Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatellskiy dorozhnyy SOV/32-25-4-29/71 New Methods of Determining the True and Apparent Specific Weights of PorouB Bodies institut (All-Union icientifie Research Institutle of Roads) by A. S. Kolbanovska and L. I. Yefimova for bituminous materials with the difference that the sample is not heated on the water bath but is left in the va:,uum exsJ.ccator in the pyanometrical liquf'_d at room temperature. For determining the apparent specific weight, the method of silanization was tested on coals (Ref 3). It is found that an excessive silanization reduces the accuracy of determinationj for soft coal types the result is the higher, the longer the silane condensation is carried on. The latter is assiimed to be due to a possible compression of tile soft, loose *' structure. A comparison between the results of measurement c oa.L by the described method and geometrical measurements (Table 2) shows that the maximum difference is 1%. There are 2 tables and 3 Soviet references. ASSOCIATION: Institut-gornogo dela Akademii nauk SSSR (Institute of Mining of the Academy of Sciences USSR) Card 2/2 KINKOVSKIT, Mikhail Abramovich, prof.; NTIMIM, I.L.,; GARBHP-, T.N., red.isd-va; BZ9ff&AVSKATA,--.--., WjjFu~'.-jWd.; LOKILIRA, L,N.,, (Chemistry in coal mining] Khiniia v ugol'noi promyshlennosti. Moskva, Goe.nauchno-takhnAzd-vo lit-ry po gornomu dalu, 1960. 151 P. (MIRA 13:5) (Coal mines and mining) (Chemistry, Technical) ETTINGERp Iosif Llvovichl__OKHRIMKO, V.I., otv. red,; MINSM9 L,Lq -tek-bno redal SM=AR# S.Ya., tekbu. red. lili-opertims of coals affecting mine safety] Svoistva ugleip vlUaiushchie nabezopasnost' truds. v shakhtakh. Moskva, Gos. nauobno--tekbn. izd-vo po gornomu delup 1963-- 95 P* (KUL 14: 8) (Coal mineis aM mining-SWety meamwes) AGROSKIN, Anatoliy Abramovicho prof,;'MINGER,, I.L,., otv. red.; GARBIM) T.N. , red. izd-vaj BOLOYREVAS 2-J-.2-tekla.-YM. [Coal chemistry and technology) Khimiia i tekbnologila uglia, Mo- skva,, Gos. naucbno-takhn. izd-vo lit-ry po gorno= dolu 1961. 251 P. (coal) I WRA 3-4:10) ETTIN L. (Moskva) IV---' Natural deactivation of coals as sorbents. Izv. All SSSR. Otd. tekh. nauk. Met. i topl. no.6;25%~167 N-D 161. (MM 14:12) (Coal geology) (Sorbents) EVINGER, I.L.; AFANASIYEVA, A.I.; YEFIMOVA, I.N. Effect of contact metamorphism on the sorption properties of Norillsk coals. Gor. i ekon. vop. razrab. ugoll. i rud. mest. no.1:241-246 162. (MIRA 16:7) (Noril'sk region--Coal) (Sorption) ETTINGER) I.L. d~gges in the structure of extracted coal during its natural ictivation. DAL AN SSSR 142 no.1:196-199 & .162. QURA 14:12) 1. Institut gornogo dela im. A.A. Skochinskogo AN SSSR. Pred- stavleno akademikom L.D. Shevyakovym. (Coal) (Sorption) ETTINGERP I.L.; MATVIYEMKO, N.G.j SHERSMOV, V.11. Increase of the sorption activity of coa:19 of the Norillsk deposit caused by an ore-bearing intrusion. Dokl.AN SSSR 148 no,0925-928 F 163. (KM 16W 1. Institut, gornogo dela im. A.A.Skochintikogo. Predatavleno akademikom L.D.Shevyakovym. (Norillsk region-Coal geology) (Sorption) LAMBA, Ye.G. (Moskva); ETTINGIM, 1.1, (Mbskva),- 7.GJ. ....... Determining tho methane ecntent of ilitive coaLs at pressures up to 50 at. Izv. Ahl 8S)SP. Nlet. i gor. delo no.21LSS-191 p 1-tr-Ap'64 ~MlLk 17t8) 1. Ingtitut goimogo dela imeni A.A. 5kochbnsko~o. ETTINGER, I.L. (Moskva); SULLA, M.B. (Tula) Gas content in brown coals and gas 1itx)mtion In Moscow BA~;in nJ.n--,i. Izv. AN SSSR. Met. i gor. delo no.5:159-166 S-0 16/+0 (MIR-A 18:1) 1. Institut gornogo dela, imeni A.L.Skochinalcogo i Tullokiy gornyy inatitut. ETTINGER, I. L.; YEREMIN, I. V.; ZIKAKOV, B. M.;-BAKALDINA, A. P. Sorption properties of various petrographic components of foissil coals, Dokl, AN SSSR 155 no. 2-364-367 Mr '64. (MIRA 17:5) 1. Institut gornogo dela im. A. A. Skochinakogo, Moskovskiy geologorazvedochnyy institut im. S. Ordzhonikidze i Institut geologii i razrabotki goryuchikh iskopAyetafth. Predstavleno akademikom N. V. Mellnikovym. ETTINGERY I.L.; U,I','RIYEV, A.M.; BOGFANOVA, Ye.M.; VOYTOV, G.I. Some characteristics of the sorption properties of the anthracite of I'-- nastern Donets Basin. Dokl. AN SSSR 156 no. 5:1099-1101 Je 164. (MIRA 17:6) 1. Institut gornogo dela im. A.A.Skochinskogo. Ilredstavleno akademikom N.V.14ellnikovym. ETTTNGEF 1 1. f:'Atlaral equilibrium system "coal - methane" and the mr3thods Iflor 1'CS study. U9p. khim. 34 no.7:1185-1198 J1 165. (MIRA .18:7) 1. Institut gornogo dela imeni A.A. Skochinskogo. ETTINGER, I.L.; CIIAPLINSKIY, A.; W~Wi, Ye.G.; ADAMOV, V.G. -.1 .... ... I-,.- Comparative sorption capacity of fossil coal.-; aa compared to carbon dioxide gas ans methane Linder preasuros ranging up to 40 atm. Do4l. All SSSR 161 no.1:214-217 Mr 165. (MIRil 19- 3) 1. Submitted July 4, 1964. LIDIII, G.D.; ETTINGER, I.L.; Gan composition and cal"acit:., of cua-1,; coal deposits. Dokl. AN' ]~,C) 1. Institut gornogo deja i:~;. A... i ra.,!rabotki goryuchikh AN 1964. ETTI-0-11) K. Radiotelephone on ---locimctric v- veg. P. 13 1 1 H'.DICAMULTC-11. ','arszaim, Pc1and. Vol. 5, no. 11, Nov. 1.0.-.5. Monthly Liot of Fast European ace-ission ( 7AIj'j LC. Vol. 8, ',c. ';;, Su,teraber, 1r59. Uncl. E T T P, 11GER , 1, . Ultrashort-wave resonance meter. P. 5. j-%-D,X To"I. (publication for anateur radio operator3. Title v-.riesi before 195h, i~ . Iont .adio Aviator. 1-1 lily.) ,-Iars?z~ra, P61and. V317., no.12, Dec.1955. Monthly list of East European ficcessions (EEAI) LC, Vol.9, .-io.1, Jan. 195'9. Uncl. ETTIME29 K. ETTINGERs Ke Certain possibilities of the reception of the signals belov the noise level. pe 15. Vol. 69 noe 19 Jan. 1956 Bleeders. p. 15 RADIOAMATCR. Waxmzawa Poland SOURCE, East biwopean Accessions List (EEAL) Vol. 6 No. 4 April 1957 ETTINGER, K. ETTINGER, K. Plate modulation with a clamp tube. p. 27o Vol. 6, No. 109 Oct. 195060 RADICKATOR TECHNOU)GY Warszawa, Poland So: East European Accession, Vol. 6, No. 2, Feb. 1957 ETTDIGERS K.W,i 140SCICKIS W, Observation of the thermoelectrons by means of &,iger-4SlIer counters. Acts, p~ysica Pol 22 nool:129-132 Jj 162. Ist Department of Physics' Technical University,. Gdansk. OW C 0 U'; V- T R C A T. i: "'T 0 AB3. JOUR. R 71 110. 1959, AUTIJOR R!~`JT. Ic- . p UB . A-3.31TRACT CAaD: 17 2, 7 - - - - - W . 0 W, W-WI-0 - - - - - - - 1) 11 M it It 1) 10 It a) a 4 30 a 27 x 'M !a 11 L? It id A is v a 1 1 4 60 1. L a r Q a I I v I I -A A& CC It t W606" DA" lot Uvwd%lo Roni" jU with Amplidras Contmi. 1>MI,vrov and E. )- Ettinrt "41" ~O "I - "I'"' I 00 lW6.-VKTMr=rIn Hu-Ion). Ampfitlypt, vintst6 arr r.-plACH'it wing pAuts arr ifi~cumwJ; avatrins In nilling mill". Thr II-111 %mvit-rathms, "Itration. wul roverping of the nwt 1.v tho Ward 6,tiani um-tbAid with an amplidy:nc-4-1.1ter, AU10131*6v rirguliittuln of thogrixmu,r Taltar, Abe " forcing " of vanctratm dew by Lbe metIM-1 of auxthaty dry And unzLiblo nvinanre .00 00 vxciff-r current irgu6tiom #J the .00 (Imult ajagmajo&n. R1,ji. juj;I III va,-h caw all 1.1wilsk. tw,litinna surh as olwtil Inertmas- awl rrverm- and st 00 00 31 coo 00 COO see 'so ~00 nee so I A S 01 L &IIALLORWAt LITINATUR 9 CJASSWKATOON :0 I ~161199 i I woo ~o %flat.) it ~. cog UK a- It, p :1 IF arid U99199 OlUn It It fl 1 14 10 a a j44 0 : 0 is r : of LTTRiUh YL. L. FA47T39 ion 1948 Amplifiers, Power *Amplification Coefficients of Amplidynes in Elec- tric Drive Regulation System," Ye. L. Ettinger, -'Candidate Tech Sel, All-Uhlon Elee Sagin Inst imeni V. I. Lenin, 4j pp "Vast Blektro-Prom" No 1 Discusses the question of the amplification coeffl- olent of amplidynes. DC generator has tvo types of ooeffloients of amplification: coefficient of power amplification, and coefficient of voltage amplifica- tion. -Comes to several solutions for automatic electric drive eyetma with amplitude regulation. OW OT39 Jun 48 Regulators ., Voltage Drivesp Electric 'Static Calculations of. than Reguie.,40a Accuracy cf'. Rectrical Drives With ElectromechmAcal Boosters.,* To. L. Ettinger, Cand Tech Sci, All-Union Elec Tech, Imet imeni.T. I. Lenin, Moscow, 6 pp OTent Zlektro-Prm~ No 6 Ti4mts subject under following headings: (1) basic elements of a system controlled by an electric drI*!R; (2) series connection of the circuits; (3) reaLs- tambe and potentiometer circuits,-- (4) regulation 12AM USSR/ElectrontcR (Contd) Jan 116 accuracy and amplifloatloa factor of the systeass (5) effect of temperature on armature windings; and (6) alteration of standaxd voltage. L2/49T25 EnTINGM, Ye. L. nhe Use of Controlled Mercury-Are Revtifiers for Electric Drives," reported in the article "First All-Union Scientific and Technical Session on Mercury-Arc Rectifiers," Elektrichestvo., No. 11, 1949. Candidate of Technical Sciencesp of the "Elaktroprivod" Trust. Abstract W-9395, 10 Apr 1950 EMMM, YE. L. P1 171"f4Y USSR/Electricity - Regulation Nov 50 Control Systems "Method of Relative Units Applied to Calculating Precision of Regulation of Static Systems in a Steady State," Ye. L. Ettinger, Cand Tech Sci, Elektroprivod Trust "ElektrichestVO" No 11, PP 57-63 Introduces concept of amplification factor for re- lative changes and examines many problems relating to precision in regulation. Submitted. 19 Nov 49. 171T49 -V- v EnWGIZI~Rl A4 . Ad* ,3909' -. 71he Connection Between the -Stracture of Coal Be 1* 'ItlD Layers i~a the Phenomenon of Sudden Extrii4on of Gasse" asid Rock. (Russim.)i 1. L Ettinger,ti, 1,,'. Slacrunbl-Ty. und V. 3 No. 3 V, S..-TablAnv, Ugol, Mars 195-1, Dki-mmws ncce"ity of recognizing atuctmal changos in reTtain Mining - Engineering litym and their Impottatire,(it r(wk extruflons. Nagroms, tahles. .1 Id, (3D A)64;f Ive7- L A ID P - 2000 Subject USSR/Electricity Card 3/2 Pub. 27 - 4/31 Authors Ettinger, Ye. L., Kand. of Tech. Sci., Chalyy, 0. V., Eng., ana ulum, Ye. M., Eng. Title Experimental installation of an electronic excitation system at a high capacity hydroelectric power station Periodical : Elektrichestro, 4, 16-23, Ap 1955 Abstract : The authors describe a system with mercury rectifiers used for the excitation of a 55,000-kw water-wheel generator at one of the Mosenergo hydroelectric power stations. Similar installations were tested for a 3,000-kw turbogenerator at a Mosenergo steam electric powpr station, and for a 30,000-kva synchronous conoenser. The tests confirmed the high qualities of field control with,metal tank mercury are rectifiers, namely: a) the high rate of a-c voltap response; W the rapid exciter fieldextinction (in less than 1 see) without breaking the Withding circuit; I Elektrichestro, 4, 16-23, Ap 1955 AID P - 2000 Card 2/2 Pub. 27 - 4/31 c) an increase of the "rigidity" (continuity of response) of the regulation system, and d) the high dependability, simplioity and ease of operation of the system. Fifteen photographs and diagrams. Institu.tion:--Trust "ELEKTROPRIVOD" and plant "URALELEKTROAPPARAT". Submitted : N 26, 1954 Subject i MBR/Xleotricit7 Card 1/2 Pub, 27 - 16/25 AID P - 3261 Authors Ittingerp Is. L.j Kand. Tech. Soi., and Tu. A. Shmayn,, Ing. Title s Using current transformers for measurements in networks with rectifiers Periodical i Zlektrichestvo, 9. 71-739 S 1955 Abstract The authors demonstrate that under certain conditions secondary currents of current transformers my considerably differ from primary ones due to the saturation of the core. They give some examples of tests with transformers with cores made of a permalloy type of material and cores of steel. They found that the permalloy type transfox re (the HTT-1 and UTT-5 types) are not suited for measurements in rectifier circuits at 50 cycles, while those idth steel acres (of TU-20/5 type) give relatively small arrore. Three diagram. AID P - 3261 ziektricbewtvog 91 71-73, 5 1955 Card 2/2 Pub. 27 - 16/25 Institution % "llektroprivod" and the Central Scientific Research Electrical Engineering Laboratory of the YAnistry of Electric Power Stations. Submitted : * 149 1955 ETTINGER, Ye.L., kandidat tekhnicheskikh nauk; RZYNOOLID, TVA, inzhener. - ,7--, . - Xxperlmental Investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the rotary amplifier and the calculation of its parameters. BlektricheatTo no.3:13-23 Mr t56. (KIM 9:6) l.TvIB OllektropriTod" Hinisterstvo alektroproVehlennosti. (Rotating amplifiers) ZTMTIILNG& XA-L., kandidat tekhnicheskikh na-uk; GMKIN, B.M.. kandidat i=echeskikh nauk; Borodavchenko, P.M., inzhener. Present-day systems of rectifier drives. Ilektrichestvo no.9: 32-38 S 136. 1 (KLU 9: 11) l.TSentrallnoyo konstruktorskoye byuro "Ilektroprivod" Minister- stya, elektropromyshlennosti. (Mercury~aro rectifiers) GLUKH, Ye.M.; CHALYY, G.V*; RMINGBR, Ye.L. Ionic system for the excitation of hydrogenormitors. Blektroallo no.14:35-40 156. (MDU 12:12) (Ilectric generators) v GUTKIN, B.N., kandidat takhnichookikh nauk; ETTINGER, Ye.L., kandidat tekhai- I cheskikh nauk. mm"WwAmmem Peak choks for regulating electronic instruments. Vest.olektroprom. 27 iko.1:26-32 Ja 156. (MIRA 9:6) (Electronic apparatus and appliances)(Blectric controllers) CRALTr, G,V., inzhener; ITTINGn, Te#L.. kandidat toldmicheakikh nauk; GLUHj N~ TO.M., inzhener. -"' Ilectronic excitei for generators at the Kuybyshev Hydroelectric Power Station. Test. elektroprou.27 no.2:40-50 F 156. (mk 9:7) 1.23entrallnoye konstruktorskoye 'bjwo.RIlektroprivodO Ministeretva alektroprouyahlennosti. (Blectric generators) ~JODE -IN CM UITS 0 F REC-1.1 5 ly, R - a TjP ar-i p do-S. In clrcuit3 fu! ,MtxvrTmr4 [A-~=acstns), iormtm t-n~3 Jol 1~1 signt.13 tra cmt-ldzzed and Itlv-,erizl tn,4 a"rMimt*t Mrs us d ft Oletroot o L-1 4,Ut t"c LA 04 (frat modal' E-M PTO cc "'sidatorle- tmtlftter zmWrwt p-waiNd by it apectil sottl pmlhl,* Ib- ftgulai~? OM"W!= U-Odts =y I!S,~ be "2d as wupUflars. Ttm- %M"1,11.r &Ad t44 CX~ ra j tjor. Ja Coat -thn are' radswe"d W.12t rs!8f*&-frtv- -rarlwo the mitching'O awr c'st-OzactArwea. An ie4arrV-E-4;mu*a of O's CC-Utrial A7$ttfa'=I~ be kri "I of t a ipVJ la, vlE. ty r.!= iq ux z Ifixnir-6 M)Lgmetlc amp,t.'*gr of a Me rtti. ablilze LA the r"Se d rA;,LUvs corrroWng "Uages (v:rrents). or by ralactrLe Lps(tad d at Me cmroUU~g vA raritaliag slamls ty Wertine a gawk-aad=tar.type racti-isr Lito tha corarol wIndims, whWhIls thMby blasel. A two-tuga Lalf-rzvv elintrontc wpl,rL-2r watt is Eiw* desprUxid 1,~rthet expurLmental tTpe~s dL%c red Lrt Mo-imp Ampo - ft~ ra to oparata w" two alometrotc coavartort, a,~ :4 r rldj~ mpchl- ar.6 lUt drl,,cm. IM a(2); 28(l) ?HASS I BOOK UnOrTATION SOV/1433 Soveshchansle po am-tosiatizirovannowu olaktroprivoillperamennogo t0sm, "scow. 1955 Trudy... (Trenaactions of the Conference on Automated A-C Ilectric Driv*s) Moscow, Itil-vo AN SSSR. 1958. 358 P. 4.000 40PICS printed. SponsorimS Agoncyt Akxdezlya nauk SSS)t. Institut avt*aatW I tolemelabLnIkI. Is@ Zd - V.S. ltul*bakin, Academician. and X.G. ChIIIXIn 9;at:: ar Techalcal sciences. Professor; Ed. of publishing House% D.14. laffel Toth. Zd.t I.T. ruz-m1r. CCVMtA=t The conrorence was Organized on the Initiative of thO lastitute cJr Automation and Telonechanics or tn* Academy of sciences, tLLS3, and t1w Moscow Power EneirearIng Inati- tutd and hoA as its a1m the planning of the most proSressive my& or C*valo;L~ Automatic cantrot. or electric driv*s- The first 406:1ferenea on the subject of autociated electric drive too-. Act* Licre t!xan ton yea" before the present Q.W " was concerned wIttk d-c electric drives. The reaults 0.1 this eciareronce, were fount to be most val-JAbl* I-% the task of r*_ building poetwax 3oviot Industry and intUrtherlnG Industrial development. Present technical development of Soviet industry demands high sprods, BLXPIIClty Of Oon3trilQtlon. reliability of operstionaxid economy. The Iquirrel-:age Induction motor with frequency control appears to be the most Promising type of oontralled &-a drive. For wide appli ation of this drive In the Soviet economy there Is a need of developing now tn** of frequency scovert*rs. Some Intorsa-.Ing studio& were made I& tALs connection at the Institute of Automation &rA Tole- mchanles, of the U= Academy or sciences and Its rAnLngred bran", at the Moscow Power Zriginaering Institute. tn* Contr&1 Dwelva Bureau of the *Zlektroprivod Plant, the State !)*sign IftatItute Of tbo Ministry of Construction or the R3PS1t. And In other design organIxAtions. These studies war* discussed at the Present con:*Zvnoo. The tm-isactions contain material concerning the theory and design Of reactor. pulse. and frequency methods or controlling &-a electric drives. ftodIdato of' Technical sciences I.T. Utkin and ZnSlneer V.A. Kokorwva Participated in the prop ration or this collection or papers. The volume was roviow:d by Professor Ya. V. 111tusov, Doct,or of Teennicel sciences. Sam of the papers include a bibliography. TABLZ OF CONTPIMs *Now -141150r, 1~-- L- CarAldata of Technical Sciences. R.C_ tlTr0_F-r-'19Fr_rn_Jaectric Drives Work On stages for electric drive re- 143 ""10" st&rt~d In 1937 at, the VZ1 (All-Union Xlectrleal Znglno*rlng Znstltute) with the pub IleatIon of an articl. by '.1 alltAYOV and YO: I.- Jttt1nger,:M~. circuits Of 7,hyratron Actors", 1. Mr 1. X937, r the "V*:tniktoloktrOPrc=Yahl.r...til. 3L`gl1,tnOd* rectifier or he MN-200 type Were =O= In JS40_1~41. The first lots Of the PJM'V- As Rmly-5001t; rectifiers were Produced In 1943. cordinx to the Author. the first Industrial Instal- latlOn In the world 3r a r*ctirlor stage was pro- dueed by the VZ1 and the TsZM for the Speed ,%g- latlon or a 8840-kv Induction 'motor for the rinlsnlng I Ins, f - c W -Aat S-Ii-t .n 1950 fOr the Chel,.blii,kly 4tion was bull (ChOlYnb3noic Metallurgical AwtallurgIch4sklY 9-1od such Installation Plant),and Several other The author give, a wGre built In subsequent years. and equips,., It ft d*acrlptton or a rtcttfler stage th other systems of ~,#Gtrlo drive mgmlatl*n- Pa2'tleularly with 'AT-V systems or ru,., r*ctlflfrm f**41A& a d-c AftOr- On the basis or recoj%t too to or ro*ttrl*r Stages made At the Gla,s;*tsgt&,. Pl"t�. the author concludes aulvilloot to tr,, 61tv.Dr, that rectifier -tag*s am :rfle I&Oey, and Systems as concerns Cost. :011o S--Or factor. With respect to energy t uw"'On Ver ton or finished PrOduct-rect1flor The Author recommor4m tn. us* r0l"lattan of nonreversible SOV/110-59-7-10/19 AUTHORS: Ye.L. Ettinger G V Chalyy, Ye.M. Glukh, Ya.N. Shtrafunj "P.m., `Ip'atov'~' ?da-aadidates of Technical Sciences), and Yu.1. Shmayn, (Engineer). TITLE: Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators (Ventillnoye vozbuzhdeniye sinkhronnykh generatorov i komponsatorov) PERIODICAL: Vestnik elektropromyshlemlosti?1959,Nr 7,PP 41-48 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Discharge-valve exciters provide a choap means of improving the stability of supply from power stations. Grid-controlled rectifiers can easily give four- or five- fold field-forcing with very high rates of voltage rise and low control power. This is partii::ularly useful in hydro-electric power stations. By using regulators that respond to the power and to its rate of change in combination with high-speed excitation the stability of hydro-alternators can be greatly increased without having greatly to reduce the machine reactance or increase its flywheel effect. High-speed excitation is less essential in turbo-generators working on shorter transmission lines Card 1/9 but machine exciters are already becoming unsatisfactory, because with unit outputs of 200 - 300 MW the field BOV/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators current can be up to 3000 A at about 500 V. It is difficult to design shaft-driven exciters of this rating with double forcing. On the other handq separately- driven exciters are much less reliable, so that rectifier excitation is to be preferred. Rectifier exciters also offer advantages for synchronous condensers. With independent excitation circuits as shown in Fig la the rectifier is supplied from a separate alternator usually mounted on the main alternator shaft. The application of this system to a hydro--alternator is shown in the left- hand side of the composite drawing in Fig 2i the right- hand side shows an alternator with an ordinary machine exciter. The alternator field current is regulated by grid control of the rectifier. Self-excitation circuits for alternators are shown in Figs lb, v and Z. The first is analogous to shunt excitation of a d.c. generator; the other two correspond to compound excitation of a d.c. generator. These circuits use voltage-boosting transformers, their primaries connected in series with Card 2/9 the generator output. The transformers have large air- gaps so that the secondary voltage is proportional to the SOV/110-59-7-10/101 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators primary current. The voltages on the anodes of the rectifiers are proportional to the geometrinal sum of the voltages on the generator busbars and on the secondary windings of the booster transformers. The main generator field Is main.11y 'rogulated by grid contiol. A fourth circuit, shown Jn Fig Id, has been developed t,-) reduce the nimber rof rotating machines. It is an independent excitation oir(,uit with self --exci tation of the waxillary generator. This circuit has the advantage that the auxiliary generator has no exciter and so Is smaller, but starting .:onditions are somewhat more complicated. Whea parallel self-excitation is used, the voltage applied to the rectifiers falls on the oevarrence of the short-circuit. However, when h1gh-speed protection and circuit-break-ers are used~ field-forUng may be delayed until the short-circuit is cleared without impairing in practice the dynamic stability of the generator. For such cases, the circuit of Fig lb may be used, but special steps must be taken to provide Card 3/9 auxiliary supply to the re--tifie-2s during short.-circuits. This system is likely to be used for synchronous sov/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Mccitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators condensers and for alternators operating on relatively short transmission lines. For the highest dynamic stability making the fullest use of field-forcingg the shunt circuits of Figs 1v and g should be used. When a short-circuit occurs the booster transformers give additional voltage which ensures the necessary field- forcing. The costs of the different systems are briefly compared. In all the ' above-mentioned circuits, the valves may be connected in different ways. IP the field-forcing factor is not greater than 2j it will probably be advisable to use ordinary rectifier circuits, as shown in Figs 3a, b and v. In the circuits of Figs" a and (1, valves connected to tappings from part of the secondary winding of the rectifier transformer provide generator excitation under normal conditions; and valves supplied by the whole secondary winding of the rectifier transformer provide field-forcing. Circuits with two series-connected groups of valves are shown in Fig 3v. Here the valves are divided into a cathode group and an anode group. If Card 4/9 these are suitably controlled it may be arranged thatj under normal conditions of operation, the anode gruap of SOV/110- 9--7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Ccmpensators valves is almost fully open and the cathode group operates under invertor (conditions so that its rectified voltage is negative. The overall rectified voltage is the algebraic sum of the voltages of the anode and cathode groups. During field-forc.-ing botK groups are fully open and during field suppress-1or, both gzuaps operate under invertor condl,tions. The different methods of connecting the valves affect; -',-he output of the sapply transformer or auxiliary generator) the r.m.s. and peak values of the valve current and the back voltage on the valve. The graphs in Figs Ir and 5 show of tbe relationship betwe-;n the output of the transformer or auxiliary generator and of the hack voltage on the valve under normal conditions as a function of the field-forcing factor for various -valve supply circaits. With high forcing-factors the circuit with two groups of valves connected In parallel or series is best. Considerations governing the choice of the ~Arcuit are briefly d9scribed. Rectifier grid control Arcuits are then described. Grid- Card 519 control phase regulators may be of the induction or static types. The latter comprise a bridge, two arms of which SOV/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators are formed by transformer windings, the third by a constant resistance and the fourth by a variable inductance which is a saturating choke. The phase angle is varied by altering the auxiliary excitation of the choke, which may be done directly by the automatic voltage controller of the generator. Rectifier exciters require very little control power and are practically without inertia and so the automatic voltage controllers may be relatively simple. Test results with rectifier excitation are then described. Extensive tests were made on a 55 MW hydro-alternator using various circuits for considerable periods, and good agreement was found between test results and design figures. The rate of rise of field voltage during forcing is of the order of 75 - 80 Wsec, and the ma imum voltage is reached in less than a single cycle of the power frequency, as will be seen from the oscillogram drawn in Fig 6. The oscillogram in Fig 7 relates to field-forcing and suppression on a hydro-alternator of the V-31ga power Card 6/9 station: tile high operating speed will be noticed. Field suppression by operating the rectifier under SOV/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators invertor conditions ensures rapid reduction in the generator field without any switching in the rotor circuit; an oscillogram for this case Is shown in Fig 8. Those in Figs 9 and 10 relate to sudden loading and unloading. Developments in the manufacture of semi- conductor rectifiers may lead to their use for machine excitatiorL particularly if a reliable source of alternating nurrent is availabla. Three-phase inductor- type high-frequency generators (WO - 500 c/sec) for induction heat4ng or machines with permanent magnet rotors may be used as such sources of reliable supply. Fig 11 shows the schematic circ-.uit diagram of an experimental Installation for exciting a 30 MW t-arbo- alternator. The high-frequency alternator has two field windings on the stator; the main winding is self-excited. The auxiliary winding is supplied independently from an auxiliary high-frequency exciter with permanent magnet rotor and is intended for initial excitation, adjustment of the system and additional excitation during forcing. Card 7/9 The operation of the circuit is described, Prolonged tests on the equipment revealed its good static and SOV/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators dynamic characteristics. Tests with short-circuits on the generator terminals were made at reduced voltage to determine the compounding effect of the free current in the rotor. The rate of rise of voltage on the rotor slip- rings was 8 times the initial value per second. The development of high-frequency generators for use with semi-conductor rectifier systems has resulted in designs which may be used as auxiliary generators in systems with Valve rectifiers. The largest hydro-alternators are now being designed with valve excitation. Valve and semi- conductor rectifier systems are being developed for the excitation of turbo-alternators of 200 and 300 W. 'New synchronous condensers of 75 MVA are provided with valve rectifier excitation. Further developments are expected to include the use of air-cooled pumpless rectifiers, improved grid control circuits and new automatic field regulators with amplidynes and tTansistors replacing valves and thyratrons. Further experience with rectifier Card 8/9 excitation is still required but it can already be concluded that the use of high-speed excitation systems SOV/110-59-7-10/19 Valve Excitation of Synchronous Alternators and Compensators on synchronous alternators and condensers operating on long transmission lines increases the power throughput by approximately 10%. The size and weight of hydro- alternators may be reduced when these exciters are used, so cutting the cost by 20%. There are 11 figures and Soviet references. Card 9/9 ty F j P . F r Sir 14 zo if iv Ir rj ~ I 21 !plk I- jr 19.. 0 : IN rill jifro.l U cc I JC ff, U ro'l fir it F4kwjwFj Ail 3 rF .4pliflIH 91l. S/194/61/000/007/050/079 D201/D305 AUTHORS: Ettinger,.Ye.L. and Ivanova, 11.1. TITIE: Equalizing currents in reversible gas-filled conver- ters PERIODICAL: Referativnyy zhurnal. Avtomatika i radioelektronika, no. 7, 1961, 24, abstract 7 E146 (Vestn. elektro- prom-sti., 1961, no, 1, 57-59) TEXT: The equalizing current W (UT) loads both the rectifier and transformer windings resulting in additional losses. They are limited by chokes, serving also in certain cases as filters for the rectified current ripple. Methods are given for evaluating the equalizing currents and choosing the parmeters of chokes for limit- ing them. The expression for the effective value of the equalizing current Teff is given as Teff 2 VDk/(j L where Vo - the phase voltage of the transformer, ci - angular frequency, L - inductance, k - a factor determined from the curves produced and depending on the reg- Card 1/2 S/194 61/000/007/050/079 Equalizing currents... D A05 ulation angle of the rectifying system for different converter cir- cuits. The circuit inductance required for limiting the equalizing current ia'determined from the given allowable value of current and from k. Two variants of choke design are possible: 1) When the chokes do not saturate at the max. working currents and 2) When they are not saturated by the e qualizing current, but are saturated by the working current. Variants of circuits are given of rever- sible converters. f-Abstracter's note: Complete translatio-1.12 Card 2/2 ETTINGER9 Ye,L., kand.tekhn.naukj IVANGVA, M.I. Equalizing currents in reversive ionic converters. Vest. elektroprom. 32 no.1:57-59 ja f61. (MIRA 14;3) (Electric current converters) GLUKH, ye.m.,_kand.teIhn.nauki ETTINGER, Ye.L, kand.teldni.nauk; CHALYX, G.V. , kand.tekhn.nauk; S11MYN, Yu.P., inzh. Testing of the Lnie self-excitation system of a largo hydro- generator. Vest. elektroprom. 32 no.!].:-4-9 N 161. (MIIb% 14:11) (Turbogenerators) ETTINGER, Ye.L., -kand.takhn.nauk Features of the development of large ionic drives. Vest. elektroprom. 33 no.10:1-10 0 162. (11IRA 15:9) (Electric driving) (Electric current rectifiers) -GLUKHp Ye.M., kELnd.tekhn.nauk; ZEMLYANOY, Tu.M., inzh.; ETTINGER$ kand.takhn.nauk Ionic exditers in the hydrogenerdtors of the Bratak Hydroelectric Power Station. Vest. elektroprmi. 33 no.10: 15-22 0 162. (MIRA 15:9) (Bratsk hydroelectric power statfLon) (Turbogenerators) ETTINGER, Ye.L.,, kand.takhn.nauk An electronic drive with a collectorless motor. Elaktrichentvo no.2t42-50 F 163. (MIRA 16:5) 1. Vaesoy-uznyy nauchno-iseledovatellskiy instLtut elektromekhaniki. (Electric motors) _MINGER, re.L., kand.tekhn.nauk; GLUKH, Ye.M., kand.-tekhn.nauk; GOLIDIN, R.G., inzh.; TITOV, V.V., kand.tekhri.nauk; NZYMAN, Z.B., inzh. Concerning L.V.Rcpman's article. VeBt. elektroprom. 34 no.l: 62-64 Ja 163. (MIRA 16a) (Electric generators) (Rosman, L.V.)