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GAZDARCIV, V. 1,;. Gazdarov, V. M. "Abe Chanves In Protein of the Blood of Horses-" Moscow Vet,~!ririary Academy, 1~ Min Higher Education USSR. Chair of Orfwanic and Biolo-F-ical Chemistry. imoscow, 1955. (Dissertation for the degree of Candidate in Biological Scierices) SO: Knizhnaya letopis' No. 2'1, 2 JiLly 1955 SWINMKOT. NA.; TARAZOVg NeTe; GAZAMT, T.No ,4p dhamterletlem of protein substames in the 'blood of heroes* ftuo ImA. mrf. Shiv. ZOM:243-248 157. (au DO) (Norms@) Meed pretelas) 6 1 _-_ -b A P, VVj- V. USSR/Farm Animle - Large Horned Cattla. Q-2 Aba Jour : Rof zhur - Biole, No 18, 1958, 83330 Author : Mel I aikova, T. _QU_dzrOV' V. Inst : - ------ __ Title : Feeding Preserved Foods to Cove. Orig Pub : Molochn, i myasno zhivotnovodstvo, 1958, No 1y 22-25. Abstract : The first group of cows was fed cars ensiled by the Usual method, the second group of caws was fed ears prosaiNed by the S-2 preparation, and the third group was fed cars pre- served by the AIV preparation. These ears were fed to the cows twice daily in amiuitti of 25-28 kg each time, after they vere fed concentrated feeds and before they wore fed hay. During a period of 70 days, total milk yields Vwtui- ted to 761 kg from control cowG vhercas they averaGed a. bout 829 kg from test Group cows. Expenditure of conc~an- trated feeds amunted to 289 -,r and 265 gr per 1 hr; of 4 percent milk,, and to 0,94 and 0.90 of food unit3, Card 1/2 C-ATEGORIf Farm Animals. General Problems. ABS. JOUIR. I RZhBiol., No. 3 1959, No. 11950 a, v , N. A.; Tarvt Fee~'ng Covis and -Horsos with Pr~.3crv-,,d by Mineral Acikls. 011'~71 - 3 - : Vostn- s--kh, nauki* 19581 No 2, 50-72 I'T : By preserving fodder with acid pr,,parntlons, the retention of nutri6ive sv~-',Pmcn.3 ane, vitaritns is largely assured. Whon feeus which wt~ro preserved with K2 tind AIV prcparations wero fed to animals in quantities correspone- ing to the usual silage norms, an aOvorse effect on the aninalT condition and ~.,rociuctlon v;,qri not established. Yares dlgeste-! rations containing preserved feedn riot loqs thfui nutritive substoncet, contnined in Q,o rations and yoiuig animals them ~-Ven i * IM, Chalyuk, Ye. A.; Mellnikova, S.; Kostrominaj Ve F.1 Mexiaaj M. A. USSR A'-',- C. - 1,Y 1959, No. ORIC-. PUB. A "E;'i T RA C, T a little better. Cellulose d1gostion in a ration which contained preserved corn was 7 percent higher than in a ratlion containing corn silage# Na, CS ancl P balance was Dositive in horsas and cows which were gAven preserved feeds, The full bioloeical value of protein in preserved lucerne amounted to 51 porcentillof corn to 43.5 percent, and in controln to )~-50 and 39.8 percent, correspondingly. A dis- turbanee of the general metabolism and ph7sio- C 024 GAZDAI-M, C. Analysis of the causes of defedts in parts of steel molds. p. 16. (METALURGIA SI CONSTtUCTIA DE MOM. RUFANIA. Vol. 8, no. 5, May 1956.) SO: Monthly List of East European Accessions (SEAL) LC. Vol. 6, no. 7, July 1957, Uncl. C- IN -~L d 14- R k-%, I ~- GAZDARU, C. GAZDARU, C. Specific metal consumption for parts stamped by drop hammers. P. 70. Vol. B. no. U. Nov. 1956 METALURGIA SI CONSTRUCTIA DE tLASINI. TECHNOLOGY RUMANIA So: East European Accessions Vol. 6. No. 5, HaY 1957 250) RUM/9-59-7-5/52 AUTHOR: Gtfzdaru, Costacheq Engineer TITLE: Deformation Work in Die Forging PERIODICAL: Metalurgia Vi construolia de ma~ini, 1959, Nr 7, pp 576-579 (Rumania) ABSTRACT: The author points out that the problem of calculation of the power needed for die forging often appears in various processes for determination of the characte- ristics of the equipment. In the case of existing die forging equipment, the calculation of the deformation- mechanical work gives indications on the number of phases or active strokes of the machine needed for the forging of a certain part. On this basis, the produc- tivity of the die equipment can be determined. It is the only scientific method concerning the determina- tion of the effective working time and the correct establishment of the production capacity of the for- Card 1A ging equipment. The author presents a mathematical determination of the mechanical work based on the RUM/9-59-7-5/52 Deformation Work in Die Forging laws of plasticity. In the case of die forging, the metal volume is submitted to plastic deformation du- ring the approaching stroke of the two die surfaces which compress the work. The plastic deformation occurs in a body that is-first submitted to elastic deformation. Therefore, the movement of the die sur- face produces a state of tension within the metal mass which is submitted to plastic deformation within the empty space of the die, The limit tension'state on the tool surface gives a reBultant which together with the deplacement of the die surface gives the mechanical work performed by the machine. Evidently, the mechanical work is equal to the mechanical work of the interior forces, tensions and deformations, existing in the mass of the deformed body. Starting from an infinitesimal volume element, the author arrives at a system of 14 equations with 14 unknown quantities. The three limit conditions must be added Card 2A however, so that the solving of the equations Deformation Work in Die Forging RUM/9-59-7-5/52 mentioned is almost impossible. Subsequently, the author takes as a basis of calculation the case of the deformation of a parallelopiped with the nota- tions as given in Fig 2. He determines a curve (Fig 3) the integral of which represents the specific mechanical work. By supposing that the resistance of deformation is constant, the integral can be solved. ,h The mechanical work is L = Vk f"T1 - . V is the volume lbh (Fig 2) k the resistance of ideformation. Accor- ding to.the ~;thor, this result has a practical signi- fance as it can be used for the calculation of the de- formation work in die forging. Correction coefficients are available as established by the Soviet Institute of Automobile Industry Research (VTOPROM). In conti- nuation, the author defines the degree of deformation & as represented in Fig 4. The resistance of the me- tal at the flow limit in the sense of the stress at usual forging temperatures is established in confor- Card 3A mity with Table 1. Finally the author presents a V JJeformation Work in Die Forging example of calculation for a Fig 5. There are 3 diagrams, RUM/9-59-7-5/52 forging represented in 2 graphs and 1 table /.* Card 4/4 GAZDARfl,6ADAYUFSrEANU, CL; GERANIU, E.; BEGN-WSCU, P. Method of preparing thrombin. p. 207. COVn'ICARIME. Pucuresti. Vol. 5, no. 1, Jan. 1955 Source: East European Accessions List. (EEAL), Le, Vol. 5, No. 3, Yarch 1956 -1 -- IM=-Ita 8 (5) SOV/112-57-5-10224 Tzanslation from: Referativnyy zhurnal. Elektrotekhnika, 1957, Nr 5, p 93 (USSR) AUTHOR: Gazdayka, P. P TITLX: Method of Recording the Short-Circuit Characteristic of an Induction Motor (Metod fotograficheskoy zapisi kharakteristiki korotkogo zamykaniya asinkhronnykh dvigateley) PERIODICAL- Dokl. L'vovsk. politekhn. in-ta, 1955, Vol 1, Nr 2, pp 119-123 ABSTRACT: Because the short-circuit characteristic of an induction motor is non- linear, the short-circuit test is usually continued up to the rated voltage. However, the winding heating distorts the measurement results and the transient electromagnetic phenomena that accompany each energizing of the motor, and make it difficult to take simultaneous and sufficiently accurate instrument readings. To eliminate the above shortcomings and to restrict the short-circuit test to 10 sec duration, it is suggested that the active and reactive components of the short-circuit current be recorded by a photographic method; Card 1/2 SOV/112-57-5-10224 Method,of Recording the Short-Circuit Characteristic of an Induction Motor a coordinate instrument with permanent -magnet measuring units is used. The motor under test is connected to the line via an autotransformer whose sliders are moved by a servomotor. The control-voltage phase can be made coincident either with the active -current -component phase or with the reactive -current- component phase. The current components permit detern-dning the short- circuit characteristic, power, current-voltage phase shift angle, and the short- circuit parameters. A.I.M. Card 2/2 Translation from: Referativnyy Zhurnal, p. 107 (SSR) AUTHOR: Gazlayka, P.P. 112-3-5803D Elektrotekhnika 1957, Nr 3, TITLE: Current Diagram And Characteristics of Induction Machines with Variable Paramettrs (Diagramma tokov i kharakteriatiki asinkhronnykh mashin s peremennymi parametrami) ABSTRACT: Bibliographic entry on the author's dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences, presented to the KVw Polytechnical Institute (Kiyevsk. politekhn. In-t), L'Vov,,' 1956. 1 ASSOCIATION:FJym Polytechnical Institute (Kiyevsk. politekhn. in-t) Card 1/1 GA7DAYKA, P.P., kand. tekhn. nauk Analysis of some elements of the circle diagram of an asynchronous machine based on 70 years of its development and newest experimen- tal data. Izv. v3s. ucheb. zav.; energ. 7 no.9:7-14 S 164. (MIRA 17:11) 1. Llvovskiy politekhnicheskiy institut. Prccs'Lavlena kafedroy teoretictieskoy i ob3hchey elektrotekhniki. GAOIDAYKA P 1'. kand, tokhn. nauk I --l-L', j." Method for determining the torque cur-ves of asynchroncus machines. Izv. vys. uchob, zav.; enurg. 8 no.1:109-112 Ja 165. (MIRA 18:2) 1. Llvovskiy politekhnicheskiy institut. Predstavlena kafedroy teoxeticheskoy i obahchey elektroniki. GAZDZICKI; J. . The influence of angular connections on the reductim of lonritudinal errors of points of a typical polgonal traverse. p. 19 (Warsaw. Insty-tut Geodezji i Kartoprafii. Prace. Proceedings. Wamawap Poland. Vol. 4, no. 1, 1956. Monthly 1ndex of East European Accessions (EF,41) LC- Vol. 7, no. 2, February 1958 gAZDZICKI, J. Controlling the composition of equations of corrections. P. 243. (GEDDEZJA I KARMGRAFIA) (Warszawa, Poland) Vol. 6, no. 4, 1957 SO: Monthly Index of East European Accession (EEAI) LC Vol. 7, No. 5, 1958 Ga-kdzIckl J., Janusz . Sintuilancous Adjusting of NCd2l Elements ,liednoczesno v.',Yi-6wnanic wymut6w 4 wsp6Irzqdnych wfzllo%%,vch w slatkich pollgonowych". 11'rare Inst. ~1' Geod. I Kartoar. No. 3), War. szaw. 1957, PPWK, 42 lip.. 19 lig.A.. WITS-. The adjustment of extewive Imlygon t1cLq by the method of the least squares being very laborlotts, the approximating methods generally called "Methods of nodal pointi" tire used. Not all knomin methods a nodal pDints are limited to this simplification- each of the nodal ek"ents a, x, y. is adjusIrd "mrately Thisma nn cr of dealing vMh them Must necessarily lead Ao such an observation deformaUon as will prove excessive when a higher precision not Is being adjusted. The paper discusses fi%vo methods of simultaneous adjusting of the nodal clemenis a, ~x, y. The observation functions adjusted by the first mc4hod are angllei and lengttis determined by the nodal element; and in the second - sums of vilgles and swns of co-ordin;ate Incre- ments (departure and latitude) culctilated for hidivioual polygons. Both those methods enable the adjusliment of ths- net with the so called side connections (with additionilly ch~trvvd directirins toward fixed i3oints, from certain polyq,j polnt,-). intmerical eximipli-s -tiven show results very closo to Iliwo obtainkil by invalls of the least squares method. G A -, I. t- -' C ?, 1" 3 J . A few remarks concurninf-, the articLe "Anni-vc-i-say of Y-mliartic Tr2yersing." 1 . 127 (FMl:GLAi- C,-; IIJI:~'.Mly-) Poland, '01. 13, 7 o. 3, ' 1r. 19 7 F I ~) ~ 1 1 5), 60: ilonthly Incex of European Accessions Voi. c , 'No. 11-Y Novprd~er 19 7 5 GAZDZ-'LCKI J._ JANUSZ W,, A comparison of approximate methods of adjusting polygon nets; based on a few numerical examples. p. 87. Warsaw. Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii. (PRACE. PROCEEDINGS. Warszawaq Polai)d Vol. 6. no, 1. 1958e Monthly List of East European Accessions Index (EZAI), LC, Vol. b, No. 6, June 1959 Uncl. r s., P-~Is~ ch Vol. 15, rc. -2pt. 1"'?. st cof -7j~st Eturonepn C- GAZDZICnvI I Jerxy Application of the UMC 1 machine for geodetical computations. Przegl geod 33 no.12:456-458 161. CAWZICKI, Jerzy Solution programs of geofttic problems by means of the Polish universal digital computer UMC 1. Warsav Inst geod i kartogr~f Prace 9 no.1;3-32 162. GAZDZIGKI, Jerzy Solving normal equations by electronic computers. Prace Inst good 9 no.2:3-16 162. 44259 3/035/62/000/012/06 1AM M AOO1/A1O1 AUTHOR: Gazdzicki, Jerzy TITLE; Solving the system of 739 normal equations on an UMC-1 computer PERIODICAL: Referativnyy zhurnal, Astronomiya i Geodeziya, no. 12, 1962, 4o, abstract 120250 ("Przegi. geod.", 1962, v. 34, no. 7, 323 - 324, Polish) TIM: In adjustment of the Silesian triangulation network, the system of 739 normal- equations was solved. The network was divided into 4 groups and was adjusted by the Pranis-Pranevich method. The method of cracowian root was select- ed for direct solution of normal equations. Advan~tages of this method include: simplicity of solution algorithm, small number-of entries in th6 calculation process, i.e., cells in the computer memory, and a high#r precision of calcula-'~: tional results. About 3,000 cells remained in the computer memory for the solu-. tion of the equation system properly. At the same time,in each group of equa- tions the number of non-zero coefficients of normal equations above the main diagonal was 6,000 - 7,000. Therefore, normal equations of each group were di- Card 1/2 S/035/62/000/012/061/064 Solving the system of... A001/A101 j I- vided into 3 parts. Hundred hours were spent for solving the system (25 hours for insertion and extraction of data and 75 hours for calculations proper). Economic efficiency attains 70% in comparison with-*calculations on an adding machine. Individual stages of solution are described. There are 5 references. B. Serapinas [Abstracter's note: Complete translation]- Card 2/2 z L-Aal -.,ACCEWION NR: AT40W,745 P/22505/63/010/002/0003/0035 i AUMCR: - -Gazdzicki, Jerzy (Gam'dzitski, Yezhi). TITIZ: Adjustment &'triangulation nets on electronic computers SOMM Wareave Instybut Geodezji i Yartografii* Prace, v& 10, no. 2(22), 1963, 3-35 -TOPIC TkGS: trianplation net, computer., digital ccqp4er, MIC 1 digital com- puter, Pranin Praniewict multigroup . adjuntment AWnV=.* The'paper is divided in 3 pwba 1 1) MQuotment of single 1proupa; 2) -blultigroup and multistep adjustment; and 3) Description oC a: multistep ad- jumtment & a large trimoastica not@ The first part deacribea proep~ww for the complex adjuatment,of the triangulation nets*, These programs were prepamcl ~w_the mediun size digital caupoter UM 1, installed in the Institute of Geodesil azA CsrtcgM;by* The mMn twitwe of t4ese programs in the maximal eliml stion J_ otqwedleas agmtLow cn the zero-elenents durjmg the vhole proceduiv of &Quat awt6 t4hich pmita ahaft;ening the time of computation and adjusting larger b3uwiw-v:L+Ab*tb*_..zme1w~ aapa(dtys With regard to use the progrms arn Cc d 1/3 ACCESSICK NRi AT4040345, divided in the following parts: a) determination of the fo= of the.table of normal equations; b) setting-up and perforation of the correction equations; c) setting-up of the normal equations; d) solution of the system of noxual equa-I and e) computation of the adjuste tions vith the computation of standard errors, coordinates and the final control. The initial data are the measured angles, the number,of points, vhich defines the position of angles in the net, the de- finite and-approximate coordinates. The second part gives the formulas of the multigroup cLdjuj3tment of Prania Franievicz and of its generalization -- the method of multist~p adjustment. These formulm are deduced on the basic of p ele algorithms of the root of the block Cracovion., in vhith the calculus on the ments (,simple numbere) is replaced by the calculus on the blocks (ensembles of nunbera), vhich is more convenient in automatic computations. The method of latic nets even eso multistep adjustment permits the adjustment of lafte geoc in th cases vt1cre the electronic; computers to be uBed have a mnall menorry. M~e taird part contains a description of the.four-atep adjustumt, of the triangulation net perfc=ed ca the UM 1 computer., fitted vith a drum memory with 409&wor& capecityt MAs net cOls' Isted of 566 points: 24 given and 542 to be deteraiinede! Card :f'~ Acmsica NR: AT400343 The dbaervatioan inaludea in the adjuaiment consisted of 3328 angleat 7 boxes an& 1 astrmcmic azimuth- The author ocneludes that the resUltO Of aJM*tm6at, a coa- confirmed campletOv the usefulness ce multistep adjustment in autcaati putaticao orig. art. bm s ii gmphics and 44 ra=uua. A38CG=Cfft none BUBKI=s OQftUG DM AMt 2p%jA MLS 00 am CCMI IWO Is No Im. BM 01T. Card SULC, Stefan, inz.; GAZDIX, Jan, dr. The tenth anniversary of the Freezing Technology Research Institute in Bratislava. Prum potravin 13 no.6:316-318 Je 162. 1. VyskumW ustav mraziarensky,, Bratisiava. L 39931-66 JXT (C'-) /0 1) _XCC_ N9. - AT651 137 SOURCE CODE: UR/0000/65/000/000/0181/0183 AUTHOR: Gazditski 4 ORG: Department of Leveling and Geodetic Calculations, Geodetic-Cartographic Insti-_._t tute, Warqaw,_~olaqd (Otdel uravnitellnykh i geodezichesklih vychisleniy Geodeziches- ko-kartograficheskogo instituta) TITLE: Use of UMC type digital computers for geodetic ,computations SOURCE: Sovet ekonomicheskoy vzaimopomoshchi. Postoyannaya komissiya po koordinataii nauchnykh i tekhnicheskikh issledovaniy. Sredstva i metody mekhanizatsil podgatovki i poiska nauchno-tekhnicheskoy informatsii, inzhenernogo i upravlencheskogo trude (Neans and methods for mechanizing the preparation and research of scientific and teanical information and of engineering and control work); lektsii, prochitannyye na e "Inforga-65" v maye-iyune 1965 g. Moscow, 1965, 181-183 TOPIC TAGS: computer, digital computer, electronic data processing / UNC-1 digital computer, UMC-10 digital computer ABSTRACT: The article discusses the compatibility and effectiveness of two types of computers used by the Polish Geodetic Service. The UMC-1 is a small, electron tube. fixed point computer with an access time of the order of 100 operations a second and a magnetic drum memory of 4096 34-bit words; input and output are ft pwwbed tqw Card ACC NRj and teletype. The UiC-10 is a transistorized, fixed point computer with speeds of 2000 operations per second, internal ferrite memory of 4096 34-bit words, supplemm- tary external magnetic drum memory, punched-tape readers (500 characters per secoDd). punched tape and teletype input and output (150 characters per second). Bath types of computers possess identical logical structure and use the awe systen of codivg. The chief disadvantage of the UMC series is the lack of a floating point. SUB CODE: 09,08/ SUBM DATE: none Card 2/2 MYSONA, Hieezyslaw; NALEPA, Vieslaw; GAZDZINSKA, Jadwiga. Z- Obtaining of enamels on aluminum sheets. SzIIo 12 no.8:243-247 Ag 161. 1. Katedra Towaroznawatwa, W~ssza Szkola Ekonomiczna, Krakow. GAZDZITSKIY~ Yezhi [Gazdzicki, Terzy] (Varshava) -,-, Use of electronic computers in Poland for geodetic calculations. Geod. i kart. ao.7t4l-49 Jl 163. (MIRA 16:8) (Poland-Electronic computers) -01- 11 GAZECKI, J.. (Warsaw) Smmd energy equations for coupled halls* Proceed vibr probI 5 no.3t231-239 164. GAZEL, A.; STEPNIEWSKI, S.; URBANSKI, S. Cleaning cotton fabrics. Bialet-vn WIok. p. 2. PRZEGLAD WLOKIENNICZY. (Stowarzyszenie Inzynierow i Technikow PrzenWalu Wlokienniezego) Iodz, Poland. Vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 1958. Monthly List of East European Accessions (EEAI) LO. Vol. 8, no. 7, July 1959. Uncl. L 51266& E1-r1'(l)/1_3EC (k) -2/0WA(h) ACCESSION NR; AP5023658 UR/olig/65/000/008/66'25/0025 621-319-44 AUTHOR-. Gazelerjg~(Engineer)I_Pedanov, V. V. (Engineer) TITLE: Capacitance meter based on.the charge-comparison principle SOURCE: Priborostroyeniye, no. 8, 1965, 25 TOPIC TAGS: capacitance meter ABSTRACT: The charges of a reference capacitor box and the capacitor being tested are compared by.charging both to 150 v, connecting them In opposition, measuring their diffetence voltage, and minimizing it by adjusting the box. The latter can be adjusted stepwiso from I to 182 Lm F..The capacitance motor is claimed to have a maximum error of about 0.85%. It is suitable for testing paper-insulation capacitors of 50 tiF and higher. 'IT. I. Aksenova took part,in this project.11 Orig. art. has: 2 figures and 2 formulas ASSOCIATION: Pone 00 ENCL. SUB CODE: rse 00 SUBMITTED; I NO REFmVt 000 OTHER: 000 ;-Card G A ZE I iTU.'i 1 roblenis of agricultuml tcelini(lue 1,,. the c-row-inp, of ctictun-l-or Seeds," Pohlady (I'osl,. s4h. adad. in. Tirdrys,,-mva), Issue (?y 1049, p. 91-93 :30: U-5`40, 17, '-ec. 53, (Lotoris 14'hirnal 'riy,'-,h Stntay, '.o. 25, lc,14~-,) . BRBZHM, D.D., akedemik, prof.; GAZRMUSH, T.L.; KAMERAZ, A.Ta.; NOVELU, P.P.; KIZGIRSTA, O.F.; FILOVO'A.I.; ZHUXOTSKIT, P.M., skademik. prof.. obahchiy red.; LRONTIM. V.M., red.; CHUNA- RTA. Z.V.. [The floret of cultivated plants of the U.S.S.R.) lullturnala floret SM. Hookya. Gos.izd-vo nellkhox.lit-ry. Vol.20. [Vegetable plants of the nightshade f amilyl towto. eggplant, black nightshade, melon pear. pepper (Capsicum), ground cherry. mandragoral Ovoshchnye paulanovye; tomst, baklazhan, chernyl paslen, dynnsia grusha. perets. fizalls, mandragore. 1958. 531 P. (MIRA 1):)) 1. Vaesoymsuays akndemiya sellskokhozynystvennykh nauk Imetnt V.I. Laniza (for Breshnev. Zhukovskly). (lightshade) (Vegetables) 1. GAMENTEGEEIR, Ye. 2. ussR (6oo) 4. Dairy Bacteriology 7. Plant laboratory strives to improve the quality of the product, Mol. prom., 13, No. 10, 1952. 9. Month jj_st 2f Russian Accesnions, Library of Congress, February, 1953. Unclassified. VOLODARUIY, N. I., GAZUKO, A. I. Fmsic heterogeneity of tissues In the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Bot. zhur. 45 no-5:742-745 my 16o. (MIRA 13:7) 1. Kubansk1y sel'skokhozyaystvennyy institut, #,. Krasnodar. (Sunflowers) (Plant cella and tissues) (Growth (Plants)) I GAZEKKO, G.G. Review of G.G. Avtandiloy's book "Brief scale of colors". Lab. delo no.164 164. (MIRA 17:4) A- 'i_'GAZENKO, G.G.; BOBOV, V.S.; J-'Ftj? VTKCV, V.11, PETROV, V.I. Brief news. Lab. delo no. ll:j699-703 164. (MIRA 17:12) 1. Glaynyy vrach Upravleniya klinikami I Moskovskogo ordena Lenina meditsinskogo instituta im. I.M.Sechenova (for Bobov). GAZMO v 0.o _* _ . ... --Ifficlent work of building crows. Stroitel' no.4:10 Ap 157. (Building) (K= lOt6) GAaWKO, 0. G . (Lt. Col. 11.1ed. Service) "A Few Data on Physiological Analysis of Flyers' Fatigue Sensation," Voyenno- m,ditsinskiy zhur., H0.1, pp 36-40, 1955 The paperd escribes experiments that were carried out on 8 flyers going about their daily flying routine. Three tables with test data are included in the text. D 312255, 22 Aug 55 - Translation SOV/25-58-11-9/44 AUTHORS: Gazenko, O.G., Malkin, V.B., Candidates of Medical Sciences TITLE: Biology of Cosmic Flights (13iologiya kosmicheakikh polotov) PERIODICAL: Nauka i zhizn', 1958,.INr 11, pp 17-22 and p 2 of centerfolds (USSR) ABSTRACT; The maintenance of normal living conditions for man during cosmic flights is the main task of cosmic biology. At the present time 2 groups of experimentn are being conducted in the USSR% laboratory experiments ond experiments in rockets with telemetric registration of biologic functions. Tests with animals carried in rockets up to 110 km showed normal reactions, insofar as they withstood acceleration and re- tardation satisfactorily, and blood pressure, pulse and breathing increased only slightly. At heights up to 212 km, especially unfavorable effects were noticed at re-entry of the rockets into the atmosphere. However, the problem of re-entry at 450 km hns been solved. Soviet researchers are especially concerned with the problem of re-entry of passen- gers from space ships. Great difficulties have yet to be overcome in solving re-entry at supersonic velocities. '.If'hen Card 1/2 a space ship travels at a velocity exceeding sonic velocity Biology of Cosmic Flights '~!()V/25-59-11-9/44 bY 5 times, the nose section is heated to more then 1,COO 0 C. Subsequently, temperatures in the airtight compartment may become unbearable for humans. It has been shown by special experiments, that at an humidity of "jO temperatures of 0 100 can be endured by men for 30 minutes, and temperatures of 2000 only for 3 minutes. The effects of acceleration are being thoroughly studied, whereby it was found that accelera- tion of 10 G may be endured for several minutes, However, acceleration should be considerable lower than this to main- tain operating ability. The authors describe the different operations of re-entry from a cosmic flight: catapulting of pressure cabin from the space ship, slowing down of descent by means of reactive drives and parachute, and finally landing of the cabin with a parachute. There are 8 photos Bnd 7 drawings, Card 2/2 GAITINK01 O.G. (Doctor) -ind Kwwrzov, j%.G. (Prof. ) 7urther Biological Investigations on Rockets." report presented at the 4th European Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine, Rome, Italy, 22 October - 5 November, 1959. 86168 R/002/60/ 000 /009/001/003 A 125/AO26 ATITHORS: Gazenco, O.G. and Malkin, V.B., Candidates of Medical Sciences ---------- TITLE: Can Man Live Without Weight PERIODICAL; StU41 qi Tebnicl, 1960, No. 9, pp. 14-15 TEXT: Subject article presents some problems regarding the lifi in space, i.i., In a state of weightlessnes0' Since no man yet was in space, ScLentiats were restricted to study these problems on the basis of simulated conditions. The Q--rman cardiologist Langer believed that an absolute loss of weight would have fatal consequences. But, the results obtained during the flight of the Soviet satellite having the dog Laika on board, and especially after the recovery of the second Soviet space ship having various animals on board, proved him wrong. The electrocardiogram and the recordings of the respiratory tract revealed a normal functioning of these organs. Although there are no data on the Influenct of the weightlessness on the digestion, it is suppo4ed that this funation will not ta considerably impaired. Weightlessness will almost not cListurb at all the activity of plants. The behavior of man in weightless state was studied during parabolic flight trajectories of aircraft. Many experiments were condu,.,t-.d to Card 1/2 86W Can Mar. Live Without Weight establish the feelings of pilots in weightless state. Based on the data ob- tained, scientists believe that disturbances of the physiological functions due to a state of weightlessness will not be too great. Another important problem is the return of thl man from space, i.e., a passing from the state of weight- lessness to normal weight. The unfavorable influences of the weightlessness can be eliminated by producing an artificial gravity based on the centrifugal force. The reipilts of all these examinations show that lifoL Is possible also under the conditions of weightlessness. There are 2 figures and I photograph. R/002/60/000/009/001/003 A125/AO26 Card 2/2 ,-.- GA-F~N~OL O.G.,; MALKIN, V.G., Problems in space flight. Zdoravle 6 no.9:4-5 3 160. (MA 13'-8) (SPACE FLIGHT) I I ~~ , $f, -. ~~ I - ~ ~ - - - -1. -... - ~ - 0. GAZENKO, J. G. "Some Results of Medical and Biological Investigations on Spaceships-Satellites (1960-61)" by D.G. Gazenko (USSR) Report to be submitted for 4th Meeting 6f the committee on space research, Florencep Italy 7-18 April 1961 C.- "-".t J,11 C=-~L~l cut. fr= - L . 0, 1. V. ~C-I. Ctlr-a-. to d. ell ",,'I r.:Z7 cl~' tlll~ V;~rlzblc' Iz~3 I'll't'll tt;2 ccz,~;t,--It in th,~ 21cla - G. V. V. r"I-x C-7g~-al'i V. I. l'-Jectic-a Ccclr-l by :~--lat'ic-i G. L. zzcd=iziQr 'I~n, C: In! 'uy Ksaw~ off r-:1 C;~ac-- A'~- V. I C~ :L Ca X~-,, Ion r-f tatiou ca S. Ver 7. E. to i7e p.~ojoatod at tho )Z, it,, Jrjtcrp-,jtjL-1~j tatr=autical CcnCzans, Wrshlr.~;toa D. C. 1-7 Oc"Obor 1961 BIDKHIN, Nikolay NikoUyevich; PARINI Vasiliv Vasil'yevicb;-_GkZENKO j_ --uaz-fzawgi7swicb,,; VERNOV9 Sergey Nikolayevich; STAROSTENKOVA9 M,M,p; SHISHINAp Tu.G.9 red.; NAZAROVA, A.S.% [Medicine and cosmic f3lght) Hsaitsina i kosmicbeskie polety; abornik. Moskva, lzd-vo OZ=nie,w 1961. 30 p. (Vsesoiuzuoe obshchestvo po rasprostranenHu politicheskikh i nauchrqkh snolvii. Ser.8, Blologiia i zeditsinap no.9) (MIRA 3.4z6) 1, President Akademli meditsinakilrb nauk SSSR (for Blokbin), 2. DeystvitellzWy chlen Akademil meditsinskikh nauk SSSR (for Parin). 3. Chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR (for Vernav). (SPACE MEDICINE) 372ty2 5/56o/6i. /000/011/008 /012 r.027/E635 AWFO111S Gazenko, O-G., Bayevskiy, R.M. TITLE: ;~-Y~11111~silal methods in space medicine SOURCE: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Iskusstvennyye sputniki Zemli. no. 11. Moscow 1961. Reziilltaty nauchnykh issledovaniy, provodennylth vo vremyn poletov vtorogo i tretlyego 1cosmicheskikh korabley- sputinikov, 68 - 77 TEXT; The authors discuss the problems involved in carrying out physiological investigations on men and animals during space flights. The necessity of recording observations andb-ansi,,iitting them to earth has led to the development of the new science of biotelemetry. In this field transducers are of prime importance in converting nhysiological infonrotion into electric currents,-and due consideration must be paid to their reliability and to the avoidance of unnecessary discomfort-when they are attached to the experimental subject for prolonged periods. The amount of information which can be carried by the 8=2 . ations channels must also be considered. Thus, to ar s/56o/61/ooo/oli/oc8/012 Physiological methods in --- E027/E635 transmit an electrocardiogram with an amplitude of five volts with an accuracy of 0.25 volt twenty different signals can enter the channel, which should be able to transiait not less than 100 signals per second. The electrocardiograin thus contains around 400 iterrs of information per second, and the capacity of the channel should be 500 items per second. Similarly, the electroencephalogram requires a transmission frequency of 200 signals per second and a channel capacity of 800 items per second; for the electronyogram the respective figures are 1000 and 4000,for the pneuinogram 10 and 20, and for the thermogram 0.05 and 0.25. The capacity of the channel required can be reduced by coding the information to be transmitted. In space flight physiological methods are applied for three purposes; (1) to exert continuous medical control over the experimental subject; (2) to obtain information on the effect of space conditions on the subject, and (3) to detect conditions dangerous to life and health. Sonic Card 2/3 S/560/61/000/011/008/012 Physiological methods in --- E027/635 measurements, zuch as of respiration and cardiovascular activity- fall into all three categories. The main methods used in space physiology, such as electrocardiography, seismoc~.rdiography (a variant of ballistocardiography used in the thir- Soviet satellite, which can only be used during free flight), phon,)cardiography, arterial oscillography, recording of the pulse and respiratory ciovements, electromyography, recording of body movements, thermometry and investigation of the higher nervous activity are briefly reviewed. There are 6 figures and 1 table. SUBMITTED: May 3. 1961 Card 3/3 28589 7. 2-E)c)o 5/565/61/000/009/003/004 I. B144/BIOI AUTHORt Gazenko, 0. G., Candidate of Medical Sciences TITLEt Fundamental medicobiological problems of space flight PERIODICALs Meditsina i kosmicheskiye polety; sbornik, no. 9, 1961, 13-27 TEXTt A short historical synopsis of rocket technology mentions K. E. Tsiolkovskiy, Po Ao Tsander% G. Oberth, and R. Goddard. Of late manned space flight has made enormous progress, last not least owing to the great achievements made in space biology and space medicine. The principal problems includeds 1) possible noxious effects of cosmic fac- tors on organisms and their prevention; 2) life preservation during space flight, e.g., air regeneration; 3) selection and training of astronauts. The cosmic factors can be subdivided into three groupst a) factors characteristic of space itself% extreme low barometric pressure, almost complete absence of 02' meteorites, ionizing radiation, etc.; b) dynamic factors involved in rocket flights accelerationg noise, vibration, weightlessness; c) factors influencing living conditions in the artificial medium of the hermetically sealed cabin, e. g., pressure reduction, Card 1/3 j 2t589 S/565/61/000/009/003/004 Fundamental medicobiological ... B144-/Bl()l partial replacement of N2 by He, absence of day and night rhythm, etc. Some results achieved in Soviet experimental flights are described. At first, respiratory conditions in the cabin were maintained by air/O2- containers and chemical absorption of CO2 and moisture; later, chemical regeneration was realized. Protection against temperature variations was obtained by lining the cabins. The crew is rescued either in separable cabins with stabilizingp braking, and parachute devices, or by catapulting and protection against air rarefaction by space suits. Animal tests with rockets reaching altitudes of UP to 450 km showed that the increase in the respiratory and pulse rates during acceleration subsided within 4 - 6 min after wdghtlessness had set in. Throughout the flight, physiological function were recorded and the behavior filmed. As a result, the stabi- lization and braking of the separated capsule had to be improved. The only drawback of rocket tests was their short duration. Subsequent bio- logical experiments on artificial satellites and space-ships, beginning with the flight of the bitch Laika in November 1957, offered new pro- speots. Pulse and respiratory rates, electrocardiogram, and motility were radiotelemetrically recorded. The evaluation of relevant data showed that Card 2/3 2U"_5r)9 3/565/61/000/009/003/004 Fundamental medicobiological*.. B140101 weightlessness had no strong effect upon the basic physiological functions~ measuring instruments, and life-preBerving devices. A safe return to the earth was of great importance in order to study the effect of cosmic radiation after the landing. Such tests were started with two dogs on board of the second space-ship, followed by the launching of smaller laboratory animals, seeds, microorganisms, tissue cultures, ferments, etc. This test series proved that weightlessness, transition to overload, and ionizing radiation in the orbit below the radiation belts did not have any noxious effect upon organisms and that safe landing could be achieved. The idea that space is incompatible with life will have to be revised. The preparation of manned space flight included the selection of healthy and psychically stable individuals by tests on centrifuges and vibrostanda, in space-flight simulating chambers, etc. Then, the men chosen underwent a special training to improve their physical strength, ability, and per- severance, and were instructed theoretically (rocket technology, astron- omy) and in the operation of the space-ship. The flight of Yuriy Gagarin in April 1961 proved that manned space flight is possible and the way into the universe open to man. Card 3/3 SISAKYAN, N.M. (Moskva); GAZENKO, O.G. (Moskva); GENIN, A.M. (Moskva) Some problems of space biology. Zhur. ob. biol. 22 no.5:325-332 S-0 161. (MIRA 14:9) (SPACE BIOLOGY) C33: 6503-N MnAIII FROBLE'n ;,? WACE BI:L.O^,Y is a tronslat!:n of at, article by' h.14. Slsaky&n. 0.G. and Q,nln In 7hurn4l q--aai or Gar. F.U 5. 19o1, 325-33 -7 Recent brilliant xtxcco~sox in act-mca and tachnolcey parmst us to prweftd WiLn tno pla~nad ar~ S13t"I'Atic tu'Iy th. m.rt,ry 0: cos.-Ic sp3:.. Opqntd t-i b!clDetcal' arm wait mni Xtr,-~Jy attractt~q ;*rjs~Act3 for Which in Mat F--,,1 -.y ~~t. to tz-- .-It TrA orrocz or ztre.~-, ru:t~rz os space "~~jj livlnZ earth orgar.ars. ,no blolo--.eal bbXas Cc~ s&.1vE;uora1xi: apnco r11,Fhts and life on th* plar.41.s. rf'~ fOrM3 &Zd tord'LtLor-4 r Boar1r, '~ =!.-.d the f~.,4-tr~lne~i of thv Mothad in lnv*st Ilest lent , tne a,~-.hoP5 hrr- -na- ov--n a tritr *.~ry of th: And I t ,,c , A ,ntftras o:,r, , 31n tive3 vz~!~un t'~11_ al scir-,3 11030 ere A~ v"`~ t*- -f ~~ - f~r thu zu"J" -.I ';%t'.= 13 ~ - s' -rs~t ~ d.volopr-nt of s;- biola,:y AT.: for th~ -!~:t Im of tni pr.-,L. 1.m9 confr.ntIne It. Ext.--l F-ti- f C-,-Ic SLOI.j.,tc.l na- s.,-,I 0Ularly '.~partmnt n~thodololz~' pacts. Tne cOrt-;:=rLry torr-tr4oll In -uz-, of cvolut.~n adsp-1 c-~rtsir. tone* (the irxiu~nzo of tho pr*33ura, the backi.-.n4l of' 1~n!x!ne. md!utinn. C,,o- mic spaco rapr-cnts 4 nodl~n witli ~-rxrt,rtvt,1- =!;xvi,ly dirrarent fram tt,.-3* vrltn orZsni- wnco-~;tor wtjj~jrj the limit. of th. t~rt~W. bllcm,~:rm. A negligible dinsItj of matter, the ba.n~. of =.Ie- cular oxyZer., thu proacneo 0r I Eva rudlutlcn* arA a untq"a tvr.~cr~tvre zo.,,1It1-. - all t the.. XcluJo %he po,atIbIlity of th, utt.l. ctVitty of ,I.- qu4tely organisad r,preiar.'.kt!,je3 of thg aorLh6s crgai-lc world in outer space. The protection of man mrwi his p~szLblv campunicro -- terrestrial untmals and pl%ntc - dtirtne spara f1l,_,hts rr(~,, tba unfavorable. affect of txtr-il fa,t~rz -prto-,t5 a very conpltcat.d Anzi Imp7rtant ;r~bl~m. There are two circunztan--," rvqu!.-!n.- partl-~Iar att-i- tLon: the bi of ogi cut *Cr.ct or coam!c 1sxiIz:r., rall3tllrn 4z:,i . r w r - -Ino the Stat D e ,1.t1.- .I. Thu danger or the afflictire bgol~Ztc~l affatt. or c:- =to radiation Is prrb*bl7 one of the =%I.-% ol-taclis in thu rold tolmeatertne cosmic ap,c.. t should be poIntmet out that In rad toll oj,, teal tahavlor cox~ic space is rot Thu pr~svzxe of belts of huieht4ntd redtatton, the in. t4n3tty of pohich may reach ne~nitud,,S dlr,4e.'~-Js to llvl:~, or. gantz-i, have bv&n dl3covar-d sr~urd tht cartn. It 1.4 c:aitt, posr1blo that radlattnn bolt3 or otmitar or vtn M,3hur In- tensity cxi*t around oth,r pll.neta h1ch po.3,- 2 naj--tt~ field. tioroovar. It Is nace,ssurj to lscojp In tt%mt In space thi intensity of radlatiso and 1-92 qualitative tion undergo conatunt fluctuations Lr. Llm~. upon r=y cau3us. Dazar-olr.~ ep~a..ti attcr.-!,~n I.. Lh:s r4apo:t &r, the ..I.r riar.3, dter1r.,7, tnc course of wt.'Ch, th,~ Int~nzllty or radittt.n may tr.,:r ... a ttrs ~'l m-,7 thr,utnn1n,, dAr,::cr to livir, orZnr.!sna. At prts,nt, unfor- tu=tbly, any lor,-raneu pro,!no~lx or su--h as dtf- ricult. In the stuly 0~ the bioloeicvl eff,et or C).I~jc rLdle.- tion only the first 3;,;,s h%vm m-n te"ien, .'A thi3 pr-1- requires chruful st"I In 016 futu~-~. % 4% r.,3"ss~:-j to clarify the ralstivc blol-tcrl eCf,--ttv--s -A p--cullarlt~r or the action or heavy ricioi cip~biij nr n v-,ri 6&~ donalty or lontzmt,Er-n. Tno subject or th: or tc,rAt%nZ r-Il.tio. -an-tl r.1 ott..r ',rn or 1".10t, as, ror ex-pl,, ov-rl~-lds and vibrtl~n~ to ur axtrvne "portanc- Hre., can I, xp-t~j -rj~t! Ir-1 '.-. ra- dloa~nsltlvlty of btolog. -LI.,Cto tin g,nt!. for itz wcll a.1 viritl~nz Ir. tY., r-t~tin7,, of %.nj=m to th~ rf.ct or otn- f,,ctor.. Tho d!Bcov-ry of oradl or hlgh-i-.t-sity Z,sn~s In coo~tc spec. ."t bcCcr, biology a r.--r or -m;.or- tent practichl problams connjetcd with thz pr--t-tIon of' bcrs or the crew. Unquestionable. the probltn 4~ thin tion against rlux,s from th. lt,.,!r t--motrIal the lower border of which It-,z a; gr~z!ratally t~~O ~-~ rr~m tr;. Surruc. of the earth in the rvt~Lon of the eq,-,~tor. It to possible that the .5r-ct plDtt-ne of ri!ght trajectories, with the avoldn=a or tri. z~nas ,f hlh-lnt~:- alty ra~.Iatlon will be of chief P.-V.r, st.,I- '3 concerning the dovtsi:kr, or phya'cll &.~d blolo~,'cal m-jar.3 or protection are also very pr~mi*irj. The state or dyn"Ic !3 justly cor.~L- red one or the characteristic :,Ut little stulled fecto.- ir space r1ij,-ht. It night be al!mInated by cramt!n~ an arttfl- ctnl gravity force on the snip. Houiver, to what oxt~-nt tl,.I_o in nacaszarys and what intensity cr *rt1rtc%%i gravity e:ould be advised still require axp,rlm~ntrl solutirio. - The data obtained In the course of corl,,;ctin~r. binloTt- cal expurimants an the chip-SatellItes n-irmi. the that, in Itself, the state of w*!FhtIv3nnrB3 will not edv4rs- 1, affect the vital activity or crZ~nlffns In th-~ c~urz-~ ~f t twont7-rour hour or even larq~,~r p~rlad of tj~*. It tisy be hoped that at the s,mu -!~v, tho movcn~ntz end nhn'2 orlontatlon In arace will zc- bo .5 ut the qu-tlon of whtth-jr a prol=~.vd at.%y in th~ less 3tota ctn chemea the runc-Licrtl. ccndltl~n of orei-l-ni so muoh that the ratui~n to thclr Cravltntolom~l rL,1A would prove on excessive load r~.~Ins entirely t,pin. Purthcrmoro, It to ncc~'-.-7 to take ln-~ coj~311-,r- tiers th~ f." that the earth'. arav!t.tIQn.I field exarL3 a definite Influunce %;pnn h~ phyajolc.37, call-i-r c.-! siibcallul~-r Atructur-3, the d vo'.,i-nt of znl '--r~.-- 4ToM313. It 13 Prft3=.d that In t~~ ;.rIMZ%ry of ~h =~u or th* bo:ly n-st naitti.-.z or the rortIIL:o4 ot!- "Wnted In a cfjrtaln mAnmjr !n t1na ~-vltmt'~.n f!~Id. A~,w th-" t'k PI-- .1::-f -~l- '7r vlt~ Stitutcl .1. cxtr-mlly Int, r n.! Which Is* h~b lnplrt~nt for tn~ ,o- kur- s,,-cj glICht3. out Gr the n%itttul, of rqct~rq* th') fr~ztl or encountered by hunen oreantim nig:-.t he durgr..~ fll!:ht 1.nt,~ 3pscaj we have ewalt only u,)ori 3;_ce _1 nass. The total list or extr-1 :t=tora Is quaran bpjl.,, _j. rurtharr.ora, thuro 13 no ajaur,-,~e -t la pasm1bly, furLhir lnvvitlg~t!-a of Lt- pny~!"a -f ... :'! c spue. ond blolor'1~11 III di .. v'r, -%, .4. yet unknown conditions, or 1,~me t~ wtoma b-,In.~~caj .:.-t wo hnd not, until mcw, attriLut4d ..ny alenjfj-nc~. In order t 0 rom a d*CLr,ite point or vIza co.-*rnj:~L the ovew at ton0rvarious m~aanz for nare.:u%raire proio~~ .c speo. flight., it to n.0033ary to Ccr~.ulata ttia, basic re- quircaunts and the Lniti al dotat0%hIch trdso aasar.3 shot.;I'd corra3 ;a& 1. The rormulat'lon of such a point of view 13 rather c-:p- IiCatad and controversial. Thar. Is no dc~ubt that space CIIIF.1- will in one way or another cause scme dIsccnf-t In the I!ro of the crew# since technical rectittian i.-.,ivitatjiy connitt with the vary xt#n:Iv* and varied needs of =~.. T ate solution t~ A a P I o this problem Is h~ardly*. In gdno rsl ' How*var# it I ar..W GOC.3-ary to for-lat. a 11- finite point of vlaw rjear, Ing scma principal pr~blcm3. with the awAran-3A that sub3aqu~nt studi.s and tho or actual flights may brlre corr~zttono to pre- .an, ..,!,,1:c1*lons. Th. cu Pt ra I queastion datvrminre the entire compl2x of systems is the rormotd=. of roqulrxnant for astronauts. W* possess rather ext=sIve data d4trmIn!nZ the c7t!- mum ratio botwoan food 3U')RL%n-C3 ccrta!n.)d In & n-tan's ra. tion. The necessary mln~ir~*I c~;vsltion Of food has bo-n studied In dutall and the Qu-~t'Tatlvv rcqjlrnantl or t'--* au,jorlty of vltanlnj havu b-n duturilned. Ttc3o r~qulrdM-rt. have boon established for vartlou,s condLtlo,% ~f h~~x ~cc,4~*. tLon.1 activity. 11owovvro not until now ras It oton poAzjtl* to condsict studios on thu basis or uhich r=rIt'Qnxl r2- quLram~r.-3 suitable to the occupstinal activity of cozno- f mulatud. D'uts "Tah2drormuint ion a r thine rcquIr,-.-r.-j can only ho tatLva, and substantiated only by th, Congtlarat!orl th~o we .po32&3a no dtr.,ct reasons for s-=InZ any ts:intlal pocu- ilaritlos In the nut%bclic proc,Yz-: of ntq w-.o !a =.dcr- taking a prolonged space journoy. A.s-InZ that a man n a space ah1p p-r-.r,.n -eric low or madlu,~ Zntanalty, orj crr. r.,t.tlv-~17 ac--;- as a to- sis tho "" of nutrition dov,lo~-! for sL=4.!nr and deteril" A tentative twenty-four hour ration f~r a c- Manaut in a followin;? nnnnir: I Cal-ricitY Or rhtl-n -- 30CO Feel 2: Food .) prot.ln. ilo ~-., of wh!.n 63 6z ar~ of animal dLrIv*CIon, b) rats v) E:1, ) -rbo.'~;- drat.a -- 418 Sm, d) ml-ral sub.,~rxc3 ard vITt-s-.%. -- ZZ 3. Water -- 2200 Sm. Th nutritive cmpoaltl~r. of the d,ily rntion miy undergo s!me chan~-*3, par-tcularl.7 !n r~gnrd to the ratl~ of rats to carbohydrates itotal ca2cric!ty r~~ainln~3 Intact). However# until carorul anA stwllc3 have bear. ca-lur- teds It Is hardly p1slible to hope :~r the P~ailblltty of a substantial chanee In the rdtLo ar~ro nutritive sLibst~itw-i. Thus, the total woteht or the dii2y rattan thould constit of 61;0 i= or dry ell%em:e Or h331MjlCbjc rood btlb3t~11003 Znd A;- proxinatoI7 2200 gm or mtar. Lino or considerable Jmpor-ArT- -.a a hurmn'3 1141- rounded d1at, are the quality of ;,roducts. th~tr t.,zte, features, conot3tancy# mnnnor of CJllrar-;l PMPAVationo otc. A hLricnla Individual p4cullarltica, h!3 habits and I.-.- oltnatlow should mt, be Ignoril. in the cc.7poaLtian of the road ration designii for the eiet of oczaronauts ror nany yoirs. lJnd.r the mnr~toaous ccrditictis or r11-ght wl".h Imitwd. InCornatlon and a snarp rodu~zton of stimulL azA voriqd ard tr3ty Coo~~ may hu- su'.jtcrtju.' a1C..jr1cpncQ in atimillatir'K the Psychic and phy--Ict2 t4no of the ortt'jn!371. Therefore, In dvveloplr.~, z73tens for 3,faeuard!il,~~ life during prolonged space flIgnta, It 13 Adviarbl'i -a 31turt rr..m the necessity of' makIne the food rat!on as close us poiiltlz to the optl::um. A*a=!nZ that the su,~gaLtud rit!on fully I- tinflas the vnargy Ins3es or the c~s~.onau~s ard Clipht no continuoua accumulation or body w,.Irht or tial roorOmAzWon Lr the blolc~rlcbl structure of arri,nz zr4 ti .z take plnc., it Is po.nltll~ to calculate . hum." p- fxchanga with surriziint accur.c7. For exanple, for oxlditl~n e~r t1- road sut-tan-a In th- ratio. 632.8 liters 0,12.25 i~r.) of ox:f,-..n I,., be r- ?Ulr.d, While 566.5 1---rs (1,121.67 g~~) or C,rbon di-td. respiratory, courficient 0.51~)' and fipprox!r~talw 340 ar 'Ater will be 91Y.. off. The &bovo f1gurva may unlcrr- subntant"I periodically. Ho-,.vvr, In the b,l.-.. -rived after a consld.rabl. P'rl.d CC tr,,o. riu-tu~tt-n~ should level out. For excrnple, Er. or!-jr L~ mn4ntaln hu.,..~n life arA -r' , fitness dupirZ 3p.~co fl*-.,htp ~14C F.~ or fully (dry weight), 22Lvi V- of wnter, vrd 6,~Z j,,n of oa~;,, ~a wit I required da*ly. Consuquuntly, Ir, order to 3uztttn a crow of five a throe-Y--cr cosmic Jv~vn~y, th~ w-t&t or the :upply or o2~- g.n. wrtor, rnd rood should b~ ot 11-st 1-7 tor.3. Actuilly. this an3unt w1ll-bo C~nsldoruhly 1L.-Cir on noccunt of tn,, watqht of packing. sr-c*al st~r~i:u facilltids, control d~- Vices* atc. Tho crcat!on Of a pirtir-I or ccmploto rov,-jnjr&tIva cycle of s ub stun a. In thu Cttin3 Of 3P1;CNt,1IP2 can sub:tnn- tsully M. ,.c. th is w-Ylght wu!, sooethir%,3 vory import-nt, on. .r.-130 its dupandancy upon thi 4urjtjOn or tho apacu rJ4,01*. T.t., Mliantion or such a cycle Is compl.tely possible thro,jr,,h th. utilization or the radlnrt 4rwrgy of thi sun. - The ra&IL%ation or a canplatu reennarittya cycle or .*tar can have the greatest effoct. At the arno time tho so- ,.t son or this pr~blun unecurrcri a mInInum of difficulty and does not require any cmr.11-tod or c~borscmo oquLpmont, PW17 approprinta huro are "rlcu3 phybicrl nrwi phygico-chomi- o2l in, thods 01.%tilIntion wnd,r nomnI or ruducod pre2sum, 0lactroozm3sing purification by tcn-oxchmn~v angina, etc.). 51n.c. the wa!ght or a d.ily drinkirr_ actor supply to 2200 gm per pcraon, tt:o adventagus nru obvIuu3. The rualiatIon of an Oxygen cycle prcsont3 con3ldcr- ably grun t~r dirr to uitica. 4ow,~er. this problem cin also be a. Iad by applying ft nu^t-~ of phystc.1 and no- thods. The phatolytic dac=7!asIt1cn of efirbon dIOALdo by hird ultr.vlol at on copper and othor catalyzvr3 to or unquostIon- able Int.r.Ct. Vor-j promising are stud!t;3 In the rtnid of uiactmiy- sla (or pyrolycls) of wraor, cILh sub3"unnt Inturictinn b~t- wam hydroiren and carbon dLoildv. Under curtnIn condtlvoi, a a r :ult of this vonctt2n, xyg.n rey -h. Inltl~l .u ct or the abovu r,bct tor. -- 0. rbon dtuxtdn rn.1 watvr -- pr~, are the and products of motub3lism, end tho .-ount or cx7e~ti %crIch cmn te dcrivcd from thL, exceeds n,jcis. fares Oxy.,ron ragonurntLon vl= pLysicul end ch,-mlcnl -th-43 can t:4-v place In 0 clozvd cycIv. Unquastionnbly pro.-azliv, In tn1a cunsic,tion pa 4tuitqa of biochmIcal co-weritonz, u-ItCh t6kc pl-o in n larFo ntz~bvr of anncroble bnctvric~ an a r~lult Of whieh hydrogv-n an-1 er.-- be.-. dicildo ore absorbed ro.1 wv.-,~cn Is gIv,n off. By offectin7 th~ rvr-n-otlon of' oxy.;~:n In th~ h-m- t!cnII7 mnled embins or st-c-!,Ip5, it In posiihIc t~ f~cj- 1-tato substertlr.Ily the sal-jin.- of thv of prolc,~,I sp3co rllghtfi, Includirle rllghti to the r-35t adj%c,nt P I r.-, t a of the soltr system. This ho.",r is wt yet the completo solution to t1,., pr.blc - 0r Lo's Cxiatcrc,: In co~-.Ic spice, vIrio, th~ po-zin In duritIon of sp-c rl-Eht is IImILmd by t.-.,, 3xii.1.1y or food mbourl the spac,ship. Amore complate ""'.!cr. of tr-!3 Prubl" It's in tl" r.alizntion or Tatolk-ovakly's idum concuminF th, cr-t.4,-., of a closud ecoloetcml anvlron,-~~nt In th~ catjIns of ap-o- hi Interplanetary st%tiOnzo and on spactally erected tr-PU.3"..O,o,*s on plerlat3. Th,s deal3tva In the rcaltxatl~n : 0C this Idea Is a ccmplati re,-.anurittlon of r~~d wLtn fullest utillratlon of human vital -tet!vIty products. It In theoretically pos,ltla to InseLne the pa3sibi. Itt'Y of 3olvi ng the probien or its fe-ling of cox,~nnm,,%ts by Means CC the artificial synthesis or cartahy,1rat.a, f3ts, and amirioncida from carbon dLoxidep water, arr-inta, urea. and other and products Of VidtAtFOILS41. Fornaldehyda, nctftano~ &:-,d other substances famed upon the extrect 1=3 or oA7,,,, on Cron water and carbon dioxide Can serve on Intime-liato altmenta of the reactions. More attractive In this respect Is the m*tho-d or chml. Cal synthesis or the necessary predecessors of the basic nu- tritiVe substances and their- subsequent a--3tmlla-~Ean by nicro- org~nlmmn or by means of o-knr types of The products of blosynthesim th*4- developed car. ar.31.1y bo *Xtroc- tod and utilized for a balmnced dint for coon-naut3. The scientific research In this field Is axtraordinu- rIly Intartating and pro-tlslr.,,. lt go%* beyonj thj bowi~a or space bilo&7 problzm3 ard, has unqvezt4-.rabIy &Sgnt- f1ccnco. ho.ov*r, th. difficulties strndtlre In the .-.7 of a.- COMP116hing this task Cannot be 1rticrod. It con h,;rdly bo proS~ed that the Synthesis of rood rrodu:t3 fmn ub%tanctz can be schiovvd In thu v-j ~-r.,Ar Nt~r~. Aj~T nrlnt - 3 03t nell. 1y, the r. r zt1C way or uztGb11vh1n,; a clai-A cyc or subotancos Lr the m.thod of mproco.Ll.n ~n . s.-11 accl. of the basic V,rlrclplum on which r-La the tootu-n 4= and his rptural cnvlro"~nt o- ~rrth. The ttsV consists tniorly of stlic-r.Z fr~. tne Intri- Cato ayst= of these natur4lily complex these which can be nast orricianty utnizod wittnn ti,, itnitoa space of a apncezhip cobir, a.~,l tb~zu which 'a,ild J-3t re- r1cot ahortconIngs and would rcccl,~v the offcct of the advantarca, or sp~cv flipnl. or grontost Interu3r~ In thla r,z;~ct Is th, ph~.o aynth.als of' green plants, h.'ch b.-In.,,s tz~ut th, or organic matter from t117 ene! Pr-:Lct3 ~r Arol metabolism. .%t present, the attent'lon of blolaCI.3tm 13 b~lnj drn~n nest or all to th4 utillmat'on --f tho ~r Uf;t- cellular &2&zo for tho rvq,n~r,t1,r, or ~!r !001. The od- rantarcs of the use of unical I-jlnr r1roo or- th. h1i:h coafficlunt of their utlllz%ticr. of nalnr tu,! th, r- sibility Of athi~vlnr a rolit'vely canitni.t -te ~f acc=a1u: Istlon of or&antc mittur a "m11 or 3u.p,n3lo., providing a sh.~rt voiatntion g_-I,~d -.1 % multiplicity of apualmons. which aru In vl_iow~ zt:c-o jrda., I tr n 1, t I -5s0 " a ry 41 k* p I rr..nd he a re%L~zt:rxu that pr!.t Icril , the orI bi aIof unlcollu2n'r can be utilized for hunan r~utrltio I och. .0 a of -he t n1c.1 %d 4n'.,u, uttltzirZ *.hi aleno are cbvt,.u3 tth~, po4tIbII.t7 of moximcn. afflci~nt utilization of C%bln spac,o, uvtn distributim of' Ile ht~ ata.). In ardor to establish a nutrit4o".1 s7at.;m ~atisrj!rz to the "x inum dogruv the ;1h7%!sIoS1cft' nceds of a h~~&n or- gani-mo ,t is noce3sary to con.:uct studIva -Stroctod it a3c~r- taining tho Possibility or Inclucing h!rh- plants and cniztals In the c1 a, ad rvgdnar&rjv* c7cia or sub;txrcos In the ca*ln or a Spec "hip. This would n=kc it poiillblt to 4pproxImato, to a Substantinl dogroo, tho coar,~nrut m -10n to tho naturv.1 one on on . a rthTh. solut',n to thI_- pr ~,ltm W-11 unqu.atlan- ably raquiro the oftort~ or a large n~v%b,.r or act.,atific re- search g roup3, but tha n,vit~!ty or those studio, is totally obvloua. 1111LIC UXAMIntng the pra3;~ctc of rutur~ rllrht, it in Imp 011 Ible to avoid th1%;(irq atcut tho protlen or th, poa- MIbLIL tIva or tha occurrunto of QXtr-o cvr.4.t'vnm durIn',- flight andthe ship's crew bairx sutjec"d to 3~ 21ro-on- durigaring Zttrnal innuenza or ix~,rlvnclr~ a cutm~strormic insufricioner of oxyeen, wit~r# or food. Ono solutton to tho pratItn n!rht bo a zub3tnntlnl r- duction in m.tabolic procei3~., ;~ztt!n,, a man Into a stnto close -0 C~bloalz. The 3o-rcc r.-r, and th- devjl~pm,nt of, a M.thod for a controlnblo 3--tj c1c3e to or loth- are-y and c rtiriciall" prod-'Cbl. ct an7 =~:'~nt' pre- sonts a complox, llnt~mmtlne, =.4, moreover, ex-ap"maily Impor-r.nt precticr.1 probIrm. Th. t,.ka confronting zsptc. blolo.:y cann-t *~ -1--d without dQvjIQp1ng near's far -Cur4y~z cc-raz~ ln~-:~I- conccmtnp inaic*tors or -na vitr, tctivity or Rnptd progroas in the dt*c'plin,.z rcl~td to spmca such n2 autc-tion, r&diodIjctrcr._*c3, cy-~rn~tics, -.1 oi.6~r branches or knowludea, cr-tes fn-r"lo car Zhia purpo3oi, contrast to ntudius t~lr~v. cor4~du-~d by tinlo:!i3ts, an earth# cry mcn3ur-~ntn ta;mn a,_rlng fl!;~;t ar, llra-! w!th tho necessity or trArsmIttil~e t.'%j Infnmxtl~n nl-~ r,-~dlowlc- =*trio lines. r Thus, bt.10;1a,' t1I-1tr7 to tht -.%t-f or Investigation and the -r~.A of c~ntrol--.S ~nt r,celv%r.", scientific Inromntion durirv, zp~ce rIlCht. The uze or rAdIatcli-try affixes a :p~cpl- 3t,_np up- on the :mothods and technics or biological princip3l tasks of the biolo~ista rrA the er,?In,ijrs W'~rklna In this field are th,, -f r-w PI61t,:-s -- co-.rt-2 0f physiological end blolo~lu~l -rdIcr-or3 Into electric the duvclopmcnt or au-cm,ticany ryixtioriLmg a:r3t,:=-- for the oparativa coi.trol or any blala~lTrll cbjqcts or coronnut3 dur- Ing ritaht, end thu further tnertrduction or computer orelnecr- Ing for th4 proe:43*Ing a.' aelanti.'11C data. With ru Incronso In tha d~ratlon And rnned or c=:,tto flights In connection with th~ ";,.Cted docronso In th') ctpz- -ity of rtdio channQla, th~ro urls- tho rrrblem or tho AU-0- natic procts.1ne or bIolQjvIcr.1 --board tho 3p.,Cc- ship loading the gcnurelizud r~zults not Only In the rndlo Lino, but also In the ship's CaMrOl 3y3tVft. In connection with this, the" 4rio *3 the n,,costilty of !~V-31rg n.thoJa or Informatton-codinZo settln~ up r--tion%I al?oryt".3 for Its antlyalso and davaloping s~all-sizjd, aoor.~-tlcal# anct rullablo electronic dleital computers which will P~M-Et th'j solution of madico-blologicil prQblons. conn-,etad with th,. a-fodunrd'rc. or cosmic flights. Recent brilliant suc"-33.3 in scittnc. bni t.chnal..Ty permit us to proceed with the plnrx~dj oya--nntic study and Mn3tQry Of C03AIC Space. Poma and C~ndttlnns or FYtr.~terr,,3-r!nI Ltro (Exabl-l- ) Thatstu~y of the pr,,--onc ud the p,,cult-aritio* or IIvInZ =t or rid organic substrnt- In specs 13 Lnelu,163 In the task of spnc. btol.C7. Various hypothwavs cor--crnlr-.~ the exlzten- or ltvlrG n2ttor on celestial bodies of th~ 3olor nisten. and thi unt- Vasa as a whole hnvt r~ceivad rrt~~;r brail r..nown. Unrortu- astoly, uxzct 4-.t. In this rcxpoct ar~ vary The Ideq of a llro-zon~ w.-.-.!n th~ Limits of tho 3o1rr .13t~n -- the vcojph~ro or thi sun -- app-rod as a 3-ulos- quant dcv,IoFn,r,t jr..V.TV zor.c,;.t.'or. of the e3rth's blonph%,.re. From the asiur%ption that or,;rric l!ra baj,A upon eotr- ban cot~poundz Is pop..iEbl, nt t~.;-rrturoa of +ttOo to -70", It to posalble to sInj;Ia out tin rr- or on,,c~. ioo~.toa nt n distanco or 92 r.111ton to 275 mIllion k1I,-,-or3 rrt;.% th,, sua. W'thIn this &oati th-rw r-ro thr- pltin,t5: Venus, and Mar., the earth beir.4 lo"t,e r--n~ttt in th~ thj:n:tl c,::,- ter of thoyccojgh~ra. Its avcr--,-,o annual ten,-ratura 13,1 proximotal ~14 . ul-Ale that of Vchus is approximntcly and that or Kars cpproxInataly -,e-30. 9 All the pmblem of tha existence of life on. rv0tians Cro-. e-rth have vncoun- tared Zro "t dirricullties. On, Y reae.;tly' ovlzra" to thl use or Infrared spectroscopy nee It boon possible to d ns Of the Place. (the sc-CsIled "Sea" Is".;.!. a., the dark .,I. 9POctrft. Con:1darod cherm_tar1.t1, flr ), absorption blOloitLoal origin. Zen!,: Naturally, the direct proo Of lire on this planet and. a tj Or existence Or-, the Jnvqst1Z.Lt!O, or Its properties, would b.c"o po 11th the object or study. 841blo upon direct contsc. Recently. fl-1-11 Attention has been AttrAc-ad by a study aof the Cc"PO3itIOJM Or carbonic -%eteorjt,,. I' has be.. d.~On. crated. that coat or theme not.orites are soluble in $'JlvQntW, a" th3z they contain r. high parcont~&* of c,,tol 'and 07-YEOn- The analysis of t-.~a carbo'._ .to Of the Orgaille materof.. !c or h1drocrrbon, which are 010sol pa.-Atted the d.toctnn and tho an -7 related to %cir Alz-ptlon of the oxistor I pro.-lucts, genie PrOC68343. co or extrr.-*rrc3tP,r1 uio- r!loro are Indications PO1nt-'-'.e to the d*toQtJon of or- ganic ocxip=ndJ and nic"acopic OrEc"IsM3 Of 'At.-n-t-rr-otrial origin Ln the mass or '.he 60-I'llsd ~~ur--e7 n ove lusting such find4nps, be exercised. At the memo - , r4'xGfo- =4 caution shculd closest '1~1& these fIr-i!tVZm lu$ervo the a ttontlO% An-1, whtt Is Mcst LMportftnt, tt,,i7 point; out ons or the ==I Cr-altrul notho-Is or ox2otoiosoa iniezigotions. New possibilities In th-s dlr~ctlcn are ballrk~: Opened by tho hchieverients of co-,o~.utic3 Y-nd the of cosmic scientific fitetlons is in ;rca;:ict. ?Irst I-n pr~spoct, evidently$ to an oxplAnnt!nn or t -ne pri2once In c~dOc 3a~ca of the sl=;!Ioat forns of lire, the Pro. cosmos And the substrata, those olmiler to what wo cnzouGtcr on sarth ra well as those difr~rent rren tho= ' Until recently, there h~d boon only in this score, oncne which Synnta Arrorluv$s thiory of trnn:zpir~:', enjoyed the gra~ta3t popul%rLty. Among a number of objoctlnns~ tuo are the ~~3- so.-ciu3t the damseizZ orract of rnd1ftt.0r. Pn(; th~ of n otalkile natural "ccnrntan which eo~ild h,lp tri-3 .;mrox t,, rv*trz~- the forces or E:r,-Ity. la,vtrtk~le%3, the r~itlts or Inhorntory Per- wit us ti rAbumo thnt none very resistant opor1c rui- of :%I- nAy exist In coanic s;-co rrA mnintaln &C- tiviLy by mIrrating fron oni colu3tirl body to snothor# for wx~nplo' In the composition c.~ zotororlc p.Articloa. Extra-torrostrlal micronrg~n!3ms could adapt tha.~s~lvcs to unu3t:r.I conditions of rroo apcco by dovoloplnZ dlofenmlvo 10 W, *-'---,----0---- divices rnd o sh0rp r4ductio, in or vartatlan or forms or Int,rac tion wit h tho onviror-unt. In connactIon ~Iith this# It 13 lnttroatlrg to souty the possibility or the aXjS'.e-co 0, torrostrirl roms or itro nd their wty3 or adtptaticn. to t~.aonditions on other P Inn0t3, Thoro 13 oApor.'~_rt~l ovi- donc a thAt cartrin ennorobLc and cor-lit-lennIly Ani.rooic =.I- .roo rgotorm are able to rdipt thenvolves &a the cindltion~ which are pr.sumz.1 to ~zllt or -!or-. An Inventlgetion of the pri*lo= ccrxornir~, the =tent to which those conditions are bamrable ror corwrar; plznt3s in p3rtlcular lichen and mass wo%ld be vo-., Interesting, It Is baco-Line more and %are evident thrt the condi- tions or cosmic pace do not rdC03scrIly have to land to the dl.,~,.tl.n or thu simplest r,pras~ntatl.vea of the organic world of the earth nnd# evon liss so# to thi distr~uct!on or org=io mrttor. In this cannuctinn thire &risen a problem or extreme thoorotjc~l and practIcnI lnpcrtxn~o: the proven- tion or uncontrolled drifting or tarrostrinl car,3 or lira and oreanlc mnttar to other colostirl bodies, as wall fts the drifting or unusuAl forms or life to tsio orrth. Lxtromair attractive to blolcgista will b3 tho pr~as- pacts for comparing the foras or ll:~ or biz~!onlc prod-~=t3, detectable in space with thoaa on "rth. This co,,inrLson wIll make it possible to aseartrin the miture of crvl~tlo.% znd the dovalo;:iont at itro in th4 unl-jsroo crd -a czm~lrn the unity or the laws of th dov~lopm=t of livine, It is C,137 to Soo that the dcvclo."-n- of si"co bio- logy will not only serve the ni-na of int,rplanatar7 travol and manis mastery or tho combos. :-. tho rctur~ aptc* blalcZy will contribute to the form=1-n a: -h;~ most ecr*r~l c4=opts of bioloFy rairtine to thq problems or itiro in c.-rri. When wu turn to co"Ic space end to cdjasttrl bodlas, we are orforad th,) JnrLhnustLbIo and izc~_par_-blo ;O34ib!llty for the ruturu utilization Of -1ho onerj7 ris"rco,% of t"-^- "nl- verse. To what degree it will prove possible --n! fc-cs-.1o to utilize the n1nerml rosour-ea of cGlcsti~l bodt~s or cra;tn1c. forms or nr-"r for tho naoda or cnr~h ~A 1.3 11=. CV.n,143 on pIrImts, It to ncodiu.s to nry, dIrficult to at rr.- ant. Itui:oovldant thattwo yshnIl obtain a dorlnit. tns~.r 'in the c0 r of ruturo a ud rod mnstor7 af spica. Article rucaLvid by editors 20 J=. 1961 2471 GAZENM, 0. G., PARIN~ V. V. "Soviet.Expertments Aimed at Investigating the Influence of the Space Night Bacte* on the Organism of Animals and Man" Soviet Papers Presented at Plenary Xeetings of Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and Third International Space S posium, Washington, D. C., 23 Apr - 9 May (9 &~, -z_ 7m VASILYEV, P. V., VOSKIESENSKIY, A. D. and GAZENKOI 0. G. "Some Problems of Experimental Space Physiology" report presented at the 13th Intl. Astronautical Federation Congress (IAF) Varna, Bulgaria, 23-29 Sep 1962 Sj,qA~--Alt, 1%1-!.~ alkado-i'llik, glav. red.; CHM-tNIGOVSKIY, VX., al:ader:~.., red.; FA~11311, V.V.) red.; L&MESm-, A.V., red.; YAZi:CVSKIY', V.I.., doktor red. nauk, prof., red.; GAZIOIKO, O.G., dokt.or biol. nauk, red.; GONCIUAVA, L.S.1, red. izd- va; X70VA, T.P., tekhn. red. [Problems of space b1oloalFroblezy hosmicheskoi biologii. Pod red. U.M.Sisakiana. ~~onkva, Izd-vo Akad. naWc SSS' Vol.l. 1962. 1*61 P. CxtariA 15::Lo) 1. Akadordya nauk SSSR. Utdoloniye biologiches)-ikh nauk. 2. Doyatvitel'M-y chlen Akaderiii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR (for Parin, Lobedinakiy). (SPACE BIDWGY) SISAKYAN, N.M.;_qkZENKO,-O-G-,- GENIN, A.M. Problems of space biology. Probl.kombiol. 1:17-26 162. (MIRA 15t12) (SPACE BIOLDGY) - ~, -- :, ~- .. ~ c~-- ~, ~' ~- - - :,- I - ., ~1- -1 - - 1 .1 1 - -- - ~: t , - S/030/62/000/001/003/011 B105/B101 AUTHOR: Gazenkol-0. Go,-Doctor of Biological Sciences TITLE: Some problems of space biology PERIODICAL: kkademiya nauk SSSR. Vestnik, no..1, 1962, 30-34 TEXT: The General Assembly of the Otdeleniye biologicheskikh nauk kkademii nauk SSSR (Department of Biological Sciences of the Academy of Sciences USSR) met in Moscow from 3 to 5, 1961 to discuss problems of space biology. Over 30 reports were made and three films shown. N. M. Sisakyan, V. V. Parin, V. N. Chernigovskiy, and V. I. Yazdovskiy reported on "Problems of space biology and physiology". In the report "Some general results of medical and biological experiments on cosmic earth satellites", 0. G~ %Sazenko, A. M. Genin, and V. 1. Yazdovskiy discuseed the main results of the biological experiments. The following three main problems exist at present in space biology: (1) clarification of effect of extremum factors of space on living terrestrial organisms; (2) elaboration of the biological fundamentals of safeguarding space flight and life on other planets; (3) investigation of the conditions and forms of life beyond the earth. Card 1/2 3/03 62/000/001/003/011 Some problems of space biology B105YB101 The factors of spaceflight affecting living organism may be divided into three groups: (1) overstrain, vibrations, engine noise, weightlessness; (2) ultraviolet, infrared, and visible ranges of radiation, ionizing radiation, concentration of gas and solid matter, temperature conditions, etc.; (3) insulation, restricted space, peculiarities of the microclimate, rhythm of life, nutrition, etc. The cosmonauts Yu; A, Gagarin and G, S. Titov are mentioned, Under the effect of weightlessness, the two Soviet cosmonauts felt a change of heart beat, dizziness, and sickness. The effect of overstrain and protective measures are serious problems, Perfec- tion of biotelemetry is of great importance for the development of space biology. Lately, methods have been elaborated, permitting to study the coordination of arbitrary movements of man and the blood supply to the brains Card 2/2 PARIN, V.V.; BAYEVSKIT~ R.M.; GAZENKO. M, Problemn of biological telemetry. Probl.kosm.biol. 1:104-117 #62, (MIRA 15tl2) (AEROSPACE TELEW.TRY) (TEIDWER(PHYSIOLOGICAL APPARATUS)) GAZENKO O.G.; TAZDOVSKIY, V.I.; CHERNIGOVSKIY, V.N. Medicoblological investigations in artificial earth satellites. Probl.kosm.biol. 1:285-289 162. (MIRA 15:12) (ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES) (SPACE BIOWGY-RESEARCH) s/865/62/ooi/ooo/oi5/o33 L028/Ei85 AUTHORS: Antipov, V.V., Bayevskiy, R.M., Gazen1co, 0 Genin, A.M., Gyurdzhian, A.A., Zhultov-Verezlinikov, N.N.1 Zhuravlev, B.A., Karpova, L.I., Parfenov, G.P~, Seryapin, A.D., Shepolov, Ye.Ya., Yazdov4;kiy, V,I. TITLE: Some results of medical nnd biological investigations in the second and third,satellites SOURCE: Problemy kosmicheskiy biologii. v.l. Ed. by N.M.Sisakyan. Moscow, Tzd-vo AN sssrt, 1962. ~,67-2811 TEXT: The maintenance of life conditions is discussed with special reference to the second Soviet satellite. During the flight the proportion of oxygen in the air of the cabin could be maintained at 21 to 24%, whereas the relative humidity rose from 37 to 47'19'- The temperature ranged from 16 to 190C. Water and food were p rovided together in a mixture solidified with agar, in order:to fa cilitate automatic dispensing in conditions of weight- lessness. This was carried out twice daily by command signals from Earth. Telemetric. recording of the physiologicalparameters of the dogs Belka and Strelka during space flight showed the Card 1/2 s/865/62/001/000/015/033 Some results of inedical ... E028/E185 occurrence of tachycardia as.a result of acceleration, noise and vibration; there was also a rise in the respiration rate: a return to normal pre-flight values occurred during the condition of weightlessness. Movements of the animals were observed by television ca*moras and also by potontiometric sensors mounted in the harness. No abnormalities were observed in the behavior of the animals after return to earth or during the following 3 months. It was concluded from the experiments carried out in the second satollite that dogs could readily be accustomed to space flight conditions. Genetic changes were noted in the progeny of actinomycetes, plant soods and fruit flios after return from space flight. The.third space satellite contained two dogs (Pchalka. .and Mushka), two guineapigs, two rats, twenty six mice, fruit flies, seeds and other biological materials .-7hich were included in order to study tho'effects.of cosmic radiation. The results are not described. CEwd 2/2 s/865/62/001/000/019/033 E028/EJL85 AUTHORS: -Gazonko O.G., and Georgiyevskiy, V.S. TITLE. Preparation of the animal for the experiment SOURM Problemy koamichaskoy bioldgii. v.1. Ed. by .4.M..Sisakyan. Noscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1962. 321-327 TEXT: ~Oogs are considered to be the most suitable animals for space flight.~experiments; they should be croBa-bred males, not more than 6,;;tS in weight and aged 1-5 -~6 years. The animals are first accustimed to confinement for 20 days in cages of gradually decreasing s-~izej the final one being 54 x 41 x 20 cm. They are then adapted to existence in a hermetically sealed container 64 cm in diameter and 80 cm long containing all the zrquipment necessary during space flight. The procedure was used in selecting the dog Layka, which subsequently underwent a successful space flight. There are,2 rigures. Card 1/1 s/865/62/001/000/020/U33 E028/E185 AUTHORS: Gazenko O.G., Gyurdzhian A.A., and Zakharlyev, G.A. TITLE: A sanitary appliance in a space capsule SOURCE: Problemy kosmicheskoy biologii. V.1. Ed. by X.M. Sisakyan. Moscow. Jzd-vo AN sssR. 1962. 328-335 TEXT: 'rhe authors have developed a sanitary appliance to be worn by dog.-, during space flights. It consists of a one-piece garment of ..,ubberized fabric adjustable by straps, with appropriate holes for- tae head, limbs and tail. The rear end is provided with an obturating ring which fits closely around the pelvis. A tube- like extension leads from this to a fixed tank in which the urine and facces are collected separately. The applianeG functioned satisfactorily and was well tolerated in 20-day laboratory experiments; it was subsequently used on the dog Layka during an actual spac,3 flight. There are 6 figures. Card 1/1 s/865/62/001/000/021/033 F,028/E185 AUTHORS: Gazenko, O.G., and Gyur;dzhian, A.A. TITLE: Fixation of an animal Jn a space capsule, a fabric harness, and the arrangement of sensors for the r-ecording of physiological functions SOURCE: Problemy kosmicheskoy biologii. v.l,, Ed. by N.M. Sisakyan. Moscowt Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1962. y16-344, TEXT: 'A fabric harness for affixing sensors to the body of a dog during space flight has been developed.. It consists of two .pieces which fit over the head and.forelimbs and hindquarters respectively, and are joined by siraps. A pocket in the neck piece accommodates the sensor forrecording pulse rate and arterial pressure. The harness is fixed to the surroundings with chains 'which permit free movement of the-'animal while at the same time preventing traction on the sensor,*leads. It was well tolerated for periods of up to 20 days, and was used on the dog Layka during the second space flight. There are 8 figures. Ok Card 1/1 BAIAlgiOVSKIY, I.S.; GAZENK0. O-G.; GYURDZHIAN, A.A.; GENIN, A.N.; KOTOVSKAYA., A.R.; SERYAPIN, A.D.; YAZDOVSKIY, V.I. Results of investigations in an artificiol satellite. Probl. koom.biol. 1:359-370 162. (MIRA 15:12) % '(SPACE FLIGHT.-POSIOLOGICAL EFFECT) MDSKALENKO, Yu.Ye.; BAYMKIY, R.M.; GAZENNO, O.G. Methods of studying blood circulation in the brain under the conditions of a changed gravitational field. Probl.kosm.biol. 1:400-404 162. (MIRA 15:12) , (GRAVITY-PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT)(ERAIN-BLOOD SUPPLY) AUTHORS: S/216/62/000/006/002,/002 A004/A127 Gazenko, O.G. ',_Limanskiy, Yu.P., Razumeyev, A.N.,, Izosimov, G.V., -Mr-anov,, V.I., Chichkin, V.A., Gaydamakln, N.A. TITLE: Method of registering the action potentials of neurons of vestibular nuclei upon adequate stimulation of vestibular receptors in the cat PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Serlya biologicheskaya, no. 6, 1962, 925 - 928 TE'A"r*. The studies carried out were aimed at regiotering the action poten- tials of Individual neurons of vestibular nuclei, particularly of the Deuters nu- cleus, during a motionless position of the animal and the reaction of these neu- rons on a stimulation of the vestibular apparatus during a vertical passive dis- placement of the animal. The tests were conducted on 17 cats on which action po- tentials of more than 500 neurons in the area of-vestibular nuclei were regis- tered. The authors describe the test conditions and the special test stand on which the animals were placed. The data obtained-are being analyzed at present. Of the action potentiils of 500 neurons registered, 6 groups of nerve cells were Card 1/2 OMWW000100610021002 Method of registering the action potentials of .... A004/A127 separated, which were grouped according to the following symptoms: 1) Increase in the background rhythm in stimulating the receptors - 439 cells; 2) slowing down of the background rhythm - 20; 3) increase in the background rhythm when moving the platform downwards - 14; 4) increase In the background rhythm when moving the platform upwards - 7; 5) neurons detecting the restoration of' the. background rhythm after motion sickness - 70; 6) neurons not detecting the re- storation of the background rhythm in the period after motion sickness - 397. 51 neurons did not show any response to the stimulation of receptors. There are 2 figures. Card 2/2 Ot, GALEWW', dAtor bloiov~ioi't-iklkli willk Biologiots enter fipace. IiJn. nat. 1.26-28 0 162. (splic-I ~~i .- SISAVAN, N.M. [Sisakyan, N.M.];,_~~~IIKOt D.G.; GHEVIN, A.M. [Genin, A.M.] . Some problems of casmic biology. Analela biol 16 no.2:3-11 Mx%4P 162, PARIH, V.V.; GAZENKO, O.G.; YAZDOVSKIY,, V.I. Possibilities of protective adaptation of the body and the l1r4ts of adaptation in conditions of raximal overstrain and the state of weightlessness. Vest.AW SSSR 17 to-4:76-81 162. WRA 3-5:8) (ADAPTATION (PffSIOLOGr) (SPACE- MEDICINE) (WEIGHTLESSNES.9) 5 Gk M KOV 0. G., doktor biologicheakikh nauk Five days that shook the vorld. Nauka i shisn' 29 no.912-U S 162. (MA 15:10) 1. Chien redaktaiannoy kollegii zhurnala "Nauka i shizn". (space medicine) - GAZEBKO, 01,, doktor biologicheakilch nank; GENDI, A., doktor biologicbeskik-h hadic; YAZDOVSKIY, V., doktor misd.nauk . Physiological studies on "Vostok-2.0 kv.i koam. 45 no.7:29- 34 162. (Space perception) (KMA 15-8) GAZMO, 0. G.; RAZZUU17W, A. 1. ; PARIN, V. V.; n Responses of the Central Nervous System on the Action of Some Factors of the Space FlIght.8 Report submitted for the 12th Jkxropsan Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine. 1-_5 Oct 1963, Rome, Italy. GAZENW-j, O.G. Soviet progress in bioastranauties. Pleport to be submitted for the fourteenth International Astronautical Federationg Paris, France# 25 Sept-1 Oct 63 GAZFAIKO) 0,, doktor biolog, nuuX Space reveals its secrets. Hn. nat. no-4:18-21 Ap 163. (~U.RA 16:7) Ustronautics) (Sptae biology) AZ 11r. 972-36 21 may Z,~ZFECTS OF AN ALTERED GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS (USSR) Vinnikov, Ya. A., Q__Cu_QZge jlkQ,.: L. K. Titova, and A. A. Bronshteyn. IN: Ak-ademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Seriya biologicheskaya, no. 2, Mar-Apr 1963, 222-231. S/216/63/000/002/003/004 Morphological and histochemical studies of the receptor cells of the utricle and the neurons of the vestibular ganglia of guinea pigs and cats were made while the animals were in a state of relative rest and after exposure to trans- verse radial accelerations of 1.5. G for 30 min, 3 G for 10 min, and 10 G for 3 min. Accelerations of 1.5 to 3 G caused an increase in acetylcholine es- terase activity in the synapse regions and a slight decrease in the cytoplasmic RNIA content of the receptor cells of the utricle. Accelerations of 10 G brought about a sharp drop in the cytoplasmic RNA content of the receptor cells of the Card 1/2 AP.11r. 972-36 21 may EFFECTS OF AN ALTMD GRAVITATIONAL FIEW [Cont1d] S/216/63/000/002/003/004 utricle and of some neurons of the vestibular ganglia, decreased the total pro- tein and protein functional groups, and lowered the activity of oxidative enzymes in the mitochondria and the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the s y nap a e regions.' Acceleration-induced changes in RNA distribution were generally more pronounced in guinea pigs, than in cats. Restoration of the amount and activity of these biochemical substances began several hours after exposure to 10 G and was complete 12'to 14 days later. [AB) Card 2/2