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December 31, 1967
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.9/133/6i/oOO/OO1/OW/016 A054/A033 Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30X1 1-(18-KbGT) Grade Steol of the ingot difficult, causing the origination of a porcus zone. As the location of this central porous zone coincides with the lamination Jn the rolled product it can be assumed that lamination is caused by the porosity of the metal. In the pla- ces of lamination considerable amounts of non-metallic impurities were found imped- ing the scalding of the lamination even at gre&ter reductionc. Based on the tests two methods were found to prevent lamination; 1) reducing the porosity of the cen- tral part of the ingot and 2) reducing the quintity of non-met&llic impurities. 1) In order to reduce the central porosity, the process of feeding the central area of the ingot had to be Improved. Me&EureE wtre taken to increase the time during which the metal Is liquid in th,@ hood of the riser. 11 was found, however, that neither the application of "lunkerite" with an aluminum content of 28% in- stead of 14%, added in quantities of 3 - 4 kg/ton inetead of 1.5 2 kgAon, nor the use of lunkerite containing 35 - 50 % magnesium powder (1.5 2.0 kg/ton) yielded a considerable improvement of the mtnarostructufe. Thus I*. was not possible to improve the feeding of thi ingot wl th liquid meted. by increased heating of the top. Better results were obtained in this resp@4,@t when the riser hood was insulat- ed by asbestos sheets (10m thick) tetw-@o@n itq caE!ing -s-rd lining %nd by winding Card 3/6, 3/1-33/6i/ooo/ool/002/016 A054/033 Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30X FT(18-3OKb14'T) Grade Steel asbestos cores, 22 on thick, or asbesto2 sbeets around the ingot molds, at a dis- tance of 500 mm from the top, fixed with sheet iron. The r"ser hoods were also mounted on asbestos disks. The longitudinal templates taken from ingots melted in insulated ingot molds showed a satisfa-2tory density and the axial porosity found in conventional ingots was absk:nt- The ProdUats rolled from ingot.4 produced with the insulation method (140 x 140 mm section) were also free from lamination. 2) The second method to prevent lamination, iop-, the reduction of non-metallic impu- rities was tested with 3 kinds of deoxidizing 4gents: a) Slit--omanganese In the furnace and 45% solution of ferro-silicium in the ladle (@onventional method); b) 15 - 17 kg/ton AMS alloy in the furnace ani 45% qolut.lon of ferrosilicium in the ladle; c).manganese silicate in the furnace and calcium-silicon in the ladle. The beat results were obtained with method b) (3-05% rejeote due to laminati0h and 0.06% rejects due to maorostructure, while the corresponding figures for meth- od a) are 5.05% and 0.5% and for method c) 17.0%) (see table). To improve the steel quality, further tests were carried out In 1958 - 1959 to study preliminary oxidation with silicochromium, Instead of AMS, the use of titanium-containing scrap instead of ferro-titanium for alloying and the optimum metal temperature Prior to deoxidation, ensuring a satisfactory macr05tructure and metal surface. By employing titanium-oontainlng scrap the temperature drop in the ladle decreased Card 4/6, Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30/,F7(18-30KhGT) Grade Steel and the toughness of steel was reduced. Rejects due to surface defects were 0.1,:% instead of 0.24% in the conventional melts. There are 2 figures, I table and I Soviet reference. ASSOCIATIONS: Nauchno-issledovatefskiy institut metallurgii, Chelyabinskiy metal- lurgicheskiy zavod (Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgy, Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant) Figure 1: "Tongue" Afect in 18KhGT steel ingot Card 5/6, KOLOSOV,&;#,k d.toffi% STROGANOV, A I kand tokhn nauk- a '06V, M.; V.F., kafidJeiAn.naU; iiiIIISIRY11, 00-YA0.9 DANILOV, A.M.y in7h.1 ZVETTV, B.V,, inzh,; ANMPOVA, 11,G., inzh.; KHRYUKINA, V.A., inzh. Use of silicon-chromium in open-hearth smelting of steel' Stall 20 61. (MK 14:5) 1. Chelyabinskiy nauchno-ii3sledovateltakiy institut metallurgii; Chelyabinskiy i Zlataustovskiy metallurgicheskiye zavody. (Steel-4,fotallurgy) (Silicoh-chromium alloys) KEYS, NJ.; KOMISSAROV, A.I. Reseexch being carried out by tha Cholyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. Stall 21 no.8:6647W-Mv707s,745 Ag 16.1. (14IRA 14:9) (Chelyabinsk-Mletallurgical plants) 3h979 S/,33/62/0C0/0V-3/GO4/GGS A051,/A127 0 AUTHIORS: Golldshteyn, Ya. Ye., Candid-ate of Technical Sciences, Zei'dovich, V. I., lius, N. V., Kossovskiy, L. D., Vaynshteyn, 0. Ya., Shmatko, K. S., Engineers T The effect of treating liquid chrome-nickel steel with cerium on its crystallization PERIODICAL: Stal', no. 3, 1962, 258 - 251 TMT: Tests viere carried out to study the effect of addinG ferrocerium to chrome-nickel structural steel on the flake formation and crystallization. The tests were based on the chemical affinity of cerium to hydrogen, which increases when the temperature is raised. As rare-par'!, metals mostly tend to adsorb hydro- gen in the 200 - 6000C range, where the hydrogei. separation from the metal is par- ticularly intensive, this phenomenon can be used t,@ reduce flaking. Four 40 ',: -. (40KhN) steel ingots of the same melt were tested: one, checking specimen, with- out ferrocerium, the others containing C.1, 0.25 and 0.65", ferrocerium, respective- ly. Lumps of ferrocerium, containing 94,r./ rare-earth metal (primarily cerium) were used. The ingots were top-cast and weighed 2.65 ton. Lateral macrotemplatez, Card 1/@ S/133/62/000/003/004/008 The effect of treating... A0511/11127 cut from blooms rolled from the test insots, (air-dried after rolling, non-anneaW were analyzed after I and 6 months. Flakes were hot found in templates from steel to which at least 0.6;5 ferrocerium via* added. The analysis also showed that the effect of cerium (lanthanum, et-c.) actuaLly does not r,-,,inifcz3t itself in the ad- sorption of hydrogen, but rather In bo ding it in the form of stable hydrides. 0 .7 cm hydrogen/100 g, there was no flakingg, due In steel, containing as much as 3 5 to the addition of 0.6% ferrocerium, while flakes viere found in steel containing not more than 0.56 em3/100 S hydrogen, if not treated with cerium. Ulhen ferro- cerium is added to the liquid steel in amounts above 0.2,,0, the pattern of den- dritic crystallization ckvinges and zulfur will be re-distributed in the micro- areas of the metal. High-smelting cerium-sulfides pans from the intera;x1al areas into the dendritic a;:es. '4hen ferrocerium is added in amou:.ats of up to 0.61,-, dendritic crystallization disappears, and, under the effect of cerium, the steel is cleaned from sulfur, antimony, stayLnum, bismuth, lead, etc. 0.6% ferrocerium reduces the sulfur-content of the metal 5 times. However, when ferrocerium is added in the ingot muld., the cerium-sulfides (oxy-sulfidez) cannot entirely be removed into the slag and the feeding head. This results in a norl'.onogeneity of 'the boundary zone. The high-temperature cerium-sulfides foxy-sulfides of in- tricate composition) are forming already in the period prior to crystallization Card 2/3 C,6/ 0011 %j (POP 1,06q 9151, CO'4 Y1001- oV, fx 66 to 0@ 86 I C te 0 *-COA0.0 0.0. CC Ve tcOu OV-1c ton Cc'[% 0 @- ro lc@ 5@5 vp ses (0. 1. 0 as ()-ce ot 0@ ,- -3- 0 o", 'n- * 1\ @ @,o tfO-@ 'reve r, 06 (3- Ot '06 - e','5 17TO5 ICIOOII 6 N@- 0@ - e 'r a -,ee .0-se Oe te'clt T@u 3@ Ge , 0", *. GO'cl G 'n, O-C C , 0 @3s@ @p 6es V O'C@ ol,@-e v e Doll cof@ c tf@c Oe 0 cl or-o og oft @bl ,Ot@ xie te -VO5 Cze 05e 5 0,(@ loe coV -qe 'Al tog C, an 016 -'r, @fv el@ a, 4 O'C@ t @gqll X1 ,,aJe "COS ts BS4 _,c,etl ,,goll to col -fe 'es @O-c 0@ -De eW3 -ce S5 51,0"' e to COC C-CO 14 C0. v, .P '@@ @0 aoT ,f@ez-ts Ot alA .,Be -v' Itle , 5v.e,- @.&es 055 O."i , %)S5 r S/133/62/000/006/0011/015 At the Chelyabinskiy... A054/A127 ing the section of the lower riser dozzle opening. 2) When carbon, transformer, ball bearing and structural steels are smelted in the new electric furnaces, 4 - 7% ferrous ores and 3 - 5% lime are added to the charge, to accelerate the oxida- tion of phosphorus, chromium and manganese. Upon charging uP-to 50% liquid pigiron in the smelting of ball bearing steel, the quality of the steel was equivalent to that smelted in smaller furnaces. 3) To reduce the meta'. scrap requirement of new, large-aize electric furnaces operated on solid charge, tests were made with liquid pig iron. For smelting Y 7 A (UN, Y 13 A (U 13A), Y 8rA (U8GA), IHX 15 (SMh15) and 115 grade steels, the best results were obtained by adding 40 - 431% liquid pig iron. Addition of more than this amount increased the smelting time. The carbon content was reduced during smelting most intensively if the quantity of ore added was not more than 300 - 320 kg/to*n liquid pig Lron. The smelting time was the shortest and the electric power consumption the lowest if the charge was heated prior to pouring pig iron for 50 - 60 minutes at about 12,000 - 14,oco kw-hour. To heat the metal during smelting at least 28,000 - 29,000 kw-hour is required at the highest voltage. The use of liquid pig iron reduced smelting time by 8 - IOAI, electric power consumption by 18 - 20%; the 'Liquid steel output increased by 2% owing to the reduction of iron from the ore. The use of liquid Card 2/3 @@ff,@ -J. (VI 3316 P-10GOIC0610C 4/r, 15 At @he Chelyabinskiy... A0511/A127 pig iron does not impair the quality of the stool. ljowever., ric, saving can be realised, owing, to the higher price of liquid pig iron aE, compared to that of scrap. 4) Testz. were CUL'740d Out to reduce the riser part of 5CO-kg 11190tS (with 5.7-'% conicity to one side, an WD ratic of 3.7 and aii Ingot-body volumie of 57,85 cm, ) of H1135 (EI435), X15H60 M19160), X1201180 (Kjo)@180), X'3@1104 W113YU41), P 18 (RIB), P9 09), 3 X2B 8 (3n2v8), 1X 18H 9T (11rrilai9T) .3tee.1 grades. With a (liquid) riser volume of 17.4,o' and a dozzle with a 35,5-m.'@-, opening no shrinkage cavities were observed in the 54 ingot bodies tested. 5) 711c tech- nology of smelting 2'OX15113MA (2OKhI5N3r4A) [,aM-I (DI-1)] steel grade in small electric furnaces was established. The steel contained (in %)i 0.15 - 0.2! C, 0.0-0 Mn, @@ 0.60 Si, < 0.030 S, 4 0.035 P, 14.5 - 16.r- Cr, 2.5 - 3.0 Ni, 0.30 - 0.50 Mo, -4 0.40 W. The amount of non-metallic inclusions and rejectz during production and utilization can be reduced considerably if the charge contains 5 9% chromium and if the metal temperature at the beginning of refining is 1,590 - 1,6200C, before tapping: 1,580 - 1,6100C and in the ladle: 1,570 - 1,5900C. I-le- fining under white slag should take 1 - 1 1/2 hours. Card 3/3 S/IJ"3/62-/000/006/015/015 A054/A 12Y AUTHORS:. _!@e@. @V. Komissarov, A. 1. TITLE: At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavcKI (Chelyabinsk Metal- lurgical PLant) PERIODICAL: Stall, no. 6, 1962, 572 1) The overall automation of the heating control in open-hearth furnaces has been developed in co-operation with the Chelyabinskiy nauchno- issleuovatel'skiy institut metallurgii (Chelyabinsk Scientific liesearch Institute of Metallurgy). Combustion Is controlled by the parameter of excess air in the outlets by means of aipha-indicator type pickups. The autGmatic heat control increased the furnace output by 5.2%, mainly by shortening the smelting process, and reduced the fuel consumption by 10.7%. 2) It is necessary to do only one intervening repair in the no. I open-hearth workshop, by increasing the volume oil the slag chamber, removing slag from it completely after repair, removing slag partly and levelling it out with bulldozers during the furnace run, etc.).' 3) The quantities of oxygen required for open-hearth furnaces, depending on the Card 1/3 At the Chelyabinskiy... S/133/62/000/OC6/015/015 A 054/A I Zt- furnace volume and during the various phasc3 of 'the smelting process have been determined (in m3/hour): Small Medium Large f u r n a c e Charging 700 1,200 1,600 Beginning of heating 700 1,200 1,500 Pouring of pig iron and smelting 1,200 1,800 2,500 Finishing - 1,000 1,200 The heating conditions of open-hearth furmaces are improved if the oxygen is fed mainly in the lower part of the torch. For this purpose the angle of inclinition of oxygen tuyeres should be increased from 80 to 14 - 150, their height above the caisson bottom should be reduced from 300 to 150 - 180 mai and the intersection angle of the tuyeres Increased from 80 to 120, while their rear part I!.-, extended. It is expedient to feed oxygen and air simultaneously. 4) Pericalse-spinel. bricks used for lining open-hearth furnace crowns wear by 10 - IVI, less than mag- nesite-chromite bricks, but heat losses with the former type are about 8 - 10% higher. 5) New refractory materials were tested. Dense magnesite bricks in the checker4ork of medium-capacity open-hearth furnaces proved satisfactory 'for 221 Card 2/3 At the Chelyabinskiy ... S/1'23/62/000/006/015/015 A05VA127 smeltings. The high heat conductivity of these bricks improved the heating con- ditionz of the furnace and decreased specific fuel consumption. 7,he best material for checkern-iork lining was found to be caL@ined periclase-forsterite brick, produced under elevated pressure. 6) The "Magnezit" Plant proauceo a te-3t-batcli of non-caLcined periclase-spinel bricks, fixed in metal frames ana reinforced in- side. The test bricks were used for a medium-capacity open-hearth furnace crown and lasted for 311 smeltings. The rapid wear of the test bricxs right at the be ginning of the furnace run is caused by -the 1.5-mm thick reinforcement plates, which oxidize and smelt and reduce the refractory properties of the adjoining zones of the brick. Card 3/3 3/133/62/000/007/004/014 A054/A127 AUTHORS: Keys_ N.V.., Komissarov, A.I. TITLE: At the Clielyabinskiy motallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metallur- gical Plant) PM-IODICAL: Stal', no. 7, 1962, 618 - 619 TEXT: 1) In 1961, the standstills during repair of the bottom of large- capacity furnaces were reduced from 4.3 to 2.94% and those of small furnaces from 4.27 to 2.62%, as compared with the preceding year. This was the result of using mainly small-grained magnesite powder and improved methodsof lining and slag removal. Tests were carried out with magnesite-phr6mite concrete for the furnace bottom. This concrete contains 47 - 52% magnesium, instead of 80 - 85% as in the standard material and 80 - 85% of the 2-0 mm fraction. The concrete layer was coated with m%esite powder. The use of concrete cut the time of bottom repairs by 1 - 1 h, reduced standstills to 2.5% and the consumption of magnesite powder by 3 - 3.5 kg/ton steel. 2) In cooperation with the Chelyabin- skiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut metallurgil (Chelyabinsk Scientific Re- Card 1/5 S/133/62/000/007/004/014 At the Chelyabinskly metallurgicheskiy .... A054/AIZ7 search Institute of Metallurgy) tests were carried out to blow oxygen In large- capacity open-hearth furnaces through two tuyeres In the crown, at a rate of 1,200 m3/h. The head of the tuyeroo was kept at a 150 - 300 mm d1stance from the bath lovIl. Oxygen consumption of the torch decreaseq to 1,000 - 1,200 m3/h from 2,500 m 1h. Feeding oxygen 'at a rate of 5.8 - 7.4 rrP/ton and an intensity of 1,100 - 1,200 m3/h reduced the casting time by 45 - 59 min. The specific fuel consumption decreased by 4.7 - 9.2%, the total. specific oxygen consumption by .1.2 - 4.5 m3/ton, the average hourly yield of the furnace increased by 6.2 - 9.0%. The new method does not affect the service life of the furnace. 3) The macrostructure of 1 PH T (lKhNT) steel, from which the steering wheel spokes of cars are made, can be improved by using A.""T (AMS) alloy for reduction. The waste decreases by-a factor of 3 as compared to the steel reduced by silico- chrome.* The metal temperature prior to reduction should be 1,610 - 1,6250C. The pouring rate must ensure lifting of the metallevel with uniform skin from 1/3 of the ingot mold height. 4) Pouring rimming steel in 7.3-ton ingots (in- stead of 5.7 ton) on six-position ing9t mold stools through a ladle spout 50 mm in diameter, reduced the casting time by 20 - 30 min. The prescribed pouring rate (220 280 mm/min) was not affected. 5) In open-hearth furnaces working by Card 2/5 W S/133/62/000/007/004/014 At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskly .... A054/A127 the scrap-ore method, 115 - 70% ore was replaced by an agglomerate with a basici- tY of 0.75 - 1.14 and containing 48.7 - 58.3% Fe; 20 24.6% FeO; 54.3 - 59.0% FC203; 0.055 - 0.085% 3; 10.7 - 12.0% S102; and 5.6 13.8% CaO. Due to its lower oxidizing capacity the consumption of the agglomerate exceeded that of the ore by 12%. During smelting the basicity of the agglomerate increased by 0.1 0.3. If all the ore is replaced by agglomerate (of a 0.8 - 1.0 basicity) the amount of limestone should be reduced by 1%. The P and S content of the cast iron remained unchanged, the P- content of the metal decreased during smelting by 0.007 - 0.016%, the smelting time was shortened by 4%. The new method does not affect the metal quality. 6) In the last 3 years the annual production of steel increased by 27.5, 22.4 and 12.8% in large, medium and small furnaces. The smelting time in medium and large furnaces increased @iue to the high silicon content of the pig Iron, the considerable fluctuations in the silicon and sulfur content, the high slag residue. 7) In cooperation with the Chelyabinsk Scien- tific Research Institute 6f Metallurgy tests were made to produce semi-killed steel. The chemical capping was carried out by adding 1154 or 754 feirrosilicon in amounts yielding a 120 - 300 g/ton silicon content in the steel for vahous Intervals after the ingot mold was filled. Head-crop was It 5%. Upon adding Card 3/5 9 Mn@ -@El@ -4 A S/133/6VO00/007/004/014 At the Chelyab'Lnskiy metallurgicheskiy .... A054/A127 400 g/ton 757% ferrosilicon, the steel corresponded to -'!')CT380-6o (GOST 380- -1 11. rostructure, the steel grade 001 As,however, cavities were found in the ma,. cann.%z replace those coming under GOSr 1050-60. Mechanical capping was effected by pouring Into bottle-shaped molds. The steel obtained was more homogeneous than rimming steel, only increased sulfur liquation was observed at a level cor- responding to 18 - 25% from the top. 8) The effect of ferrous oxides in the slag before reduction on the quality of 12XH3A (12KhN3A), 12X2H4A (12Kh2N4A) and 20k 2H 4 A (2OKh2N4A) grades was studied in cooperation with the Chelyabin- skiy politekhnicheskiy institut (Chelyabinsk Polytechnic Institute). A ferrous oxide content of 12 - 18% did not affect the mechanical properties of steel, nor. 1-1--/ 'the oxygen content In the ladle, proving that oxidation of the metal by the slag during tapping is Inconsiderable. An Increased ferrous oxide content in the slag prior to reduction had some effect on the burning of silicon, manganese and chrome. To simplify the smelting process of the above-mentioned steels, the Iron content in the slag prior to reduction can be increased from 12 to 14%. 9) In the o8Xn (08kp) steel grade smelted in large furnaces the S-content In- creased considerably. To reduce it, the pig Iron used should not contain more S than 0.04%; during charging about 10% ferromanganese should be added to promote Card 4/5 At the Chelyabinnkly rnetallurgicheskly .... desulfurization; th slag and caked masso to 16 m3; for large the S-content of pig dium-size furnaces. pig iron feeding ladles the capacity of the *lag furnaces double chutes iron exceeds 0.04%, the S/133/62/000/007/004/014 A05VA127 must be cleaned carefully from removing ladle should be increased should be used for slag removal. If 08kp grade should be 5melted In me- Card 5/5 3/133/62/000/007/0 10/10 14 A0511/A 127 AUTHORS: Keys, N.V.; Komissarov, A.I. TITLE: At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metallurgi- cal Plant) PERIODICAL: Stal', no. 7, 1962, 6@6 - 637 TEXT: i) M 437F) (EI43 ) grade steel, (2oo mri square section) was tested NB for its mechanical properties and heat resistance. The specimens used for this purpose were partly dra;m and partlyipset, but subjected to the same heat treat- ment. The microstructure of the upset specimens was uniform -over the whole section and corresponded to an Index of 2 - 3 in accordance with the table issued by the Zavod "Elektrostal"' ("Elektrostall" Plant). The drawn specimens had a nonuniform macrostructure, with grains varying between indices 0.5 - 6 of the table mentioned. The strength limit, relative elongation and compression values wer,_- higher for tile upset than for the drawn specimens. 2) Contrary to standard practice, i-ton round section ingots of 20 X L5H (2OKhl5N3MA). [,L; @4 -1 (DI-1)] grade steel were* placed into the pusher-type furnace when hot, next they were cooled and finished on grind- Ing machines without having been tempered beforehand. No cracks were observed on Card 1/5 F I 3/i33/62/000/007/oio/014 At the Chelyabinskly.... A054/Ai27 those ingots, whereas surface defects occur on those which, according to the con- ventional technology, are first roughed before beLng placed into the pusher-type furnace and tempered prior to being processed on *@he grinding machine. The new method involving charging In hot condition cuts the technological cycle of the pro- ducticn by 8 days and increases the serviceable oittput by 5%. 3).To increase the productivity of the 1,100 blooming mill fewer pasces are applied, the steel grades have been re-classified in four classes Instead ol' three according to their deL'orma- tion resistance and this permitted a decn@ase in the niunber of passer, by two for - ,-" SoCt grades; the main drive of the blooming mill was converted to ionic drive con- trol. The new method, omitting two passes, increased the productivity by 9.8,%, the current value (when passing in the second grocve), by o.4 - o.6 ka, the geo- metric mean current for various profiles by 3 - 10%,. 4) 40X (40j(h), 45X (45lih), 45'-"2 (115G2), ',.OA'rTP (-mhm), 4o XFTP(4)1OiGTji), 30@"C/1 (3OKhGSA), 65 1` (65o), and Oki 24@ (OKhN2F) steel grades were flame-scarf-ad when cold. After 10 days' storage, cracks on the 111ame-scarfed surface were only fotmd for the 2OHhGTR and 4o KhGTR grades. FInme-scarfing at 3000C deteriorated the surface quality of pro- ducLs made of 55C2 (55S2) aridWy 15 (SfIM15) steeL. 5) A study was made of the accuracy of the rolled product (in 16 sizes) on th) 300-1, 350 and 300-2 stands. Ca rd 2/5 S/ 133/6 -2/000/007/01()/014 At the Chelyabinskly.... A054/Ai27 On the two t'irst stands the vertical diareater of the rolled section shohrd an In- creaoe it its end, while on the 300-P stand this i-as the case for both ends. Re- ';octs and focond gratle output t'ov the, thive stsnd@, amountl,@d to 2.4, 1.0 and 1.3.3% J - respectively. 6) 2,( 13-4X 1-3 (mil3_4Ybi)) wo - 30J mm, blooms were tempered at 7JOOC instead of being annealed at 8000C. 'Die dj3 hardness of the steel was 4.o 4.1@ nim when applying the new method which eliminated hot cracks. Moreover, the servicing of fhe heating furnace became easier and the productivity was raised by 1-5'@- 7) To increase the capacity of the 8W-nm stand, the rolling of ingots weighing 1.4 ton (upper section: 4L>3 x 420 rn, 'bottom section: x 3,,;6 r-n, heig,.t of the ingot body: 1210 mm, conicity 3.8%, riser volume: 19.5% of the ingot volL@,ne_) was introduced. Phe quality of the metals tested was satisfactory with the ex- ception of the:.:_ \ 15 (ShKh15) grade. it, tih-, 1.4-toll ingot@ of this grade a higher axial porosity was observed than In the 1.115 ton ingots, therefore the conicity increased -to 4.Tg. By rolling larger ingots, the productivity was raised by 7%. 8) Tests were carried out to find the causes of coarse-grained structuree for-mation in the OXH (4wo-ji ), 40 @ (4owzm), 2OX H 3A (2OMiN3A) and 30XFCA (@OKhGSA) steel grades. Cracks due to this structure In hEirdened specimens of 40KWJ and 40)0u%'MA grades arv caused by cooling the blooms -.n air prior to heat treatment, The notch toughness of transverse specimens decreases by a factor of 2. The craclz Card 3/5 s/i 3316 2/ooo/oo7/0 lo/10 14 At the Chelyabinskiy..... A054/A127 in the-201(h113A grade are caused by overheating the ingots before rolling. This can lbe rectified by subsequent normalization at 9000C. 9) A study was made of the effect of ce rium-modifl. cation on macrostructure, microstructure, mechanical prop- erties and ductility at the temperature of hot me-chanical treatment, of the 18 (18KhUVA), (3OKhOSA), 12K 2H, 4A (IM2144A), @ 17H 2 (Kh17112) and - X' 18H 12"'; 2 T (lKh18N1242T) steel grade@u. C3rium wits added to the various grades in different ways. After cerium modificatlon, -the strength limit and e,lon gation values increased for the 18HhNVA grade, whereas its notch toughness was reduced. The strength limit, yield point and notch toughness increased in the 30MnGSA grade and Its re-lative compression decreaned; in the iahaft and Xh17112 grades cerium caused a deterioration of the mechanical properties, whereas it ensured a dense macrostructure and good corrosion resistance in the lKhl8Nl2M2T grade. 10) To eliminate blister formation In 500--kg Ingots (with a 5.7% conicity) OCY,15@46o M151-i6o) and IX 2OH80 (MM180) chrome-nickel steels (sometimes '25% of the ingots proved defective), the oxidized skir must penetrate into the riser, it was found. For this purpose the ingot diameter under the riser was increased from 335 to 355 mm, while its upper opening was reduced from 230 to 190 mm. In 83-mm rods produced by this method, no blisters were found. 11) The causes of low ductility of:)Vi 4376 (in437B) steel shown in transverse cracks at th@ begir)- Card 4/5 At the Chelyabinskly ..... s/i33/62/ooo/007/010/014 A054/A127 rking of forging were studied. As these cracks are absent i=ndlately after cast- itig, they are evidently caused by slow cooling from the forging temperature. The mechanical proportion and long-torm strength of low-ductility specimens conform to the prescriptions ( '13 - go.8 + no.6 kg/mm2, (_C. 14 24,14, ki@- 16.7 27.3%, ak = 3.0 6.5 kgm/cm2, long-term strength 106 197 hours). Card 5/5 --KEYS, N.V.; GOLIKOV, Ye.S.; TULIN, N.A.; KOKARN, II.I.; ZIIUKOV, D.G. "Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces" by A.D. Krnma ov. Stall 22 no.1:42 Ja '62. (MIPJ, 14:12-) 1. Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod i Urullskiy institut chernykh metallov. (Steel--Electrometallurgy) Hi, KEYSP N.V.; KOMISSAROVt A.I. Research carried out at the Chelyabinsk metaIlurgical plant. Stall 22 no,6-"525,572 Je 162, (MIRA 16:7) (Steel-Elactrmetallurgy) (open-hearth process) GOLIDSHAYN, Ya.Ye., kand.tekhn.nauk,- ZELIDOVIC11) V.I., inzh.; KEYS, N.V.) 0 irizh.3 VAYMHUYN, O.Ya., inzh-.;--' inzh.; K06"OVSKIY, L.D., SHMATKO) L66, inzho Effect of treating liquid chromiurp-nickel steel by cerium on the characteristics of its crystallization. Stall 22 no.3:25&- 261 11-tr 162. (2-11PA 15-3) 1. Chelyabinskiy naucimo-issledovateliskiy inatitut metallurgii i Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod. (Chromium-nickel steel--Metallography) (Cerium) V. V. ; KOMISSAROV . A. 1. Increaoing the importance of plant laboratories by the ntroduction of'scientific ane technological innovations. Zav.lab. 28 no.1:117-118 162. (KMA 15:2) 1,, Nachallnik TSentrallnoy zavodskoy laboratoril Chelyabinskogo met4LUurgicheakogo zavoda (for Keys). 2. Zameatitell naChallinika TSentrallnoy savodskoy laboratorii Chelyabinakogo metallurgicheakogo zavoda (for Komisear,60. (Chelyabinok-Metal-lurgical laboratories) Imm, V.V.; KCHISSAROV, A.I. Reaearch by the ChelyabinBk Metallurgical Plant. Stall 22 no.7:604-W5y618-6I9s636-637,651 ji 162o (IIIRA 15:7) (Metallurgical reaearch) KEYSIA.V.; VAYNSHTEYN, O.Ya.; KHRYUKINA, V.A.; KAMINA, L.A.; KORABLEV, Ye.I. Use of nickel-bearing emery dust in open hearth furnaces. Metallurg 7 no.2:20-21 F 162. (MIRA 15:3) 1. Ghelyabinskiy metallurgiclieskiy zavod. (Open-hearth furnace:3-Equipment and supplies) (Metallurgical plants-By-products) KEYS N.V.; KOMIS8AROV., A.I. .1 At the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plants Stall 22 no.10:916 0162 (MIRA 15:10) (Ingot molds) S/130/63/000/001/001/008 Aoo6/A1oJ AUTHORS: Galyan, V. S., Zhukov, D. Uahakov, S. T., Khayrutdinov, R. M., Shatal.ov, bl. I. TITLE: Improving the transformer steel melting techniques PERIODICAL: Metallurg, no. 1, 1963, 13 - 14 TEXT; Previous transformer steel melLing techniques were based on the combined oxidizing of carbon with iron ore and oxygen, and diffusion deoxidation of the metal with ferrosilicon admixture. The cold rolled steel produced by this technique showed unsatisfactory magnetic properties. During 1959 and 1960 some improvements were made at the IM including the use of an Increased amount of iron ore for oxidation of Cr, MIg and P; redvction of the carbon and manganese content; decreased oxidation of the metal during melting, more complete.deoxi- dation of the steel during the reduction period. A more accurate correlatioh of iron-ore and admixtures in the metallic portion of the charge, increased slag amount, strict observatiort of temperature conditions during oxygen blast, and an increased amount of silico-calcium, were the improvements achieved. On the basis Card 1/2 "/130/63/000/001/001/OW Improving the transformer steel Melting techniques . I .AOO6/AjOj of the new techniquej; trajjsformer's@c@(..]. IM'L5 ;:@el ted In ahigil capacity electric furnace in 1961. To reduce Metal oxidlatior, j_@t tile beginning of the oxidation Pe"'Od, M'@' cast It-on was added't6 "he charge; the OPtimum metal temperatures were established at the end Of oxygen blast (1,591) - 1,6200c) and in the ladle (1,570 - 1,5900C). The content-cir Oxide in thc@ slag decreased at the elid Of melting to 28 - 31'5' and at Lho-efld Of Lhe c@xldation period to 38 - 141%. rhe carbon content after Oxygen blast excet@ded 0,03,i, in 80% of heats, and the manga- nese content was not below 0.05 - 0,06%. Ar) a result the magnetic properties of 0-35 Mm thick sheets were improved. There Is I table. Card 212 AI.YM) L.A., inzb.; VAY14SHTFYN, O.Ya., in*.; -91q, N.V., inzb.; LUBEMS, I.A., inzh,.; SMIMOV, Yu.Doo inzh.; FMOVj S.G.p inzh. Production oft St. 5ps senAkilled steel for concrete reinforcements. Stall 23 no.4020-321 Ap 163. (MMA 16:4) (Steel,, Structural-Metallurgy) (Concrete reinforcements) 3/133/63/000/004/00YOll A054/A126 AUTHORS-. Zhukov, D. G., Yeys, It., Malinovskaya, T. I., Golikov, Ye. S., Engineers TITLE. Improving the molting technology of 18 X11BA (18KWA) steel PMODICAL: Stall, no. 4, 1963, 328 - 330 TOCT: The molting technology mostly used for the 18EWA grade does not ensure a dense macrostructure. Testo with'L 30 - 40 min shorter reduction pe- riod did not improve the metal struci;ure. fccording to the theory of Miolin the metal will contain less non-metallic inclusions if there is a greater amount of glolyular crystals In the central part of the ingot and the diverging forces to- wards the periphery will be distributed on a larger area,'hereby preventing the inta7granular cracking. Based on this theory, a new technology with two variants waa teated, one of them ensuring complete oxidation and the other being carried out with the remelting of wastes. In the f3,rzt variant the oxidizing slag was tapped and fresh slag (lime + fluor), amoun'ting to 1.5,,Z' of the charge was added ;,;hen the C-content of the metal reached 0.25 - 0.2Qp". Next the slag was melted Card 1/3 S/133/63/000/004/003/011 ImProving the melting technology of... A054/A126 and mixed, the bath was blown through with oxygen (through a 1" or 3/4" pipe) until the C-content decreased to 009 - 0.11%. Then slag was tapped, ferrod=me and forrotungsten were added and the slag (Aiich trust be kept in liquid condi- tion) was mixeu with 80 - 100 kg crushed co!@e. The reduction with coke lasted 25 minutes. The temperature of the: metal prior to tapping the first slag was 1,64o - i,660c. In the second variant the 1,600 - 1,62000,after 02-blow"181 charge was composed to attain 0.35 - o.45@ C during smelting. Slag Wa.'"s tapped at a C-content of 0.25 0.20%, fri)sh slag was added rnd oxygen was blown into the bath until a 0.09 0.10,15' C co-atent was obtained. The metal temperature was 1,580 - 1,6000C prior to blowing while after it was 1,600 - 1,6200C. Otherwise the standard technology was maintained. The tests showed that blowing oxygen in the bath lowered the hydrogen concentration in the metal by o.9 cm3/loo g metal and it amounted to about 3.57 - 4,b3 cm3/100 g metal during therefining period. and to 4.4 cm3/100 g of the finialied metal. Transcrystallization developed weakly and intercrystalline oraolat did not form, . Comparison of 40 test heats and 76 conventional ones showed that of the former O.GV had to be rejected due to lamination, against 2.55% of Vle conventional heats, while the corresponding values for cracking were 0.64 ar-A 2.20%, and for blisters 0.98 and 1.47% re- Card @/3 'P 3/133/63/000/004/003/011 Improving the melting technology of... A054/A126 spectively. The mechanical propertLes are represented by the following values (numerators: test steel, denominators: conventional steel): OB' kg/mm2 as, kg/mm2 % QjO % a , kgm/cM2 dB, M k .a-O- 121 D.6 61.8 42.2 125 115 14.0 60T. -1 U., 3.10 The tests were carried out in co-operation with Novozhilov and Cherepannikova. There are 2 figures. Card Y3 3/133/63,/000/004/004/011 A054/A126 A17MORS: Keys, 11. V., Komissarov, A. 1. T=: At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskly zavod (Chelyabinsk Metal- lurgical Plant) PERIODICAL: Stall, no. 4, 1963# 336 337 TEXT: 1. To improVe ductility and corrosion resistance of the X IS H 10T (KIEN10T) stainless steel, the motal tempori-6ture prior to blowing oxygen was raised to 1,600 - 1,6200C, titanium was addod after feeding lime-containing slag, This made it possible to reduce the cindering oE nickel after 0 -blowing and stabilize the degree of titanium adzorptioni Still better resu?ts were expected of the use of a slag with a higher lime.content. The first slag was tapped after the first reduction with silicon and coke (2 kg/ton), next fresh slag, contain- ing 1% lime and 0.25% fluor (of 'the charge weight) w&s added. Reduction after 0 ro- 2-blowing was carried out with it smaller anount of silicon and lumps of fer silic,)n and ferrochrome, calculating a 13 - 14% Cr content in the melt. The waste due to.corrosion in the test heats was 8.5 and 3.6% (as against 13% in the Card 1/ 7 S/133/63/000/004/oo4/oli At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod... Ao54/A126 conventional ones), on account of a more thorough reduction of the metal prior to adding ferrotitaAum. At a 0.1% C content the optimum amount of titanium should be 0.5 - 0.6%. The corroi3ion resist3noe of the X18 H9T M16*T) and X 17 H 13 M2T (Kh17N13-12t) gradea was improved by the addition of rare eax4th element3 (0.06 - 0.12%), and t1w ductility of the metal, its casting properties and surface became also better. 2. Tests were carried out in co-operation with the Chelyabinskiy nauchno-issledDVatellskiy institute metallurgii (Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgy) to improve the '@JHXIOA (3D4hMYuA) grade. The steel was melted in large electric furnaces either with a fresh charg;e or with the oxygen-remelting of alloy scrap. Prior to tapping the oxi- dizing slag, the bath was reduced by 5 kg/ton cast Iron, and after deslagging by calciiLm silicate*, ferrosiliccm and alumLnum (4,1 and 0.3 kg/ton respectively). The 2.65 ton ingots were cast with carbon tetrachloride. 2 - 3,1t lime in the charge reduced the sulphur contentof the matal by 0.001% and the phosphor con- tent by 0.003%. The pouring of the metal w3z prolonged to 140 - 170 sea at a metal temperature in the ladle of 1,575 - 1,58oOc and to 160 - 190 see at 1,585 1,.5900C. As compared to !%.'l, the waste was reduced from 13.9 to 3.8% in the metallurgical plant and at the user's plant from 5,6 to 2.rp. 3. In co-opera- Card @/7 M S/133/63/OW/004/004/011 At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskLy zavod... Ao54/Ai26 tion with the Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgy, tests were made to reduce the non-metallia inclusions in the 30 XrC A (3OKhOSA) grade. The best results were obtained a rapid Pnd intense oxidation at 1,0520 - 1,6400C, with preliminary reduct!.on by cast I.ron, manganese silicate, aluminum, coke 0 - 1.5 kg/ton during 15 m:Lnutes) and VerroBilicon powder (5 kg/ton) in three batches, mixing 1 kg/ton aluminum in the 2nd and 3rd batch. The test met81 contained hardly any globules; the amount and the size of oxide inclusions was somewhat higher than usual, but istill bel(ror the standard limit. 4. 2.65-ton in- gots of the UIX 15 (ShKh15), 38M4YuA, @301=SA,' 18 XHBA (187@UWA), etc. grades were cast in uniformly walled molds. Their durability decreased from 26 to 21 castings without, however, increasing the cast iron consumption (60 k&/ton). The macrostructure of the test steels waszbout the same as when using conven- tional molds, 6nly.the axial porosity was found to have slightly increased. 5. In co-operation with the Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metal- lurgy, tests were made to melt eleat@aatcel vith cast iron previously refined in a converter. For thin purpose a discarded 200-ton ladle was used, over which a smoke canopy was mounted. A water-cooling tuyere with a 45-mm outlet was set in the opening of the canopy. Oxygen consumption was 15 3U m3/m1n., steam con- Card 3/7 S/133,/63/000/004/004/011 At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgioheskiy zavod... A054/AI26 sumption 30 - 50 M3/hour; blowing took 50 - 70 minutes. To protect the lining and to dilute slag, maximum amounts of 2.5% lime and 1% iron-ore were added dur- ing melting. The content of various additives before (numerator)and after (deno- minator) oxygen blowing was: C 31 VIn 3 F 4.18 0.99 1.19 1125A 0.162 3.42 0. 30 0.45 0.045 0,127 Previously refined cast iron amounting to 5Q,75 of the metal-charge weight was used for Y 7A-Y12A (WrA-U12A) and ShKh15 g.rades. 'The smelting time was' shortened by 39 minutes or 10%; electric power consumption decreased by 20%. 6, A technology was established-for melting stainless steel in large-capacity arc furnaces. After several failures the cooling of the bath (by adding ferro-@ chrome), the addition of alloying elements, the reaution of the slag were undei control. The operating period at increased power'.f4as shortened. After blowing, silicomang.anese was added to the slag. Metal cinder amounted to an average oP 8.5 of the charga weight.; the adsorption of chromne attained 82%. 'In dependence of the C-content and 02-pres.Tare, blowing lasted 50 80 minutes. Zhe macro- Card 4/7 S/133/63/000/004/004/011 At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheakly zavod... A0541A126 structure of steel was satisfactory. The heats with a higher index for the alpha-phase had a chrome-nickel ratio betweea 1.78 and 1.95. 7. The technology for Cd08X2OH1or6 (SbOft2ON1OG6) grade (with an increased ductility) has 'u boen established. The steel was melted in small are f rnaces with the remelting ok, stainless steel scrap, oxygen blowing in the bath and reftning under white SIlag. The welding rods made from the steel at the Beloretskiy metallurgicheskiy kombinat (Beloretok Metallurgical Plant) displayed low ductility, both during production and in use. Ductility waz- found to depend on the final metal temper- ature, the chrome content of the bath during blowing and the content of P, Cr, Ni and C in the steel. In the low-ductility heats the ladle temperature, the P and C content and the amount of the alpha-phase were too high, the Cr:Ni ratio was too low. The highest ductility was obtained when modifying with ferrocerium after the final reduction by aluminum (0.5 kg/ton). 8. The slags obtained in melting highly heat-resistant alloys and master alloys contain very little FeO, Cr 0 SiO reduaing oxides and a relatively large amount of calcium oxides and 2 f 2 calc luorite, therefore they can be used in slog forming prior to the addi- tion of ferrotitanium in melting stainless steels, hereby increasing the titanium' adsorption from 44.05 to 50.3%. This kind of slag contains 17 20% nickel re- Card 5/7 17 4" 41 S/133/63,/000/004/004/011 At the Chelyabinskly metallurgicheskiy zavod... A054/Ai26 sidue after the melting of nickel alloys and saves nickel (4 kg,/t), 18-% ferro- titanium (6.5 kg/t), XpGOO (KhrOOO) ferrochrome (0.6 kg/t), fluor (1-3 k9/t) and lime (10 kg/t) when used in melting, Cr-Xi steels. 9. A now composition was established (in co-operation with the Vostochniyy nauchno-issledovatellskiy institut ogneuporoviastern Scientific Research Institute of Refractory Materials) induc'ion furnace crucibles, ensuring a longer service life, containing fused magnesite with the following granulometric distribution: 4 - 2 mm: 25%, 2 - I mm: 35%, 1 - 0.09 mm: 2D%, 0.09 - 0 min: 20%. Crucibles of this material have a durability of 26 malts and it lower tendency to coking with other materials. The macrostructure of metals melted in such crucibles improved. 10. In co- operation with the Institut elektrosvark:L im. Ye. 0. Patona (Institute of Elec- tr6weldinZ Imeni Ye. 0. Paton) the technology for the A14-1 (DI-1) (20X 15H3MA/ 2OKhl_@:q,134A) grade was establi'shed, using electroslag remelting, in a 300-mm diara-, eter crystallizer. For ingots of 600 - 630 kg the AH4-6 (W-6) fluxing agent was used in an amount of 2o - 28 kg/ingot. The ingots had a smooth surface. rrhe I -silicon content df the steel was reduced by 0.04 - 0. 1&%, that of sulphur from 8 - 6 to 6 - 4 - io'3%, the macrostructure of the metal was flawless; the values for strength and ductility xirere nearly identical in longitudinal and Card 6/7 3/133,/63,/000/004/004/011 At the ChelyabInakly metallurgicheskiy zavod... A054/AI26 @ransverse specimins. The index for oxide inclusions decreased from 3 - 5 to Q-5 - 1, that of sulfides from 2.5 - 3.5 to 0.-5. 11. Tests were made to study the annealing, decarburization and red-hot stability of the P18 (R18) grade. The test metal was annealed in a compartment furnace by heating to 8600C at a 1600/h rate, with holding for 0.5 17^on, cooling to 7000C at a 300/h rate, fol- lowed by air cooling. To shorten the time of increased temporatures, when de- carburization takes place more intensely, the charge weight was limited to 10 t, but lateron increased to 20 t. The furnace output was raised from 0.48 to o.65 t/h, the decarbuiized layer changed only slightly by 0.15 - 0.2 mm. Red-hot sta- bility was:tested on 90 - 100 mm diameter forged rods that were heated to W 8600C, oil-hardened at 1,2800Cnext annealed three times at 5600C with one-hour holding and then air-cooled. The hardness of the specimens was between 62 and 64 R.. Subsequently - they --were-again- anneali4d- at -62DOC with a holding tin, e- of--- .4 h and then air-cooled. Card 7/7 i-A S/133/63/OW/004/0(4/011 A054Ai26 AUTHORS: Keys, N. V. Komissarov, A. I. TITLE. At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metal- lurgical Plant) PERIODICAL: Stal', no. 4, 1963, 353 TrXT: 1. To reduce the surface to be processed by grinding wheels, ingots were gi,,en a semi,ciroular shape and their weight was increased from 1,115 to 1,290 kg. The semi-spherical shap* is machine-planed, the fl&t parts are fi- nished with grtnding wheels. The new, heavier ingots increased the productivity by 8-5/j, reduced the labor required for surface finishing by a factor of 2 and reduced the number of grinding wheels "ed to 4,300 per 1,000 ton casting. 2. The ductility of 1 X 18H 9 T (1m,18N9T) grade decreased when the composition was modified by.the MOT 5632-61 (GOST 562,2-61), reducing the nickel content. To improve this, heats with an c@-phase indexed by 2.5 or more were subjected to a stepped heat treatment, lasting 12 hoursp(luring which the ingots were kept for 5 hours at a lower (1,180 1,2000C) temperature. The ingots should be heated Card 1/2 S/133/63/000/004/006/011 At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod... Ao54/AI26 in cell-type soaking pits of a high heat capacity. 4. To reduce the carbide in- homogeneity in 160 - 180 mm X12M (KhI214) forged pieces, forging is carried out vi, intermediate strips according to the following pattern- 280 x 220 --), 240 x x @80 -> 24o x 180 --->180 x 180 mm and with homogenization of the slabs. As com- pared to oval slabs those forged according to the above pattern have a carbide inhomogeneity index reduced by one. Homogenization at 1,1800C for 50 hours with a subsequent surface machining deareased'.this index for 140 mm, circular sections by 2. 5. Chrome-aluminum alloy ingots ( X13104/Khl4Yu4, OX 23 M5/OW3Yu5, OX27-'05A/OKh27yu5A) usually finished on lathes and subsequently by pneumatic haminiers are successfully surface-tveated with grinding wheels. The ingots must be thoroughly heated to 5500C with grinding taking place in the 550 - 2300C rurge. 6. The X13104 (KhlYuli) ingots which were hitherto fed in a pusher type furnace while hot were tested to be cooled in unhea-@ed soaking pits to 500C in go hours. After surface finishing they were fed into the furnace with.a temperature of , 3500C at the rear part and heated for 20 hours, but these ingots displayed inner concentrioal cracks during forging. Better results were obtained with ingots that were fed into the furnace at 7000C, held for 10 - 12 hours, after which they were furnace-cooled to 500C in 48 - 72 hours. The 90-r,-,,n and 130 - 16o mm Sq@iare sections forg,@d from these ingots haada,satisfaotor ductility and did rq fl awl hereb d 2/2 ar C I KEYS, N.V. inzh.; KOMISSAROVI A.I., inzh.; MYSINAO G.Ye.,, irlzh.; DONETS2 R.N., Studying the harden4bility of bearing steel produced by the Chelyabinsk MataIlurgical Plantv Stall 23 no.4-360-362 Ap 163. (MIRA 16:10 1. Chelyabinakiy metem urgicheskiy zavod. 1@ (Bearing metplsllardening) S/133/63/000/004/009/011 Ao54/A126 AUMORS: Keys, N. V., Komissarov, A. I. TITLE: At the Chelyabinskly metallurgichesidy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metal- lurgical Plant) FERIODICALT: Stal', no. 4. 1961. 364 TEXT: 1) Tests were carried out to shorten the cooling time of X 17H 2 (]QhIM) grade ingots. After Pasting and stripping the ingots were laid out ouside for I hour. They were set in the furnace at 500C for 24 - 72 hours and annealed at 6700C for 48 hours. No cracks were found in the ingots after this treatment. Accelerated cooling was also applied to forgings with double anneal- ing. The first takes place in the soaking pits of the forging workshop, the second-in the heat treatment department. To shorten the holding time during an- nealing for 120 mm square sections, the Incubation period of crack formation and the hardness of the metal was studied after 10, 15 and 20 hours holding time at 670OC; in each case the hardness was nearly identical and according to standards. No cracks were observed in 120 mm square and 170 mm circular sections during 45 Card 1/2 S/133/63/000/004/009/011' At the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod... A054/A126 days and 6 months periods. The annealing time of the 120 mm squares in the forging shop was shortened by applying a 12-hour holding time. The now measures reduced the total production cycle by 1 1/2 days and greatly relived the soaking pits that formed the bottle necks in the production process. 2) According to a new technology, the lUX15 (ShKh15) grade rolled sections are heated at a maximum possible rate to 7900C, hold for I h/t, cooled at a 20OC/h rate to 68000, next held for 6 hourz, then cooled in 2 hours under the hood and in air. Over-an- nealing in respect of the pearlite phaze could be reduced from 2.15 to 0.48%. Card 2/2 AGMSION NR: Ald=hILO S10137163100010121VO381VO38 soURCEI RM Metallurgiyal Abe. 12V284 AUTHCRt Galyant Vo So) Keysj,_',No Vol Khayrutdinovs R. M.1 Ushakovs So To TITLEt @Jslting electric steel with the use of molten pig iron in the charge CITED SOURCEi Sbe Teoriya i praktika metallurgiiet Chelyabinaks vy*p. 5j 1963P 63-69 TOPIC TAGSt Electric steel wlting,, pig ironp'high carbon steel meltingj, electric furnace T.UhSLATION3 Experimental meltings sdth molten pig iron were carried out in a 90-t are furnace, The feasibility of melting high-carbon steels in this electric furnace, using 30-40% of molten pig iron$ was establi6heds When such a charge is use6, the duration of the melting is reduced by 8-10%,, and the consumption of eLe,.-T,i-isal energy is decrened by 15-20%9 Do Keshayevas DATE ACQ: o9jan64 SUB CODE: ML ENCL: 00 Card 1/1 SN i. A /t; -,j L, 1 i Lair i J/ 7,7- --L-17L61-63 q ACCESSION Mt AP3004783 8/0129/63/000/008/001!@/6623 A10THORZ: Keys, N* V I Komissarovo A. To TIT LEE -. 'Use of cerium for modification of construction and stainless steels L ast iron SOURCE -, Mletallovedenlye I termichesksia obrabotka. metallov, no. 8t 19639 19,-@23 TOPIC TAGSt. stainless steel, machinery amstruction steel, Ce, cerium, cast iront ferro ceri= ABSTIRACTs Authors were part of a group wbich carried out teats devoted to the employment of cerium as a steel modifier, Purpose of these tests wasgo reduce the hydrogen content in 40 W steel, which is vusceptible to flaklp _6vand to remove the bright spots which were encountered in the fractures of-U7SV axle steel .@.tures upon th roperti a of construction samples. The effect of forrocerlux admi e e -on ing =Olds. The tests showed steels and an increasing the strength ON cast ix @that an Ad=ixture of ferrooerium to th4 40 W and OS'Ifteels brings about A reduction in the sulfur contentg lowerin-g-W-tbe critical points and increase in strength. Tests on IMNU. 30ZW M=4A9 FhlT,%2 and MIMN12= nteela corroborated the poasibffty,of usV rare ea h metall as modifiers, r Improv- L 17b6i-63 ACCZ5SION Rs AP3004783 ing the steel's quality* Ferrocerium admixtures lower the steel's susceptibility to flaking. The resistance of Ingot molds from cerium cast iron is I-Fj times greater than.those from raw cast iron. The amount of complex modifier depenfs uDon the sulfur content. The advantage of the cerium mcd1fler is that it can be introduced into ordinary ladles without the erectlon of autoclaves and special ebambera because a violent reaction of the modifier vith the cast iron does rot e place, Origs. art. has, 3 figures and 4 teLbles. ASSCC1r,.IOAt Chelyabinakiy'.CLetai-t~u-~g-iciies-kkJiy-zi~v-o-d-(Chelyabinsk-m-etanurgiciL works) i SUMUMED1 00 WE ACQi Mwlep6w? 11M. C L t00 SVB COM YL NO 1W SM 000 CTE t 000 L 1 --AFFTCjAM---JD/J0- ACCESSION NRi AP 3004786 S/0129/63/000/008/0033/0038 AMOR: Savitokiyo Ye. M.; K2ysL H. V.) Popov, V. F.; L3ribimov,, V. ff.; MM: Emrtie of Khl8NM2T tainless steel containing oxides of rarmt-earth me W13 7/ SOURCEt 14etallove4eniye I termicheakays. obiabotka metallov, no, 1, 1963, 33-38 TOPIC TAGS: Xhl8Hl2142T stainless steel, AISI 316T steel,, r -earth metal o3dde addition, optimum smount,, steel tensile strength,, room-tecperature ductillty,, hot ductility, formability microstructure ABSTRACT: The effect of 0.08 and 0.10 additions of rare-earth metal (m) o 'x1des on properties of M18111242T (AISI 316T] stainless steel has been Investigated in three production-scale heats, The oxides were put In a 40-ton preheated IVAUe 5-8 min before tapping the furnace and casting the steel Into 4.5-ton Ingots. Test specimens were cut from the top, middle, and bottom sections of the Ingots. Ductility characteristics of rolled metal were meesured both along and across the direction of rolling. Steel ingots with REM oxides were found to have a Card - ---- -------------- .- - - - - - - - - L4 WL 6 3 :,ACCESSION DR: AP3004786 dense flawless surface requiring only sligbt surface conditioning and a fine dense macrostructure without tracen of segregation. Rolled blooms also had no surface defects. The amount of ferrite in REM-oxide-treated steel was 50 to 75% smaller than in untreated steel, and its distribution along the ingot height was more uniform. Addition of RE24 oxides improved steel formability and resist- ance to intercrystalline corrosion and iacreased the yield by about 0.5%. An addition of 0.08% M4 oxides increased the room-temperature tensile strength by 11.5% and the yield strength by 15.4%; no further improvement was observed when the REM oxide content was ralsed to 0.12%. While the hot ductility of the steel without RM oxides gradually Improved as the test temperature increased to 1000 and 1200C, It increased by 1.5-2 times with an addition of 0.08% of REM oxides. In hot ductility torsion tests, steel specimens with O.OVp RF_4 oxides w1thatood 18 and 98 turms at 1000 and 1200C, respectively, while specimens of untreated steel faiied after 8-10 and 12-15 turns. The RM4-oxide- treated steel also had a finer austenite grain, lower anisotropy of the mechanical properties, and higher ductility, particularly across the direction of rolling. In general, ad- dition of REM oxides is especially effective in casting large ingots and shaped castingo. Orig. art. has: 5 tables. ASSOCIATTON: Jnst. of fletallurgy I.Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant) Card 2/12- N.V.; &MITSYN, A.A.; POZDNYSHEV, V.M.; SAMARIN, A.P.; YARISEVA, T.N.; Fil ni nal iuchastiye: BFMOVSKIY., B.M.; GHUTGHL-V, I.I.; KOMPA14IYjiTS, N.V.; OTRMHCHMOP R.I.; KHARITONOVA, V.V.; TOROPOV, F.S. Making ingot molds and o4er castings of cast iron witb spheroidal graphite at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. Stall 23 no.4:381-383 Ap 163, (Iron foilryli (Ingot molds) (MIRA 16:4) of the stainless ste-cls, ll@nlni%izivi4i @Liu unaer rra-,iu- uz f "oTill: t 1()F 11 F`1 D: 13JumA RE SOV: 004 14 -CL: uo E IN OTHER: SL b CODE: NIN' KETS, N.V.; YOMISSAROV, A.!. Now dovelolmento In reovardi. SUill "K-'4 no.7,,(:l'-,6,A 11 164. Wplozovt A.H.; KFYS, N.V.; KOMISSPjiO%', A.!. New dovolopyrents in recoarch. StlA.' 1`4 no.8:753 '64. i'MIPA 17:9) L -35031 EW(x)/&P(b)/LrWP(t) JD ACCWSIOK KfU AP5006155 8/0266/65/000/005/0034/0034,3 AVMOR:- Pato , B. To.; Dudko, D._A.; Medovar, B. I Lata5h, Yu. V.; Maksimoyich, B, r.; Shevchenkq. A. I.; Stuprk, L. H , Goncharenko._V,_E.-, Grigor'y I -@hOV, U.' K.; Chudin, N. L; Wbcneta. -1, N. V feM _A:j Yartsev. M. A ; Keys. Tillin, 11, A ; KnDellnitakly, V. G., Privalov. W. T., Pis'mennov, V. Yu. A ; 4yatroy. S. X ; Bastrakov, Nk I" Donets 11 D,; QllayeY2 A. Ya. TITLE; Method or electroolax casti nAlf ingots. Class 16, No. 160T43 SOURCE- Byulleten' isobretenty I tov&Mkh snakoy. no. 5, 1965, 34 TOPIC TAGS: Ingot casting, Ingot slectraslag casting. *lectroolag melting, steel melting, alloy melting, metal melting ABSTRACT: This Author Certificate introduces a method of electroslag costing of ingots in an open or protective atmosphere or In vacum, in Oich slag is first melted in a mold vith a nonconsumable or consmable electrode are or plasma jet. To improve the metal quality and the Ingot surface and to raise the yield, the molten metal or, if needed, the slaq is poured Into the sold through a hollov coa- sumable or nonconsumable electrode (see Fig. I of the Enclosure).. Orig. art. bas- 1 figure. [NDI Card 113 L 35031-65 ACCESSION IM ASSOCIATIOi: Chelyabinskly mtallurgichookiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metallurgical' Plant) suucmt o6rob63 INCLt 01 StM PODS: Wi, IS No mw Gov: 000 OMR: .000 'ATD PRMS 3215 .Cad 2/11, L 01517-66 DITH/94AW/W (t)/EWP(Z)/EWP(b) IJP(d) MJW/JD ACCESSION NRi AP5014375 UR/0383/65/000/001/0061/0065 669.187.6---S AUTHOR: Zhu ov, D. G..4, Keys, H. V@,; Men'shenin, Ye. B.; Pegov, V. G.;-. Molchanova, A. A. fq, @ TITLE, Treatment o -electric steel with liouid synthetic slaz SOURCE: HetallurgichosRaya i gornorudnaya promyshlennost', no. 1, 1965, 61-65 TOPIC TAGS: electric steel, synthetic slag ABSTRACT: The treatment of electric steel with liquid synthetic slag was adopted on a mass-production scale at the Chelyabinsk metallurgical plariC'tor the first time In the history of SOV17t metalIu_r_g_y__Tn__U_uly, 1964. The chemical composition of the materials and the pr(Wedure.employed in the preparation of the lime-alumina slag are described. Sh?',h 5%teel was treated with the clag obtained. The slag treatment was found to reduce considerably t4e contamination of the steel with 13 metallic impurities, to decrease the sulfurt'6ontent, and to raise the output of/@ the electric furnaces by 12 to 15%. -th-emacrostructure of slag-treated SMIS 16 steel shows virtually no differences from that of steel of standard bat@hiies."rhs .,Ord 1/2 L 01517-66 ACCESSION NR: AP5014375 work was carried out in collaboration with T9H11Ch @nder the supervision of Doctor of Technical Sciencep So G. Voinov V/_jR addition to the autho engineem ' i . -K. ROT ' 'F- - @W.6 UY-N. No V. Keyst Ye, So Golm-ly f. =Ube G;tPegov# No V. Ridenli A. A. Molchanova, H. Ye. Anisimova and other Ci p ad in the study." Orig. art. haa: 2 figu-re-s-an-&-~-t-aL-fe-,s~yc'@ ASSOCIATION: none SUBMITTED: 00 ENCL: 00 SUB CODEI KH NO REF SOV: 000 OTHERt 000 Card 2/2 LUBHNETS, I.A.; ZHUKOV, D.G.; VOINOV, S.G.; SIIAL!YjDV, KOSOY, T .7.; KALINNIKOV, Ye.S.; CHFRNYAKOV, V.A.; YATI-TSEV, (IkLIKCI@I, Ye.S.; MYSINA, G.Ye.; Prinimali uchastiye:,_KFYS, N.V.; HGOV, 7.G.; MENISHENIN, Ye.B.; BARNOVALOV, M.A.'; 'S4IITR, G.B.; SIIATAWV, M.I.; MOLCHANOVA, A.A.; ANISIMOVA, M.Ye. Refining steel with synthetic slag from large-capacity arc furnaces. Stall 25 no.3:232-235 Mr 165. (MIRA 18:4) A N Jmsf- v*V,-.KOMISSAROV, A.I.@ ISUPOV V.T., Inzh., FALEVE11, I.G., inzh.-. No.) @, V.A., inz-h. New developments in research. Stall 25 no.7:614-615 JI 165. (MA 18%7) YFY9, N.V.1 K014ISSAROV, A.I. New developwnts in ressarch. Stalf 25 no.?j618 il 165. New developments in research. Ibid.i654-655 New developments in research. lbld.1660 New developmnts in research. Ibid.:669 (MIRA 18-17) NOVIKOV, V.; MAI'VEYEV, Yij.M.,; WJi1iTM.1FJY, M.H.; BATIST, U"":EL" G.; KOROLEV, M.; M@1111r3UIWI) V.; ARONOV, I.; SVEM-AKOl, V.; ZAYONG1,11K, L.Z.; RASPOPOV, I.V.; SFRDny,(jv, G.V.; GRISIOTI, MAYEYEV, I.F.; DELLO, A.A.; S1fUMNAYA, V.A., inzh.; SPIRYAGIN, L.P., inzh..; GRISITKOV, A.I.; KARDONOV, B.A.; BURDIN, V.M., kand. tekhn. nauk; MOLGAGI-MV, D.A., inzh.; WMALEVSKIY, O.G.; RIMIT, A.A.; MEYS, f,'.V.; KOMISSARCIV, A.Io New developments in research. Stall 25 no.8:81,2-845 3 165. (!-M"@A 18:9) AV: NR, Ap6o]2948 SOURCE CODE: UR/0133 0 007 165/00 .AUTHOR: Keys, No Vo; Komiaiarov, A. le @4 ORG: none TITIB: Improvement of the quality of 18Kh2N4VA steel by electroslag mid vacuum arc malting SOURCE: Stall, no* 7, 1965, 618 TOPIC TAGS: vacuum are, eleotroslag malting, steel, vacuum melting, carbon monoxide, silicon, sulfur, manganese. nonmetallic inclusion, steel structure, high quality steel 18Kh2N4VA steel AWMUCT: Electroslag meltjof l8Kh2N4VA steel was performed iv@a 420 mm diameter crystalliz&F-as-Ing ANF-6 and AN-291 flux-with vacuum arc melting@ a 380 mm diametei crystallizer at a current strength of 6 ka. During electroslag melting, 20-30% of the silicon was contaminated by carbon-monoxide and the sulfur conter+11as reduced to 0.006-0.0071p, During vacuum arc melting, 25-35% of the manganese @fas contaminated* The electroslag and vacuum are ingots were poured off to a 175-Z50 mm and 140 mm squares. The macrostructure of the electroslag parts (140-250 mm) was homogeneous with no inconsistencies. There were no large inclusions: there were onl@y individual point inclusions* Thanks to the directed crystallization, dense macrostructure and purity as concerns nonmetallic inclusions, the mltod metal was more isotropic than Card 1/2 ACC NR: AP6012 3 open-malted metal. These new metallurgical processes will provide high quality st-eel for large shapes* fJ-PRS7 SUB CODE: 130 09 SUBH DATE: none L' 27426-6� EWT(M)ZEWA(d@@WAII I&CI) jD I ACC NRj AP6017r79 SOURCE CODE1 UR/0133A5/000/009/08k AUTH0R:. Keys.N. V.; Komissarov, A. I. ORG: _Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant (Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod) TITLE: Production technology of clad steel 3sp-Khl8NlOT SOURCE: Stall, no. 9, 1965, 845 ' (S 19 TOPIC TAGS: steel, sheet metals weldability, metallurgic furnace/3spKhl8NlOT steel ABSTRACT,. A rational design of the pack was selected. 'An unsy=etric four-! layer pack with a 1.08:1.10 ratic, of the thickness of the upper part to the lower part and strips 35-40 = wide provided for the preparation of sheets of identical thickness. The finished output depends on the width of-the strips. Strips 20-25 mm wide do not guarantee a pack seal. The increase in pack width from 700 to 800 mm reduces the consumption factor from 2.26 to 1.83. The effect of heating conditions on the weldability of layers in .sheets was studied. When packs are heated in continuous four-zone furnacesp, 'with botton preheating, a special heating condition is established in the soaking zones (1300-13200Cs 3 hours).- The consumption factor was reduced to 1.9-2.0 at peak operation# This work was done jointly with the Central Scientific Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy (TaNIIGhM) and the Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgy. [JPRS1 SUB CODE: 11, 13 SUBM DATE: none Card 1/1 i:N-Xej UDC, 621.771.23.001.5-- C- ACC NR, AP 3 -.122 SOURCE WIZ: UR/0133/66/000/009/0837/08hl AUTHOR: Gol'dshteyn, Ya. Ye. (Candidate of technical sciences); BakidiovskMa, M. V. (Engineer)l' Kapel'nitskiy, V. 0. (Engineer); Keys. N. V. ('Engineer) R -_ Ch lyabinsk Institute of Me (Chelyabinskiy n,-i. institut metallurgii); a5@ Qe __ @ =c Flanif- 01 ly Y 'n' U141 st,_ bletallurgi @@�Inskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod. ? TITLE: Structure and properties of variously melted structural steel SOURCE: Stall, no. 9, 1966, 837-841 ZD 4hla 0;fiu'C@@ nl;kl 4'mi@- 1641, ltiA TOPIC TAGS: structural steel, mtct al steel me N, structural. steel property electroslag melting, vacuum arc melting, vacuum induction melting/1&012NI;VA structuralI steel, 40KhNMA structural steel, 35Kh2GSMA structural steel ABSTRACT: A comparative study has been conducted of the structure and properties of .18Kh2N4vA (,A), 4oKhNMA and 35Kh2GSMA (5) structural steels melted by the 10K MA@ 7_ s r follovingl$rocesses ght of ingots inR6 is shown in brackets): electroslag (500 e g T and 10001, vacuum arc 001, vacuum indudtion (5001, electroslag + vacuum arc (4501, LL arc 80 and vacuum induction + vacuum arc (4501. It was found that although none of the melting processes used affected significantly the strength of steels, all of them more or 1esB improved the notch toughness at room temperature, reduced the suscepti- bility to temper brittleness (see Fig. 1), and lowered the temperature of transition to brittle behavior. For instance, the latter temperature of A, B and C steels melted by one of the combined processes dropped from 30-35, 90 mid 30C (conventional Card uDc: 669.15-194 L 0498247 f-AeCkR-:' AP6031227------- Zd 22 to U) 20 4-> 0 14 Card 5_ - 3e @ Fig. 1. Notch toughness of l8Kh2N)sVA steel versus tempering temperature I - Conventionul, arc; 2 - electroslag; 3 elec- troslag + vacuum arc; 4 - vacuum arc; 5 vacuum induction; 6 vacuum induction + vacuum arc. 200 jog 4M 5005,50,OW650pe L ()4982-6-(--- ACC NR, Ap6ojMll - - - - -- arc melting) to 70-75, 115-120 and 6o-70C, respectively. The combined @Lejj@ @n processes also reduce the anisatropy of mechanical properties. However, the degree of effect depends on the final heat treatment and the carbon content of the steels. Orig. aft . has: 6 figures and 2 tables. (TDI SUB COLE: 11, 13/ SUBM DATE: none linctroslag Meltillig --3t3- 11 OC)1@6 El,,'Il(m)/EWP(t)/F.Tl,/I;W_P(k) IJP.(C) C"')VA) 60'URCE-C,-ODE:-UR/0133/60'/000/007/0619/0620 ACC NR& AP6031641 1AUTHOR: Keys, N. V.; Kominnarov, A. I. !ORG: None TITLE: Research at the Ch 1yabinsk Metallurgical Plant SOURCE: Stall, no. 7, 1966, L19-620 TOPIC TAGS: titanium steel, slag, alloy steel, metal recrystallization ABSTRACT: The paper contains the following brief reports, Improving the Technologi- cat Conditions for Production of E1481 Spel: A maximum increas .c in pcrmanene strength was achieved by melting with oxyren and WIloying the metal with ferroceriumlfn quanti- ties UP to 0.5 kg/t in the furnace before removal and 0.7 kg/t in the laale. This re- sults in a considerable increase in the ductility at temperatures of 950-11500C as well as a sharp reduction in oxygen concentr on. Use of an 1170 kg ingot increases the usable yield by 3-5%. Casting Stainless Titanium-Containing Steel Under a Slag of Exothermal Briquets: The charge for preparing the briquets consists of ground calcium- silicon alloy, manganese ore, fluorite, coarse silicate, sodium nitrate, aluminum pow- der and fluorite.concentrate. Consumption of emery wheels for dressing is reduced to 0.8 kg/t as compared with 3.5 kg/t consumed wh6n casting is done with petrolatum; con- sumption of metal in emery dust is reduced from 12 to 2.6 Xg/t which results in an e- conomy of about 5 ru))Ieo per ton of steel. rmproving the Quality of Elootric Steel by Using Dried Oxygen -Wter starting & silicagel dryer, two forty-ton arc furmcen were supplied with extremely dry oxygen. The moisture content in the oxygen was red----- L i. o9l3.5-67 ACC NR: AP60318111 from 0.6-1.1 to 0.02-0.04 g/ Th fesulted in a reductio in the hydrogen content 3 m h N by 0.43 cm per 100 g of meta@in 1:h carbon steel (ShKh15A 1.02 cm3 per 100 g in a medium-carbon steel (38Kh?4YuA and others) and 1.69 cm3 per 00 g in low-carbon steel (18Kh2N4vA) li",@ Reject-R-o-U-puT for individual grades of steel is reduced by 20-30%. Electro3lag@Zlti!T of Steel in Crystallinere with Square Cross Section: Square cry- stallizers with an upper cross section of 300x3OO mm, and a lower cross section of 350x350 mm may be used in electroslag remelting to produce ingots weighing 1.3 tons which are suitable for rolling on an 800 mill. The crystallizer has a smaller cross. section than the circular type which reduces flux consumption by 15 kg/t for a slag bath of the same h ' h Th elongated shape of the ingot means that the quota per tot of steel may be reeIg t@y a;proximately 2% at the previous cutting height. ITroving @duce the'Quatity of T S JAMNIOT'Steet Made in Large Electric Furnaces: Khl8NlOT steel was melted in 100 ton electric furnaces with.partial titanium alloying during extraction. Half of the required quantity of titanium was introduced in the form of 30% ferroti- tanium before extraction of the melt and the rest was added in the form of titanium sponge briquets on the bottom of the ladle. The assimilation of titanlum was somewhat reduced (from 47 to 46%) although melts containing less than 0.45% titanium were re- duced from 20.4 to 11%. The proportion of melts with a silicon concentration of more than 0.60% was reduced from 19 to 6.5%. No melts contained more than 0.70% silicon. The lower silicon concentration made it possible to increase the consumption of ferro- silicon for deoxidation by 100-200 kg/t which increased chromium reduction from 0.65 to 1.01% while the consumption of ferrochromium was reduced by 4 kg/t of usable mietal. ? Card 2/3 L 0,9135-67. ACC NRj AP60318)11 There wus no change in metal quality. ToemingStect f)-m Elcatric Furnaces Uding Exo- I !i;wzynaZ Stag Briquats: Steel from arc furnaces with R Lapacity of 40 and 100 tons was teemed with exothermal slog briquets of the following composition with respect to dry mass: 5% aluminum powder, 17% each manganese ore and calcium-silicon alloy, 16% neph- eline, 32% fluorite, 7.5% sodium.silicate, 25% coarse silicate and 3% graphite. Bri- quets measuring 420x2lOx3O mm (8-0-8.5 kg mas6) were prepared on water glass (6-7% labove 100%). Briquet consumption was 3.0-3.5 kg/t. The surface quality of stainless steel ingots was improved by a factor of 3-4. Labor in dressing was considerably re- duced by the absence of "collars" and surface defects. The quhlity of structural steel was improved: ordinarily the fraction of rolled products in the first and second classes of defectiveness with minimum dressing was about 15%, wh 4,11 the fractlion in the experimental melts was 80%. Improving the Durability of A25N601&d A20001Ailoys: Small ingots (150 and 200 kg) were used for improving the uniformity of distribution of rare earth elements, pth n the metal and increasing its ductility.11,Ferroceriun*was added to the ingot mold n quantities of 0.7-1.5 kg/t. The metal in @xperimental in- gots cast at the Beloretsk Metallurgical Combine showed satisfactory ductility during forging and red *uction. Addi 'tion of ferrocerium increased the durability of the wire from 62 to 91 hours with a further increase to 97 hours with the use of a mcre improv"' process developed at the Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metallux@g)@. ej (Translation of first seven reports] CODE, 11, 13/ SUBM DATE: None Ust A= iRM Me 002779- - cuih.': UV01)3A),/06i../ A M-N.LI-MILH: KmiL_N. V.; Kojitiomirov, A. I. ORG: Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine (Chelyabinskiy metallurgichoskiy kombinat) TITLE: Replacement of high-alloy Khl2Nl steel with steels having lower nickel content SOURCE: Stall, no* 7, 1966, 625 TOPIG TAGS: high alloy.stealt metal casting Khl2Nl3 high alloy steel ABSTRACT: Steel Kh23N6SL) 'does not differ-essentially in its properties from Kh23N13 and it is recommended that it be used for casting of hoat-resisting and sc'ale-resisting parts instead of the latter; fcr castings operating in corrosive i media, Khl8N9TL teel shou be -sed. [JPRS: 37,7581 !SUB CODE: 11, SUBM DATE: none @^ard 669-15--194-001-5 (7 Y-2 :r T@@,@@ V-S@()121--62 EWP (*)/FWT (m)/EwpA tYETIJ@,WZ(@) -J.DIWWIYIL ACC NR, AP6031842 @4) SOURCE CODE. UR/0135/66/000/007/0642/0643 AUTHOR: Keys, N. V.; Komissaroy, A. 1. 3 @1- ORG: None kTLE: Research at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant I -r--- SOURCE: Stall, no. 7, 1966, 642-643 @OPIC TAGS: metallurgy, bimetal, metal forging I ABSTRACT: The pape contains the following brief reports. 4mproving the Quality of E1627 AZZoy: Cracks Kan( a bar 32 mm in diameter made from E1617 alloy are caused by rol.1 ing overheated an6-undercooled metal. This phenomenon is eliminated'by reducing the, prerolling temperature in the continuous furnace from 1160-1180 to n40-1150'C. This i possible to reduce treatment resulted in a reduction of rejects for cracks and made ite the diametric margi for grinding. Reducing Decarbonization of R18ISteel by Using .a '6ivtective -NA freshly prepared/ ire I -Coativ _protective coating of water glass (65%), f @lay (20%), Carb@@Undum. (6%), graphite\J(6%) and commercial borax (3%) was applied by bruvii in an eveA inyer up to 1-m-m-M-Fk on the high speed steel before heating of square bars measuring 160-190, 110 and 85 mm- 7he apecimeno were then dried at room temperature for at least ten hours. All types of products made from the coated blanks oatisfied the requirements on decarbonizing standards, while 27.3% of the specimens Card 1/3 L o9121_67 rACC'NR,-P,l & forged fr uncoated blanks showed a decarbonized layer deeper than the permissible standardlThe reduction in waste met,41 increased the usable yield by 3-4%. Vacuum-Arc Remelted Ingots of ShAhlflheel Without Roughing: It is conventional prac-.; tice to rough vacuum-are remelted ingots until all traces of the so-called "corona" are removed. Hard steel ingots, in particular those made from ShKhl5, must be slowly cooled and annealed before roughing. In order to reduce the technological cycle, forging of the ingots without roughing was introduced after slow cooling in the pits. The ductility of the unroughed ingots and the surface finish of intermediate blanks 130 mm square were satisfactory. The yield of usable metal was raised by 2-3%. Ef- fect of Technological Factors on Forging of Specimens for Testing Long-Term Strength and Mechanical Properties: It was found/ on'the basis of an evaluation of the macro- structure of specimens and tests which ere conducted that variationB in the tempera- iure to which specimens of ET437BU-V=loy were heated before upsetting in the 950- i0600C range had no significant effect on macrostructure although an optimum is ob- Ierved at 1020-10400C. The fine-grain macrostructure of upset specimens is due to underheating during quenching, and in some individual melts--to high carbon concen- iiration (0.07%). The coarse-grained macrostructure of individual melts is due to low carbon concentration (below o.o4%) in E1437BU-VD alloy d is a consequence of in 1preased sensitiyity of low-carbon metal to overheatin efore quenching and forging. et velopment of Tpchnology for Production of Bimetal @LhFbAt: The breaking point of bi- ttal sheets oA St. 3+'lKhl8NlbT 8-10 mm thick was 46-57 kg/mm2 (451-559 MNIMZ); yield int 29-33 kg/mm-FT284-324 M 2); relative elongation 65030-38%; shearing strength rcard P/'A i. oin-'n-67 ACC NRs AP60318112 18-30 kZIMMI (177-294 MN/MM2). However, about 5% of the sheets 10 mm thick and 3% of Ithe sheets 8 mm thick did not satisfy requirements for strength of adhesion between layers--shearing strength was below 15 kg/mm2 (147 MN/mm2)'. The packets should be rolled with a negative deflection to produce sheets of identical thickness. Nearly all sheets meet the required standards it the thickness ratio of the@upper sheet to the lower is kept within 1.09-1.11 with optimum flattening thickness. In order to prod,ice an 8-mm sheet of a given thickness, the length of the! stainless plate should be at least 150 mm greater than the width, while the length should be at least 200 MM greater then the width for a 10-mm shebt. CTranalation of reports 1, 2, 3, 4 and 73 CODE: 3.1/ SUBM DATE: None not F-A KEYSAR# A*P. (Yaroslavl') Labor and the postnatal period in thrombocytopenia (Werlhof's disease) requiring urgent splenectoW. no.5t7?.-73 5-0 160. (MIRA 13:11) (PURPURA (PATHOLOGY)) (SPLEEN--SURGERY) (LABOR, COMPLICATED) KF,YSAR, A P - DAVIDSON# B.S. - @L@04 Protracted pregnancy. Kaz. mad. zhur, no. 2:31-53 Mr-Ap 961. (MMA 14:4) 1. Akusliersko-ginakologicheakoye otdoloniye laroBlavskoy dorozhnoy bollnits7 Severnoy zheleznoy dorogi (nachalinik otdeleniya - A.P, Keyser), (PREGNANCYP PROTRACTED) KEYSARO A.P.; BELYAKOVAI I.Y. Acute toxic dyntropby of the liver in a pregnant woman. &UOh, i gin. 37 noo2t99-100 F 161. (MIRA 14:3) 1. Iz akushersko-ginekologicbeskogo otdolenlya (nach. A.P. Keynar) Yaroslavokoy dorozhnoy bollnitay Severnoy zheleznoy dorogi. (PREGIIA?ICY,. CMUWCATIOIRS OF) (LIVER-DISRUES) KEYSAR,, A. P. - - - Birth of twins in a woman with a uterus bicornis. Kaz. med. zhur. no. I -. 65-66 Ja-F 162. (MIRA 15-3) 1. Akushersko-ginekologichookoye otdoleniya (nachallnik otdoloniya - A.P. Keysar) Yaroslavokcy dorozhnoy bollnitsy Severnoy zhele%noy dcxogi. (UTERUS-ABNOR1,11TIES AND DEFORMITIES) (BIRTH, MULTIPIZ) MOWN 77 PAWE@'IKOV, V. S.; FFICER, G. Y.; CGIR771A, A. A. "C(.,..pton Erfert cn Nucleon, Nuclem- P.Arkrlz,@bllfty" report prer,,nt,!d at the IntA. Conference m 111gh Di,?rgy cr-w.-wa, 4-11 July 19652 Joint Inatitute for Nuclear Rec-arch, Laboratory of Thcoretiml Miynir-5 04' Farin Animals, General Problems. AB@ jOU.-I. RZhDiol. , "-a- 3, 1959, NO, 119711. U T: i @j R Koyser, I* * " - * 3T. thb ok Se on .9 A6 ,)arch Institute of Animal I P L Traproving Desert PRstures by Supplomentary Sowing and planting of Forage Plants. C 2 J-@ P U Tr. Uzb. n-i. in-ta zhivotnovodstva, 1957) WJPj 2, 19-31 A;-":@ T "I T The desert pastures of Uzbekestan are character- izod by very small and unstable crops of fodder plants* In order to improve them, the best -rodder crops to be usad EuTiong shrubs are Arthroph@ parsicum, Haloxylon aphylIUM,*and amonF_ sprii- srLrubss woxamood (ArtGmesla).They represent valuable forage plant3 and are well consumed by sheop, -- K, V. Tatariyakaya and the Russianthistle, (Salsola rigida) 1/1, Husbandry. KEYSER, Ya. S.. insh.-makhanik (Stantsiya Khmellnitskaym, Yugo-Zapadnov dorogi). 'f'. Imorovinp z. no. 7:44 JI 158. ., an acceleration device. Put' I put. kho (MIRA 11:7) (Railroads--Tools and Implements) UMEMIAN 1 0. L. , @ rizh. Shipbul-Iderv of I*ningrad preparing to greet the 22nd ConMes of the CPSU. Sudoctroanie 27 no.1.0:4-6 0 161. (VIDU lj,.:L2 ) 1. Gla,vnyy spetsialist Upravlexdya sudostroitellnoy promyshlannostil Leningradokogo scima-vkhr@m. (Laningrad, - Shipbuild ing) Ev4T(.m'1jV,4Pft)/hVj JJ11(c) TD/jjG - 1ACC NRi AP6025826 SIOU-RC-E-tbbt _U1@10jiQj6Q666100I10iWbI IS AUrHOR: Karayev, Z. Sh.; Keyserukhskaya, 1j. G.; Aliyeva, Sh. A.; Gadymov, A. M. ORG: Institute of Inorganic and Yh ysical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences AzerbSSR (In-m neorgan. i fiz. khimii AN Az_erbS_SR TIMEt Synthesis and study of yttrium sulfogallate, YqaS3, and y-ttrium sulfoindate, YInS3 'T.-I 27 -'7 SOURCE: Azerbaydzhanskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, no. 1, 1966, .112-115 TOPIC TAGS: yttrium, indium, gallium compound, sulfur compound ABSTRACT: Yttrium sulfogallate, YGaS3, and yttrium sulfoindate, YInS3, were synthe- sized and their crystallographic structures, elemental composition, stabilities, and electrical conductivities were examined. The work is part of an extensive program, presently being carried out at the Institute of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Aa demy of Sciences AzerbSSR, aimed at finding new types of semiconductors. The YGaS3 and YInS3 were prepared by fusing mixtures of the elements in stoichiometric, ratios sealed quartz ampoules evacuated to 1e10_3 mm Hg. Initially, half.of an ampoule was slowly heated in a furnace to 10000C while the other half, outside the furnace, was cooled with water. Then, the whole ampoule was placed inside the furnace and held there for 2 hrs at 12500C. It was found that YGaS3 has a hexagonal crystal lattice, Card 1/2 IGN-kTOV, V.A.; KEYBERUKHSKIY, M.G. Colorado beetle control in Kaliningrad Province. Zashch. rast. ot vred. i bol. 5 no. 8:46-47 Ag 16o. (MIRA 13:12) l. Vachallnik Kaliningradskoy kompleksnoy ekspediteii (for Ignatov). 2. Zaveauyushchiy opornym punktom Vsesoyuznogo nauchno-isaledovatellskogo instituta zaBhchity rastenly (for Keyeerukhskiy). (Uliningrad Province--Potato beetle) 777777 1,0YSZ-RUKMKIY. M.G. Efficient preparations againat the Colorado be-otle. Zashch, raot. ot vred. i bol. 6 no.3:52,Mr 161. (MU .15:6) 1. Zaveduyushchiy Kalimingradski:n punktom Vsesoyuznogo instituta zashchity rasteniy (for KeyeerukhEikiy). (Potato beetle) (Insecticides) KEYSERUKHSKIY, M,G. ........... Effectiveness of DDT and hexachlorotcyclohexAnalegainat the Colorado beetle as related to the-fo= and method of ilikr use. Zashch.rast. ot vred. i bol. 4 no.411@ (MMA 16 5) (Potato beetle-Extermination) (Insecticides) EMMMIRSKIY,..M.G. Insectary of the Kaliningrad *anch Station of the A3.1-Union Inatitilte of Plant Protectione Zanhoh.rast.ot vred.i bol. 7 3200453 Ap 162o (MMA 15112) 1. Za"duyushohiy Nalinigradakim opornym punktm Visesoyamogo institute, samhobity rasteniyo (Winingrad-latomological research) SERUWKjy -mladably nauchr4Y sotrudnik SOKOLOVA, 0. S.p Elimination of focuBes of the Colorado bettle. Zashch. rast. ot vred. i bol. 5 no.6:48 Js 160. (KUU 16: 1) 1. ZavedtMmhchiy Kaliningradokim uporrVm punktom Veenoyu2nogo instituta zaahohity rasteniy (for KayserukhakiY). (Potato bee tie-Exterminati on) KEYSERUKHSKIY, M.G,- Kaliningrad Etraneb Station of the All-Union Institute of Plant Protection. Zashch. rast. ot vred. i bol. 6 no.11:U N 161. (MIRA 16:4) 1. Zaveduyushchiy Kaliningradakim opornym punktom VaeBoyuznogo instituts. zashchity rasteniy. (Kaliningrad Province-Potato beetle-Extermination) . . ..... . A-it NOVOYAST6VSKIY, D.D.; KNYSBVIGH, N.J. Hygienic evaluation of *11gaofol* panels. Gig.i san. no.5:50-31 Vq '54. (HLRA 70) 1. Is Kiyevskoy gorodakoy sanitarno-opidemiologichookoy stantell. (Plywood) (Industrial hygiene) twly r;f ml rr i ro@rijj, krovi. 1.-164-168 (WRA 18-10) p@; i- -L.! V, 711 y N @4- KEYSiN$- X, R. 25492 KEYSIN, B. M. Rolb krotov v pasprostranenii Monocystidae zemlyanykh chervey, uchen. zapiski (leningr. gose ped, in-t im, Gertsena) t. LXX, 1948, 5 171 74 -- biliogri S 173 - 74, SO: Letopist Zhurnal Statey, No. 30., Moscow., 1948 -KEYSIN, Ye.m. - First Internationa.2 Congress of Histochemistry and C7Uchemiatry. Mitologiia 3 no-3:374-376 My-@e 161. (MIRA 14'.6) (CYTOLOGY-GONGMSES) Y