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V_~_4~ YAXVK9 Asp$ GINZBURG_o.._- LF Itg of the Roman scattering Of light near phase transition POl' 96 ii 160. second kind- Zhur- 6k6P- ' teor. fiz. 39 no. 11192-1 2) (M IRL 13 : I ustitut meal p,5, Lebedeva AN SSSR- 1. lizicheeklY i (Light--scattering) 86905 S/056/60/039/005/022/051 B006/BO77 Al*, 7 ~oo AUTHORS: Ginzb Payn, V. M. TITLE: Theory of Ferro- and Antiferromagnetism PERIODICALt Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1960, Vol. 39, No. 501), PP. 1323-1338 TEXT9 A simple approximate method is developed which permits determinIng the magnetization of the lattice or sublattice and also other quantities of ferro- and antiferromagnetics practically throughout the complete temperature range as functions of the dimensions and shape of the magnetic system. By way of introduction the authors point out the importance of the magnetic methods in the investigation of fine disperse substances, polymers and macromolecules. This paper concentrates on the examination of the anomalous magnetic properties of some nuclaic acids and synthetic polymers. The nature of these effects is still unclear, and even if they are not related-to the antiferromagnetism (as is assumed by the authors, cf.Ref-2)) an analysis of the properties of "polymer-type" ferro- and antiferro- magnetics is still -of significance. The approximate method used to determine Card 1/2. 86905 Theory of Ferro- and Antiferromagnetism S/056/60/039/005/022/051 B006/BO77 the magnetic quantities in relation to size and shape of the specimens (small particles, films, polymer chains, etc.) is tased an a self- consistent generalization of the spin wave theory using the usual model of localized spins with exchange interaction. Although this model is far from representing the roal conditions the results obtained are essentially of general validity, that is, independent of the model and can be regarded as semi-phenomenological. The problem is also examined as to when and to what extent the assumption of small particles and polymer chains forming a "paramagnetic fluid" is valid. The magnetic properties of such a fluid are studied. M. I. Kaganov, N. N. Bogolyubov, S. V. Tyablikov, Pu Fu-cho, and L. A. Blyumenfelld are mentioned. There are 30 references: 9 Soviet, 15 US, 2 German, and 4 British. ASSOCIATION: Radiofizicheskiy institut Gor1kovskogo gosudarstvennogo univerniteta (Institute of Radio Physics of the Gorlkiy State University) SUBMITTEDt May 26p 1960 Card 2/2 686 96 AUTHORS: Ginzburg, V. L., Gurevich, A. V. S/053/60/070/02/004/Oi6 B006/BOO7 TITLE: Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Which Is Located in a Vi.,riable Electromagnetic Field tt PERIODICAL: Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1960, Vol 70, Nr 2, pp 201-246 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The present paper is the first part of a very detailed survey of the theory of nonlinear phenomena in an ionized gas. This article will be published simultaneously in the periodical "Fortschritte der Physik" of Eastern Germany. The nonlineari- ties occurring partly because of the relatively great electron free path and partly because of the considerable difference between electron mass and atomic- and molecular masses already at comparatively low field strengths (e.g. if the polarizatio_q and the conduction current are not proportional to the field E, the propagation of electromagnetic waves must be described by a nonlinear theory, as the superposition principle, for example, no longer holds), are systematically dealt with with reference to voluminous publications. In the first two paragraphs of the present article, the irdluence exerted by a homogeneous electric Card 1/4 field L~~ 68696 Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Which Is Located S/053/60/070/02/004/016 in a Variable Electromagnetic Field Boo6/BO07 - i -it E a E08 upon a non-relativistic and non-degenerate (classi- cal) plasma which may be ocated in a homogeneous and constant (external)magnetic field Wo is investigated. Macroscopic (hydrodynamic) motions in the plasma are not dealt with. The influence of the field upon the plasma in this case leads to a change in the velocity-distribution function c4 th_% plasma electrons, which is set up as a function of cot Eo , H0 and of the plasma parameters. The distribution function of the heavy particles may in this case be considered to be a Maxwell temperature function, which is justifiable in the steady case under investigation. If the electron velocity distribution is known, their kinetic energy (their temperature T. ) and the total current density it may be determined, In weak fields electron temperature is e_jual to that of the heavy particles, and J%ie proportional to E. Paragraph 1 deals with the elemen- t U Gary theory of the plasma in a homogeneous electric field (electron current; dielectric constant and plasma conductivity; Card 2/4 electron temperature). In paragraph 2 the kinetic theory of a,j 68696 Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Which Is Located S/053/60/070/02/004/016 in a Variable Electromagnetic Field B006/BOW plasma in a homogeneous electric field, i.e. the description V of the electron gas by means of distribution functions f(**,;,t) is dealt with. Individual sections deal with the following: The kinetic equation; the transformation of the collision integral; elastic collisions with neutral partioles (moleculeti); inelastic collisions with neutral particles; collisions with ions; collinions of electrons with one another; the solution of the equation of motion for a highly ionized plasma; the (Maxwellian) distribution function; the effective number of collisions; the relative portion of transferred energy S,ff (table 1 gives the S -values for electron temperatures of eff between 500 and 150000for helium, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and air; 6 eff equals S elast up to electron temperatures of r-1 ev, after which it increaseE exponentially with Te.); elec- tron current, dielectric constant and conductivity of the plasma; electron temperature; the weakly ionized plasma; elastic col- lisions; the molecular plasma; inert gases; the electron cur- Card 3/4 rent and the mean energy of the electrons; the elementary theo 68696 Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Which Is Located 5/053/60/070/02/004/016 in a Variable Electromagnetic Field B006/BO07 for an arbitrary degree of ionization; transition from the highly- to the weakly ionized plasma; and the conditions for the applicability of the elementary theory (by comparison with the kinetic theory these conditions are mathematically formulated for highly and weakly ionized plasma). There are 8 figures, 2 tables, and 68 references, 35 of which are Sovie Card 4/4 AUTHORS: Ginzburgg V. L., Gurevicht A. V. S/053/60/070/03/001/007 Boo6 B014 TITLE: Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Located in a Variable Electro- magnetic Field PERIODICAL: Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauko 1960, Vol 70, Nr 3, PP 395-428 (USSF,) ABSTRACT: This article is continued from a survey published in "Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk", 1960, Vol 70, p 202. Paragraph 3 deals with the nonlinear effe to occurripg in the propagation of radio waves in a plasma Oronosphere, Nqolar corona), per- turbation of the principle of superposition, influence of the wave field on the plasma, Maxwell equations. Section 3.1 deals with the propagation of radio waves in a plasma in considera- tion of nonlinearity (self-action of the radio waves). In this case, the-Sield at the plasma boundary (z=0 plane) is assumed to be E 0 0) 0084)S and the wave propagation is describ- ed by grad div r + 6) 61 (r*, 63 , E 0; E E - A L("l 2 0 The amplitude and the self-action factor are studied, and tho-~-_511~ Card 1/3 modulation of waves is discussed in detail. Section 3 .2 Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Located in a S/05 60/070/03/001/007 Variable Electromagnetic Field B006YB014 Card 2/3 describes the influence of self-action on the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere. This self-action depends on the wavelength, and is separately studied for short waves, medium waves (Table 4), and long waves. The resonance of self- modulation near the gyromagnetic frequency, which amounts to (6 - 8).106 in the ionosphere, is also investigated. The speci- fic features and the causes of this greatly nonlinear effect are discussed separately. Section 3.3 is devoted to an inves- tigation of the interaction between modulated radio waves (cross modulation). A theoretical study of cross modulation in an isotropic plasma is followed by an investigation of the influence of a constant magnetic field and of the resonance effects occurring near the gyromagnetic frequency. Section 3.4 describes the results of experiments on cross modulation in the ionosphere (absolute cross-modulation depth, dependence of the depth ILS? and the phase of cross modulation on the depth V0 and the frequency 9 ~ dependence of pg on the intensi- ty and frequencies of the disturbing waves, and cross-modulatki&A Nonlinear Phenomena in a Plasma Located in a S/053/60/070/03/001/007 Variable Electromagnetic Field B006/BO14 resonance). In section 3.5 the authors study the nonlinear interaction of nonmodulated radio waves. At first, the varia- tions of propagation conditions for a nonmodulated wave are investigatedp then so-called lateral waves, viz. waves with combined frequencies, and finally the nonlinear effects con- nected with the variation in electron concentration. This article is concluded with a few notes about future studies in this field. There are 11 figures, 2 tables, and 65 r erences, 21 of which are Soviet. Card 3/3 81677 S/053/60/071/03/02/008 B006/BO63 AUTHORS: Ginzburg, V. L., Syrovatakiy, S. 1. TITLE: The Present Stage of the Problem of the Origin of Cosmic Rays PERIODICALt Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1960, Vol. 71, No. 3, PP- 411-469 TEXTs The International Conference on Cosmic Radiation took place in Moscow in July, 1959. This review artiale contains a compilation and dis- cussion of all known results, with special regard to the data obtained after this conference. The authors proceed from concepts based on radio- astronomical data, according to which cos MA c radiation mainly originates from gralaxies I and is due to eruptions ofV81upernovae and possibly other variable stars. � 1 is devoted to primary -c-o-s-m-EF-ra-aiation on the Earth, its' chemical composition being described first. Table 1 lists data on Zq 1, flux, number of nucleons, flux- and particle number ratios. The energy spectrum is described next. In general, I - KAF,-Y+l holds, where I is the nuclear flux of group A with A(> A(> C) Card 1/3 81677 The Present Stage-of the Problem of the S/053/60/071/03/02/008 Origin of Cosmic Rays B006/BO63 a total energy (per nucleon) greater than F_ The values for K A and y are given in Table 2. Within the limits of error 2-5 + 0.2o The differ- ential spectrum exhibits a maximum with a steep decline, so that one may speak of a "cutoff". The origin of this "cutoff" and the fact that its energy is independent of the nuclear charge are discussed. The spectrum of the total energy per particle may be expressed by I A(;,E) - Kk(E/A)-Y'+'- = (KAAT_1)/EY_1(of. Table 3). For =1015 ev the spectrum has a singularity whose nature and cause are discussed in the following. � 2 gives a survey of radioastronomical data referring to synchrotron radiation, results and interpretation of some observations on the structure of the Galaxy and its sources of discrete radiation (galactic "halo" or "corona", "radio-disk" of the Galaxy (Figs. 1 and 2), and its "central radio range" Figs. 3 and 4)). Data on power, energy, and magnetic field strength are given in Table 4 for numerous sources of galactic radiation. � 3 gives details on the lifetime of cosmic rays and their motion in the Galaxy and metagalaxy (the part played by cosmic rays formed in the early developmental stages of the Galaxy; the motion of cosmic particles in galactic magnetic fields, Card 2/3 X 816 The Present Stage of the Problem of the S/053/60/071 03/02/008 Origin of Cosmic Rays B006/BO63 the radiation yield from the Galaxy; cosmic radiation, of metagalactic origin; the origin of the electronic component of cosmic radiation in the interstellar space or in the envelopes of Supernovae). � 4 deals with the sources of cosmic radiation, mechanism of'particle acceleration and chemi- cal composition (radiation sources, mechanism of acceleration, energy spectrum, and the possibility of preferential acceleration of heavy nuclei; changes in the chemical composition of cosmic radiation in the interstellar space; chemical composition and distribution of elements in the radiation. The article is concluded with three additional remarks in the proof cor- rection of this paper. Mention is made of G. A. Shayn, I. S. Shklovskiy, G. G. Getmantsev, V. A. Razin, and I. M. Gordon. There are 6 figures, 8 tables, and 144 referencess 67 Soviet, 22 American, 1 Japanese, 2 German, 7 British, 14 Italian, 1 Belgian, 5 Australian, 1 French, 2 Dutch. Card 3/3 AUTHORSs atn"Lum, L.-La.,-Corresponding Member, 5/020/60/131/04/019/073 Is OSSR'-Fa-ya' V. M. B013/BO07 TITLEt Possible knomalies of the Magnetic Properties of Macromolecules PERIODICALt Doklady kkademii nauk SSSR, 1960, Vol 131, Nr 4, PP 785-788 (USSR) TEXTs Strong linen of electron paramagnetic resonance and anomalous magnetic properties have recently been detected in a number of maoromolecules (polymers). In this connection it is essential that the initial links of the chain and the short chains (monomers) are diamagnetic or ferromagnetic. Consequently, this means a transition (with elongation of the chain) from a diamagnetic state into a paramagnetic or ferromagnetic one. The authors give an explanation of this hitherto unexplained effect. They assume that the finite, but not too short and not too long chain of monomers is antiferromagnetic. The electrons under consideration then form two antiparallel sublattices. The antiferromagnetic level is the lowest level of the whole system. It is further assumed that the antiferromagnetic level is the lowest level in a chain of monovalent atoms with the exchange interaction H 2 J S S at j Here, 8 denotes the ex 2 im 1 m 1m, 1 lm spin operator int units. When the chain is stretched, antiferromagnetism may Card 1/3 Possible Anomalies of the Magnetic Properties of S102Y60113110410191073 Macromolecules B013 B007 at a certain frequency Y-not only with a certain value of H but in a wide frequency range. The lateral links which "cement" the chains into the three- dimensional body, play a stabilizing part. Of special importance is the deter- mination of the temperature dependence of the magnetic moment of the samples. It is possible that the spin waves play an important part also in biological processes. The authors thank L. A. Blyumenfelld and V. A. Benderskiy for experimental data and a discussion. There are figure and 16 references, 7 of which are Soviet. ASSOCIATIONt Fizicheskiy institut im. P. N. Lebedeva Akademii nauk SSSR (Physics Institute imeni P. N. Lebedev of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) Nauchno-issledovatellskiy radiofizicheskiy institut pri Gor1kovskom gosudarstvennom universitete imeni N. I. Lobachevskogo (Radiophysical Scientific Research Institute of Gor1kiy State University imeni N. I. Lobachevskiy) SUBMITTEDt January 3, 1960 Card 3/3 .-- -1- ~-- -- ~ - - -GjNZBLtRrP V. L.) KMNOSOVA) L. Vo) ROSORE~JOV)-L. A.) Fiuw"I) M. "The results of measurements of nuclear component of cosmic rays of solar origin with Sputniks and Lunni - it report to be submitted for the IAU Symposium on the Corona, CloudcrOft, New Mexico, 28-3o Aug 1961. P/048/61/000/003/001/004 1004/1204 AUTHORS Bieniediktow, J. A., Gittmancew, G. G., Ginzburg, W. L. TITLE: Radicastronomical investigations with the aid of artificial satellites and cosmic rockets PERIODICAL Astronautyka no. 3, 1961, 5-8 TEX'[ : Radioastronomical observations by satellites can expand the range of wave lengths at whichcxtra- urrestrial signals can he received above 20-40 m and below I cm Measurements of the microwave sepctrum of the sun may reveal that the drop in its effective temperature is caused by the fact that the radiation 'nasses through an inverse layer whose temperature is probably lower than that of the photosphere. Radiation of the moon in the millimeter range and below may furnish information about the structure and electric and thermal properties of the moon's soil. Rockets which will pass in the vicinity of Mars, Venus, and other plancts may carry out measurements of electromagnetic radiation from these planets over a wide frequency range Sporadic eruptions of the sun which are closely related to magnetic storms, ionospheric disturbances affiecting short wave radio communication, and other phenomena can be observed more clearly Froin satellites. investigation orthe sporadic eruptions ofJupiter below 14 Me may reveal die ir cause. Card 1/1 6 j'r' I "' 1, " :- 3 0 0 IDI 20657 S/.560/('.I./OOO/OO7./OO _'./'Q ~tl 3. ) ri 0 0 E03 14 AVT I I ORS ie- ;..zktov, Ye. A. Getmant sel-, G.. G. ~ ort -1 G.inzburg, V.L. TITLE: Radio-astronomical studies usinz satellites and space rockets PERIODICAL., Akademiya nauk SSSR. Iskusetvennyye sputniki Zemli., No.7, Moscow, 1961, PP. 3-22 TEXT. Tn a previous paper (Ref.13 Ginzburg, I-S UFN, 66, 1 ,F,pplipations ot- Forth u,,;s e d. The pre.-~eni poper extend.;; por't Jeu lar at t P-rit ion to furclamenia I V-i- !-R!~ 4i~~it!.S!!.Lons (,,f specific forms cf appi- .irifc, the following sections: i *i : ig' mensurenients of sporadic rad-IC, Pr.;.~ f'GSJTI.I c r-Adio emission and the ra J.~. ii , 4) radio emission in thE: r.A J i I be pI ane t s .5" atudies of the mp fj i um. The fit-st part of this Pa per X < 1-3 --m. The high-frequency radi,~. ...'~I_d 11/ LO R,:~idio-ostronomjcaj studies using ... F, r;2 I;P, moon can be investIgated with the aid while the observatian of this n, imp t r F wa ve lene ~;Iths is of great r, ,-,tr-7nz)v Osorb,~d in the tropospli-r-S. S o I n r -!j erii,,5t,on on these wavelengths shoi;IA j, ef f ac t ive t emperat ur ~ of the sun sholi t~i 1 11. 1 (11,; wl-.tle tha- .-)f the moon should be - i, - -!. C 1" ril include the synchrotron emission r1tie f ? I ~ - t. , -I ~, c ircu la f in(~ in ;~clar maenet ic f ields.. Ft ~, 1 7i xig S :I 7-pect.rum of the sun it may be poss-il.~ I I z - I- the temperature on wavel-n,~ i-:-! ,-11~1 .,iz, passage o C the radiation through ti;~ tn,-, temperature is apparently lower than th,:, t .,f th~? photoZphexc. The apparatus which should be set up c% e :i Ii E, in order to measure the high-frequen~-.Y and luri,,.r radi,- emission need not differ to any great urAtite-, "surface,' apparatus. The linear dime-.~ t,.!:, i,3, c,tu , (mirrors ) need not be very large since Arj~zu !;ir dirrt:tus 1 _-n~: moon and the sun are of the order of 30' . F,~I ex..)IrIple, X = 0. 1 cm the mirror diameter turns -tit. Card 2/10 26657 Radio-astronomical studies using. S/56o/61/ooo/oo7/001/010 E032/E 1111 -ux of solar and lunar radio ~%isslon can only bc fj I with antennas having high directivit ,y iihich would re(ptire 11oriented" satellites. In the cnsrjjPf space rochets lauliched so ,that they rench the neighbourhood 6 Dirs, Verms atid other plivllet.s~ in the solov system, the radio mens,~,'Irement.,c cati he carried 'out in,~ a Wide freriucimy rAnge. C.H. Mnyw.,, T.F. McCuJlough imd :.-ind L.E. Als 0 p, R.M. Sloanake!r (Ref.52 1.958) Y.A. Glorgintilne, C.H. Mnyer and C.11 'Towtk-3 Olef-7: 1111-i :;Y1T1j1o.qj.'Ol1l orl l?,idio Astronomy, Stnnvorrl, C;11-i-forilia, 1959) ik.11-f,'Ady 111POSUred tile r.-tdio einissimi of Veiimi at)d Eal's (M Centintetre' ,viivris using it radio telescope with 'it piii-Aml.ic mirror 15 Ill f I in me t e r. tin X = 3. 15 cill tile eff-A i-ve of E'ars found to be 220 � 75 OK, while fo)- Veims the coi,responding 't 1.9 6o.o OK. Themn measurements repi i.,svilt the, pre-sent limit of,,radio~ d astronomical apparatus. on the othrr li.-md attr-mipts to exten 'J these me-rimur-emprits to longer decAmott-v 1-,'i%VC.S,ov evell 111(itre wavosi on vill meet with serious difficultins. J11 fiket, si-llco tile 011lis)i 'ars and Venus In -this range is of' thei of N character ixitensity should be proportional. to X-: hence ill order to- achieve the same power at the output. of the antenna as in, the ic'ase.,, Card 3/ 10 261'57 ,i/56(;/6.L/ooo/c)o7/()O,~/010.! 1 Radio -its t ronomica I studles using . . . ' S2/1 1 of the shorter wavelengths the area of thi,, itntei)i1a must be increased in 1)roportion to X2. A miirror lioving a r1j.,-,%mctrr 1,1bout 150 111 iS %JrOo%(1Y 110ces"a"Y atA Ill. in the cast, of;'(%. !ip,tce rocket, oil th(~ other hand, the ai,tcnnit dimonsions can be', reduced very considernbly, e.g. down to L N- The sporadic sol6r radio ei:iission has been extensively !Aix(lied in a, wide wavelajigtli~ range beginnIng, at it few cm right up to 10 m. It has beenT established that the slowly varying (in time) component is associated with sunspots. The othor comi,onent of' the sporadic,~Adfio emission takes the form of short bursts. r I i n E, e are due to the A.;;., . radio emission which is largely a-9.9oclaited %vith ~jolitr corpu~sculcir !J,~ streams and also solar cosmic rays emitted from chromospheric.- f lares, The study of the spectral characterLstics of thesd bursts' and also the time dependence of the lntentiity,is of trajor ' ; fv importance to any detailed theory of Lhe sporadic radio emission O the sun. The sporadic' solar radio emission is also of great interest from the geophysical point of view. The corpuscular streams which are responsible for these biirsts itre also responsible for geomagnetic disturbances, radio fadeout on short. ionospheric disturbances, etc. A consideration of the experimental Card 4/ 10 26657 At,idio-astronornical studies using .... s/5 '-16/61/ooo/oo/ou EC) 3 Vp iA material available so far shows that in the case of x Z, 't U - 5 0 1.1 the study of solar radio bursts can only be c:irried out with the 'd a i of artificial Earth satellites -with orbiI.2 lying above the F layer niaxinium. .1intellites will 111so be for X ~) :20 tr. Frl~,-qcrltly available data (C-1-4. Allon, Astr(.)p',-,.-:.i-cn3 ;)II.1alititi-es, Lor)(1011, Athlone Press, 1955, Ref-19, and D.E. '-iInckwell, 1%ontlily Fot. Roy. Astr. Soc., V.116, 56, 1;136, Izor.W that titc radio bursts on X .4.,f 40 in should b- gpiv~rated at- i-~-.IA:Lvely low ;-,cj-frhts in the corona, namely ;,C-~ 2.1. 011 UIC. other 11"'Irld the rn,v.lar solar corona is ktio%qn to at loi--t i:,) to 141JRt) "10-20 possibly to even greater distaf-cf!s. it t"ir:--clure be -j.,~-cted that the burst component of thrt spormlic ,~oltr radio r!-.,ission should be observable up to X 'm. Thus XIIY ri~O-,h iii o-xcps-i of 2C I.i would be of ormation on bursts on wavele interest from the point of vi~,~i,~ of.'chr- jilli%,~,;ics of tile CO. r solar corona. Satellite ap-pc%ratu!; deriit,rv~u' to r(card'solar tnt.,i could also be used to detec' tho bur--ttn due to -1uFiter. Fr U~ r 5 ' Id ACt:'C.LJlarly interesting information tli-,~ Litt -st Wou c~,t-i-fiiond to the wavelength rangc below *,-'t' t~%. As the co,~mj.c radlo emission.and the radio elrlis,~A-oii of sources, ~;-rd 51-10 26657 IIzxdio-,i.-itrq-omj.ca1 studies using . . .S/560/61/t' 1 t ! u / t! t ~ 7/u tc; I L) E032/Enlt it is poiutod out that presently available diit.,-t t1ifit IIIe,%sUrI.,V!V,rAs oC the spectrum of thc non-thei'MI'll CC.::I.;ic I:adio emiss-4on on X ';?, 30 m obtained with the aj-d or f.~r-Litic.iaj f--,-,I.-th -'hntild lead to more accur.itt, InCormokion on tht, ;,au v otie entr"c, Aor--; !.a inLnr-p.I.iAnati%ry for knowti miis;nctic fields these mensurementf, diould lcad to mure -.,ccurate viklue~7 for f JC the gas concentraLlon can 1)(: deterwined indepei~de.--tly. tccurate satellite measuremertts of ti c spectrum ,...ic r o f -A n :) ""I * ~ i z' ',' - ,,) -nd.Lo emission should be carried out from high orbits so hs to i.iinimise ionospharic effects. Recent rocket rind so,'te-I-Litf-- show that the electron concelitration above the F-2.aytr Jecreiises with altitude ratlier --lowly (Ya.L., Allpert, Dohryakova, E.F. Chudesezilco, U.S. Shapiro, Ui.,N, V.65, 16.1, 195'j, Ref.27). lt is estimated that in order,to minimise ionor, ohPric effects.the measurements of extra- terre4trial rn(li.()' (~Iilihsion on wavelengths greater than 1 m should be carried out fr,oqi satellites having an apogee in excess of 1000 Icia. Inter-planotary absorption of radio waves may become -Important in -3at,)J.lj.te measurements. Table '.'! gives the c-stiwated abso rl tion in in'~,--r-plnnetary space for 1.00, 1, and o.ol electron/ Card g/lo 2~ S15 OY6 1/000/007/001/010 cM3 whero is the path length in cm. The optical thickness given in Table 2 was calculated from a formula given by U.P. Ginzburg (Ref.28:"Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasma", Fizmatgiz, 1960). This formula reads; I = 10 -2.N 17.7 + In Te 3/2 . f 21 f and holds for rarefied plasma for which (n - 1)4g1. The values given in Table 2 are very approximate but nevertheless it i5 to be expected that the absorption should become appreciable beginning with X- 500-1000 m. Another interferIng effect in the range X'Z 200-300 M may be due to corpuscular streams. A consideration of available satellite and rocket data (Ref.1j as above. Ref.2: F.T. Haddock, Amer. Rocket Soc. No-794, 1959. Ref.3: A.C.B.Lovell, Proc. Roy.Soc. A253, 494, 1959. Ref.4i J.P.l. Tyas, C.A.Franklin, A.R. Molozzi, Nature, 184, 785, 1959) suggest that the satellite antennas should be of a simple form. It is estimated that there should be no intensity difficulties and antenna dimensions of the order of a few metres should be suffic-istit. As regards the radio Card 7/ 10 26657 Radio-astronomical. studios using .... S/560/61/000/007/001/010 F032/Eli.4 emission of discrete sources the wavelength range 20-50 m is of Particular interest since it is inaccessible to terrestrial measurements. Here antennas having linear dimensions of the order of the wavelength are estimated to be adequate. In order to achieve angular localization of discrete sources and to determine -the details in the distribution of non-thermal cosmic radio emission, one could use the diffraction of extra-terrestrial radio emission by the moon and the earth. Estimates of the radio emission of terrestrial and planetary radiation belts are more difficult. Nevertheless,very rough calculations indicate that the intens.ities involved should be detectable from artificial earth satellites, and it is precisely because these estimates are difficult that the satellite experiments should be carried out. Finally, satellite and rocket measurements can produce information about the radio emission of the terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also about the inter-planetary medium. It is suggested that the most promising method of measuring the electron concentration in the ionosphere and in inter-planetary space is the method involving the measurement of the group delay time of audio- frequency modulated signals transmitted from artificial earth Card 8/ io 26657 Radio-astronomical studies using .... S/56o/61/000/007/001/010 E032/EI14 satellites kE.Ye. Gershman, N.A. Mityakov and V.0. Rapoport, Ref.37: Izv. vuz, Radiofizika, Vol-3, 949, 196o). it is suggested that a review of available information indicates that the above - radio-astronomical observations can be carried out with relatively simple apparatus (this refers to the radio apparatus and the antennas). The authors therefore expect that satellite and rocket radio-astvonomical observations will attract considerable attention in the near future. There are 1 figure, 2 tables and 39 references: 19 Soviet and 20 English. The four most recent English language references readl Ref-3: as above. Ref.10: A.R. Tompson, A. Maxwell, Nature, A5, 89, ig6o. Ref-31: J. Van Allen, Nature, 183, 430, 1959, Ref-39: A.G. Smith, T.D. Carr, H. BoUYagen, N, Chatterton and F. Six.. Nature, 187, 568, 196o. Card 9/10 PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITLATION SUV15705 Mnzburg, Vitaliy LazareviCh, Corresponding Member, Aca~~my of Sciences USSR Kow.ndcheski e luchi u Zemli. i vo vsclennoy (Cosmic Rays at the Earth and in the Univ-arae~ Moscow, Izd-vo "Znaniye," 1961. 46 p. (Series: Vsesoyuznoye obs'aches-Wo -,-,o ras-prostranenlyu politiches-lUkh I nauchnfth znaniy. Seriya IX, 119,61: Fivika i kUniyaj, no. 11) 26,000 copies printed. Ed. : I. D. Faynboym; Tech. Ed.: Ye. V. Savchenko. FMIPOSE: This booklet is intended for readers interested in the phenom-non of cosmic rays. C"WORAGE: The booklet discusses briefly the origin, nature, and properties of cosmic rays. The theory of the phenomenon of cosmic rays Is examined, and methods of investigating such rays are described. included a--- a discussion of our and other galaxies an the source, and origin of cosmic rays, an analysis of their chemical composition and energy spectr= and balance, Arid an investigation of the mchanism of paxt-Icle acceleration. card 1/2 Cosrdc Rayr, at the Earth (Cont.) SCTI/5705 The principles of radioasixonomy as -the most important -tools of investigating cosmic rays are discussed. No personalities are Mentioned. There an~ 8 references, all Soviet. TAME OF CMFNTS: Iii-troduction Prinary Cosmic Rays at the Earth's Surface Chemical composition Energy spectrum. Isotropy of cosmic rays Rn.cUoastronomy and Cosmic Rays Ilature of cosmic radiation and cosmic rays Cosmic rays in the universe Origin of Cosmic Rays Energy balruice. Sources of cosmic rays Acceleration mechanism Conclusion Bibliography AVAILABLE: Library of Congress Card 2/2 6 9 ].'X! ;-_15 37 42. JA/rs~&s 33305 W zo (/~ftlz 9 0 S/56 61/000/010/003/016 I I. ZLI 00 D299YD302 AUTHORS: Ginzburg,,_V_..._ L. , Kurnosova, L. V. , Logachev, V. I., Razorenov, L. A., Sirotkin, I. A., and Fradkin, M. I. TITLE: Study of charged-particle intensity during the flight of the 2nd and 3rd Sputniks SOURCE: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Iskusetvennyye sputniki Zemli. no. 10. Moscow, 1961, 22-33 TEXT: During the flight of the 2nd and 3rd Sputniks, the flow of charged particles at altitudes between 187 and 339 km and latitudes of -65 to +65 was recorded by means of a telescope consisting of 2 rows of gas-discharge counters; the telescope was part of measuring equipment for cosmic rays. As a result of the measurements, the intensity of the charged particles and its latitude dependence were determined. The counting rate N c and Card (~D 33305 S/560/61/000/010/003/016 Study of charged-particles... D299/D302 the global intensity Jgl at various latitudes are listed in a table. It was found that at all latitudes the recorded intensity was several times higher than the intensity of cosmic rays re- corded in the stratosphere and in free space beyond the earth's magnetic field,, This difference is particularly noticeable in the region of the geomagnetic equator, where the measured inten- sity was six times that of cosmic rays. Several regional anoma- lies of intensity were observed, apparently related to the anoma- lies of the earth's magnetic field. For the entire track of the space-ships, detailed graphs were made of the time dependence of the intensity and hence of its dependence on geographical coor- dinates and altitude of the space-ship. From these graphs, maps were made of the intensity distribution on the earth's surface. It is noted that, with repeated passage of the space-ship above the same terrestrial point and almost same altitude, the recorded intensity differed sometimes from that on the first passage; in some cases, the intensity was almost double. This difference Card 2/7 33305 S/560/61/000/010/003/016 Study of charged-particles ... D299/D302 was particularly noticeable at high latitudes. As the orienta- tion of the apparatus changes during the second passage, this difference in intensity may not be real. The obtained equi- intensity lines for the south-Atlantic and southern anomalies constitude a slight refinement to the earlier obtained data (in the references); the maximum number of counts in the southern anomaly was 60 per second, and in the south-Atlantic anomaly it was 70 per second, The anomalies are particularly great in the Southern Hemisphere, The intensity distributions in the anomaly regions, recorded at altitudes of 306 - 339 km and at altitudes of 187 - 265 km during the two flights, differ from each other. This difference is apparently due to the different flight- altitudes. The connection between the anomalous structure of the radiation belts and the anomalies of the earth's magnetic field is evident; it would be premature, however, to assume that the regional anomalies of the magnetic field on the earth's surface have a substantial influence on charged-particle flow up to altitudes of 200 - 300 km. The many anomalies in the South- and Card 3/7 33305 S/560/61/000/010/003/016 Study of charged-particles... D299/D302 North-Pole regions, their disposition and variation, suggest that these anomalies are the edges of the outer radiation belt of the earth. The latitude dependence of the intensity is shown in a graph (for the Northern Hemisphere); it is noted thattat high latitudes, the increase in intensity ceases. The obtained data on the intensity distribution give evidence of the edge effects of the radiation belts at 200 - 300 km altitude and of certain peculiar features not observed previously. In particular, t.fte great temporal anomalies are noted; thus, the "northern ano- maly" recorded on August 20, 1960, at 7 hr. 40 min. (world time) and the south-polar anomaly recorded on December 1, 19609 at 14 hr. 22 min. These anomalies are apparently due to solar activity. The line of least intensity (the "radiation equator") is shown in a figure. With regard to the composition of the radiation, it is likely that the increase in the counting rate (as compared to that from primary cosmic rays) is due to protons with E p 11; 60 Mev; although no definite conclusion is possible as yet, it. Card 4/7 3330 S/560/61/000/010/003/016 Study of charged-particles... D299/D302 is assumed (as a working model) that the inner radiation belt if formed by protons and that the number of electrons of energies higher than -..,2 Mev is small. The above results confirm the existence of a high-intensity region down to 200 km altitude (from 1000 km), On the other hand, the radiation at 50 - 150 km is practically independent of altitude. The altitude dependence of the intensity (for 200 - 2000 km) is shown in a figure. Tentatively, the altitude b and the atmospheric density e can be expressed by the value~4.-.' h, km 100 150 200 300 400 500 Ps gm. cm-3 10-9 10-11 10-12 10-13 2 x 10-14 2 x 10-15 h, km 600 700 800 900 1000 ;II gm- cm-3 6 x 10- 16 2 x 10- 16 6 x 10-17 3 x 10-17 10-17 Card 5/7 MM R'M 3 3 3 05 S/560/61/000/010/003/016 Study of charged-particles... D299/D302 On the basis of the incomplete data available, the internal radiation-belt in the equatorial region for altitudes above 400 600 km can be approximated by a very simple model, where only ionization losses are taken into account. At higher latitudes, the pattern is more complicated; it becomes necessary to render more precise the composition, spectrum and altitude-variation of the charged particles. At altitudes below 400 600 km, considerable deviations from the formula J - p- occur, This is due to diffusion of -the particles in a direction transverse to the magnetic field; 'this diffusion mechanism is related to collisions between particles. A second diffusion mechanism exists, related to the presence of electric fields E which cause particle-drift, The diffusion processes require further investigation. Finally, the radiation dose is estimated beneath a lay6r of matter of the order of 4 gm/cm-2 at an altitude of 200 - 300 km. Assuming recorded proton energies (in the equa- Card 6/7 33305 ,/61/000/010/003/016 3/560 Study of charged-particles... D299/D302 torial region) of E p ;~,> 60 Mev, the daily radiation dose consti- tutes approximately 30% of the permissible dose. In the region of the south-Atlantic anomaly at 300 km altitude, the radiation dose is by an order of magnitude higher than at -the equator. There are 10 figures, 1 table and 10 references: 7 Soviet-bloc and 3 non-Soviet-bloc (including 2 translations). The reference to the English-language publication reads as follows: S. Yoshida, G. H. Ludwig, J. A. Van Allen, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 8079 1960. SUBMITTED: May 15, 1961 Card 7/7 GIITZBURG, V.L,,; SYROVATSKIY, S.I. 82 Jl-Ag :61. Origin of cosmic ra7s. Geomag. i aer. I no.4.-479-4 (YIIVL 14:12) 1. Fizicheakiy institut iBlOni P.N. Levedeva AN SSSR, (Cosmic rays) ;q,77100/4, //:If,/ 1 +4 AUTHORSS Ginzburg, V. L., TITLEz Electrodynamics PERIODICAL: Fizikdtverdogb 24927 3/181/61/003/006/024M1 B102/B214 Rukhadze, A. A., and Silin, V. P. j of crystals and the exciton theory tela, v. 31 n6. 61 1961, 1835 1850 TEXTt The present paper sives a detailed theoretical treatment of the general problem of the application of the electrodynamics of matter ~ith- spatial dispersion to crystals. The'authors confine themselves particu- larly to t~e investigation of the approximations one obtains when one works with Eij(4), the tensor of the colmplex dielectric constant. First the fundamental equations of the electrodynamics of matter with# spatial dispersion are written down. They are in the usual notationst I avl+ Alt-) -A 1 3BI curl cjo; div '-4RQi0; curl9 0 at d14. 0, F e (i~+ ff~B B Tt the force acting ona point char e moving with velocit 7; for the electric induction I one has T/at - ag/at + 4,11Y. Fyr plane monochro- matic waves, IS' and 9 are interrelated byi Card 1/7 24927 S/181/61/003/006/024/031 Electrodynamics of... B102/B214 R, (k, w) iij (w. k) Ej (k, w),- E, (k, k),Vj k), (1, 6) Cj ((o, k) dc dRe1("-)1,, (t,R). (1,7) 0 For crystals one has D, (r, w)= fdrle,j (w, r, r) E., (r, D' dk'eij (w. k, kj E, (le, w). I (k It is shown that in crystals in the optical region the ten'sor 1ij(&J'2'q1) k in the usual way. If the normal 6an be reduced to .the tensor ?1k (w 1 4) i(-~-Qt) ' i (~r-~'t ) electromagnetic waves have the formi e -+ 1 Ole i?, 011 EO'l - constant, Bol constant (spatially homogeneous med:um) o~e has for Jo 2~ 0, Card 7 24927 8/181/61/003/006/024/031 Electrodynamics of ... B102/3214 D'= (kB), B c (U], W W D'= 2- (OF k (kE) W2 GIs EIjEj - OE, k,k-jFj 0. 72- 2 2 or, in the determinantal representation Aj(W'k) LLL2~,ij(tj,~)-k 6ij +k ikJ~ 2 0, or J!:~6ij Ic2E k) + k,.kl~ -1 1 or 11 denote the 2 c ij ij determinants of the system of linear homogeneous equations~ Starting from these equations the authors investigate in the following the properties of the tensor i~ ij(U"V.) in crystals, as well as the possibIlity of calcu- lating this tenser quantum-mechanically. First,; the effect of taking in- to consideration the space inhomogeneity is investigated. (1.8) may be where n written in the form iE ij Eij i i is an arbitrary vector of the reciprocal lattice. The relation ble?ylleen Card 3/7 S/181/61/003/006/024/031 Electrodynamics of... B102/B214 D' and E is given by k,kjEj (w, k) - VE, (w, k) -L'- 1,bj k) E.1 (k 2mb, to) 0. (2, 3) C2 whose determinant leads to the dispersion equation O'with roots W - If all term with b / 0 are eliminated from (2.3ywhich is JU&_ tified for the region with k 9- ) = KAIF-N'-l , when the particle flux is given by F (-,L ) (A - atomic weight of the particles, A, - total energy). With A Card 2/6 25020 S/053/61/074/003/002/002 Cosmic rays on the Earth ... B102/B209 K=5000 and 2.5 and E,--*E, for the three energy classes the following is 6 6 a 9 10 obtainedt F(E';PIO Bev) - 5-10- , F(E ;'10 Bev) - 5-10- , F(E >10 Bev) -5-10- 12 particles/m 2. steradian-sec. These considerations are followed by radioastronomic problems. The particular disoussions-concern the nature of the cosmic radio emission and of the cosmic rays (division into three componentsi Thermal radiation with continuous spectrum, thermal radiation of neutral hydrogen with X;621 cm, and non-thermal cosmic radio emission; the first component is the bremastrahlung of the electrons in interstellar matter). The third component which incides upon the Earth from all places in the Galaxy, from single nebulae, and from other galactic systems is discussed in detail. Data and photographs of the best-known sources of radio emission are given. The origin of the cosmic radiation is discussed in the last section of the paper; the characteristic parameters of the groups of nuclei are given in Table 2. Particular attention is paid to the accelerating mechanism to which the cosmic particles are subjected. Finally,the following aims are mentioned to be the most important ones in future research workt Flux measurements of e-, e+, and y; determination of, the chemical composition at high and at very high (-71016 ev) energies; Card 3/6 25020 8/053/61/074/003/002/002 Cosmic rays on the Earth ... B102/B209 more accurate energy measurements in the range of E )11014 - 1015 ev and measurement of the coefficient of anisotropy. There are 18 figures, 2 tables, and 10 Soviet-bloc references. Card 4/6 GINZBURG, V.L. On the threshold of the sixth year of space era. Nauka i zhisn' 29 no.10:3-9 0 162, (MIRA 15:12) 1. Chlen redaktuionnoy koUegii z1hurnala, "Nauka i zhiznl"; chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR. (Space sciences) GINZBM, V.L.; EIDMAN, V.Ya. ------ Radiation reaction in the case of media with negative absorption. Zhur. ekBp. i teor. fiz. 43 no.5:1865-1871 N ;620 (NIRA 15:12) 1. Radiofizicheskiy institut Gorlkovskogo gosudarstvennogo univereiteta. (Masers) (Quantum theory) s/141/62/005/001/004/024 w52/r.314 2e00 9 , AUTHORS: Gershman, B.N. and Ginzburg, V.L. I.-- TITLE: Some remarks on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in an anisotropic dispersive medium PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshihh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Radiofizika, V-5, no. 1, 1962, 31 46 TEX"r: This paper is concerned with the general theory of propagation of i,.raves in an arbitrary anisotropic medium which is uniform in space and constant in time. Spatial dispersion is taken into account. A simple method is used to derive various relations between eXpressions involving quadratic forms of the wave amplitudes, i.e. expressions involving terms of the form E B e.B)i and so on. Formulae are derived for the 0 0 0 -0 derivatives of the components of the real part of the dielectric- constant tensor with respect to the frequency. It is shown that in the absence of spatial dispersion the group-velocity vector always forms an acute angle with the wave vector, azirl the square of the complex refractive index is always real-in the absence of Card 1/2 Some remarks on S/14l/62/OO5/ool/oo4/o24 r-.032/E314 absorption. The paper is concluded with a discussion of cases w1here the above results may not hold in the presence of spatial dispersion. The paper is entirely theoretical. No numerical computations are reported. ASSOCIATION: Nauchno-issledovatolskiy radiofizicheskiy institut pri Gortkovslcom universitete (Scientific Research RadiophysIcs Institute of Gorlkiy University) SUBMITTED: November 1, 1961 Card 2/2 GINZBURG, V. L. V. gnetic Fields and Applications" "motion of Charged Particles in Ma "Planetary Atmospheres" na Summer Schooly Varenna) Italy, lRegorts to be presented lit the Varen 9 and 15 Junc* 1962 GINZBURG, V.L. Study of the operation of a magnetic thermonuclear reactor. Trudy Fiz.inst. l8t55-104 162. (KRA 15312) (Thermonuclear reactions) 42126 q1o S/203/62/ 002/ 002/001/017 3, ;4 ~17'e 1046/1246 AUTHORS: Ginzburg, V. L., Kurnosova, L. V., Razorenov, L. A., and Fradkin, N1. 1. TITLE: Some investigations of the cosmic ray nuclear component and of the radiation belts of the earth on Soviet satellites and rockets. Review. PERIODICAL: Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya, v. 2, no. 2, 1962, 193-232 TEXT: 1) Measurements on groups of nuclei with Z >_ 2, Z ~t 5, Z >_ 12 to 14, Z ~?: 15, Z Z 28 to 30, and estimates of the relative intensity of the strcam of very heavy nuclei (Z > 30) indicate that the nuclear component of cosmic rays drops very sharply in intensity from Z Z 28 to Z > 30. 2) The nuclear-compo- nent intensity increases in correlation with the solar activity; at energies E 109 cV, some selective accelera- tion mechanism on the sun accelerates preferably the heavier nuclei. 3) Measurements of the latitudinal effect show that, at energies between - 1.8 and 7.5 BeV/nucleon, the energy spectra are identical for groups of nuclei with Z 2~ 2, Z ~: 5, Z Z 12 to 14 (differences in spectral indices do not exceed 10 to 20%). 4) The 1A charge spectra of nuclei indicate that the ratio of the Li, Be, B nuclear group to the Z 2: 6 group is 53 � 15 %. 5) The intensity maximum of the outer radiation belt shifted 104kra towards the surface of the earth during the time interval between the launchings of orbital spaceships I and 11 (from January toSeptembcr, 1959). Card 1/2 Sonic investigations of the cosmic ray... S/203/62/002/002/001/017 104611246 6) At altitudes of 200 to 300 km in the 65N to 65S belt the radiation count is in excess of what could have been expected from primary cosmic rays; on the equator, the global radiation intensity is 6 to 7 times as high as the cosmic ray intensity, This phenomenon remains still unexplained 7) Two radiation-intensity ano- malies were discovered, viz., the South-Atlantic anomaly at an altitude of 340 km and the Southern anomaly at 194 to 340 km above the Antarctic coast, both being closely associated with the geomagnetic anomalies. In August and December 1960, the lower boundary of the South-Atlantic anomaly was mapped at an alti- tude of 265 to 306 km. There are 15 figures, 7 tables and 70 references. Card 2/2 GINZBUM 1, V.L. eg of media with on of 6n6rgy in'the'61ectrodYnimi jjwv of the conservati ucheb. sav; radiofizo 5 no 3:473-477 spatial. dispersion* IZV. VP ZILDIA 15-7) 162. Ikovskm 1. Nauchno-isslOdovatellskiy radiofizichbAkiy in3tItUt Pri GOr universiteU. (Field theory) (Electi6dynamic8) S/051/62/012/003/003/016 E032/E314 AUTHORS: and Glulchovetskaya, N.P. TITLE- Dependence of the intensity of spectral lines on. the effective ionization potential of an arc PLIIIODICAL: Optika i spektroskopiya, v. 12, no. 3, 1962, 344 - 349 TEXT: The authors report an experimental study of the dependence of the intensity of the spectral lines of various elements on the amount of allicali metals introduced into an arc d1schar-gre. The existence of this dependence was discovered in 1937 bY S.A. Borovilc and T.F. Borovilc-Romano-va (Ref. I - DAN SSSR, 20, 535, 1937) and D. Webb (Ref. 2 - Nature, 139, 248, 1937). Tfie theoretical explanation was supplied by S.L. Nandel'shtam (Ref. 3 - DAIN SSSR, 18, 559, 1938; Ref. 4 - Zavodsk. laboratoriya, 6, 597, 1948; Ref. 5 - Vvedeniye v spektrallnyy analiz ( Introduction to Spectral. AnalyseA)and others. However, it is stated that a complete quantitative study of this phenomenon has not so far Card 1/3 5/051/62/012/003/003/016 Dependence of .... E032/E314 been available. In the present ifork the alkali elements were introduced into a carbon dust in small amounts _ 10-2,) (10-11 i~ and the mixture was inserted into a recess in the lower electrode. The alkali elements were usually in the form of oxides or chlorides. In each case the effective ionization potential was computed using a formula reported by O.P. Semenov (Izv. AN S55R, ser. fiz., 9, 715, 1945 Ref. 9) and A.K. Rusanov (Spectral analysis of ores and minerals - Gosgeolizdat, 1946 - Ref. 10). Plots are reproduced giving the intensity of various lines as a function of th*e effective ionization potential of a carbon arc. It is found that both for spectral lines of neutral and singly-ionized atoms the intensity plotted as a function of temperature exhibits a well-defined maximum which occurs at a temperature lower than that of the carbon arc, whose ionization potential is of the order of.11-3 eV. The position of the maxima and the general form of the curves z~re very similar to the curves computed theoretically by 'Mandel'shtam (Ref. 3). It is concluded that Card 2/3 S/051/62/012/003/003/ol6 Dependence of .... E03 2/ E311, the point of view adopted by Semenov (Ref. 8 - Izv. vyssh..uchcbn. zaved. -;V0, fizilca, no. 2, 10,35, 1959) is erroiieous. The present experimental results also show that lines with close excitation potentials belonging to elements with different ionization potentials have different intensity-versus-temperature curves, i.e. they are not homologous. For example, PI) and Zn lines A") are found to exhibit this behaviour. It is ('833 and 3075 pointed out that two lines are homologous if both the excitation and ionization potentials are the same. Acknowledgments are expressed to V.G. Koritskiy, S.M. Rayskiy and V.A. Fabrikant for advice and interest. Acknowledgments are also expressed to N.N. Danilovaand L.A. Lerner, who took part in the experiments. There are 6 figures and 1 table. SUBMITTED: February 27, 1961 Card 3/3 V,L GINQUIQ, IGL& USSR no title given no affiliation given Crakow, Posten-y rAzvkLa Vol XIII, No 5, 1962, PP 507-48o "Cosmic Radiation approximating the Earbh and in the Cosmos". Translated byzz /' Michal MASSALSKI, no title or affiliation given S/051/62/013/oo6/026/027 d 1 E039/El2O AUTHORS: Ginzburg,-V.L., and Glukhovetskaya, N.P. TITLEs Notes on the article by O.P. Semenova and M.A. Levchenko. ('$Dependence of the effective ionisation potential on the concentration of easily ionised impurities in the arc discharge") PERIODICAL: optika i spektrogkdpiya, v-13, no.6, 1962, 88-1-b82 TEXT: In previous work on the intensity.',of the spectral lines of many elements present in arcs of elements with low vi, the calculation of vi eff of the arc plasma is made on the assumption that the degree of ionisation of easily ionised elements is far from 1. observations show that this is more correct than the proposals of O.P. Semenova and M.A. Le'vchenko (opt. i spektr., V. 13, 1962, 6lo). Comparison of the spectrum of a high purity carbon arc with that from an arc containing 0-003-0.0055- 11'etal. impurity shows that in the former the spark lines C 11 2837-602 and C 11 2836-71 are clearly seen while in the latter these lines are absent. This shows that the arc temperature is lowered by the presence of the impurities. The substitution of Na, Ca or Li Card 1/2 Notes on the article by S/051/62/013/006/02b/027 E039/E120 results in equal changes in intensity of the spectral lines of the element.s if the quantities of these elements correspond with their vi and atomic weights. This dependence of the intensity of spectral lines on the content of Na (Ca etc) shows tliat there is no threshold and is in agreement with the theoretical work of S.L. Mandel'shtam (DAN SSSR, v.18, 1938, 559Y. Quantitative calculations on arc processes are only approximate and the arc temperatures are taken to be average values. our estimate of the range of values for V1 eff at 7 - 9 eV for the majority of specti7il lines of the elements is confirmed not only by the theoretical work of Mandel'Ahtam but also by direct observation. For example in the determination of impurities in selenium Vi eff is practically equal to vi selenium, i.e. 9.75 eV. When Na is added to the upper electrode there is an increase in intensity of spectral lines of a series of elements. The intensity passes through a maximum and decreases again at large concentrations of Na. This increase in sensitivity enables many impurities in selenium to be determined. Similar results are reported by other authors. SUBMITTED: July 3, 1962 Card 2/2 [Abstractor's notei Abridged translation GHIFZBURG, V. L. [rinzbilrg, V.L. I Cosmic rays around the earth and in the universe. Analele mat 16 n0-1:130-170 Ja- Mr 162. S/048/62/026/oo6/014/020 B1.25/B102 AUTHORS, C.~nZbUrg, V. L., Kurnosova, L. V., Logachev, V* I,, Razorenov, L. A., and Fradkin, 14. 1. TITLE- Temporary increases in the intensity of the nuclear cosmic- ray component induced by solar activity and investigation of the radiation intensity at altitudes from 200 to 300 km PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Seriya fizicheskaya, v. 26, 11~e no. 6, 1962, 782-798 TEXT: During the flight of the second Soviet space rocket more than 100 nuclei of z >,15, more than 3000 of Z,>5 and more than 30,000 of Z>2 were measured by means of two Cherenkov counters working independently. On the second and third Soviet space ships a current of charged particles was measured by a telescope consisting of gas-discharge counters at altitudes between 187 and 339 km, in latitudes ranging from -650 to*+650;.. Variation in number of heavy nuclei with Z >15 was considerable but that of a-particle.8 was smaller. At altitudes from 187 to 339 km the counting rate of the telescope was several times greater than otherwise by reason Card 11401,21 S/04a/62/026/oo6/014/020 Temporary increases in the ... B125/B102 of the solar activity. On the equator, at an altitude from 306 to 339 km, the global intensity is 1.36 and in higher latitudes 3.3 particles, cm -2 sec -1 . The charged-particle flux intensity of the anomalies in the southern part, of the Atlantic Ocean exceeds that in the corresponding geomagnetic latitudes by -two orders of magnitude. In 330 km an area of smaller intensity separates the South Atlantic Anomaly (a "sleeve" of *the inner radiation belt) from the Southern Anomaly connected with the outer radiation belt. The particles recorded in the equatorial area are protons of at least 60 lilev or electrons of at least 8 Mev. There are obviously very many particles of smaller energy in the anomalies. The line of the smallest radiation intensity lies in an altitude from 187 to 339 km and on the western hemisphere farther south than the geometrical equator. In. higher latitudes, owing to solar activity, the intensity of particle currents is subject to considerable temporal variations. The actual mechanism of acceleration and ejection of heavy particles on the sun is not known hitherto. There are 12 figures and 2 tables. ASSOCIATION: Fizicheskiy institut im. (Physics Institute imeni Sciences USSR) Chrd 2/0 P. N. Lebedeva Akademii nauk SSSR P. N. Lebedev of the Academy of A 34012 S/056/62/042/001/030/049 11102/Bion V, A11THOW'; Ginzburg, V. L., Fayn, V. If. T IT LIE Mignetic properties of paramagnetic 'IfIttids" of the type of molecular chnins PER TODTCAL: Zhurnal ekaperimentallnoy i tooretiche9koy fiziki, v. 42, no. 1, 1962, 183 - 190 TEXT : Continuing their ov-,-n studies (DAN SSSR, 151, 765, 1960; ZhLTF, 39, 1523, 1960) the authors investigate the dependence of magnetic susceptlbility^/ on the length of a certain type of polymer chains. It is shown that a chain of' spins may be regarded as forming a naramagnetic fluid 7;ith an abnormally low or zero Curie temperature. A polymer is considered which consists of N monomeric links, each link having an even number of outer electrons rith a singlet ground state (enerUy E In the simplest case the first excited ntate iv, a triplet ,,,ith E31 E 5-E 0, JO being the exchange interaction enertry of the monomer. For J 0 -> kT, the monomer will be diamarnetic. If the system is in the antiferromagnetic Card 114 -, ~,:, I - !3/056/62/0,12/001/050/046 Magnetic properties of piramalMetic ... B102/B108 ntate, and if' the rha-in jo not too lollu, -x -0 2/kT)exp(-~J/1,TN), I It is further assumed that AF min. JIN, A" 111 -1. nbcin,,-~ the distance ~et-.,ieen the ground state and the vxcited state of the nyolxm. For a chnin of 4, (), 13, or 10 u0no AS - = vollot-J/N Cr)r J 0 and for nping 0 or 1 . 1111 n H 1 + 1 If the cxchangc Ham Vl ton jan rcnd.~j It0x 21 (s10 1+1 s1z 2p the mean magnetic moment in a field 11 is riven by Yj ItS, ex p (- (E (n, 8,) - ILS,H)IkT eh SZ [t 111C (6) I ex p (- (E (n, S.) - VS,,H)1kT), S'. and for 11-0, dMz - Y. S"-,;z g, kT 4-J Z' - 5, S, Card ?/4 g,~ exp E( n, S,)IkT). (7) n 3/056/62/042/001/030/048 Magnetic properties of paramagnetic ... B102/B108 C, 2 a in the spin operator in terms of t(. t(T)/X.0 - 2J-X('I')/Ii z lz 1 wao calculated numerically and the curves were drawn for several N, a = 0 and a = 1 (Ising model). It can be seen that f?r N,1,J/kT,y, is ver 'I sli-lall and increases exponentially with N, reaching- A NIJ when N -J/kT. The calculations were carried out at the NIRF1 GGU under the suuervision of G. M. Zhislin. For N->- and a = 1, -Y,(T,11=0)=(112N/4kT)exp(-~/kT). In this case-X,p2N/J only at, M In the following the relations between the properties of simple spin chains and the behavior of real molecular chains are discussed and some approximate results for large N (infinite chains) are given. For a Jlk) IONMT. P 1) for (1-a)4~1, (0) ~0 (I a)* N141, (T > Jlk) jA3N14kT- (N) It is shown that for a chaint tic fluid wit antifqrromagnetic ype paramagne interaction Y '/ 0 at T - 0; with ferromagnetic interaction and a - 1V J 4 0; 'X(O) G. A. Semenov in thanked for help. There are 5 fi&qires Car(] 3/4 S/056/62/042/001/030/00 Magnetic properties of paramagnetic ... B102/B108 and 13 references: 6 Soviet and 7 non-Soviet. The four most recent references to Engliuh-language publications read ae follows: T. W. Ruijgrok. S. Rodrifqiez. PhYs. Rev. lij, 596, 1960; C. Domb. Adv. Phys. 149, 1960; D. Paul Phys. Rev. 118, 92, 1960; L22_0, 463, 1960; L. F. Mattheis,'.;. Phys. Rev. 12~5, 1209, 1961. ASSOCIATION: Fizicheskiy inatitut im. P. 11. Lebedeva Akademii nauk SSSR (Physics Institute imeni P. N. Lebedev of the~Academy of Sciences USSR). Radiofizicheskiy institut Gor1kovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Institute of Radiophysics of Gorlkiy State University) SUBMUTTED: July 4, 1961 Card 4/4 34020 S/056/62/042/001/044/048 V, 2 Hd 017,?,, // Ll 7, B102/B108 AUTHOR: Ginzburg, V. b. TITLE: Magnetic flux quantization for a superconducting cylinder PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, v. 42, no. 1, 1962, 299 - 302, TEXT: A superconducting cylinder of arbitrary thickness, placed in a magnetic field is considered and field, current, magnetic flux and external field with equilibrium flux through the cylinder are determined, using the electrodynamic equations, obtained by the author together with L. D. Landau (ZhETF, 2-0,1064, 1950). From the free-energy density in the superconductor A F.1, = F. + T. 2 1 1Y.+ Vqf.+ (!!' 4r. 1+ W, 8n 8n X Ac and 1Y0 and "I satisfying ce 2 X9 (V+ iVA) To To (1 12) IVO. (2) rotrotA=L-j,, Card 4 C W02 2e* ~-Z A9 kW 34020 S/056/62/042/001/044/048 Magnetic flux quantization for a B102/B108 the magnetic flux is obtainedi (D = "c' - ~ W3, n = 0, 2.. (4). ee C 12 div A . 0. %P01 = const; H10, - critical field for massive metal, 6 0 depth of penetration for a weak field; ;~- 1'2 e*H 6 2/kc. These re- X11 0 lations are used to determine potential, field and flux ~or a circular cylinder (r,, r 2;~ r,) in an axial external field 11 2. The inner field H1 = H(r 4- r, - In the axisymmetric case Or iz 0, j9 J(r), TO IT0(.r)l exp(-,inT)) Ann- A 2WZ +A', A'=8,{a1~,(-1)+bK'M); H alo (E) bl(o (t), a = f (~3, ti) [H%,Ko (W - H, KO (W 1; (5), 6 f (El. it) (Hilo (ii) - Hilo (it)), f (it, W = 1/0 (it) K, GO r Uard 2/4 34020 S/056/62/042/001/044/046 flux quantization for a ... B102 B108 where I and K tire known cylinder functiona. At the inner boundary n H l6 oti a agnetic flux through a contour of (r, 16'0), A( 2 nd the m t. 2n6 hen + 2n6of Af(f). The formulas derived radius equals of AQ -,2e are now applied to cases whore 1>>.rj/60;~1, so that K. V-n/2t e-x H VT/gtet- d = 12 - ij) H, r Acn 2 V-~t-ts Ho 1+-Lcthdl (6). sh d El q H, 1(f, ch (Es - E) ~~n- + 2nb2(, VC sh d 2e )", Lcan -26a), or, with exponential For a thick CYlinder (d j Ze r U 1 1 accuracy hcn/2e. For a thin cylinder (d.