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ACCSSSION NR-. AP404~99j. S/0057/64/034/007/1109/lio5 ALMIOR: Kreyndellj Yu-yo-; Ionov TITLE: tome peculiaritids-of low pressure-Ponning discharges -1205- SOURCE:--Zhurnal teklinicheakoy.fizilct, v.34,,no.7, 1964, 1199 TOPIC TAGS:'discharge plasma, ion beam,' electron beam, Penning tube -ABSTRACT: The beam issuing from a Icent ral opening in one cathode of a Penning tube: was caught in a Faraday cage and the-ion and electron currents in tho'beam were mea--.i suted separately as functions of the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge region. The compositions of beams iissuring from non-central.openings were also de- termined, and the discharge was phot~gra plied; The sin!gle annular anode of the Penn- ing tube was midway beiween the,tw6 cathodes,.which were separated by 28 mm.- The k tube was continuously pumped,"and the discharges were examined at pressures from 2 X 10-6 to 10-4 ma Hg.,The discharge,tube and thelexperimental arrangement ake des~- cribed in more detail. elsewhere 0(U.*Yo-.Xr'eyndel1,ZhTF 33,883,1963). At low magnetic' ..fields the beam issuing from the oponing of the cathode consisted mainly ct; positive ions but had a substantial electron component.-When the magnetic field.was Card 1/3 -7 AOCEtS 1OWNR-. AP4041994 Ancreased to a certain critical value (800.00 in one case) the elect" component. V. 'the beam current ihcre &sod sharply the:total beam current beca" negatiye. The Aischarge was unstable-in magnetic fiblds'near thq critical: valve, bot iri stronger fields it was stable with a npgative.beas current' By .varying the distance.of the araday cage from the Penning t of ttube cathode I wannfound that Of ion component' a :the beam was more divergent dfhe. electrop component. When toe-ceptral beam cur-~'-11 the, cuiri6ht--in beams issuing from openingf nea*6,thb perlpher rent became negative, YI ~of the cathode remained positiv and, indeed, increased. TUe beam current was rly nea the some in tubes In which both cath ode's had Ventral openings as In those!inwhich !only one cathode was pierced.'., This. shoirs'thai'the'lelectron component in noi. prima '.:'1y due to secondary electrons emitted by the dpposite cathode and traversing the .tube rectilinearly. Photogrsiphs showed-that at low magnetic :f ields the luminosity was conf in6d, t . ihe region of the anode aqd to a thin fiiammO 0 extending axially from one cathode to'the other. This axial filimnt was.prefient a t all values of the magnetic, both, oriielther of the cathodes.was ,:Pierced. The luminous regloh'about the-anode'exte4ded toward the,cathades am-the field was i reamed, and-at-Ahe,critical field It on y spread ov thodes themselves.`6 f -ACMSSION NR;'AP4041994- ASSOCIATION: none SUBMITIED: 14Sep63 SUB CODE: NP, EM ..Rsr,BOV'-- 004 (YIM-. '004, Card KRMDELI, Yu.,Ye.; IMOV, A.S. Characteristics of discharges in Penning tubes at lov pressures. Zhur. tekh. fiz, 34 no*70199-M5 Jl 164 (MM 17t8) S/029 60/000/07/22/024 13- -, ~058 AUTHORS: Belorgests.-M.9 Enginserl Iono*, Beg Engineer TITLE: The Miracle Screen PERIODICAL: Tekhnika molodezhip 19 OsiNo. 7, pp. 37-39 TEXT: This authors report on the manufacture of screen films for the graphic industry. The technology of the three classical printing methods, relief-, ourf ace.;..g and intaglio -printing# is explained in the introduction. The Hookoirskiy poligraficheskiy institut (Moscow Polygraphic Institut ) has set the problem to its Scientific Students' Society to develop screen filmag the manufadture of which should be simpler and cheaper compared with the foreign material. These films should also produce perfect reproductions. Under the supervision of Jjikol4X Ivanovich Sinyakovs Docent, Candidate of Technical Soiencest the students developed several methods for the manu- facture of screen films* The now material was tested under operational conditiono and patentedo' Screen films for relief-v surface-, and intaglio printing were developed.' The now screen-filmAhaterial differs from common films by the fact that the silver halide7-eryotala are in strict order in the Card 1/2 V The Miracle Screen 3/029/60/000/07/22/024 B013/B058 gelatinous emulsion layer, A picturo'composed of dots can thus be obtained from a half-tone pattern without having to use a screen. The negative represents a common half-ton* picture behind an opaque screen in intaglio printing. The diapositive obtained from this negative looks like the original behind a transparent screen. Special screen films were developed for color printing. The manufacture of these films is extremely simple. A screen is recorded first on a common film. An emulsion layer, sensitive to any tint, is then applied to the back of the base. The new screen films were experimentally tested at the printing shops of the "Pravda" and the 111-ya Obrazteovaya". The results were satisfactory.'The now material was recommended to the Moscow, Tatariya, and Latviya eovnarkhoz for test and use. There are 6 figures. Card 2/2 1. Buvu,r, v. v., Prof.; IONOV, B. D., Docen KISHINISKIY) 141. 1., Docent; SYROI-ffATNIKOV, S. A., Docent 2. USSR (000) 4. Lumbering 7. New textbook on land transport of timber (I'Land transport of timber." Prof. V. V. Buvert, Docent B. D. Ionov, Docent 1-1. 1. Kishinskiy, Docent 1. A. Syromyatnikov. Reviewed by 14. A. ZavIyalov, G. T. Urtaev.) Les. prom., 13, no. 4, 1953. 9. Monthly List of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, April -1953, Uncl. - ~MIII~Ml IONOV, B.D., doteent. 9a $or a modern technology of log skiddiM. Les.prou.14 no.4:4-7 Ap 154. (KLRL 7:4) 1. Koskovskly lemotakhnicheskiy institut. (Tmaboring) BUTIRTO Viktor Vladimirovich, prof.;,jQNOY,-BnrjA Dmitriyovich, dotsents .kand.tekhn.nauk; NISHINSKIT,,Xikhail Wich, d-oTs-e-nT-,-Rind.tekhn. nauk: S7RW.ATNIXOV,:Sergey Ar)cadlyevich. dotsent, kand.takhn. nauk; KGRUNOT, M.K., proffo reteensent; VIRIGO, M.P., prof.* doktor tekhn'snauk, red.; PCLTIVA, B.Kh., red.iod-va; BACHURINA, A,K., (Isand transportation of timber] Sukhoputnyi transport lesa. lzd.2., perer. Pod obahchei red. M.F.Verigo. Koskva, Gosles- bumisdat, Vol.l. 1960. 475 p. (MIM 14:4) (LumUrm.-Transportation) BZLOEMSWf, Vasiliy Tefimovich, kand..tokhn.nauk; MYSHINSKIT, V.V., Inish., reteenzent; 7VIVANOT, B.Te.,Aotsent. kand.tekhn.nauke retsenzent; IONOV.-B.Rlj_rod.; PITERM, Te.L., red.izd-va; PAILAIHM, N.L.. tekhn.jj-d.- [Road-building*mchineryl Dorozhnostroitelinye mashiny. Hookva, Gotilesbumisdat, 1960. 263 WRA 14:3) ^1 (Road machinery3l, TWIFAROV, Boris Yefimovioh, doteentl ION r. Boris ftitriyovich. dotsent; XCMOVO NAO profe, relmensoul; BHOMILKUNOT, Y.T., doUent, rateen2entl SHCHBENNOV, P.N,, dotsent, ratmenzent; SKIRNff, A.I.., dotment, red.; PITIRKAN, Ta.L., red.izd-va; wDOTINA, VA., tokhuored. [Road-buildive mobinery In the fores t Industries and prinelples of road building] Doroahno-stroitellnys =shiny v lesnot pro- iwablemnosti I osnovy doroshnoge del&. Moskva, Goolesbumisdat 1961.- 376 p. (XMJL 1412) 1. Urallskly lanotakhnichemkiy Institut (for roranov). 2. ArkbA'M- gel'skiy Isnotakhnichaskly Institut (for Shchelknuov). (Road mchinery) (Wood-using Industries) MELINIKCV, Valentin Ivanovichp dota., kand. tekhn. nauk; SSRGEYEV) Patr Georgiyevich, dots., kand. tekhn. nauk; DMITRIYEV, TuriyYakovlevich, kand, tekhn. nauk; SELIN, M.F., retsen- zent; DOILINITSINA, A.G.p retsenzent;-!Q=,,~-retsen- zont; KISHINSKIYj M.I.p otv. red.; PLESKO, Y6.P., red. izd- va; CRECHISHCHEVA, V.I.., tekhn. red. [Land transportation of timber and lumber floating]Suh-ho- jmitiWi lesotransport i lesosplav. Poskvap Goslesbumizdat',, 1962. 314 P. (MIRA 15:32) 1. Petrozavodskiy lesotekbnichaskiy tekhnikum (for Ionov). (Lumber-Transportation) Kr IONOV. B.I.; 'NOV, N.I., redaktor: KOITSWITINOV, V.P,,, redaktor; XW- A.K., takhnichookly redaktor [Practical guide for ship radio operators] Pmktichookoe rudoved" st,ro sudavomu radistu. lwd. 2-e. perer. I don. Moskva lxd-vo Mini- sterstva rechnogo, flota BSSR, 1952. 219 p. [Nicrofilml (HLRA 81?) (Radio In navigation) ICNCVP B. V. Reinforced Concrete Construction Large-scale reinforced concrete products for Moscow housing construction. Biul.stroi. tekh. 9 noi 15, 1952. 9. Monthl LUst of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, November -195X, Uncl. IONOV, F. IONOV, J'. RoadsIIn the Tatar A.S.S.R. are not maintained. Avt.transp. 32 1110.5:37 yq 154. 7--7) ]..'.Vpravlyayumhchly fatareklm avtotrntm "Sayus sagat tram". (Tatar A.S.S.R. -Roads ) (Roads--Tatar A.S.S.11.) TINNIMV, V., podpolkovn~k; IONOT, G., yodpolkoynik Breakthrough from the march. Voen.vest, 39 no.4;30-34 Ap 160. (MIRL 14-.2) (Attack and defame (MI34tary science)) E , SMOV, Aleksandr Iv9novich, polkovn1k; IAM. Gleb Alekeendrovich, podpolkovnlk; DMOUTo N*Po# polkovulk, red,; N,A,j tekhne'red.: (Teaching defense operations] Obuchenie deistv'iiam'v oboro- nitellnom boiu. Noekva, Voezx.izd-vo K-va obor.SSM. 1960. 716 P. NmA 14-.4) (Attack and defense (Kilitary science)) LONOj,__j.Ft_, inzhener; ARSINTIMV, A.N., rodaktor. [Commmications and signalling, interlocking and block systems on coal-pit railroads] Bvias' i STsB na zheleznodorozhnom trans- ports ugoltnykh karlerov. Mosima, Ugletakh12dat, 1952. 77 p. (MIRA 7:3) (Mine railroads) (Railroado--Signalling) LOZOVOYP A. V.; MUSE=CH, D. L.; RAVIKOVICH, T. M.; TITOVA, T. A.; CHRUWCVA.0 V. F.; Prinimal uchaBtlys: IONW, I. P. Two-stage @"ton for the hydrogenation method of production of chwdonle from Chereakhovo coal tars. Report No. 2. Trudy IGI 17:174-181 162. (MIRA 15t 10) (Coa2-tar products) (Hydrogenation) ACC NR: AR6018973 SOURCE CODE: UR/0271/66/000/002/BO37/BO37 AU-1HOR: Ionov, I. P. iTITLE: A magnetic shift register using chokes !SOURCE: Ref. zh. Avtomat telemekh i vychisl tekhn, Abs. 2B263 IREF SOURCE: Tr. Mosk. energ. in-ta. vyp. 60. no. 3, 1965, 67-82 OFIC LAGS: shift register, magnetic core !TRANSLATION: The operation of a shift register based on serially connected chokes is :analyzed and briefly described. The system realizes inverting codes for even and odd I !cores. The maximui, operational frequency is 250 KHz, limited primarily by the ferrite core properties. The system has a minimum number of components and is easily adjusted. lt is noted that for stable operation of this system, large turn ratios in the windings, i fare necessary, which leads to' anincrease in the demands on power sources. A simple 'method for system design based on integration without graphic analysis is inc ~Good agreement between design and exp-srivental data is noted* 2 referenceag W. P. CODE: 09 C.,.d UDC: 681.142.642.7 I.O,NOV.01.1..P.;,. IONKIN P P.A., reds [Principles of the calculation and design of magnetic semiconductor elements) Oanovy rascheta i proektirovaniia magnitno-poluprovodnikovykh elementov. Moskva, MoBk. energeticheskii in-t. 1965. 276 p. (MIRA 16t.12) 11 lorlov, I.P. Magnetic shift register using choke elements. Trudy MEI no. 60 no. 3t67-82 1'65 (MIRA 19 i1) FAMSTIN, B.N.., glav. inzh.; GVOZDEV, T.T., glav. inzh.; GRIGOROVICHp V.D., inzh.; XODDRASHENO, A.A... imh..-. AMEYEV., Yu,A,, inzhaj RYADNOV, A.A., inzho; YEGORYCHEV, V.P.9 inzh.,- SiMELIKIN, B.A.0 inzh.; MARSHUTIN,, S.F.9 insh.; XHODZHABARONOV., K.G.p inzh.; FEDOSOVAp Ye.H., tekbulle; OSIN.. V.I., teklmik; MIENOVA., le.F.p tekbnik; AVSARAGOVA.-G.A., tekhn1k; PASBEffEV, D.A., inzh.,- KAFUSTIN., V.N., irtzb.; WAGOROV9 L.A.,, inzh,* I ~OV KOPEYKINAj LeMol insh.1 TEIZMAl T,P,p tekhnik; CRAMIN, Zb.O.,, tekbnik [Alb= of the mecbanization of labor-consuming processes in stackbreediM] Allbom mekhanizatsii trudoemkikh protsesoov v zhivotnovodstvei Moskva# lmd-vo Giprosellkhoza. No.4.(Equip- ment and suppliei; for the mechanization of labor-conmming processes on livestock*farms] Oborudovanie i inventarl dlia mekhanizat&ii trudoemkikh-protBeenov na zhivotnovodcheskikh fermakh, 1959 [covers 1961. 2291 P. (HIHA 15:7) 1, GosudaretvaraVy inistitut po proyektirovanlyu sellskokho- zyaystvemVkh sooruzbeniy (for Kapustinp Grigoraviabs Rondrashanko,, Abodayerg'Ryadnovp Yegor7chev, SbDellkin,, Marshutins, Kboftbabaronmg Fedosovag Osing Semenovaq Avsara- gova). , (Continued on next card) KAPUSTIN, B,N. - (continued). Card 2. 2. Respublikanskly gosudarstvenzWy instittit po proyektirova- nlyu sovkhoznogo.stroitelletva (for Ovozdev, Pashkeyev, Kapustin., V.N*,, Wagorov, Ionov., Kopeykinal Telepneva; Chakurin). (Agrimatural machinery) 11 .\ IONOT, L" insh. Machine for procesming read."i. 15 no.8s22 Sell.strols 15 noo8:22 Ag 160o (MIRA 13:8) (Be" (Jbtazv)) I I P- ... :.' ,. i I IONOVj L.p inzhenerg, izobretatell Air-filed, framework. Isobr. i rate. no@ 3:28-29 Mr 161. (MIRA 14:3) LYUTI?ALIN KOV, F. Stematurs made of mdamical and pne=aLtic elemente, Sell Otroisi 16 n0.6:34-1546 161. (KM U:7~ Nachallnik byui-6 soderstvip ratichaUsataii i isobretatet- tistyu Nauctmo-issiodovateliskogo- inatituta O'el'skogo' stroitelle'tva' Uor lono'V). 2., Nachd 'Aik otde3.a nauchn9y metodiki i ieormiLtsil (for Ijyutf&Ubekov). (Bdildingis Matic) MTKIN, M.Ye.; KISHKO, Ya.G.; URIN, A.I.; KOLOTILOVA, L.V.; IONOV, L.I. Use of the fluorescent method for the detection of poliomyelitis and rabies viruses. Vop. virus. 10 no.1;26-29 Ja-F 165. (MIRA 18.5) 1. Institut epidemiologii, mikroblologii i gigiyeny, LIvov. ACC NR: AP7008877. SOURCE CODE: UR/0020/66/169/003/0550/0553 AUTHOR: Icilov, L. N.; Akimovs 1..A.; Terenin, A. N. (Academician) ORG: none TITIS: Photoconductivity of organic dyes at a frequency of 10 sup 10 c SOURCE: AN SSSR. Doklady, v. 169, no. 3, 1966, 550-553 TOPIC TAGS: dye chemical, photoconductivity, EPR, klystron SUB CODE: 20 ABSTRACT: The photoconductivity of 11 organic dyes has been studied at ultra- high frequencies by means of an electron paramagnetic resonan radi05pectrograph with a transient resonator, described earlier (E. V. Baranov A. V, I Ak1movV DAN$ 1954, 184, 1964). No use was made of magnetic fields; the dye sample In 4 the form of a 10- -10-3 cm layer was held by a mica disc 5.3 cin in-diameter and placed in the region of the maximum electric field within the H012-type cy- lindrical resonator (Q factor with the sample - 10 4). The UHF power generated by a klystron 9600 Mc, P.- 5 mW) passed through the resonator and was re- gistered by a bolometer.~ The article presents data about the various samples ujed, the spectral distribution of photoconductivity at VHF of copper polyphe- ".nylacetylenide, and curves of temperature dependence of photoconductivity at UHF of a crystalline and amorphous layer of dyes for all 11 dyes used. Ye. K. Put- seyko, and 1. A. Popova supplied the pigment samples, while A. M. Sladkov supplied ~,the polymer, The authors thank V. Ye. Kholmogorov for discussions during.the work* iOrig. art. has: 2 figtwes and 1-table. '1JPRS: 38,4171 i Card lZI UDC L_U3_-_2j.5 -LONOV. Lev Pavlovich; GORLYSHKOV., Vladimir Favlovicb; LYUTFALIBMV, Farkhad Ashrafov1ch;.ZHURAV1ZV, B.I., red. izd-va; BoDIONOVAt VA$ takhn. red. be assembled in [ftral buildings that few hours] can a 3ellskAe postrolki, sobirrieVe sa neskollko chasov. Mo- skva, G6sstroiisdat 1962. 78 p. (MIRA 160) (Farm buildingai (Buildings, Prefabricated) IOrOV, Le7 Pavlovish-, GORLY311YT-V, 1 ladimir Favlovich [Rural struct,.Lres assembled In a few hours; aid for the rural builder] Sel'skie postroiki, sobIraexqe za neskollko chasov: -,mosh~lhl sel2skorm stroitellu. Izd.2., perer, J dop. Moakvap Stroiizdatj 1964. 142 p. (MIRA 18i1) IONOV, N.B. Observations on the dormmse in Bet-Pak-Dals. 1xv.Aff Kazakh.SU. Ser.sool. no-7:124-126 148. (MLBA 9:5) (Bet-Fak-Dala--Dormouse) 1. 1011OV, M. 14. 2. USSR (600) 4. Furniture Industry 7. Put out furniture of exceptional quality. Der.i lesokhim prom 1 no2 1952 Monthl Lists of %asian Accessions, Library of Congress, Mar .2hA 1953, Unclassfied. a -- ~ONOV, N., inzhener. sy~phon.-Avt. trans 35 no.1:34 Ja 157o (" 10 8 3) I 4XIMobilem-4paratue and SuPP11691- 9(2) SOV/S!--59-9-16/33 AUTHOR: Ionovq N.A.,,Technician TITLE: Copper-Graphite Contacts for Contactors PERIODICAL: Energetik, 1959, Nr 9, p 24 (Uq'sp') ABSTRACT: For simplifying the operation of VT a.c. contactors, their stationary metal contacts were replaced by cop- per-graphite brushes having a high copper content. This replacement resulted in less frequent cleaning of the contacts, as compared to the all-metal contacts previously used. Regardless o� the high frequency of switching operations, the stationary contacts proved to be stable in mechanical respect. The author sta- tes that.the quality of such contacts may be impro- vedg if they were manufactured at electrical equip- ment plants. There is 1 diagram. Card 1/1 SUBSTAKOV, R.P., brigadir ekskavatorshchikov; IOMY, N.A., brigadir ekskavatorshchikov I Using excavators in cleaning and deepening reservoirs. Suggested by I.F.Shestakov, N.A.Ionov. Rats.i izobr.pred3L.v strol. no.11:87-" 159. (MIRA 13:3) 1. Leningradskoye upravleniye tresta Gidrospetametallurg- stray. (Reservoirs) 1 16 1 11 1$ It u it u IS Is u is it 001 . A IWO"" a "Ptive b .ak" Iot" Is 60 lowmfto a# Yah" muo *0 ft swhws W lam"W"I lumes"s, V w,4" IC n . o aw J. )AW64. Ph U R . ys. ( .) go, WAIA. Of wwove kms aft prudacvd. From tam. 008 Urrinrnis UN 0110 Pmdflv-'a" NeWive4mat camttt% isive" In a labbs), I;be dwonm *"Ike of Aw baklen see 00 4t slowmmt ' 004 $31 WidiloWfaledby, .90 --mkuw of 2 H. Rallitrumn age Neo woo 400 2 woo' -ILA PITAIllol"ALL11104101CLIAWICAT" [ slaw woe iAl at #JSAII dw amp III It Iflow Mgt our oft d j nilloill r An A 1 11 ow a o IF I ff IN I A 4 3 u a a 10 n a ' 0 0 sow/ V_ oal .14 F # 1 0 fl 0 U It ld it is is a V a IF a n a -S-L. It a A --- IT CLIO a --:c sea pareft*0 41,64jidwe Ions I& Ike pmeas of nuffico 1-00 00 Ineleam ad &" Mild" on heated tuaptes. N. 1. '400 jonne. compt. raw. acad. $Co. V. ft. s. S. 2S. b12-13 1~ 00 (IW(im gmj").-A thamodymunic treatment analo- 1 00 Court to that followed In the deduction .4 Langmuir's cqAglim Was "plied to ettle. the plubabUity fur a Uloan 1911010 Mpd. from the metal surface as a neg. lon. Tbt -Ole 00 equation found. giving theraticlof the mr.ofiloull.allLaMort, P. totbeoo.of neg. halogen ionsp- evapic.front th,thralrd Judactily #/w.- (I +4&,v +2,-l - 9 -74r) :0 when V is the work function of the surface. I the ionimitli;9 ^p 0*0 00 priff"lid of the alkali atom and S the t-leciton airmity of 9 the hall& &torn. KCI, RbC1, X11r, Rlifir and,XI wrrr 0 z 'ti juvwipled by dirrctins mol. twom'.agail"t a h-silted kv "met, then drawing off the lons with an elec. livid and 000 counting Irith a Frurariay counter 12 cis). away Will tile filament. Sepn. of electrons and ions was achieved by a OOU sea mann"ir field. The neg. current thus produrtil wA., CO 0 (ound to lnceta~c markedly with increased temp. 3( the W 20 61010M. OF using 4.We. v. foro wW the expd. vallic(or rath &+/P- the following values lot rkelro" 6ff)nity of halide Alm- - Obtshwd: 16, C1. S - 3.7t and S.-,K see e- V - Ovorn KCI end Rho 1; for t4r. S - 3,64 both KDrand XbHr) and 1, 1. S 3~1 I C. V. Mum KI week W1W MITALLURCKAIL LITIMATtillf CLAIWKATWO 81 __ '-_____...-1_-. 09 11wollro : .1 --1 -_ -1 -1 _ -.- " --- 10 Mass $flow At 04. 401 4134JI am a., All 71-- 0 J K a it I it it R a 4 0 0 0 ML4M wwwwwwwo V I_ A - 4 " a 43 is 45~co 04 A -1 1 1 _l_ # 9 depeadence ad the fermstloa of septivel, T mg wilime bes as the awfus of N. .3 Phys. tam.. 1.4aingrad State UZ;77 Expa 1.00 **a "77 4=bys. (U.S.S.R.) 17, M-T(IL47) (in Rumisn).-- IU lanouls %/v- - (4AIv) IN-3-Ar relating the ncm. ow ip- and v of dertrums, "IF, JOBS. and neutral atoms. -00 rvmp.. mmkw at Ift imp. km on isiandewcut fan- tbtbe&Wcd K. tb kw (A - Rk-hwd- mu*s i - almmentmry ). the work futirtion frm The 1 11 of tk prob"Ity W rAiKe ionization vm sabjected to sWl. tM by vateu cd the dec' md d the iomic (L) costributioun to the cur. not latemsity. the sucammewd Y&W iilL being taislatimut a** tor./P-. The up, al i6mod d- wasoblained In& nape. true tolm by moveming the dectroms with the aid of the 00.3 .900 mapelic bddW scoil cva" with ik W filament, of dim. Oew a. king; with 3 coadal Ts cylinders the 0. !l:C%=h (am, a ".. mob 66 m v a the movering smob, and a Mo grid 12 nun. in met dim. &W 40 man. ka, a" Prowtive rinp A) mm. laws at m moode-cat pokaw cd 9 v. and a vid pa- lestW of 10 v., a AM al. 100 Patent redwed On ancale current J(P-lW times., Owing to the large "tam at" of the griol. After evermation ~ to 10-6 mum. Jig. an ampul MW with icillm was cmdod, the temp. was kept at 300 below W. Perfect linearity al p8ms al Jig (i./M) use meminst i/r. mun r - INO'C to 2=*J(.. under kmhnc premsm al I X 10' amd 02 X 10-6 uses. Jig. confirused thavalidityultbalarmumbidwived. Flonstbaslopealthe straight Jim. S - 3.1 vi N. Than MOM Item tlvt"3 914m Wool, too $844 .1v sho, out 43till ONE *.. Lit In 0 a W 0 a a 'I N a 'j to a --j-j-NX 0 v It OF a 0 000900 0 0 o 0 m " " : : 22 0 ! 4, 0 0000000906 S 9 a 11 U ism 1t18 on zln'n' 3XI i~s a a 11 a n 34 a it 9 x 2 a 4 I e ft f f a M I- K L OR W!" d 0 00 A Of 00 go go Sawa dwWOME&S me do PWM it" (A palmakarn go two" in owing kalawee an -00 04 (Unisigrad Phys. Teck. last.). J. Rairou. TAMPet. PAY'. (U.S.S.R~.) to, W101)(190)(14 RuWan). d. C.A. 4z' 00 r 5767h,-71u; MaxwWRian character J the Initial tangy set distribution of K + km FWW4 from X, KC), and Mir by t lie on W between 13W oW NM*K. is efc-straWd applicability of the ezpantatial relation between the In- 0* .3 tewity .1 dw Ivay current i WA the Stoppino potential dif-I (creme V between #be vim aM Me colimlor in a cTlin&k-41 i.0-volAt (wbem is - Sat". CH"Ut. t1twistary charge). valid far clannod electroo end"ion- ago. Los ilia im a function d Y, the slopes beiall the sanve for K, XCI, K"r. &W 1tv ek"rons at Ow ~nve temp.. and TW temp,. djuditishing wkb rioift temp. of the W vim. obtained front the slopes we Itigber tb&n thaw detd. by the Imusatsmum cut tat. At 2011K., G for the pos. iqxw d( AW for elects we about equal. tive 4 log ili. (V) lines me Pradically pwa!kl. N. Th.00 too, see slow *"Any Oil.) wit 041 off 114M at &OW Act ING An ftj a a a 1 0 0 j A 'bU It AV 10 eT 00 0 0 g 0 41 0 41 0 .0 10FIFAFfittim I 060CM11 4104o 0-septeltis Miffs ~ 0o A IS don 2 the tarsisdolif of (DukelskTI and E, C. A. 33, 00). Alm-uvr of a direct he adliket betwesis MWas detti. of V for W hi KIT vapor under the %.ainc conditions ! 00 -0 00.4 Ves. N.Jjoolov_ prevents evaluation of an accurate S value fur F; it * 6 ad tbo sixties of locandeseakst h f Wi 6 k l i I . 0 0 in o n c cm i ectrou I. (Leningrall Phys. Tech. last.). J. pa. Theoret. Phys. taken - 4.93, from the tbernwe I S - 4 (21) The 0 e y )' d one finds for F si 42 XF va r (ie S S 30 IS 37+-W(IM)(in Ru C A (U ) . . . . . . . . . s an . , po , , I- = has the %ame shape as for' for WCl 1- (103/71 curv of the o SIU t ti -(I~ Th I it U l ( 1 . v_ P ra e e n ens o n ~ . og y h lee e %4mc process neg. long 1mving the W Wsudace and the no. of neutral the alit" metal balides; this indicates t Atone Ittilkinging thereon) was detd. In it nu%.,s of formation of ties. tons. (3) In ThClo one ol~rves, be- ~90 ph, lailickitin masses between 3 mail MA). oto Inol. swe Cl - iiiie. 4140 a a=. corfri4'anifing 16) The uejr. niol. - f Cl- at AN-ut -~t litAx Tt t KI I C i b Cl XU d KF A Ul = 11111111111 0 . rn % v n ,.%4 a on r o 11 of CI Cx an . r CI, . R h *x ith furth r in h l i b; ~; _ t e w r . and ifecreascs Solurw A g unction all The temp. Tot t W wire. slid Jjfksrol with :hw 941110 0 0 the formula &-jr - (I + Vii-Me/An-1 (where v - work temp.; the intensity of Cis-, after paulng thrutigh the 00 06 j tuacdon cl the surface, it - elementary charge -S - Spal., falls very ralifilly with rising temp. The lower - unobtainable fly the ll,Kti cycle owing ote to the Sdha- lbult of S (at Cl f the n anallo ffi it ion) l t =00 0~ 3 c ec rim A n et. j , y o , g Langlituir expreiislon for pas. lotlisation, #,.Ip - 11 + to The unknown energy of dis-Alen. Cl~ CI + CI tl -' ) Coo i o at 201 -0-1hr) (I - ionization potential of the pas. ion). can be estd. from the ratio (- 00 13 j! I The quotient P. /P- permits cxpt]. delta, of the clectron 2000*K.), on The assumption that, at Olat temp., the W b covered with a layer of Th thicker than inono- h tt th c ffi i f th R llu l d t f f k .00 oo e orm sur n e wns. equ o n e a e a a are p ty o - 1 Th h f see I I 4t o pure / 7. The relation is linear at teinfis. Atomic, that Is, that the V involved 1% t against 10 lot I 00 it above 23410*K.; below that temp.. I - decreaws with 328 e.v , further. that at ZNWK.. where I"h 1-M1-) - j w.4 tion of bW1I- 4 forin the f I t ( Ii I h f 6 h l d 1 woo 1 o A I e ro%# o ) eye ins t., erro" "let t new 1k t an emp. an y (VluvpL ng # ; 1 F this 11"IWAS" that W Is falwl 41w1110 11) 04"Mikilim Ut - ad I C rV P411141, Oil ihv~ s"Millptin"s SM1.1 l this In isho shown by like hystemW effoctit I Tb 400 t s Pun-latrill with thil poslubits that .1 9.7 6,v. i Thii - for Cl,,h,,,,, be lower than for Cl (3.7) becauw of the ". - to S) Vallu" derived from the expil, I.Inpiri of the recti- CI_ o di C i f h C , mot - -wil. s t e energy t . The gn o l + 4 linear ioti% of the log V(10SIT) graphs coincide sails- assumption of thick coverage of the W surface with Th see 2 , factoll ryvritb thow obtained from P. /P-; if # Is taken at 20M*, 6 suboantiatnt by an rstu. of the no. of Th Dr 3.34. 4 54 c fitid- for the irld. cif S: Cl 3.7. Atoms aniving at the surface, 1011-1011/sq. cm./sec.. as ble error of -0.10 c.v. These values with a 6 3 12 oo C. I . . against the I'S X 10 frow the atolM%1%q- Cm./sec. evap~ Wen, -1md more reliable thin those found previotely . Zis". Thou . too IAL~~GKIL MINIMUM CLA$WbCAIMN A, I t- 1L . see _ " ilia., 11"Olfivd 11" 4100111V - We 0 t4A*ss .!Jl 411100 "at QWV alit assillogi 1111131 ~W G.V all l1 0 p A I 1 0 0 to 0 S 0 0 ilif 0 f 0 0 IONOV, 1. USSR/Chendstry r Ibiii,'Xlectrolytic.- Sep 48 Won of Chemistry - Alkali Metal Salts, 'Negative Ions of Alkali Metals 1n Gas Discharges Occurring ixt Vapors of Alkali4Woid Saltop" V, M. 1)ukellskiyp E. Ya. Zandberg, N. I. lonov,, Leningrad Physicotech Inot imeni P. X. Lebadsvp Acad Set UWA, 2 PP ND*k Ak Neuk SSSRw Vol LXII, No 3 Introduces reaLlts of preliminary experiments Investigating emposition of ions wh1ch form in a ymsecme discharge in vapors of the alkali-beloid salts LiCl, Nalt and RIO EstablisW the existence of negative ions of Li,, Cl, and I and that their concentration in the discharge was large enough to enable easy discovery and measurement (mass). Submitted by As3od A. F. laffel, 14 Jul 48 PA 36/4M5 USSR/Physic.0 Ions Mass-Spectrography Sep 49 "Negative Ions of JUbidium and GeBiumon M. Dukel'skiyp E. Ya. Zandberg, N. I. Ionav, Laningrad.Paysicotech Inst, Aead Sci USSR, 2pp. nDok Ak Nauk SSSRN Vol LXVIIIP NO.I. Used a low-pressure discharge in vapors of RbCl and Csfil%as an ion source. Ions were drawn from discharge in a vacuump accelerated to an energy of 1,350 ev, and anlyzed with a magnetic mass-speotrograph with a calculated resolving power of about 100. Ionic currents were measVred with a vacuum-tubs electrometer having sensitivity of approx 601(r'4 amp per scale division. Discovery of negatic Rb and a ions shows that atoms of all alkali metals have electron affinity. Submitted by Acad. A. F. loffe 6 Jul 49. PA 2/50TIO3 NNW 11'. 1. USSRI Thysics Discharge Iona, Negative Oct 50 nNegative Ions in a Gaseous Discharge in Vapors of Halide Salts of Alkali and Alkali- Earth Metals," V. M. Dukellskiy, E. Ya. Zandberg, N. 1. Ionov, Leningrad Ph,,-sicotecffi Instj Acad Sci USSR. "Zhur Eksper i Teoret Fiz" Vol XXI NO 10, pp 877--P,85. Mass-spectrosc6pic analysis of comyosition of negative ions occurring in gaseous discharges in vapors of subject saltsi Establishes e.,dstence of M7 Na7 p K- I Rb Cs- Ions ME: and Ca , in discharges in vapors Of MgC12 and CaCl~are not observed Molecular negative ions of -tyye Mer' and MeX jare observed in the casiF of alkali halide .salts, and ionE; of tyTe Mer- , Mer2_ , and MeX3- for CaC12 and MgC12 also are observed Negative atomic ions of Ag are observed in discharves in vapors of Agl. Submitted 7, -Mar 50 PA 169T93 IONOVI N. I. 'USSR/Physics Plaa'ma of Gaseous 1 Aug 52 Discharge 074easuring the Electrons and Positive Ions in the '.:Plasm of Gaseous Discharge," N. I. Ionov, Lenin- grad Phys-Tech'Inst;-,Acaa Sci USSR "Dok Ak Nauk SWR" V01 85, No 4, pp 753-755 Describes attempts to utilize, for the detn of plasma parameters, probes sihich consist of 2 elec- trodes (grids and collector plates), thus ensuring sep measurement.of the electron current and current qf posIons arriving at the collector. Finds the energy distribution of the pos ions In the plasma. Submitted by Aced P.I.,Lukirskiy 3 Jun 52. Z (i '~~UA!16~lftxgnet~ 4e~tb.etet Idth a high ct ~Sol power.' AL. Ifamyrin,'and V. B - 7402h WhIl ~' OVO&A to5l Fik ~ v. ur. - s. . .-A rtmrmaac ) napefle mass spectromettr is descr -jeb bm an &=td current intensityJand.whosot rewlviam power car. bn wi~44 &wntinulty, J. R;vt % F, Oetnergy of the etectroaJAIII Of th W O 0 OI - a vzd N. L, lottoi PI, .-t-TOW. T ;A_N, uIbIll I 11ph " M ! Em--4Y. DOW joAk4 & f U i Ifini d I atoms was etd. by a Clectrov ty o -p- r, an AJ Th Wo" I the -Saha.La it ri willwa OU for the awface ip ~ ; The difficult t Ula is Its alk.; halide. 378 MIMMU 011FRiRlehardsou) kfuttedon, which c4a be detd.,ionly Indinctly.' A pibadfli tion ofthat formula that, ' * ' does not cotitalu'#, Is-used to calt, the 6 possible cowl;Ww Ions of the diffeterift, S, ai- A; In dectwo affinity of-2 hal C101- 't - Thesee 6 diffaftOW(e4pressed In Cv ) Lim; Se , . t 0 03 S Yt ~; 0.27 ~t 0.02, SjLw Sr - 0.03 + 0.02, h I b ffi l sence ofa su ently- n t e a c accurately knowji value for any cue halogen atoin. a pro. visional value of 3.6 Is asumed for Br. Le Slw' !, 3.6 ev. ' - and this" combined with-the above difference values. yields; 7 314"n. Sp wZ.1h ev- V. H. Q- - 0, o N v v, *SUBJECT USSR / PHYSICS CARD I / 2 PA - 1580 AUTHOR IONOV'N.I. TITLE "ne ffufff-a-a Ionization of the Molecules of Potassium Chloride and Cesium Chloride in an Electric Field. PERIODICAL Zurn.techn.fia,26, faso.10, 2200-2203 (1956) Issued: 11 / IT56 Some years ago the author carried out comparative measurements of the tempera- ture dependence of the current of potassium ions produced on the occasion of the surface ionization of potassium atoms and of molecules of all halide in tungsten in order to discover the influence exercised by the chemical potassium ion compounds on surface ionization. The effective pressure in the bundle was from 10-6 to 10-7 torr. The dependences found are shown in a diagram. It is interesting to note the absence of a noticeable influence exercised by the chemical compound of the potassium atoms on the course of the temperature deT pendence of the flux of positive ions. The slight increase of amperage on the occasion of the ionization of molecules as compared with the amperages of potassium atoms in the temperature interval of from 1200 to 18000 K can be explained by an increase of the output work of tungsten as a result of ab- 0 sorption of the halide in the surface. At temperatures of the wire below 1200 all curves have the same shape. According to S.V.STARODUBCEV a thermal dis- sociation of a certain part of the impinging salt molecules in alkali and halide atoms takes place. The surface of the heated tungsten acts catalyti- cally on the dissociation of the salt molecules. Furthermore, the decrease of iurn.teelm.fist26, fase.10, 2200-2203 (1956) CARD 2 / 2 PA - 1580 amperage on the occasion of an increase of temperature beyond 12000 K tends to show that the salt molecules which are in temperature equilibrium with the aur- face are rather highly ionized. The modification of evaporation heat "adatoms" (evaporation on the surface) in the case of a constant number of molecules im- pinging upon the surface per second shifts the low temperature range of the ionization curve. In the case of surface ionization the evaporation heat of the flaaatoms" contains the work performed against the polarization forces. This work is diminished in an exterior electric field and consequently the temper- ature threshold of surface ionization must depend on the field strength on the surface. In order to confirm this assumption tests of surface ionization mentioned in the above title were carried out. The shape of the electrodes is described. Test results are shown in a diagram. It was found that the tempera- ture threshold of surface ionization shifts considerably towards lower anode temperatures in the case of an increasing potential difference between anode and grid. In the particlularly thin tungsten band marked ionization emission 0 was noticed already at .50 C. This shifting of the temperature threshold can be explained on the basis of the ideas developed by DOBRECOV. INSTITUTION: Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute of the Academy of Science in the USSR. tovol, N I - KAUTAYST, T. 1. vlass avalyser for the rapid determination of Isotopic coqPumento of &UM1189 AM &Umll earth ustals. Zav. lab. 23 no.5:6214e4 (KEAL tote) 2, loulacradskly flalko-tekhalobeekly lustitut Akadvall VA* SM. (Was spectrometry) (Isotopes) Nov, 20-1 - U/44 AUTHORS: Bakulina, I.N., Ionov, N.I. TITLE-. Determination of the Energy of Electronic Affinity of Sulphur Atoms by Means of the Method of Surface Ionization (Opredele- niye energii elektronnogo srodstva atomov sery metodom pover- khnostnoy ionizataii) PERIODICALs Doklady AN SSSR, 1957, Vol. 116, 11r 1, PP- 41 - 44 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The experiments described by the present paper permit a very reliable determination of the energy of the electronic affini- ty of sulphur atoms. The authors determined the difference of the energies between electronic affinity of bromine atoms and sulphur atoms by studying the surface ionization of the mole- cules of sodium bromi-Aes (NaBr) and sodium sulphites (Na S). For this purpose bundles of NaBr-mole cules and Ila2S molecuies taken from two independent platinum furnaces were directed on- to a tungsten wire heated up to a temperature T. The posi- tive and negative ions formed on the wire were analyzed by means of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer. During ionization Card 1/2 of NaDr and Na25 ions only Na+ ions are observed in the spec- trum of the positive ions, and Br ions and S ions in the 20-1 -11/U Determination of the Energy of Electronic Affinity of Sulphur Atoms by Means of the Method of Surface Ionization spectrum of the negative ions. The method used for measurements is discussed in short. This method does not give absolute values for the energy of electronic affinity. As a result of their ex- perimento the authors give the value s 2 = 2,37 eV for the ener- gy of the electronic affinity of the sulphur atoms. This value agrees with the value a 2 > 2,2 eV found by ionization of so molecules by means of an electron collision. A recently under- taken determination of the energy (by means of the method of photo ionization of the electrons from negative S ions) re- sulted in the value a - 2,07 � OtO7 eV. The deviation of this value from the value iound here may indicate that the energy of the electronic affinity of the bromine atolms is less than 3,6 eV. There are 1 figure and 5 references, 3 of which are Slavic. ASSOCIATIONt Physic o-Teebn1cal Institute AS USSR (Fiziko-tekhnichas%iy in- stitut Akadenii nauk SSSR) PRESENTED: April 27, 1957, by A.A. Lebedev, AcadeLiician SUBMITTE D: April 23, 1957 AVAILABLE: Library of Con.-ress Card 2/2 IDNIDNI too ~, 7 volitows, JPjQOvh4jj~-Pjjj% AVISONSt Vasil. Ore, A.9., , F* V , ;. T.snopol-skays, A.A. L ." F*rvovs: ; (The lith TIM# Intordeps"mantal Saminsrow Cathode glectroniz - . Meeting) (MaShduv*dOm*tv*VAyY Som1nor po, k0tv- 7 I alfktroffLks) (12-4 assedalys) I "diotobho"", I o""tr"alka, "9,9, Vol %, Nr 4. pp 731 - 732 (USSR) AMMAM A meeting of the Gemixer took place a. December 1, at the Institut ro4totokhnikl-i slaktrordki AN 3339 (Institute of Radio-outio.oring and glactropica or the AG,Sc.U5SM$. During the meeting 8 papers were read. ".a. ft"kinabLLY read a paper entitleds "Kinetics of the ZIA-ar-ption -at Osysen an the lkwfac, or Tunastan'. t!nuam and A.M. P.kar. The second paper. by I.E. _ dwelt with "The Admixture lPhoto.dtf*Gt *?-W~--rconduc tore In the Region OC the 8261ton Light Ab-orptic.-. The paper by I.L. JMINLtrich "a devoted to "to Problem of the Secondary Slectron at fine FILM of a Number of Organic Substances'. The problem of "Surf :: .h Stroag Slostric Field on a Surface ca~x 10.1.0tion In a a ftia-hemogenecus Work Function- won onsid.rd by B.Ts. landbe a svAjjLLL_L9aqv. I M. Sakullas and ; ; 1 fid Ted a paper *%%at of the It I r FO at I and of I h I tastmost !no xc * moth" t aso 10" . X.L.t : Atuo by % I Iss"jaLfakly sed A.P. Alsksolondealt with tVa-probles, at Through a Disle 'e O Str tu. ftso the Correat, Carriers Are Istrodaced Through D. . f Contests by It"" of Slestrom Sambardments. The lecture jazishow a" a IL the following by D.A. '20"m ad -no fte-imuty or the ... r the Total-om.rzy DistrAbOtiom or 914strolig In a Oftest-apbarleal Condensers. X& also, $.A, I _EEWAbbev and A.A.Shys som The work by N.kL _ dealt with 'Am Lars-evigatiam at the asoondary olootroft solostan &" the sharacterietto energy losses or a ausbor at dialottrios (Close. nice. tluoftto and alkalt-bolold m~gr"tals). card k/S .AUTHORS: TITLE! PERIODICAL: ABSTRACT: Agishev, Ye. I.j_Ion SOV/57-58-8-27/37 Mass Spectrometer With a Pulsed Ion Source (Mass-spektroskop s impul0anym istachnikom ionov) Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki, 19589&Nr 8, pp, 1775 1788 (USSR) Since the present work is a continuation oflthat.reported in reference I problems bearing upon the resolution and tensity of the mass spectrograph ate approached in this paper6 Further experiments carried out with test mass speotrographs in the laboratory are described. These experiments furnished date for industrial equipment similar to the series of test apparatus. The evidence advanoed provides the following information of the particular features of the pulsed mass spectrograph; 1) The resolution of the spectrograph can-be raised to values as high as several hundreds. The resolution 'is basically limited by difficulties arising in the design of an amplifier with a sufficient amplification factor and a band width of the order of 100 "mc . 2) The intensity of this appa- ratus operating4ith an ion-focusing source is higher than that SOV/57-58-8-27/37 -Mass Spectrometer With a Pulsed Ion Source of magnetic mass speotrographs with the same resolution. This is due to the fact that practically no limitations are imposed on the diameter of the aperture of the ion source in mass spectroscopes. 3) On account of the direction and velocity focusing it is possible io analyze the ions being formed in the ionization chamber. Thus the intensity of light is in- creased and it is possible to investigate ionization processes with a small probability (for example the photoionization of gases).4) When the accelerating potentials U, are small the resolution is determined from the initial energy distribution of the ions. Hence, the mass spectroscope can be used in the measurement of the width of the mass-peaks of the source energies of split-off ions. A knowledge of the initial energies is highly important in the investigation of the binding energies of atoms in molecules, 5) The oscillograph permits to localize simultaneously the whole mass spectrum of the gas under in- vestigation corresponding to one definite moment of ionization. 6) The modifications of the gas composition in the ionization chamber in principle can be located by the pulse sequence of Card 2/3 the ionizing pulses of the electron current which in the de- SOV/57-58-8-27/37 Mass Spectrometer With a Pulsed Ion Source scribed equipment is 10-4seo. This particular feature of the device is of importance in the study of the time course of various processes. The Scientific Superior Collaborators Be Ya. Zandberg and B. A. Mamyrin assisted in the construction of the test mass spectroscopes* There are 8 figures and 5 references, 4 of which are Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Leningradakiy.fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut AN SSSR (Leningrad Physical and Technical InatituteAS USSR) SUBMITTED: July 10, 1957 Card 3/3 ZANDEM, R*Y&.; IONDY 1.1* Surface Ionization of lithium io 09 on the polycryxtalllao tumpton In electric fields up to 1.1 x 10 velts on. Zhur, tokh. fix, 28 no.ll-.2444-2454 1 158. (MIRA 12: 1) (Lithium chloride) (Ionization) f 5(4j% SOV/76-33-9-28/37 AUTHOfiSs Bakulinai I.'N.~ lonov. TITLED, Determination ofthe Electron Affinity of Halogen- and Sul- phur Atoms as Well as of the CN-Radical by the Method of Surface Ionization PERIODICAL: Zhurnal'fizicheskoy khimii, 1959, Vol 33, Nr 9, pp 2o63 2072 (USSR) ABSTRACT; Due to the lack of,reliable methods of determination, an accurate theoretical calculation of the electron affinity (s) has hitherto been made only for hydrogen, while for all other elements various methods of extrapolation were employed. Direct-experimental methods of determining (s) probably are the most reliable ones. One of the first of its kind is the method of surface ionization (SI) which may be used for the determination of (s) of most atoms in which (s) is a positive value. However this method has also some disadvantages which are to be taken into account. Some values are given which were obtained for the s(X) (Refs 2,3) by various direct experi- mental methods (Table 1). In the present case, the (Sl)-method Card. 1/3 of two was used for a determination of the difference s s 2 1 Determidation of the Electron Affinity of Halogen- SOV/76-33-9-28/37 and Sulphur Atoms as Well as of the CN-Radical by the Method of Surface Ioni- zation negative ions with the application of equations which avoided the above disadvantages and yielded more accurate results. The. ionic current1wasImeasured on a mass spectrograph (Fig 1) and an EMU-3 electrometer. The values of al - 82 for all halogens (Table 2) are independ 'ent on temperature of the tungsten file- ment of the ionic source within the temperature range under investigation (1750 '-22300K). The value of (a) for fluorine is smaller than that1for chlorine, i.e. contrary to expectation, there is no uniform increase in the (s) of the halogens with a decrease of the atomic number. Determination' of (a) for the sulphur.atom, which was equally made by measuring the negative ionic current, yielded a value of 1.23,t 0.05 ev -with the ob- - servation of - independence 'on Lhe temperature of the tungsten ~.filament (Table,4). Further, the authors determined the ~s~ of the CN and examined the applicability of the method of a - determination for radicals. Finally, preliminary qualitative experiments were made to investigate the (SI) of Se and Te on Card 2/3 tungsten, as well as of Sb and As on thorium-oxide cathodes (TOC) (with a molybdenum core). In this connection, the authors Determination of the Electron Affinity of Halogen- SOV/76-33-9-28/37 and Sulphur Atoms as Well as of.the CN-Radical by the Method of Surface' Ionizat~Lon investigated the self-emission of the negative ions of (TOO) and found that the (S1) on (TOO) may be employed for the preparation of eff-eotive sources of negative ions of electro- negative elements. There are 2 figures, 4 tables, and 22 references,~,8 of which are Soviet. ASSOCIATIONj Akademiya nauk 56SR Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut Leningrad (Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, Phys?oal-teohnical institute) SUBMITTEDs 'March lo, 1958 Card 3/3 ?1(1) AUTHORS: 'TITLE: PERIODICAL: ABSTRACT: Card 1/4 Bakulina, I. ff., Ionov, N. I. SOV/56-36-4-5/70 Determination of the Ionization Potential of Uranium Atoms by the Method of Surface Ionization (Opredeleniye potentsiala ionizatsii atomov urana. metodom poverkhnostnoy ionizatsii) Zhurnal eksp6rimentalt'hoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1959, Vol 369 Nr 4, PP 1001-1005 (USSR) In the present paper the authors describe a method of de- termining the ionization potential differences of two arbitrary elements which were ionized simultaneously on a heated metal- lic surface (tungsten or tantalum). The authors had already employed this method (Ref 1). In the introduction, the theoreti- cal bases of the method are discussed, and for the ion current the formula I = ErLe exp [(q~ + I(I-E-1 - V) E/kTj is given. (& = electron charge, n = number of atoms impinging per second on the surface, T - surface temperature, P = a function weakly dependent on T, into which there also enters the statistical sum of ion and atom). In the-following chapter the measuring method is discussed; Figure I is a systematic representation SOV/56-36-4-5/70 Detprmination of the Ionization Potential of Uranium Atoms by the Method of Surface Ionization of the experimental arrangement. The substances, on which surface ionization was investigated, were mounted on tungsten- or tantalum filaments and served as ion sources of the mass spectrometer. No pure'metAls, but the salts NaCl, LiCl, LiF, Ucl and were investigated. Measurements were carried out 41 . UF4 according to two methods: either the ion current of F in LiF-UF 4 and 01- respectively in NaCl-LiCl or LiCl-UC1 4 were measured, or only the dependence of the positive ion current on T, and the diagram lg(I 1/12) = f('/T) was made. Filament temperature in all cases was 22500K for tantalum and 26500K for tungsten base. The apparatus and the method had been checked by means of AV-m6asurement of sodium- and lithium atoms, the ionization potential of which is well known. Measuring results are given in form,of diagrams. Figure 2 shows lg(I T/12250) = f(I/T) for the ionization of Li and Na on tantalum (straight line in the interval 1700 - 23750K). An Card 2/4 arithmetic mean of 85 measurements resulted in V Li- VNa SOV/56-36-4-5/70 Determination of the Ionization Potential of Uranium Atoms by the-Method of Surface Ionization 0.25 + 0.02 v according to the first method; according to the secon! (Pig 3) averaging within the same temperature range (diagram 1g(I 1/,2) '. f(l/T)) with respect to 10 series of measurements resulted in: V - Y' = 0.26 + 0-05 v. Figure 4 Li Na shows lg(I T/1265O) 'f(I/T) for ionization of LiF an Id UP4 in tungsten'in the temperature-interval of 2100 - 28000K, and figure 5 shows lg(I Li/IU) - f('/T)l.from the slope of the curve(straight.line) the difference VU - VLi may be determined,~ as 0o68 + 0,08 v Thus, VU - 5,40 + 0.'68. 6.08 + 0.08 v results fbr the ionization.potential of uranium atoms. The accuracy of temperatilre measurementby means of an optical pyrometer amountdd to 2 t 3%. There are 5 figures and 4 Soviet references. ASSOCIATION: Leningradskiy fiziko-tekhnicheakiy-institut kkademii nauk SSSR Card 3/4 01eningrad Physico-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences) ATJ'iHORS TITLE: PERIODICAL: ABSTRACT: Card 1/3 SOV/53-67-4-2/7 Zandbergq Be Yaot Ionov) No I. Surface Ionization (Poverkhnostnaya ionizatsiya) Uspekbi fizicheakikh nauk,.1959, Vol 67, Nr 4, PP 581-623 CUSSR) The authors give a survey of the phenomena of surface ioniZAL- tion taking special account of the theory. The following subjects are'dealt with by the individual parts: I..Surface ionization with formation of positive ions in general represen- tation; 1) emission formulas for a homogeneous surface with- out electric field, 2) emission formulas for a homogeneous surface with electric fieldo 3) surface ionization of atoms on semiconductorep 4) emission formulas for an inhomogeneous surface, 5) thresholds in the temperature-dependence of the surface ionization current. In part II the results obtained by a number of experimental works on positive surface ioniza- tion are compiled. Individual chapters deal with the following. subjects: 61 The methods of investigating positive surface ionization- 7) The positive surface ionization of Cs-t Rb-,, and K-atoms on tungsten in weak electric fields. 8) The positive surface ionization of Na- and Li-atoms on tungsten in weak fields. 9) The positive surface ionization of alkali-halide Surface Ionization SOV/53-67-4-2/7 salts on tungsten weak fields. 10) The positive surface ioniza- tion of alkali metal atoms and molecules of alkali-halide salts on platinum in weak fields. 11) The surface ionization of other elements and other compounds in weak fields (on tungsten). 12) The investigation of the energy distribution of pos1tive ions (Fi 11). 13~ The positive surface ionization in electric fields 110 14) The determination of the isothermal evaporation heats of ions and atoms on the surface. 15) Measurement of the ionization coefficient of K- and W-atoms. In part IIrof the paper the surface ionization with formation of negative ions is discussed in short. Individual chapters deal with the following: 16) The negative surface ionization on homogeneous surfaces. 17) Negative surface ionization on spotted surfaces. 18) Discussion of investigation methods. 19) Measurement of the temperature dependence of the negative ion current (Figs 21-23). 20) Determination of the energy of affinity to the electron b the method of negative surface ionization (Tables 1 and 2~. - The paper gives a detailed description of the problems? methods, and results connected with the phenomena of surface ionization. The material was obtained solely from published works. The paper is of great value for scientists dealing with these problems on account Card 2/3 of its clearneseq its wealth of material, and its comprehensive Surface Ionization SOV/53-67-4-2/7 account of publications. There are 23 figures, 2 tablest and 113 references, 66 of which are Soviet. Card 3/3 GAPANOV, Viktor Ivanovichl 190Y. N-1----profo# retsenzent; KILMIM, R.A., prof.o retsenzent; TSAMI, BAo prof., retsenzent; MUGINSKIT, V.B., red.; XURAMOVI,' lt*Ta.o tokkmred, [Illectronical Ilektronikso Kooky Goe.izd-vo fiziko-mtem. lit-ry. Pt.L. [Physica'l prinaipl:~:i Yizlaheskie oenovy. 1960. 516 p. (KIRA 14t3) 24;6700,~4.,~ooo 77315 SOV/57-30-2-12/-18 AUTHORS: Belyakov, Yu. I., Ionov, N. I. TITLE: Investigations of**'1ydro_g_ein`an Deuterium Desorption From Palladium by Means of a Pulse Mass Spectroscope PERIODICAL; Zhurnal tekbnicheskoy fiziki, 1960, Vol 30, Nr 2, pp..W-222 (USSR) ABSTRACT: i'a'ofgeperal interest to compare the composition of d.i~.sq~biedgapes with 'the composition of the initial mat.erlal, Jn the case of the system hydrogen-palladium 66~' i~ith6rs tried to answer the question about the poss &a~~il#y of creating H radicals and positive and ne, .*~e,#ns, together with initial H2 molecules.- There exist conflicting reports on this subject in the Scientific literature and the authors used, therefore, a time-of-flight (pulse) mass spectrometer to investi- gate the-desorbed particles after permeation of hydrogen through palladium. They also analyzed the equimolecular Card 1/6- mixture of hydrogen and deuterium crossing the heated Investigations of Hydrogen and Deuterium 77315 Desorption From Palladium by Means of a SOV/57-30-2-12/18 Pulse Mass Spectroscope Card 2/6 palladium membrane. The mass(spectroscope was described earlier by Agishev and Ionov ZhTF, XXVI, 203, 1956, ZhTF, MIII, 1775, 1958). The source shown on Fig. 1 contained a rectangular window on the electrode 1, covered by a 24 x 21 nim2 palladium membrane 0.12 mm thick. Electrodes 2 and 3 were 22 mm in diameter and consisted of transparent grids. Tube C was connected through a covar junction 0 to the glass tube. The mem- brane could be heated up to 7500 C by means of the heater H, and a platinum-platinorhodium thermocouple, T, supplied the temperature. Tube M was a bypass for the hydrogen gas. An electron beam was formed from the cathode K by means of electrodes Z and A, and ended on the collector C. An oil diffusion pump TsVL-100 with a vapor trap reduced the pressure to 1 . 10-7 mm Hg. The authors first worked without an electron beam and observed significant Ion currents of X+ and Na+, and also considerable peaks of Rb+ and Cs+. These elements are always present in small quantities in palladiLun. Investigations of Hydrogen and Deuterium 77315 Desorption From Palladium by Means of a' SOV/57-30-2-12/i8 Pulse Mass Spectroscope Card 3/6 Fig. 1. No new lons,were found when hydrogen was passing through the membrane at temperatures between 80 and 750 C. The sensitivity of the spectrometer woul a the detec- tion of currents of the order of-10-12 110W2 a/cm of the Pa membrane-., The authors did not observe any negative peaks wIhatsoever. After switching on the electron beam the ratio of the -'- was 0.01 which can be due to the H+/H2 background of H radicals in the spectrometer chamber Investigations of Hydrogen and Deauterium Desbrption From Palladium by Means of a Pulse blass Spectroscope Card 4/6 77315 SOV/57-30-2-12/18 rather than to an effect of desorption. The authors finally investigated an equimolecular hydrogen-deuterium mixture. They first sent the mixture via the tube M and- observed in addition to the H2 and D2 peaks not more than 1o% of HD molecules. However, when the mixture was sent through the membrane, the ratio of.the H2+' HD +, and D2+ at 800 C would start with 4.0t3-511 values. +With thT increase of temperature the ratio between H2 and D2 becomes nearly unity, showing that the isotopic differ- ence of permeation decreases with the increase in temperatirre. The.high HD+ content can be explained in the following mannert The system of metal plus 2H and metal plus H potential curves have different shapes, 2 as shown on Fig. 3 by curves 1 and 2, respectively. If the minimum of curve 1 is below the minimum of curve 2; the hydrogen is adsorbed in the form of atoms and desorbed in molecular form. In that case the heat of Investigations of Hydrogen and Deuterium Disorption From Palladium by Means of a Pulse Mass Spectroscope 013TA.CC PRO- M+H- 77315 SOV/57-30-2-12/18 Investigations of Hydrogen and Deuterium 77315 Disorption From Palladium by Means of a SOV/57-30-2-12/18 Pulse Mass Spectroscope desorption of hydrogen in the form of H2molecules is smaller than the heat of desorption of two atoms of hydrogen by the'quantity D(H,) = 4.5 ev. The experimental results show then, that all he hydrogen and deuterium, after crossing the diaphragm, first create on the outgo- ing surface a chemosorbed layer of adatoms H and D. From this layer, H and D desorb in the fo.-m of molecules of H2, HD'and D2 through a combination of H and D adatoms, according to the laws of probability] E. I. Agishev helped during the work. There are 3 figures; and 12 references, 5 Soviet, 2 French, 1 Japanese, 2 German, 1 U.K., 1 U.S. The U.K. and U.S. references aret C. H. Bachman, P. A. Silberg, J. Appl. Phy%Y 29, Nr 8 (1958); R. G. Stensfield, Proc. Cambr. Phil. oc., 34, 120 (1938). ASSOCIATIONt Physico-Technical Institute AS USSR, Leningrad (Fiziko- tekhnicheskiy institut AN SSSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTEDt August 14, 1959 Card 6/6 3/057/60/030/05/13/014 B012/BO56 AUTHORt Ionov, 1. 1. TITLEt The Mechanism of the Conductivit~of Electrode Spacings in the Vacuum Before Breakdown PERIODICLILs Zhurnal tekhnioheskoy fizik19 19609 Vol. 30, No. 59 pp. 501 - 567 TFIXTs It is first pointed out that although numerous papers (Refs. 1-5) deal with the insulating properties of vacuum spacings, the theory of the detachment of particles is nevertheless-not able to explain all experi- mental faotag whereas the assumptions which serve as a basis are not in keeping with the conceptions of cathode electronics. The difficulties arising in this connection are pointed out, and the conclusion is finally arrived at that hitherto no uniform theory on the conductivity of vacuum spacings exists, that might at least qualitatively explain all well-known facts found to occur in experiments. In the present paper several additional considerations concerning the mechanism of vacuum-spacing con- ductivity are given. These considerations are based on the special part Card 1/2 XB The Mechanism of the Conductivity of Electrode 5/05Y60/030/05/13/014 Spacings in the Vacuum Before Breakdown B012 3056 layed by ion-emissionAn the generation of conductivity in real spacings Ref. 6). Here$ only The conductivity between real.olootrodes under real T vacuum conditions is investigated. The hypothesis is set up that the conductivity of the spacing can be produced only by an emission of negati-r* ions from the cathode and of positive ions from the anode in an electric field. This initial emission is then intensified by the secondary ion-induced ion emission and ion-induced electron emission on the electrodes. The conditions for a stability of the conduction* current and for-the developaent of the ion-avalanche are given. On the basis of the hypothesis givenp all main facts established in the experiments with respect to the conductivity of electrode spacings in the vacuum before breakdown are explained. V. N. Glazanov and 1. N. Slivkov as well as the Schottky effect are mentioned in this paper. There are 14 referencess 11 Soviet and 3 English. ASSOCIATIONt Fiziko-tekhnicheekiy institut AN SSSR Leningrad (Institute of Physics and Technology of the AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTIDs August 10, 1959 Card 2/2 84730 S/057/60/030/010/010/019 V1 7,V B013/BO63 .U. /boo AUTHOR: Ionovs N* I. TITLE: Theory of Vacuum Thermogouples PERIODICAL: Zhurnal, tekhnioheskoy fiziki, 1960, Vol. 30, No. lot pp. 1210 1214 TEXT: The theory of vacuum thermocouples with plane electrodealwas established by A. 1. Ansellm (Ref.1) and L. N. Dobretsov (Ref.2) who as- sumed that the space charge is fully compensated. The author gives a more general and simpler solution to this problem. Fig. 1 shows the Scheme of a plane diode whose electrodes are connected to the outer resistor r. The author assumes that the work function ?, is larger than the work function T2' and that the electrode temperature T 1 is higher than the electrode temperature T 2- The current i, which is equal to the difference between the thermal electron currents 1 1 - 129 flows through Card 1/3 84730 Theory of Vacuum Thermocouples S/05 60/030/010/010/019 B01 3YBo63 the diode chain and a potential difference V - ir occurs simultaneously at the external resisto,r. The potential distribution in the diode chain, is schematically represented in Fig.2. The volt-ampere characteri ties of the currents i end i are plotted in Fig-3. Fig-4 shows the d:pen- dence of 6 (in volts) on T for different values of T and It is 1 2 VM. concluded from the formulas derived that the quantities % (output) and (optimum efficiency) are practically independent of the quantity I m T2 within the limits of their possible values. These limits may, however? be shifted by changing the quantity T 2' The formulas derived by the au- thor hold for electrodes having uniform work functions. The work func- tions on the surfaces of real electrodes are not uniform. Roughly speak- ing, it may be assumed that the surface of the electrode consists of various spots~ the work function having different values of yi, which arey however, constant within each of the spots. Nextq the question as to whether the formulas derived may also be applied to "heat converters" Card 2/3 84730 Theory of Vacuum Thermocouples 5/057/60/030/010/010/019 B013/BO63 with spotty electrodes in considered for two limiting cases. As con- verters of heat into electric energy, such diodes will be of practical value, whose current density will amount to amperes and dozenB of am- 2 peres per am . This is, however, only possible if the electron space charge is fully compensated by positive ions (e.g.9 cesium). Full com- pensation of the electron space charge by surface ionization alone is possible only in an electric field with zero strength. The author thanks Professor L. N. Dobreteov for valuable discussions. There are 4 figures and 2 Soviet references: ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheakiy institut AN SSSR, Leningrad (Institute of Physics and Technology AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTED: May 13, 1960 Card 3/3 AUTHORS: TITLE: 83752 S/056/60/036/004/045/048 Boo6/BO56 Ionov, N. I., Mittsev# M. A. Determination of the First Ionization PotentialAf Neodymium and Praseodymium Xt-omsby the Method ~&f Surface Ionization PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 196o, Vol- 38, No. 4, PP. 1350 - 1351 TEXT: In the present "Letter to the Editor", the authors give a report on the determination of ionization potentials by the method of surface ionization, which is described in detail in Ref. 2. Indium. was used as a reference element, for which the potential V - 5.79 ev had been spectroscopically determined. The potentials were determined by way of a.determination of the temperature dependence of the ion current ratio J,/j from the formula log(j - log(n,Al A -V 2)/T, 2 I/J2) /n2 2) + 5040(V1 where A = Q,+/Q0 is the ratio of the statistical sums of state of the poaitive ion Q+ and of the atom Q 0. From the diagrams log(jl/j,)- f('/T)p Card 1/2 83752 Determination of the First Ionization S/056/60/038/004/045/048 Potentials of Neodymium and Fraseodymium B006[BO56 Atoma by the Method of Surface Ionization it is thus possible to determine the difference V I - V2 for the pairs Pr - In and Nd - In. From seven independent coefficient determinations from, the diagrams (cf. Fig. 2)t (0.22+0.01) and (0.19;L0.02) ev were ob- ex- tained for the two pairs. The final values for the first ionization potentials are VPr = (5-48 + 0.01) ev and VNd = (5-51 + 0.02) ev. There are 2 figures and 3 references: 2 Soviet and I British. ASSOCIATION; Leningradakiy Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut Akademii nauk SSSR (Leni grad Institute of Fh sics and Technolozy of the Academy of Sciences USSR) SUBMITTED: Card 2/2 February 21 1960 5/057/61/031/002/008/015 B124/B202 11,9,9) N AUTHORSt Belyakovq Yu. I. and Ionov, N. Is TITLEt Penetration of hydrogen and deuterium through a nickel.mem- brane in the temperature range from 250-600 C PERIODICALs Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki, V. 31, no. 2, 1961, 204-210 TEM The authors describe experimexits of studying the penetration of H 2 and D2 through a flat nickel membrane at a temperature range of 250-600 00 by using a pulsed mass spectroscope (Ref. 7). On the basis of these ex- perimentov the authors determined empirical rules governing diffusion, permeability,-and~solubility of H 2 and D2 in nickel below and above the point of magnetic conversion. In the given temperature range nickel haev in the case of high permeability, very stable diffusion properties, and no ; structural defects are formed on protracted penetration of H through the membrane (Refs. 8, 9). These properties of nickel are imporiant when determining possible small isotopic effects. The scheme of the experimental Card I/V 89162 S/05 61/031/002/008/015 Y Penetration of hydrogen B1 24 B202 device is shown in Fig. 1; it consists of three main partst 1) pulsed'maas spectroscope IMS~ 2) diffusion cell B, and 3) supply system-of the gas into cell B and IMS for calibrating the latter with respect to the gas flow. L is the Pd supply pipeg K a stopcock, IMS and the supply system were eva- cuated by means of two independent vapor - oil pressure pumps M-100 (TsVL-100), i.e., in the former to a residual pressure of about -7 6 5-10 mm Hg and in the latter-to some 10- mm Hg. With a resolution of 60 the sensitivity of IMS to H 2 and D 2 with respect to the vertical displace- ment of the oscilloscope beam of I mm is equal to 1-84-10-7 and 2.92-10-7 mm.1/sec, respectively. The diffusion cell B is schematically shown in 2 Fig. 2. The cup-shaped nickel membrane M with flat bottom area,A - 2-550m, thickness d - 0.395 mm) was welded to the thick-walled steel cylinder C (wall thickness 10 mm) by means of copper. The cylinder C was hermetically connected with the flange F. The membrane was heated to 650-7000C by an external furnace P, the temperature was measured by a Pt-PtRh thermocouple with an accuracy of � 50. The time dependence of the height of thi peaks of H+ or D+ ions was measured for three different temperatures T (Fig. 3). 2 2 Card 2/6 S/057/61/031/002/008/015 Penetration of hydrogen B124/B202 t The area P - 1(t)dt bounded by curve 1(t) and the axis of time is f 0 proportional to the total amount of gas which has passed through the mem- brane during the time t- Fig- 4 shows the diagram F(t) for three different membrane temperatures. Fig. 5 shows the dependence of the quantities D~2) and P(l) (D diffusion coefficientv P -_ specific permeability) on 1 T. The calculated values of E D (activation energy of diffusion), Ep (activa- tior energy of permeability), P 0 and D0 (which are oonetantn under the given conditions), So (solubility of the isotopes in nickel), and E (dissolution temperature) are given in the table. These data indicate that 1) Sofl: -5oD 9 2) EDH- EDDi 3) E p and E. of deuterium in nickel are by, 800-900 cal./g-at. higher than in the light isotope, and 4) D 0 tP0 in both hydrogen isotopes is equal to Y_2_'. The penetration of hydrogen into the nidol lattice can be divided into several stages as is illustrated by the energy Card "34 89162 S/057/61/031/002/008/015 Penetration of hydrogen B124/B202 diagrexi shown in Fig. 6. An abrupt change of the diffusion properties of, the system H Ni is observed at the Curie point. The isotope effects ob- served are explained by the different dissociation energies of the molecules B2 and D2 and the different oharacteristic oscillation frequencies. There are 6 figures, I table, and 13 referencess 4 Soviet-bloc and 9 non-Soviet- bloc. ASSOCIATIONs Fiziko-tekhnicheakiy institut im. A. F. Ioffe AN 83SR Leningrad (Institute of Physical Technology im. A. F, Ioffe AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTEDt June 30, 1960 Card t/4 22125 S/056J61/040/003/005/031 Bill/B202 AUTHORSt Ionovq N.I.0 Mittsev, M*A* TITLE: Determination of the first ionization potentials of atoms by the method of surface ionization PERIODICALs Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fizikip v, 40, no- 31 19619 741 - 742 TEXTs The authors present the results of surface ionization of Irp Thp Ce atoms and ThOl 4 molsoule on polyorystalline tungsten. It is demon- strated that the temperature dependence of the ion currents is in line with the formula for the surface ionization on complex surfaces.. The ionization potentials of Er, Tbq Ce and Th atoms were obtained by comparing t) functions with the time dependence of the current of positive In ions. At sufficiently high temperatures the functions shown in Fig. 1 are well ap- proximated by straight lines, The standard element In has the ionization potential Vin a 5-79 ev. Also the functions represented in Fig. 2 can be Card '1-/4- _~, 22125 S/056/61/040/003/005/031 Determination of the first ... B111/B202 approximated by straight lines. The differences of the ionization poten tials of In and Erp Tbj Ce, Th can be determined from their inclination; thefollowing values are obtaineds VEr 0 6.08 + 0.03 ev, VTb - 508 + 0*02 evp V Ce " 5.60 + 0,05 ev, V Th ' 6-95 t 0.06 ev. In all oalculation;t the lowest excited states of the atoms and positive ions of In were taken into account. With Erg Tbq Ce and Th atoms and ions the ex- citation states were not considered since the position of the energy le- vels of these elements is unknown. There are 2 figures and 3 Soviet-bloc references. ASSOCILTIONt Leningradakiy fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut Akademii nauk SSSR (Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology of the Academy of Sciences SSSR) SUBMITTEDs October 3w 1960 Card E.Ya,; IOTIOV '!.I. Phission of positive molecular ions from hcatcd curfacas in vacuu.n. Dokl. All 33311 .141 no.1:13c,1-241 11 161. 1. riziko-tekhnicheakiy instit~t,in. A.F.IL-ffe AN SL'JS',". Prodstavleno akademikom B.P. KonstantlAovym.*',+ (Ionization) 39163 S/12o/62/0007003/029~048 E032/Bll4 AUTHORS: Ionov, N.I., and Karatayev, V.I. TITLE: A ,i..ble magnetic mass spectrometer for the analysis of small impurities PSRIODICAL: 11'ribory i tekhnika eksperimenta, no-3, 1962, 119-122 TEXT: One of the most important aims of analytical mass- spectrometry is the development of methods for the quantitative analysis of very pure materials, capab e of determining the presence of small impurities CLU --3-U k0' ). This means that the appropriate mass spectrometer must be ab e to handle mass lines differing in intensity by A factor of 10~-1010.. The present authorij describe a two-stage mass spectrometer which is capable of ach:Leving this. It uses a uniform magnetic field and the average ion trajectories take the form of semicircufar arcs with radii r1 (first stage) and r2 (second stage), as shown in Fig.3, The spectrometer chamber is in the form of a brass cylinder 20 cm in diameter, 4 em'long. The chamber is divided into two parts by means of a partition with slits LL41, ILL2, LU 3 and UA 6. Tons leaving the source through LL~ I pass through U-A2', C~rd I/IF;Z S/120/62/000/003/029/048 A double magnetic mass spectrometer... E032/E114 reaching the collector Kl. Alternately they can pass through W3 and LU4 into the.second stage of the device and then through U~ and L46 on to the second collector K2. The motion in the second stage takes place in the stainless steel container -D which is insulated.from the main chamber. A potential difference is applied between the two chambers so as to reduce the ion velocity between LL~3 and LLI~ 4. Ion currents to Kl and K2 are measured by independent electrometers )MV-3'(EMU-3)-' The residual gas pressure was of the order of lo-7 min HS. Fig.4 shows a spectrum obtained with the first stage only, and Fig-5 the same spectrum as recorded by K2- It is noted that comparable results were obtained by P.A. White and T.L. Collins (Appl. Spectroscopy,, 8, 19541 169) with a very much more complicated apparatus. There are 5 -figures. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut AN SSSR (Physicotechnical Institute, AS USSR) SUBMITTED: October 30, 1961) Card 2~O Z 37071 3/057/62/032/004/017/017 ~9,j 1.9 B173/BIO2 AUTHORS: Zandberg, E. Ya., Ionov, N. I., Paleyev, V. I., and Tontegode, A. Ya. TITLE: Determination of thermionic emission constants from energy distribution curves for thermoelectrons and positive ions PERIODICAL: Zhurnal tekhnichaskoy fiziki, v. 32, no. 4, 1962# 503 516 TEXT: For plane and coaxially cylindrical electrodes with homogeneous work function, expressions ("ideal" retardation curves) for the emission current are derived on the assumption of Maxwellian energy distribution, and extended to electrodes with inhomogeneous work function (experimental, retardation curves). As the areas of different work function (spots) cannot be localized,,only a qualitative consideration is possible. The con- tact potential field of tha spots is regarded first as being oompensated by the external field (independent emission of individual spots) and then. as not being compensated. The mean work function of the cathode was deter- mined from the saturation current at given temperature. An apparent con-, tact potential difference, which can be determined from the experimental Card Gi/ Y 5/057/62/032/004/017/017 Determination of thermionic... B173/B102 curves and is related to the mean work functions of the electrodes in the same manner as the contact potential difference between homogeneous olectrodes is to their work functionsi is assumed for the arrangement of electrodes with inhomogeneotmemission. The electron gas temperature for the experimental case of inhomogeneous electrodes is determined in the same way as for the ideal case of homogeneous electrodes. The retardation curves of the positive ion current caused by surface ionization at the cathode are considered analogously. The case of a compensated contact potential field was experimentally investigated in a vacuum tube with co- axially arranged triodes (polycrystalline tungsten cathode) and with a con- tainer for metallic Ca. Retardation curves for thermoelectrons (T>20000K) and positive Go ions (T - 12000K) were plotted, and the mean work functions, tile apparent contact potential difference, and the mean temperatures deter- mined. The compensation of the electron space charge by positive Cs ions was examined in the same tube, used as a diode system. There are 9 figures. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut im. A. P. loffe AN SSSR,Lenin- grad (Physicotechnical Institute imeni A. F. Ioffe AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBTAITTED3 May 11, 1961 Card 2/2 S/057/62/032/005/017/022 B100102 .AUTHORS: Ionov, N. I., and Karatayev, V. I. TITLE: The distribution of initial velocities of thermoelectrone and of K+ and Cl- ions produced by the surface ionization of K01 molecules an tungsten and tantalum PERIODICAL: Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fizikip v. 32, no. 5, 1962, 626 - 631 TEXT: An experimental arrangement (Fig. 1) is described which enables determination of the distribution of the normal and tangential compon nts. of the initial velocities of thermoelectrons and positive and negativ: ions'e-, The normal components of the initial velocities of K+.-ions and thermo- electrons produced by ionization on W and Ta have Maxwellian distribution up to relatively high V potentials (-2.5 v). The distribution was 3 measure& at the temperature of the emitter. Deviations from Maxwellian. distribution at low V values are ex plained by the nonuniformity of the work. 3 functions of emitter and collector. The tangential components of the initial velocities of thermoeleatrons and K+ ions from a spot emitter C d I ar S/057/62/032/005/017/022 The distribution of initial velocities... B104/B102 possess Maxwellian distribution only when the contact field is neutralized by an external accelerating field. This is the experimental pro6f of the existence of a temperature equilibrium on surface ionization of KC1 molecule on W and Ta and,of the fact that the accomodation coefficient of the quals one. The tangential components of the initial velocitie molecule e of ions on the ionization of K01 on W have Maxwellian distribution. Th Cl volume ionization of KC1 molecules by thermoelsotrQns is small. ThereAre 5 figures. ASSOCIATIOM Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut im. A. F. Ioffe AN SSSR Leningrad (Phyoiootechnical Institute imeni A. F. Ioffe AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTED: July 3, 1961 arrangement*,- Fig. 1. Diagram of the experimental Legend: (0) emitter;'(3,) and (3 ) accelerating electrodes; (n) Kol quartz 2 vaporizer; (0) plate capacitor; (A) grid analyzer; (K)-cathode; (V 3JI) to., potential between the middle grid of the analyzer and the emitter; the photomultiplier. Card 2/3