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G1NZB1JR6t V. t. usm/phy0tcle Jun 1947 Tleotrons - Ulosion Doppler Iffect *Wool= of an Tlectron and an Atom Moving Along the Axis of a Channel in a Dense Hadlun," V. L. G1nzburgj 1. M. Fr&W-,, Corr Mm, Aoad Sol, 4 pp "Dok Akad Fauk SSSR, Roys, Bar" Vol LVIp No 7 Gives mthtmatloal disouselon concluding that energy ealesion In oase of a Do 1 r ffect Is determined by oertain-1muLlas, vith f:gt:r r gt/2. In this regard gives correct statement on analogous faotor for the elootron. 6m90 -my 1947 I)Ovplar Atano 'or Mon That Of 12jer Irfec+ Great .2. %. Lobodevy WDOI . 1, . f1t Volooity lust imni Acad Sci UM 4 6 Ow SO 'To, Lvl NO. k Aksd lisuk "a *Do Supposition vjnMtg vhlob ShOw that an tam in Dooeribss "Vm dur rfect, A%2v- SMM=t of o tine it tbat D*Vler 0~ bpA nO'w e because at t;bi ccmpact sodium) is ot Correct be ionlyed j + 4 7 'IS NO. 30, 19h8 es o4s 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 At it u si w Is 16 It 4 to a 11 111 a so a )II v Is 0 Is it If 0 0 9 So 9 X 0 0 it d U W'F ---y F Q I - I '~'&.Vcto 41 06 m, ~ ; 00 00 Z' 0 1491. cdowelaw emy of Imb am lee :0 V. L kv. AkdA NwA. smok sw. nz -00 so a!-, 293-30 (194) In Amim.-A *sxy boW on,the i . SUNWWW Kudy 0(*A WWWOOM ordavom wNwhq With boss Md WAbcubL The rewAs dnived haw, wfftimb 1*11 dffw (mm thou obtaimid b~ SWIfY OW 11111"M who und a am cbrimisr) :0: a arrmuAt [Abm. 411.1 (1934). ISIN (19)7)1. 7% tb-Y Is 111011111111A to dmI soommw O%Cb O"W. ring dwing a* picipoptimi of radio twova in the 60. sow sumossaim. V. a. -.,So* j i'j 96p. L Advu,. 6 Z U U Asms-VLA 0111TALLUMiCAL LITIIIIATIol't CLAISAPPICATICIS i old., 111JOSO .10 d"I oft u 16 AV 10 IC' PT It '1000001 000000000600010040000090*00600000 moo see VC)"JAW L s I ad 0 11 to I III a 3 6 V a* *a I to GIN46M~r, V. L - Ir z;,.Vj.L On the theory of tho .0 /huraa; L~,. ,-r I "nct r~z iR 4A The prese;lt paper, which ir,a orintinuation of a [ar ou, '-r( hN, the author [Acad. Sci USSR I Phvq 7, 29'~ U4 i t hew Rev 6, 54 1, devvlop- further t*je I i "- ri, r ic lv'l ves I r. . n P, t1it ionosphere under th(~, Intluenct, w !'w fie! 0. An approximate solut ion of the prop;--sz--itv'f~ tile J.~-~fr btained. in the R i,ndcriZ.)es reflection and itt the he,,,irlr,nL tw IA A 1 ~" ~ . ~.Ujtfior- fireat~ ftkFer the phe- 1111111crioll Of trebling, the occurrence 4 reflection at three for small angles between the magnefic field -and . . . . . . 'h. (hrection of propagation- By the u~~e of kinetic thenrv er -in ft)z the -VtU 1rQ(:JLCnCY in the prv-,enrv of a ma;~nrtil~~ fivid N. Rosen (ChapfA [fill. N. j I Reviews, Vol 11 No4 LI 8 C', USSR/Ph~slc_s' Jan 1948 Solar Phaddams, Radio Waves, Propagation A'Vew Data an FAdIo Jklesim of the Sun and Galactics," _Y._L..GinxI?uv6 20 pp "Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nank" Vol XXXIV, No 1 Defier ibes. work m sun's radio intensity during eclipse), .-d4servationa of sun's radio emission at various fro- qiieneioo, an(I radio mission or galactics according to Townes' article in "Astronomichaskly Zhurnal" p 135, 1947. 39Tlo6 GINZBURG, V. L. PA 12/1,9T106 Apr 48 Radio Waves Absorption Mathematics, Applied "Absorption of Micro-Raaio waves in the Atmosphere," V. L. Gintbarg, 111 pp "Uspekhi:Fiz Naak" Vol XXXIV, No 4 Mathematical treatment of subject,, 'Reviews multiplet disintegrettion of oxygen. Discusses absorption of short sraveo In dry air, atmosphere, rain, fcg and cloud. PHASE I TREASURE ISLAND BIBLIGGRATHICAL REPORT - AID 214 - I BOOK Call No,s QC661.G54 Author: GINZBURG, V.-A. Full Tit3:-e_.-_MfdTf_0F RADIO-WAVE PROPAGATION IN THE IONOSPHERE Transliterated Title: Teoriya rasprostraneniya radiovoln v ionosfere Publishing Data Originating Agency: None Publishing House: State Publishing House of TechnIcal Theoretical Literature (OGIZ) Date: 1949 No. pp.: 358 No. of copiest 7,000 Editorial Staff Editor: None Tech. Fd.: Nona Editor-in-Chief3 None Appraiser: None Others. Leontovich, M. A., Academician, who reviewed the book and made certain remarks, and Parlyskaya Z. V. Engineer, who prepared the graphics. Text_Data Coveragea The book covers: the conception of the ionosphere; dielectric constart and conductivity of an ioniied gas; wave propagation in a non- homogeneous isotropic medium; reflection of radio-waves from ionosphere layers; wave propagation in an anisotropic medium, (under the effect of the earth's magnetic field); solar and galactic radiation. 1/2 Teoriya rasprostraneniya radiovoln v ionosfere 'AID 214 - I The author limits his work to the physics of the subject, using mathematical deductions only when absolutely necessary, The book from this point of view appears to be of a certain interest. However it seems to be a compilation of known facts and deductions, as is shown by the very large number of references, and not an original concept,, PLurpose. To put the 3ubject within reach of a broader circle of readers. Facilitiesa The institute of Physics Imeni P. N. Lebedev of the Academy of Scienees,USSR:,and the Radio-Physics Department of the Main Administration of Geodetics (GGU) No. of Russian and Slavic References: 69 out of 147 (1915-1948) Available: Library of Congress. 2/2 CdNZdU:'G, V. L. PA 30,A49795 'Ton Piezoelectricity A -PoIa.v-1z*tIo,n and thwPlotoeffect a Barium Tltmm- Noar.Ue Point -of. Selgoto4leotrlc b%neitids wV'~,L. Gintburg, Phyi Inst Ineni P. N. labodeT. Apa,d ~.soi ussR, 6 pp fthur Eksper i Tecret Fizw Vol X11, No I Isinints prdblm of polarization an& peizoeffect. or barium titanate monocrystals near the point of S41gooto-electric transition. Also dl"usses ptob- ~isi of.Uspersion.of.dielectric constant of barim ",titanate nsiezrjhe Cur le'temperature. Submitted 309M diNnUM2 V.- L. TA 42/49T5 USSR/Aitronomy Mar/Apr 49 Solar Phenomena Radio Waves - Absorption "The Absorption of Radio Waves in the Solar Corona," V. L. Ginz*burg) Phys Inst imeni P. N, LebedevAcad Sci USSR, Radlopbys Faculty, Moscow State U, 13 pp "Astrun Zhur" Vol XXVI., No 2 Itamines varioui; formulas for absorption of radlo waves In ionized gas (ionosphere, solar coronal Interstellar gas). Gives results of studies conducted to determine thickness ,,of solar corma for vaves of varying frequencJas kin the range 0.15 - 50 motors. L4ft 42/49T5 rA 67/49TIO5 vM/vir;tC& - Plesc"Miectricity Avg 4~i -DIelectr1ce "The Theory of Piezoelectric Phenmena," V. L. Ginzburg, 36 pp, Fiz NOW Vol =IVIII, No 4 Disemses (1) the theory of plezoele~tric pbenowna without considering anisotropy and voteatisl,, (2) the case of phase transitions .close to the critical.Potnt, (3) aninotroPY of dielectric properties and the piezo effect in barium titamte, (4) the :properties of Rochelle =4 (5) -VVrftIktrIcs# piqzoelectries, wd 67/49TIO5 SR/Physics - Neli" 11 11 Noy 49 1 Loir Tempiratures The Theory of Superfluidity and the Critical Speed 'of Helium II V. L. Ginzburg, Phys; Inst imeni Lebedev, Acad Sci USSR., 4 pp "Dok Ak Nauk SSSR" Vol MIX, No-2 ]present theory explains well almost all experimental Ifacts relative"to He iI., However, one very important "phenomenon -xistenpe of critical speed for super- Itfluid flow He II -- cannot be quantitatively explaired :by the theory. This tact seems to indicate necessity i 'of introducing into the theory more accurate essential" cbafiges in itis microsropic part: the value of tile critical speed and its dependence upon the aperturels width and temperature, Submitted 15 Sep 49 by Aced M. A. Leontovich. elf M-W r'.01. Fa. 20. IZ1IR i;=-" trarmition In the absence In the 111 6 intn4ucrd, fixtually of a sumuc figz== AuAksmut to the Woutansums powitAtion in the thi4my of and spontaneous Itmaustisetion III the t1h=4 of ferrossaptumm. In auakysy with the grocrod be- of th ce" tnuisitimila, 7 the 3"Jokeloldft. X74mulm"110 Coble "1sbUOJWtxmymO( ducting electrons" at therl"od bccmcs s ro above the crit. temp. W III df=lt 7,qg.xero below it. TW&"tffwdva wave-luscUm" is nonualiaed in such a Ivey thd 1#11 reprewals tk cam. of sufiemosdurdusclectrons. Uq"ikm are derived kc Ike *-function and the vector .5atW. and we solved km Ow can of a svpercoaductins Men The 00-7 permits, is contrast to the existing thmy. cxpvmdm of the surface tenion ~t the boundary of the momal and superconducting in terma of the crit. omwpmk field and the depth olej.-V trat" a# the Ilaid low am superconductor. That depth J4.VUUh OU the &W MfBWb in Strong fiCkfil. PAfti.UI4fIY in supermuductors of mm&U dimensions. In thin fi", tbc nusuctic ptnurbatims of the supertmod. is A trAusi- txm of the 2od kind, md )mLvmcs a trasbitiou of the Ist " only above a cartam crit. thickam. The ex. tcmAl crit. magmetk field incrums with deavasing thick- new of the superconducting film, whereas the crit. dec. c=eot decreems with the thicknem. X. Than IV, C, 1-1 zmjro ~ V. 1- USSR/Radio - Wave Diffracticn AstroThysics AFr 50 "Diffraction of 3olar ard Cosmic Radio Waves on the Mo-n," G. G. Getmantsev, V. L. Ginzburg, Physicotech Inst, Gorlkiy State U, 4 yp I'Zhur Eks-per i Teoret FizII Vol XX, No 4 Discu3ses rrcblem of diffraction cf raclio waves from the sun and cosmic objects by the moon from standpoint of rossibility of loc-nlizinc- sources of these waves. Submitted 2 Dec 49. FA 159T107 GIMMIC, V. L. USSR/Physics - Superconductivity Oct 50 Helium-II* "Present State of the Theory of Supercon- ductivity," V. L. Ginzburg "Uspekhi Fiz Naukft Vol XLII, No 2, pp 169-219 Headings: 1. History. 2. Basic Experimental Facts. 3. Old Phenomenological Theory. 4. Nev Phenomenological Theory and Basic Relations. 5. Concrete Results of the Bev Theory. 6. Normal Current in Superconductors. 7. Normal and Anomaloua,,Dkin Effect in Metals. To be con- tinued n4xtlssUe~bf,this journal. PA 17IT83 Ift 171T83 GIN713URG, V. L. PA 172T98 USsR/phys),cs - Superconductors Nov 50'; : "present State of the Theory of Superconductivity," V. L. Ginzburg "Uspekh Fiz Wauk" Vol XLII, No 3, pp 333-361 Concluding article considers normal current in oupercomiuctors, and normal and anomalous skin affect in metals. Gives extensive bibliography, consisting of 104 references both Russian and foreign. 1" Inzburz, V. L. On. magiieto-hydrod 11MfC Wityes ia a - u SSSK. Zurnal tka 7. 1c Teorat. F r, 21, 788-794 (1951).~ (Ru ssian) The author examines -the problem of mcigneto-hydro- r dynamic plane waves propagating through ionized gas in electromagnetic field of constant grivity. Solutions of linearized equations are obtained which, at the high- frequency end of the spectrum, corr"pond to the propaga- tion of radio waves in the ionosphere and,!r the dhe terrestrial magnetic field, while at IG-A, frequencid, pass into a form identical with ordinary h r I approximations. rhe same problem has been tMat I very similar results and published atriait simultan .1 Cou y by Astram [Ark F sik 2 44.3-457 (1431) these Rev . , ; y 12 778 Z .17) . . Katwe (Mancheste 1 Source., HathaMatiCal T1 man -4~'-AITR7 ME PRE, ~,--MMNR, Q.- IN- M 1=11's R2 ~.- --n MORRO V. L. pl~ 1),. 5-?199 USSR/Physics. - Radio-Wave ftding Aug 51 "grfect of 3:nterelectron Collisions on AbsOrPtion of R&diOw&v(,-6 in p-Layer and in the Solar Corona," V. L. Giniblirg, PhYs Imt imeni Lebedev, Acad Sci USSR "Zhur Tekh Fiz" Vol XXI, No 8, Pp 943-947 Discusses problem of detg don-en of mols in F-layer. Shows that under.certain circ=atances, interesting from the standpoint of F-layer and solar corona investigations, interelectron col- Usions do not contribute toradio-wave fading. Submitted 31 Dee 1950. 19kT99 UM/Physics - Superconductivity SeP 51 "Bebavior of Superconductors in High!Frequency Field," V. L. Ginzburg, Phys Inst imeni Lebedev, Aead Sci USSR "Zbmr Eksper i Teoret Fiz" Vol XXI, No 9, pp 979-991 Discusses eqs representing behavior of supercon- ductors in alternating electromagnetic field. Obtains expressions of surface impedance in super- conduct. Treats problems of verification of elec- tron theory ~of metals in normal state and heat conductance of superconductors vith account of LC 193T93 USSR/Physics - Superconductivity SeP, 51 (Contd) convective heat transfer. Author tharftAcad L. D. Landau for advice. Submitted 8 Sep 50. LC 193T93 Vol Ira, Septe 1953 J% alas. 41- of I)Y G Oade C-Inada Oj (1952). ReAt 23 Aka(j, Nauk,3SSR Tr"Si,,tia, 23 ac- lZurnal Rk pp, 7 (194 7); Rev. 9, 553. Twmt- Fix 1-Y, 2") GINZBMCI~ V. L. . --I- Theory of Propagation of Hadio Waves in the Ionosphere. Glavljoligratizdat, Kain Polygray.hic Publishing House, 358 pp, 1952. GINZBURG, V.L. Introduction of anisotropy into the theory of superconductivity. Zh. ekspar. taor. Fiz 23, No.2, 236-8 152. (KIRA 5:9) (PA 56 no.668:548; 15 ) GINZBURG3 V. L. y of Electric Fluctuations," Us. - HZZ- ttProblems of the 'rheoi- '0 ~ nauk 116 No 3, 1952. U - .1 NUA Augus t 1952 Radio Hotdgyfta.- 21 Jan 51 Cosmic Bay@ !-"Cosmic Rays as tbe~;SoUrce of Galactic Radio Emanation (Not Spots)," V. L. Ginzburg, Pbys Inst imeni Lebedev, Acad Sci TJSSR "DOk Ak Nauk SSSR" Vol LXXVI,'No 3, PP 377-380 Discounts thermal radiation of interstellar electrons as source of hot spots, as proposed by A. Unsoeld in Zs- f. Astrophys ., 26, 176, 1949. Considers note- worthy new proposal that I subject galactic radio em anation is the Brehmstrahlung of relativistic elec- tronw-*-- i.e., the electron component of cosmic 178r102 USSR/Physics - Radio Rot Spots (Contd) 21,Jan 51 rjm~~ -- in interstell and circumiitell magnetic MA, as proposed by Alfven and Herlofson r!Phys Rev" and Kiepebheuer ("rhys Rev" 79, 738, 3.950). Submitted 24 Nov 50 by Acad M..A. Leontovicb. 178T102 GENZEURL, V. L. USSR/PhYsies - SuPerconductivity Theory Sep 52 Vresent status of Theory of Superconductivity. Part n: Microscopic Theory," V. L. Ginzburg 'Vspekhi Piz Nauk" Vol 48, No 1, pp 25-118 Reviews general knowledge on subject, emphasizing difficulties in creating a general theory. Criti- cizes hypothesis of spontaneous currents and analyzes diamagnetic hypothesis and quasimicroscopic approach to the theory. Gives 136 references. 236T77 USSR/~?Iqsics - Superconductivity 21 Mar 52 "Behavior of Superconducting Films in a Magnetic Field," V.L. Ginzburg, Phys Inst imeni,Lebedev.0 Aced Sci USSR "Dok Ak Nauk WSW' Vol 83, No 3, PP 385-388 States that the problem of the behavior of super- conducting films in a magnetic field possesses Ist-order significance, but that until recently the theory of supercond seemed not to be in a position to give the correct picture of the be- bav-ior of superconductors in fields. Besides the remarks made earlier on this matter (see Ginzburs =~68 and L-.ndau, "Zhur Eksper i Teoret Fiz" 20, 1064 1950),' the author indicates new vorks; (see J'.M. Locx, Pvoc Roy Soc 208, 391, 1951; N.V. Zavarit- skiy, "Dok Ak Nauk SSSR7 Vol 78, 665, 1951) vhich he says, are absolutely against the old theory~ &n& in qual agreementwith facts. Submitted by Acad L.D. Landau 30 Jan 52. CCA ~j if F44, ~73) P_27T68 USSR/AstrononV - Radio Stwe U MY 52 "Interstell Wtter and Ionospheric Disturbances Leading to Flickering of Radio Stars," V. L. Ginz- burg, PhyB Inst imeni Lebedev, Acad Sci USSR "Dok Ak Nauk SSSR" vol 84, No 2, pp 245-247 Subject was recently analyzed by M. Ryle and A. Hevish (cf. M. N. Roy Soc, 110, 381, 11050)- Author states he intends to develop subject by studying screening action of moon, which should eclipse, at a certain time, the flow of assumed interstellar particles to the earth, these 231T6o particles allegedly being responsible for ioniza- tion of ionosphere and flickering of radio stars. Received.28 Jan 52. 231T60 USSR 523.72 Om one posqw M"had= for qomf(c CULS r9d&tkmrmTtIMM. G.G.G-_-F%(AI?t-.VANDV L , , G Dckl, Akcd, -Bu!12- SSSR, 97, No= AT R=fwr. -An analr-Is Is giver of (ht hypothesis that these L4mt, of fnfcn= radiation am caused by rclj6vLSIj-. Ckc(co rwarrmtec-sinthenagn--I:crcidofanum t Do I cEd vulaclom of lite number of electrom to proatliz mt. ob3w.-A effect am given and f-ad to values of about GINZBURG V- T.-, IA. L. ALIPERT, and E. L. FE.UIBERG. Rasprostranenie radiovoln. Moskva, Gostekhizdat, 1953. 883 P., illus., tables, diagrs. Bibliography: p. 870-883. ZF5 referenceE7. Title tr.: Radio wave propaCation. Qc66i.A42 SO: Aeronautical Sciences and Aviation in the Soviet Union, Library of ConMss, 1955. ul '7, 7 40t Ou co-tain questilins in Itle th~ury-of l1w PMR~~,Ailn &(:% raffia irav~ k. the ioak,6ph~re in eOn. civizilt-ttu. 711. A-Spa, ~25 No. 4 A dikussion cf mimakci in V. N. KCSN~nikll,s (extbook, Vie prapag"flan uj a wdia- w-1,e (19 * il), under the ha:dings: (1) 'nj~ qoe,tijin tof ih.-- ridd- (E ~- E~ - br E r (4,-,;3)p7)-, (2) 'flic of a xvive ftoju rin lk-niAng, jiiyvr, (3) The ildlltcncc of the wtth'i Iltagliclic (Od ard VIC tcwt thc multitification rctiectal tadlu J. $VaATFCVI GINZBURG, V.L. Relativistic OgyrationO and the theory of non-localizing TuKawa fields. Xhur.eksp. i teor.fix. 25 no.6:737-759 D 133. (Field theory) (MLHA 7:10) USSR/Nuclear Physics - Cosmic Rays' Nov 53 O,rigin "The Origin of Cosmic Rays and Radio-Astronomy," ,V. L. Ginzburg Usp Fiz Nau7k, Vol 51, No 3, VP 343-392 A review of current literature, Western and Soviet, on the subjects: cosmic radio-emanation and electron component of cosmic rays; movement of charged particles. in interstell-ar space; the statistic mechanism governing the acceleration of particles in interstellar space and in the 272T54 shells of stars; theory of the solar origin of cosmic rays; the theory that supernovae and novae are the probable sources of cosmic rays. cites 30 Western and 25 Soviet references: Ya. P. Terletskiy, G. G. Getmantsev;"I. S. Sbkloviskiy, L. A. Artaimovich',' I. Ya. Pomeranchuk, V. V. Vladimirskiy, A. A. SokolovY 1. M. Frank,' S. B. Pikel Iner',''. I. M. Gordon (DAN USSR,- No 3, 1953), V. 1. GqV.danskiyY'-:A. L. Lyubimov,'B. V. Medvedev,' A. A. Logunov,,L. E. Gurevich, and S. Z. Belen Ikiy. 272T54 Ec Scl. 'nit UINIM etc ly flux is ~Tlsmssvf In rcLation w clcctfGz!3 I -:I Ir LI eut no a flid of MMS is *.Oftu 01, crmy gf4almi-tlhon 5'.4-10W `0 likely t-1 11- rLLIOT. &k\ - in OP J 523,72 523 877 of the amk~mdr .479. lb. t,#ht1CaI rmcbmu! V L. sun and ill Stellar sliells. Wes on lilt Nai, Vft, 92, :~Jj ,I U e,-207. P"O;Jes Th': 116-11, for th': ;":" 'I' -",-'Ili (if 014 on tho wr, 3rd ill 't "t A Nr -;Unjim (prill",j t~y vCrmi in D 1 Cal Inec it, iumsIdUf COIjjAiO1]L% With Wfbo':n~C! ,,f 50t1l" 1`0"i C"l. In a 601v d I- ~. - ..., Could leach "Oin, On, MV: Q 111).ction cr rt;lts Md. Ons .111A for plot ra-,, u s s R 521165 537.391.1 523.E4iA*l" 70746. ~0-)tMQVu und novac xv saurcts Lit cwLiLc- :,end 4~nl JWIVA41*01, ) DAL Akad. Nauk- SSSR, 92, No.-6;--MY~6'11953) In ltiwlan. Engli5h trunilation, V.S. Milonal Set. Found. Mr-Ir-7.30. Order or m1pilude cWmat~s of the cnvrgy ilm, at vhiblc and rad,(, wavol-rigib to bL exptc1cd froin brtimstrahlung or rclativi,,li clecticim in nwppwilc IlOds assmilled Mth novjc and StIpT,ovac. Coal- parlion with da,a on supcmovic of A.IJ, 361), Mt, 1572. AMMTSUMYAN, V.A., akademik, redaktor; 21MBURG, V.L., radaktor; LEYKIN, G.A., kandidat fiziko-matematicheskikh - 554i WSWICH, A.G., kandi- dat fiziko-matematichaskikh TERIETSKIT, Ta.P., doktor fiziko-matematichookikh nauk, rodaktor; SHKIoUVSKIT, I.S., doktor fiziko- matematichaskikh nauk,, radaktor-, FMKIN, Me. radaktor; ALEKSEMA, TeVe, takhnicheekiy radaktore' [Transactions of the Third Conference on Problems of Cosmogony, May 14-15, 1953- Origin of cosmic rays] Trudy ... soveshchaniia ... 14-15 maia 1953 g.; proiekhozhdenie koemicheakikh luchei. Mosicia, Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1954. 319 P; (MLRA 8:4) 1. Chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR (for Ginzburg). (Cosmic ra7s) JMIZM~,-,G, V. L. USSR/Astronomy Card 1/1 Author Ginzburg,, V. L. Menb. Corresp. of Acad. of Sc. USSR Title Radio-Astronowj Periodical Pr1roda, 5, 12-210 May 1954 Abstract z The basic problem of radio-astronomy Is the study of extraterres- trial rpAlAtions in the interval of from 7 mm to 30 m. The develop- ment of radio-astronopW congiderably enlarged the part of the alec- trcmignetic wave spectrum uned for astronomical Investigations. The basic val-ae of applying radio methods In astronorwj is that the radio radiation of the sun and many other cosmic objects is usually emanated from zones of irery weak illumination in the visible part of the spec- trum. The bas_'~c objects studied by radio methods are: the sun, our galactic3 as a wh3lt and Individual galactic and extragalactic nebulae. Fadio-mtthod-- are also highly effective In the study of meteors and for astrophysical investigations. Another Interesting radio-astronomical task is the rallio location of tho moon (5ick up of radio signals sent from the earth and reflected by the moon Photos. Institution : Submitted : F YK --T 7. '77 7 RM V V516CA/Physics Properties of metals Pub, 43 - 3/62 Authors .3 Ginzburg) Vs L,~, and Motulevich, G. P. Title I Optical properties of metals Pe-'0'0d'CS2 I !zv. AN SSSR. Ser, fiz. J.8/6, 631-634, Nov-Dec 1954 AbOtract I Report *rias submitted at the 9-th All-Union Conference on Spectroscopy describing various means for studying and determining the optical proper- ties of metals with the aid of spectroscopy. The parameters most important in determining.the characteristics of metals are listed. The instr=ents normally employed in metal spectroscopy are described. Sixteen referencent 5 USSRj 3 Germans 1 English and 7 USA (1913-1954). Table; graph. institution Acad. of So., USSR, The P. N. Lebadev Physics Institute Submitted Ar Z -E Ue 6~ V. I- - ussr,/Nuclear P~Ysics - wave equations FD-747 Card 1/1 : Pub 146-17/22 Author : Ginzburg, V. L., and Silin, V. P. 3-7 P"', it ~!' Title Some remarks on relativistic wave equations with mass spectrum Periodical Zhur. eksp. i teor. fiz., 27, il&u% Jul 1954 Abstract Letter to the editor. Analyze equations from works by H. Yukava (Pbys. Rev. 91 [1953)). A. Pais (physica, 19 [19531) and J. Rayski (Nuovo Cimento, 10, (19531) and the reasons for the divergences in computations. 11 references, including the 3 mentioned foreign. Institution : Msical Institute imeni Lebedev, Acad. Sci. USSR Submitted : April 19, 1954 GINZBURG, V.L. V.N.Iressenikh's old and new errors. Zhur.eksp. I teor.fiz. 27 no.4:517-520 0 154. (MLR& 7:12) (Radio waves) (Kesaenikh, V.N.) GINZBURG. V.L. Radio astronomy. ftiroda 43 no.5:12-21 Ky 054. NLRA ?:5) 1. Chlen-korrespondent Akademil nauk SSSR. (Radio astronomy) 6114anG, V. L. USSR/Physics Card. 1/1 Author 2 Ginzburg, V. L. Title I ~i- n about the application of thermodynamics to electrical fluctuation Periodical : Usp. F1z. Navk, 520 FA.,3j 494 .498,, March 1954 Abstract : In answer to the letter by M. L. Levin (pages 486 -494) regarding thermodynamic Investigation of electrical fluctuations the author accus~ka the.latter of presenting an erroneous and false picture of the subject. It is emphasized that the analysis of the problem as presented by G. S. Gorelik is by no means complete and strict In all view points. On the contrary, there are moments in the limits of applicability of the thermodynamic approach which require further thorough analysis. A eummary of the original Gorelik work is includ- ed in the letter. Eight reforencea. Institution ....... Submitted GINSBURG, VA. Red displacement in solar and stellar spectra. Dokl. AN SSSR 97 no.4; 617-620 Ag 154, (MIRA 7:9) 1. Chlea-korrespordent Akademli uauk MR. 2~ Ftzicheakiy Institut Lm. P.N.Lebodeva AkaAemli uauk SSSR. (Min-Spectra) (Stare-Speetra) C-DIM VI-IG,. V. USSHIPhysics - Optico in metals card'A i Pub. 22 - 3.4/44 Authors : Ginzbu:vg, V. L. member corresp. of the Acad. of Scs. of the USSR Title : About optical properties of metals Periodical ; Dok, AN SSSR 97/61 999-1002, Aug 21, 1954 Abstract : A study of the optical properties of metals is described. The study was intended to create a dependable theory that would explain the major portion of the optical phenomena observed during experiments with metals and to show that the experi- mental data would not deviate from theoretical calculations. Fourteen references (1912-1954). Institute 2 Physical Institute im. P. N. Lebedev of the Acad. of Ses. of the USSR Submitted : TJSSH/ Physics - Cosmic rays Card 1/1 Pub. 22 - 10/56 Authors Ginsburg, V. L., Member Correspondent of the Acad. of Scs. of the USSR Title On the origin of cosmic rays Periodical s Dok. An SSSR 99/5, 703-706, Dee 11, 1954 Abstract t The current theories on the origin of cosmic rays are criticized. These theories, shared by Fermi, Morrison and others, are based on the assumptionct interstellar acceleration acquired by primary particles due to their collis- ions in 5~alaxies. The criticism minly analyses Fermi's expression fcr an ixi. dex sharrin,~ the cosmic ray ener,rry in the spectrum, (where T - the life of a particle in the gralaxies, Ck - the coefficient in the equation of the particle acceleration . 2 _ u2v ) and those discrepancies and d E =(A E e -.:: ~u __2 Tt c~EL c.7T Z contradictions which one finds by substitutin,,, sor-- exrerimental date into the above equation. Thirteen references 7-USSR (1949-1954). Institution The Physical Institute im. P. N. Lebedev of the Acad. of Scs. of the USSR Submitted GINSBURGO V. L. "The Nature of Cosvic Radioemission and the Origin of Cosmic Raysp* paper submitted at the International Astronomical Union Radio Astronowy Symposium.. Jodrell Bank., UK,, Avg 1955 A-40421 - Il J, F/ 534 22 .23 BC"EEN .6L%EOL UMW ~-Rll 09. THF - . 'GM r, I I D pl~ r M~_ . to t~. T1014 Ali~ 34 1 SL I 'S icitio tj Vol. 1. No. , ed firsi to -IV, z tes topic is discuss kno*n Thill forolulao, are derivO miltelent. Wily III are Obla c the and I case Iron to J551w"Jagg ft... the "Oust, the pe,ullarities dist .11SHed. OUC &to alectraInnn GJ%BURG.V.L.-,GRAMITSKIY, I.N.;KASHLINSKAYA, S.Ye.;LIVSHITS, D.K. Spectrographic determination of minor impurities in a few raw materials. semi-.finished products and pure metals in copper and nickel production. Izv.AN SSSR.Sor.fis.19 n0.2:211-216 Mr-Ap 155. (KLRA 9:1) (Tartu---Spectrum analysis--Congresses) W 311 31 2075 INFLUENCE OF'JNj-FR-,EI,FCTI? .c~'i cou.1510-;s ON TFir FLECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND THE Sr-Iii- r IN Y ETALS V L. ffnibur- I'A KEj~ii ~ Zth.. teor. FIZ., (34-74 (1955) In ~~ R uss 13 a. R. Gmtham and Krordr,'f! Statement that the clectron Yisc~~- ity in netals, re-3tilting from elu,tr~r. ~,ll t,( metli6 f,,r j.j. -d This woulk! 4e ;M;* LA;: a,.d thtrmal corAuclivity, xkin effert oc 't fil.-O I u.e at~ ve aut tor s' m effitA is i --,~ r r Wrong Excepi fur Yery litV ' h tron iweractiLm are nelilgible Electncal Re~earrq As-ciatl-~ 77, 7, .ILI USSR/Atomic and Molecular Physics - Low Temperature Physics, D-5 Abst Journal: Referat Zhw- - Fizika, No 12, 1956, 34429 Author: Ginzburg, V. L. Institution: Wone Title: On the Macroscopic Theory of Superconductivity Original Periodical: Zh. eksper. i teoret. fiziki, 1955, 29, tio 6, 710-761 Abstract: A discussion of many problems in the theory of superconductivity in con- stant and variable fields. Certain experimental data on the dependence of the depth of penetration of (s on the magnetic field and on the magnitude of the surface ten- sion between the superconducting and normal phases are nort in agreement with the V. L. Ginzburg and L. D. Landau theary (Zh. eksper. i teoret. fiziki, 1950, 20, 1064)- Agreement is possible if it is assumed that the characteristic charge, entering into the theory, is Dot equal to the charge of the electron and exceeds it in magnitude by several times. Pippard'B experiments, which give for lead a nonmonotonical behavior of the dependence of 5 on the angle between the current and the tetragonal nXis of the specimen, contradicts not only the Ginzburg and Landau theory, but also the London theory. However, the experimental data themselves are still not sufficiently I of 3 - 1 - ;SR'/At =Ic and Molecular Physics - 1".r Temperature Physics, D-5 Ah5t jDurnal: Referat Zhur - Fizika, No 12, 1956, 34429 Ai,thor: Gimburg, V. L. Institution- None Title: On the Macroscopic Theory of Superconductivity Original Periodical: Zh. eksper. i teoret. fiziki, 1955, 29, No 6, 748-761 Abstracti reliable. Because of this, and because of many other considerations, the author considers the equation suggested by Pippard in lieu of the London equation to be invalid for the connection between the density of the superconduction current vs and the vector potential A of the magnetic field. The section of the article devoted to the behavior of superconductors in high frequency fields contains a summary of equations relating the surface impedance, the effective conductance, and the effec- tive diel-ectric constant of the metal for the general case (for the linear region, at small fields) for the case of a superconductor. Analysis of the numerical data, obtained from optical investigations, leads the author to the conclusion that the number of superconducting electrons at T w 0 is several times smaller then the num- ber of conduction electrons at T > Tk- In this manner, a portion of the conveeion 2 of 3 N, 98 4_ io -.0 USSRI/Atomic and Molecular Physics - Low Temperature Physics, D-5 Abst journal: Referat Zhur - Pizika, No 12, 1956, 34429 Author: Ginzburg, V. L. Ins-Utution: None Title: On th6 Macroscopic Theory of Superconductivity Original Pericdical: Zh. eksper. i teoret. fiziki, 1955, 29, No 6, 748-761 Abstract: electrons should change over to the bound state in the superconduction transition. The last section of the article discusses attempts to estimate the con- tribution of normal electrons to the surface impedance of the superconductor under the assumption that the theory of the anomalous skin effect is applicable to them. The calculations made by the author using a simplified scheme (Zh. eksper. i teoret. fiziki '. 1951, 21, 979) are compared with the calculations made by A. A. Abrikosov (Dokl. AN SSSR, 1952, 86, 43). The difference in the results can 'oe substantial only 4n the v4cinity of T = 0 and T z Tk- In conclusion, the need for further measure- ments of the properties of superconductors in the region of centii::eter, millimeter, and infrared waves is emphasized. 3 of 3 - 3 - USSR/Physics Helium II Card 1/1 Pub. 146 - 22/26 FD-288r~- Author Ginzburg, V. L. Title Surface energy connected with tangential discontinuity of velocity in helium II Periodical Zhur. eksp. i teor. fiz., 29, August 1955, 254-256 Abstract The writer notes that one of the most essential problems in the theory of superfluidity is, as already indicated by him (ibid., 14, 135, 1944; DAN SSSR, 69, 161, 1949), the question of the char- acter of the tangential break in the velocity of the superfluid part of helium) vs, at the boundary of the liquid with the wall, the presence of such as discontinuity proceeding from the fact that the helium atoms stick to the wall (solid body) and simultaneously the tangential component vs near the wall is not equal to zero from the macroscopic viewpoint, i.e. even in the immediate neighborhood of the wall (L. D. Landau, J. of Phys., 5) 71, 1941). The author thanks Academician L., D. Landau and Professor Ye. M. Lifshits. Ten references. Institution : Physics Institute im. P. N. Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR Submitted : April 21, 1955 H,,sj-,rnan the OC4 L (Russian "he It is pointed out tht i~crjcai d ,1110~v the neCtions- onC mu5t T)hysical COn .~,n The tht to depcqd on (hrec, t ,,,c fieW '~hernial c0nducti"'t'es ctiiffl/b"- a. ni,1411 of conve of the i hibition 'r' -,- - )7- 11 R Vja-L. 77) 4~ (195/1- Chandraffll",T-~ar"-- ~e4e effects- to take into account t 14, 813Yis revised of magnitude of the vanous of 'he orders ibition Will be discils'iGn involved sub' St thZ the inh 9e [ated. q~~Jjties . -the appli;~ations conteMP! wis e 'asek,:al, (NVilhams Bay, iji ffective in , Chattd_ S------ - PIKICLONER, S.B.; GINZORG, T.L.; SiUMVSKIT, I.S. Mechanism of particle acceleration iD aRvelopes of aov&e &ad supernovae. Astrou. zhur. 32 ne.6:50-513 N.-D 055. (Stars, Now) Ouak 9:2) ISVIN,K.L.; GINZBURG.V.L.- Application of thermodYmMics to electric fluctuations. Usp. fiz. nauk 56 no.1:146-148 My 155. (MLIRA 8:6) (Blectromagnette theory) (Thermodr=ice) GINZBURG, V.L.; FBYNBM, Ye.L. I ~ %--. 9, ~-, -A ~ ! ~ , Igor' Bygenlevich Tamm; on his 60th birthday. Usp.fiz.nauk 56 ne.4:469-475 Ag '53- (miak 9:1) (Tamm, Igerl lwgOnlevich, 1895- NS 13 U RC- U5,6R/`. -Physics I-L-tallo-opticls CWMI!~~ Pab. 118 - 1/~'i Authors GirBburg., V. Ib. and lbtulevich, G. P. Title I Optical properties of me-tals Periodical I Usp. fiz. naiik 55/4, 469-535., Apr 1955 Abetrdot i A theoreticalexperimental analysis of the optical characteristics of metals is presented. The effective indexes of refraction - neff(w)j and absorption -D(eff(w) - of light by metals are discussed, The methods of their determination are described, as well as the determination ofthe A(w), a quantity of light absorbed by metal when the .light falls normally upon the wtal surface; thus', AM=l-r(w), where the r(w) is.a coefficient of light reflexion by a metal. However, only the simple cases are considered in which light, of tN) iara-red spectral region frequencies, is reflected, '.by an isotropic surface of non-magnetic metals, i.e., cases in ~~whicK the quantum absorption does not take place. Sixty-five -6 USSR ireferences: 9 German, 9 British, 24 USA and 7 French '(1906-1955). Tables; ------ JIM[ MM-M M OEM 31 =01 -W W__ L W.: ~ !2_-~ ZR ?_ 115,M/Physics Electron emission Card 1/1 Pub. 22 - 11/54 Authors s Ginzburg, Va 1.9,p Memo Corresp. Acad. of Ses-,U_O_'R, and ShebandkiYo V, P* TLtle t Kinetic Temperature of elctrons in metals and anomalous electron amission Periodical a Dok. AN sssR loo/3, 445-448, 7an. 21, 1955 Abstract f A theoretical analysis of the kinetic temperature of electrons in metals is presented. Cases are considered in which the fo (symmetric function of distribu-vion) is not equal to the fr(t) (the Fermi function of distribtttion), but, due to an electron collisioneat certain temperatures, equals fF (0-). 1'..e :V0.1 rF (.&) # where 0- and T are corresponding tem- peratures and,06YA Such a fact does not change much the electric con- ductivity of a metall but the electron emission is greatly affected by it, as one can see from: e2 '40'ta-KIKO' , x being the output worke Eight referencess 7 USSR and I English (1937-1954)- Institution t Aced. of Scs.9USSR# Fe No Lebedev Physical Institute Submitted t ..... so ... 9/"' z 43 U/0' G V. USSR/Physics - Ionoaphe're Card 1/1 Pub. 22 -- 10160 Authors I Gershman, B. N'. and Ginzburg, V. L., Memb. Correep. of the Aced. of Sea * of the USSR Title I About thelmachanism of the formation of ionospheric heterogeneity Periodical i Abstract t Institution s Submitted Dok. AN SSSR 100/4, 647-65o, Feb 1. 1955 Convective instability as a cause of the hetcrogeneity of the ionosphere, is discussed. Theruml conductivity, viscosity of the ionoschere and magnetic field effect are considered as possible factors in the formation of such an instability, Fifte4n referencess 5 USSR and 10 British (1930-1954)- Physico-Technical Research Institute of the Gorkiy State University GINZBURG, V.L. Light scattering In the neighborhood of second-order phase transition points. Dokl. AN SSW 105 no.2:240-243 '55. (NLHA 9:3) 1. Chlon-korrespondent AN SM: 2. lizicheskiy institut iment P.M. Lebedeva Akadenii nauk WAR. (Light--Scattering) GINSBERG, V. L. (moscow) "On superconducting ferromagneties," a paper submitted at the Intennational Conference on Physics of Magnetic Phenomena, Sverdlovsk, 23-31 May 56. GINUEM, V. L., SIIKLOVSKIY, 1'. S. and PIKELINEM, 5. B. "Radio Radiation of Discrete lources," a report delivered at the Symposium on Radioastronomy hold at the Jodell-Bank Expei-imental Radioastronomical Station, Manchester University, Englan, is summarized in the atcount of this symposium in ali article by V. V. VITKEVICII in Vest. Ak. Nauk SSSR for January 1956. Sum. goo, 26 ADr 56 GIMUI*, T.Lq,."redaktor;-LBTKIN, G.A.. kandidat f1s.-mat. nauk, redaktor; VWACM, 11,14, kandidat f1s.-unt. nauk, redaktor; SHXUXUff, doktor fis.-mat. nank; FRADKIII, M.I.. redaktor; KAKWI, Yo. T.. tokhnicheekly redaktor. [Proceeding@ of the Fifth Conference on Problems nf Cosmogon y; ra.dloastronourl TrudT Platogo.soveshchaniia po voprosam koismo-'- genii; radioastronowita. Moskva, 1956, Izd. Akademit. neuk S381. 567 P. (K= 9:5) I.Soveshchan%ft po Yoprosam koemogoulL 5th, Moscow 1915.2.Chlen- korrespondent AN SM (ior Gluxburg). (Radio astronomy) z tegory USSR/Radiophysics Application of radiophysical methods 1-12 Abs Jour Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957,N0 1967 Author Ginzbur V L Pieardva,, V-V. V * ~6'~ Title ~he Na~ture of the Fluctuations of the Intensity of Solar Radio Waves and of the Irregularities in the Solar Corona. Ox4g Pub Tr. 5-go soveshcl~aniya po vopr. kosmogonii. 1955, M., AN SSSR, 1956, PP9-241, diskus. 241 Abstract A theoretical evaluation is made of the mechanism of scattering of radio waves by the irrelpilarities of the solar corona. The fluctuations in the intensity of the received radio waves, caused by diffraction, may be of two types: diffra9tion in the corona may make the field of the radlo wavesi in- homogeneous in the coordinate system that is tied to the sun, and the rotation of the'sun with the motion of the earth will cause fluctuations in the in- tensity to be Observed on the earth; the diffraction pattern cbAnges on the sun itself owing -to the motion of corona Irregularities. The following sim- plified situs+ion is considered: diffraction occurs in the corona at the ed:ge of the thin non-4transparent semi-infinite screen. The resultant diffractio4 pattern (with a characteristic dimension xO = 7000 km for )-N=1.5 m ) will move relative to an observer on earth, so that at points located at various longitudes a shift will be observed in the patterns (with time), equal to Card 1/2 /7 C'W C,/ V 1-12 pgoiy : USSR/Radiophysics - Application of racliophysical methods -Abs Jbur : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957,No 2000 Author :Ginzburg, V.L. Title :Co_B~ ~c ffoaveis and Cosmic Rays Orig Pub :Tr. 5-90 soveshelumiya po vopr. koomogoaii. 1955, M., AN SSSR, 1956, 438-456 diskus. 457-467 Abstract : New data are reported concerning the nature of cosmic radio waves, and new materials are cited on h theory of the origin of cosmic rays, which is re- lated to radio astronomy (identification of the fundamental part of cosmic radio radiation with magnetic bremsstrahlung of electrons of cosmic rays). An argLment in favor of such a theory is the "radio coronas" observed by Baldwin (Ref, Zhur. Fiz. 1956, 23594) in the M31 nebula, confirming the gal- actic origin of the isotropic component of the radio waves. The hyjO~thesis thpLt novas and supernovas are sources of cosmic rays is confirmed by'the radio waves from the Eagle Nova of 1918, the similarity between the SILbsystem formed by sources of cosmic rays and the s74system of the novas and supernovas, etc. The latest data,on cosmic rays (high-latitude cutoff, charactei of inter- actions between protons and nuclei, relationships between beams of various groups of nuclei, etp.) also fit completely into the picture proposed. C J:tegory : USSR/Radjophysics - Application of radiophysical methods 1-12 Abs. Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, Np 1, 1957 No 2000 During the discussions, I.M. Gordon deduced from energy coAsiderations that the statistical mechanism, effective in the shells of stars, cannot be employed to explain the acceleration of eleatrons. The electrods are ac- celerated not in the shells, but in the ztars themselves (particularly, in the supernovas themselves). The balanced speactrum of the electrons in the galaxy, acdording to a com- ment made by M.I. Fradkin during the discussion, becomes steeper in the higher- energy region as a result of the radiation in the magnetic fields, and be- comes less sloping in the lower- energy region as the result of the ionization losses. Accordingly, the radiation spectrum produced by these electrons will be less steep in the region of the longer waves (hundreds of meters), and steeper in the shorter-wave interval. Pibliography, 56 titles. USSR/Radiophysics - Application of radiophysical methods 1-12 Abr... jour Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957, No 2oo4 Author Ginzburg, V.L. egularities, Resulting Title %-Ee -Mech!Mism qf the Formation Of Ionospheric Irr in the Flicker of "Rad-iO Stars orig Pub Tr. 5-90 sove5hchanlya Po vopr. kosmogonii. 1955, M., AN SSSR, 1956, 512-519 ions in the intensity and in the angle at which radio waves from Abstract Fluctu~At It discrete sources arrive at lae earth (called the f licker of radio stars") are due to Ionospheric irregularities. Three mechanisms by vhichlirregular- ities are kormed are considered: 1) the incidence of interstellar matter, attracted by the sun) on the ionosphere; 2) convective instability, Occuring in regions with a negative temperature gradient; 3) turbulizatiOll, due to , ionospheric winds. Although the first mechanism explains the observed daily course of the flickering, there are many observation data to refute this hypothesis (flicker due to solar eclipsesj relationship to ionospheric vindsy etc.). The convective hypothesis can be assum1d. acceptable, if one can es tablish the existence of regions with negative temperature gradients in the ionosphere. The proposed turbulization of the ionospheric stream encounters many difficulties (the small R~ynolds numbers), although an argment in its favor is the observed corre34tion between the flicker and the ionospheric Caxd Cat,%O~ry USSR/Radiophysics - Application of radiophysical methods 1-12 Abs.Jour Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957 No 2oo4 winds, and the fact that ionoGpheric winds exist. In view of the lack of agreement between the first hypothesis and experiment, two alternatives re- main, the choice of which depends on results of further observations on the ionosphere, on the correlation between the flicker and the ionospheric winds, etc. Biblioi;raphy, 12 titles. Card 2/2 Category USSR/Radiophysies - Application of radiophysical methods 1-12 Abs Jour Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957 No 2010 Author Giazburg) V-L. Title Address af-E-he Closing Session orig Pub Tr- 5-go soveshchan:Lya PO vopr. kosmogonii. 1955, M., AN SSSR, 1956, 562-564 Abstract Formulation of many urgent problems that must be solved by radio astronomy) including the determination of the spectrum of the rAdjo waves from the galaxy and from discrete sources, search for the polarizatipn of the radi- ation from cosmic sources, the study of the sporadic radiation from the sun, intergalactic monochromatic radiation of hydrogen; etc. it is indicated that it is necessary to develop radar Methods for the investigation of Meteors, the moon, the planets, and the sun, and that it is necessary to establish a close collaboration between radio astronomy and optical astronomy and the physics of cosmic rays. Card 7 N-19= -MR, ;P, HE EFFICCT THE IUCAL'r - 9LE,;T W- gvc=y AND sm. META LS V L. G inzburg and V. P 511 in . p N I, r-j. [psi 0" Ph~~Ica -Ui.E.R.) Sovie( Pl,~,_ i, (1956.1 Ptr. (In Englith). Zhur. EkajAl-'-: T----i _Fit !j a.4-1409S!) July an Rv-IA.) T~. ctf-ct (If culliGlous 4~twe.n i-i -,a, ec-miuctivIly ind hkin affect if'. If. mastdc red. The questlan of clectron= vtt;coguy L-- ai~ cunsed. It Is shown Mat taWtr accuunt of CollistaA.5 JUSS ncE Wroduce %dablv'tbanges Into the r, iiufts of44~ thL-Gry of the arimalms Rkin vffc~ct 1r, n;~ I.t!i; (auth) -77- S,T', yl., -8r"fc Z, ph -r- . , - f C.A. 5(). IL Category : USSR/Theoretical Physics - Theory of Relativity and Unified Field B-2 Theory Abs Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 2, 1957 No 2910 Author : Ginzburg V L. Title 1-iijir-W-e-n'd-i Verification of the General Relativity Theory and Artificial Earth's Satellites. Orig Pub : Priroda, 1956, No 9, 30-39 Abstract : So abstract Card : 1/1 Distri 4ZI-4d Ginzb V. L. On relativis.,je - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - N Z~D Cl~ US&VPI~YSICS of the Atmosphej:4,a - Upper Layers of the Atmosphere. Ionosphere., M-6 Abst Jc5uxnal: R*,-rat Zhur - ftzika, No 12, 1956;~ 36222 Aur,hort Gershman, B. N., Ginzburg, V. L. Institution S licne Ou the Effect of the Magnetic Field cn the C--~nvective Instability to th,--i AtmouphereB of Stars and in the Earth's Tonoaphere arig:Wal Periodical: Uch. zap. Gor'kovsk,. un-ta, 1956, 30, 3-29 Abstra,-;t: Amalysis of the problFw of tb-n effect of the magnet1c field on the c(mveat.ive instability under conditions when the electric conduc- tivity is &ni"tropic what occl)xs tn the loncephere and under certain astrophysical conrittions). Tt is shown that in the earth's ionosphere, by virtue of the presence of a considerable number of molecules, the magnetic fJeld pract,.cally hardly changes the Rayleigh critical Dimber.. At the same time, In a ptLr,~jy electron-lQu plasma, t1va, elff~ct .1'f the magnetic field may be con- siderable, although it chan* if the anisotropies of the electric and thermal conductivities are taken Into account. Card Ill Cat.'i9--y : USSR/Nuclear Physics Cosmic rays C-7 Abs'Jour : Ref Zhur - Mika, No 1, 1957,No 615 Author : Ginzburg, V.L. Inst of sciences USSR Title :On the Origin of Cosmic Rays. Orig Pub :Izv. AN SSSR, ser. fiz., 1956, 20, No 1, 5-16 Abstract :Certain new investigations are evaluated from the point of vi-ew of a theory, based on radio-astronomical data, developed by the author and others concerning the origin of cosmic rays in supernove, and nova stars. In particular, the latest radio-astronomica!L'investigations on.the q~zasi- spherical distribution of galactic*radio waves indicate a similar distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy; the detection of radio waves from nova stars donfirms indirectly the previous assumption that cosmic rays are Generated not oaly in supernovas, but also in novas, analysis of the distribution of the cosmic radio waves over the heavens has shown that the sources of the prima y cosmic rays occupy a region shaped like strongly flattened opkeroid with a radius of almost the same size as the distance between the Bun and the center of the galaxy. The recently established fact that the high-latitude ciAtoff in the spectrum of protons and multiple-charge nuclei occurs at the same Card 1/2 530.12 531.51 .1". APPUTCATIONT' OF FOR F, V i I N R t atz ~ Arc )rding tu :t,~I,r-i 5 sigl:AI.9 ~!n. rv JTIL- "Inte'g'ory: USSR/Atomic and Molecular Physics - Inw-temperature Physics D-5 Abs Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 2, 1957 No 3528 Author Gimburg, V-L. Inst yzics Inst ute, Academy of Sciences USSR Title CertbAn Remarks Concerning the Macroscopic Theory of Supercond'activity. OriG Pub Zh. eksperim i teor. fiziki, 1956, 30? No 31 593-595 Abstract The author and ImWau (Zh. eksperim. i teor. fiziki, 1950, 20, lo64) developed a macroscopic theory of superconductivity for the case TK -T / 10. Here pl,]~-pj,H-0,23 and pl,,,H-0,27 as well as qL-0 are assumed. At equilibrium it follows from the8eequations that q p/qH - NpT H/NH Tp 1- 30. Thus it must be assumed that either the sources contain no hydrogen at all or that the acceleration of the protons is considerably below that of the particles. At N L/NM the above system of equations is in direct contradiction to experimental data. The solutions for NH NM , and NL are explicitly given for a punctiform source. In consideration of diffusion as well as of the character of the distribution of the sources of cosmic radiation the problem of the composition of cosmic radiation is solved within the framework of the theory investigated here. However, insufficient knowledge of various parameters (particularly of N L/NM) requires further investigations. INSTITUTION: Physical Institute "P.N.LF.BEDEV" of the Academy of Science in the USSR N Z_ SUS JECT USSR PHYSICS CARD I / 2 PA - 1666 AUTHOR GINSBURG,V.L. TITIE On"i-he-Mix-p-e-r-1-mental Determination of the Instability of the Normal Phase in Supraconductors. PERIODICAL ~urn.eksp.i teor fis,ll,fasc.3,541-543 (1956) Issued: 12 / 19;6 The utmost undercooling observed by T.E.FABER,Proc.Roy.Soc.,2 1,353 (1955) is I- probably characteristic of an ideal metal which cannot be undercooled up to field strengths below a certain value H k1* In this connection it is true for Al that H., - (0,035 - 0,04).H=. This result follows, according to the author's opinion, immediately from the theory on supraconductivity developed by LANDAU and GINSBURG, for the normal phase of the supraconductor remains un- stable at certain conditions with reBPOCt to the production of intermediate layers of the normal phase. These intermediate layers occur whenever the normal phase finds itself in a magnetic field satisfying the following conditions: 2 7 2 H HM/ C2 (n+1 /2), n- 0, 19 2 0 3... ; ~f 2e/AC)H KM6 0- 2,16.10% 60 Here 60 denotes the depth of penetration of the weak magnetic field into the supraconductor. The magnetic field can, in the normal phase, be dim~nishpd only down to the value 1~1 - V-2 A HM. At H > H~, the formation of the germs of the superconducting phase is selected with the occurrence of a surface energy? and thus the normal phase is metastable within the domain HK1 < H < HKM' At H-HK1 2 V ZuTn.eksp.i teor.fis,31,fase.3,541-543(1956) CARD 2 / 2 PA - 1666 horever, the normal phase-is unstable and supraconductive transition is com- pulsory. In the case of aluminium the theory is in full agreement with the ex- periment also with respect to surface energy. In the case of Su the limit 1K1 is not obtained. In the case of metals with low values of A indtability of the normal phase can occur only with undercooling. However, withJt;,>, A-K . I/ r2_ the normal phase is unstable already at H - HKI >/ H1M , and therefore the supraconductors with dc > J/Y2 must behave anomalously. According to the author's opinion this effect occurs particularly with certain alloysSn + In (which were investi- gated by other authors). At a concentration of indium of less than - 2-5% these alloys behave like ideal supraconductors, whereupon they change their properties abruptly. As to the reduction of the concentration n -=2/06262 a 0 with increasing concentration Ni of the admixtures, the explanation of this fact is beyond the scope of the phenomenological theory. However, if the exist- ing qualitative notions concerning the nature of supraconductivity are taken as a basis, the reduction of aB in the case of an increasing Ni appears quite natural. INSTITUTION: Physical Institute "P.N.LEBEDEV" of the Academy of Science in the USSR USSR/Nuclear Physics Abs Jour Referat Zhur - Fizika, No 5, 1957, 11267 Author Ginzburg, V.L., Fradkin, M.I. Inst Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR Title On the Composition of Primary Cosmic Rays. Orig Pub : Actron. zh., 1956, 33, No 4, 579-587 C-7 Abstract : The authors consider the problem of the chemical composi- tion of the primary rays at the earth. It is shown that if one takes into account the diffusion of cosmic parti- cles in the interstellar matter, the available experimen- tal data on the composition of cosmic rays can be recon- ciled with the concepts of the generation of these rays in the shells of supernova and nova stars. Card 1/1 GINZBURG, Y.L. .-- .--. - lxperimental verification of the general theory of relativity and the artificial earth satelites. Priroda 45 uo;9:30-39 3 056. WRA 9:10) I.Chlon-kerrespeadent Akademil wmk SSSR. (Space stations) (Relativity (Physics)) Categ6ry : USSR/Radiophysics - Statistical phenomena in radiophysies 1-3 Abs Jour : Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957, No 1793 Author : Levin, M.L., Ginzburg, V-L. Title : On the Application of Thermodynamics to Electrical Fluctuations Orig Pub- : Uspekhi fiz. nauk, 1956, 56, No 1, 146-148 Abstract' : Last articles of a discussion (Referat. Zh. Fizika, 1954, 13 431, 13 432). M.L. Levin discusbes in his article the example cited by V.L. Ginzlnwg and representing, in Levin's opinion, the only physical arg=enta~ion of the previous answer by Ginzburg (Referat. M. Fizika, 1954, 13432): a thin (com- pared with the thiclmess of the skin layer) conductor at the temperature of 0.10K, for which the classical frequency region lies below 1010 cycles. Levin indicates, thatsinc~e the thickness of the skin layer ~ at such tem- peratures is less than the mean-free path I at stich temperatures even for meter waves, it makes no sense to speak of the conductivity d* ot a thin con- ductor. This is khy Levin considers that this example by Ginzburg is un- successful and dobs not refute his earlier statements. Ginzburg emphapized in his article that the basic statement contained in Levin's earlier articles reduce!,,to the fact that "in the quantum frequency' region one cannot assume the resistance to be inda~ ~ ent of the frequency, even if the skin effect is not taken Into account%~ Contradicting this, Card 1/P CategoYy USSR/Radiophysics - Statistical phenomena in radiophsyics 1-3 Abs Jour Ref Zhur - Fizika, No 1, 1957, No 1793 GJ-nzburg gives the following consideratioas. The quantum region corresponds to the caaditionl~vl~;;kT. Therefore, choosing the temperature T sufficiently low, one can make the quantum region Include smh low frequencies'J at which the variation of R with 4 is sufficiently small. Furthermore Ginzburg in- dicatea -that Levin in hialwork (Referat. Zh. Fizika, 1954, 13~31) did not take this effect into accodnt., d this is why Ginzburg (Referat.' Zh.'Fizika, 1954, 134~2) also dt-sregarded As effect. It is Ginz~urgls opinion that the allowance for the skin effect cannot change his conalAsions that it is pos- sible to assume the resis6tance to be independent of frequency, V~ith suffi- cient accuracy, in the quantum region. . The editoPs comment states that by publis~ang these articles the editorial staff of "Uspekhi fiz. nauk" considers the discussion on the matter of the ap- plication of thermodynamics to electric fluctuations closed. Card 2/2 I WZL U USSR/Theoretical Physics Theory of Relatively and Unified Field Theory B-2 Abet Journal : Referat Zhur - Flnlk&~, No 12, 1956, 33712 Author : Ginzburg, V. L. Institution t None Title : Zxperimental Verification of the General Theory of Relativity Original Periodical i Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1956, 59, No 1, 11-49 Abstract j Zxpanded treatment of a lecture delivered at the linstein session of Division of the Physicomathematical Sciences, Academy of Sciences USSR, on 30 November 1955. Contents: Introduction; 1. notion of periholia of pla4ets and of their satellites; 2. Gravitational shift of spectral lines; 3. Deflection of light rays passing near the sun; 4. Signifi- cance of Zinstsin's general relativity theory in physics and astronomy; Conclusion. 62 references. Card 1/1 IN46LJR& V-1- SUBJECT USSR / PHYSICS CARD 1 / 2 PA - 1427 AUTHOR GINZBURGtV.L. TITLE On the Nonaphorical Intensity Fluctuations of Radio Waves in Galaxies. PERIODICAL Dokl.Akad.Nauk:,109, fasc. 1, 61-63 (1956) Issued: 9 / 19~6 reviewod: 10 / 1956 At present it is assumed that the intensity fluctuations (flickering) of the dis- crete sources of constant cosmic wave radiation are due exclusively to the ion sphere of the earth, for this radiation requires many days already in order to pass through the irradiating galaxy itself (three years of crabb nebula). The author considers the existence of radio stars as most improbable, for such a hypothetical radio star would have to have a radiation capacity that is at least from 107 to 10 8 greater than that of the sun. Here the average level of radi- ation in concerned which is approximately constant with respect to time. The data serving as a basis for the w6rk by J.S.XRAUS et al. Nature, 176, 304 (1955) can by no means serve as a proof of the assumption that the character of the fluctuations is not determined by the ionosphere. If an exact proof of the existence of nonionospheric fluctuations of discrete sources were to be proved, the following possibilities for an explanation might be considered: Such fluctu- ations need not necessarily be ascribed to the source but might be due to the propagation of radio waves in the interstellar and interplanetary medium on the way from the source to the earth. It might be a case of diffraction on a phase screen similar to diffraction on the inhomogeneities of the ionosphere. The dif- (TI NZ,6 VC-r V I SUBJECT USSIt PHY'SIC6 CjU(D 1 2 AUTHOR -GINbBURG, V.L.. TITU On a Macroscopic Theory of bupraconductivity which is suited for all Temperatures. FZRIODICAL Dokl.Akad.Nauk, 110, fasc. 3, 358 - 361 (1956) Issued: 12 / 195F7 The macroscopic theory developed by V.L.GINSBURG and L.D.LMIDAU (Lrn.eksp.i teor. fis,20, 1064 (1950)) is based upon the equations -hv -y* i ! A)a Y+ bF 0 2m c So 41Y -4 A e' V* T1, A c is div 0 $J13 2M V . me Here IT i4 denotes the concentration of the 11supraconductive electrons", the vector potential, and F(1414)- the density of the free energy in the supracon- ductive state and in thseocase of a lacking field. This theory is to be generalized for the domain of a-L1 temperaturvs 0 -1-T k T J.BARDELN, Phys-flev-94, 554(1954) and V.L. GINSBUftG suggested tLe following ex- pressions for F so + (Ha 8Tf 12t4 (i I ~-IX I and F;0 no 0 2ta - I q o + I- respectively. F(Q) F ( t) + (H' 8V I I I so no 0 + t4 (i+ t TT. , 'U' i rl ITOSOVA 'ZC T .0 tl*.e E,"S'-t"Y Of the F qrth. -r'L"ary ','Osclic lilldintio,: by Usjr,~ pxtjpjc4vl Satellites of D POper loresented at the"8th Internationool Cono:ess of Astronoutical Congress, 6-12 Oct 15,57, Barcelona. log-6-1-1/i7 AUTHOR GINZBURO, V.L., FAYN, V.M. TITLE of Quantun, Effe-tz on the O-~Ilon of Interaction of Electrons with - M, F-i-elds in Resonators (K voprosu. o kvautovyleh effektakh pri vzaimodeystvii. elektronov s vysokoch-astotnymi polyam-i v rezonatorakh. ftqsian) PERIODICAL Hadiotekhnika i Elektronika, 1957) Vol 2, Mr 6~ PP 78o-1,89 (U.S.S.R.) ABSTRACT The problem of the quantum effects on the occasion of the passage of electrons through a hollcww -resonator is investigated. First the prob- lem is treated as purely classical. The investigation is then-carried out with regard to the quantum field, for which the formula of H. Nyquist (Phys, Rev., 1928, Vol 32, pp llo) is used. The authors show that this calculation is sufficient orly for the determination of the energy gradient (A Kr)4 . But in order to obtain the function of the energy distribution of the electron at the reqorator outlet the clas- sical method of investigation is not sufficient. But as this method is very different. from that used in the quantum theory the authors here endeavor to solve the problem by means of the introduction of canoniCiLl variables (IYUMILTON method). The authors show that the sim- ple classical calculation must be preferred. In an analogous way those cases can be investigated -where t~e field along the way of the elec- tron is not homogeneous, In the end the wave characteristic of the Card 1112 electrons are taken into account and the authors show that the elec- SOV/ 137-58-9-19676 Translation from: Referativnyy zhurnal, Metallurgiya, 1958, Nr 9, p 221 (USSR) AUTHOR: Ginzburg, V.L. TITLE: ,Qf~e Diffusion of Light Near Points of Second-order Phase Transition (0 rasseyanii sveta vblizi tochek fazovogo pere- khoda vtorogo roda) PERIODICAL: Fiz. sb. Lvovsk. un-t, 1957, Nr 3 (8), pp 115-116 ABSTRACT: Near the phase transition of the second as well as of the first order, which are close to the Curie point, relatively great fluctuations of the Tj parameter, which determines the differ- ence between the ordered and the disordered phase, take place. Upon a change in TI, the refractive index also changes and in relation therewith a supplementary diffraction should be-ob- served. This effect had been examined earlier (RZhFiz, 1958, Nr 1, abstract 2090). In the same work a mathematical form- ula was developed for the relationship of the light intensity J, diffused because of the fluctuations in TI, to the intensity of light J0 diffused because of the fluctuations of the density. On approaching the critical Curie point JIJO increases and a phe- Card 1/2 nomenon similar to the critical opalescence should be SOV/ 137-58-9-19676 On the Diffusion of Light Near Points of Second-order Phase Transition observed. This phenomenon was observed with quartz near a=P (Kristallografiya, 1956, Vol 1, p 123). The theoretical evaluation of the expected diffusion is given and good agreement with experiffient is obtained. N. R 1. Light--DiffqBion 2. Light--Intensity 3. Quartz--Applications Card Z/Z