# SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT KHARKEVICH, A. - KHARKEVICH, A.D.

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CIA-RDP86-00513R000721820011-9

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S

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100

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Publication Date:

December 31, 1967

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SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT

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KI 1 AK"17 VI C11 fA PA 1h5T93
UM/Physics -'Resonators Aug 51
"Analysis of Impulses by Neaw, of Resonators,"
A. A. Kharkevich
"Zhur Tekh Fiz" Vol XXI, No 8i pp 886-891
Subject analyzers were applied to periodic pheno-
mena. Recently they vere applied to nonperiodic
phenomena, like Impulses. Author shoos that
unA r certain conditions resonators may give vith-
out extinction discrete values of sp:-ctral density
of an impulse. Submitted 31 Jan 51.
I*.-JM,vTcTT) A
Spektry i Analiz. !zd. 2.J. Ispr. i Dop. Moskva, Gostekhizdat, 1953.
215 p. Diagrs., graphs
bibliography: p. 21h-215.
Nil C-It
PITASE II TREASURE ISLAND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REPORT AID 249 - ii
BOOK Call No.: AF594622
Author., MIARKEVICII, A. A.
Full Title: SELF-EXCITED OSCILLATIONS
Transliterated Title: Avtokolebaniya
Publishing Data
Originating Agency: None
Publishing House; State Publishing House of Technical and
Theoretical Literature
Date: 1953 No. pp.: 170 No. of copies: 10,000
Editorial Staff: None
Text Data
Coverage: This book describes physical anpe~cts of' self-excited osell-
lationz. The study is.conducted without mathematical analysis and
Is based on energy correlations. A large number of examples of self-
excIted oscillations in physics and engineering has been analysed.
Preface: The leading role of the Soviet science in the field of non-
linear oscillation, and particularly in self-excited oscillations,
is generally well known. Books like Theory of Oscillations, by
A. A, Andronov and S. E. Khaykin, Self-Excited Oscillating yLterps,
by K, F. Teodorchik and others are excellent and exceptional In thls
field. The present small book may prove to be of value because it
*hsr
USSR/Electronics Information Theory
I- ji i~~ 't'_ 1~~ k,- ~, k -A -
Card 'I P"u'b. 'go-1/14
Author Kharkevich, A. A.
Title Main outline of the general communication theory
Periodical : Radiotekhnika 9, 3-7, Sep/Oct 1954
Abstract : The author outlines the development of the communication or information
theory,*starting with Hartley's work (1928) on the notion of the con-
tent of a message, down through Shannon's formulation of the comprehen.
sive theory. He discusses V. A. Kotellnikov's theorem (1933) enabling
the translation of any type of message (cpntinuous or in discrete unitb)
into the transmission of discrete numbers at a definite rate, the com-
promise between economy of units and the need for error corrections the
correlation method of reception, D. V. Ageyev's theorem (1935) of signal
separation, and problems of methods. He states that Soviet scientists
should reject "cybernetic philosophy" but not "e~bernetic techniques."
Four references: 3 USSR (1933, 1935, 1946). (Article is the author's
abstract of a paper he delivered at a city-wide meeting of membcrs of
the All-Union Scientific and Technical Society of Radio Engineering and
Electric Communications imeni A. S. Popov [VNORiE] at Moscow on April 26,
1954).
3~ns'titution
Submitted
~r4i ~ : 1, .':. -ot. ;': ~ .1 * I --*.i ` ~ .1 -
. .- -Y,
.
KAZARTAN, Ra&~11 Avetisovich; VNSHIKOV, Boris Ivanovich; INARIVICH
A#A#, redaktor; ANDFJff=O,Z.D,,, redaktor; KHEMSKAY
TeMn-Icheekly redaktor
[Transmission of messages through the cowunication system) Pe-
redwha soobahchonii po sistemax eviazi. Moskva, Goo.izd-vo lit-
ry po voprosam evissi i radio, 1955. 41 p. (MMA 9:2)
(Telecommumication)
KILUUETVIN Aleksandr Alsksandrovich; KARAS%7, M.D. redaktor; MURA-
radaktor
(Outline of a general theory of communication] Ocherki obshchei
teorii aviazi. Moskva. Goa. izd-vo tekhniko-teoret. lit-ry. 1955.
268 p. (MLRA 8:8)
(Information theory)
UsSR/Electronic3 Information Theory FD-2928
Card 1/1 Pub. 41-9/17
Author :Blokh, E. L. and Kharkevich, A. A., Moscow
Title :Geometric presentations in the theory of communications
Periodical :Izv. AN SSSR, Otd. Tekh. Nauk 6, 91-100, June 1955
Abstract :Describes how and where geometric theory can be applied to the
study and the science of communications. Discusses the inci-
dental vector, the message and the signal, the signal and inter-
ference, interference rejection, transmission capacity, maximum
transmisaion capacity, method of storage and the separation of
signals. Diagrams, formulae. Seven references, 4 USSR.
Institution
Submitted April 14, 1955
USS M/Electronics luformatina Rrzory FD-266c',
Card 1A Pub~90-1/i2
Author Blokh, E. 1w. and Kharkev'-ch, A. A.
Title Geometric theory of the threshold of transmission capacity
of a coimnunicati-,)ns system
Periodical Radiotekhnika., 10, 3-7, Jul 55
Abstract 'The limiting factors of signal transm:lGsion 1i a cormunicatlQns
system are -evaluated on the basis of the geumf-tric theory. The
limiting transmissicn capacity of a system is d,~fiaed as the
greatest a=unt of in!'elligence that can be conveyed to the re-
cc-.ivin6 end of the 1-Ine, maintaining tha lowest desired prob-
ability of error. The transmission capacity approaches zero as
the level of noise approaches that of the signal. Reliable re-
ception for small incremerts of signal over noise require the
use of sFeeial method3 of reception, such as storage and correla-
tion methods. Graphs. Two references; one USM3.
Institution
Submitted January 11, 1955
KHMIN, DO-
m6peatm and anAl"IS." A. A. Markovich. Roviewed bY IA.
Mmrgin. Urp,mat.nauk. 10 no.l:Z3Y-z4z 'DD (MBA 8:6)
(Splotr= analysts)(KathanatiOl physics)
-r~i Rk -'C
:ation Theory
FD - 1933
Card 1/1 Pub 90-2/9
Author Kharkevich, A. A., and Blokh, E. L.
Title a,;i~ingcapacity of a communication system
PeAodical Radiotekhnika 10, 14-20, Feb 1955
Abstract
The derivation of an expression based on geometrical relationships for
determining the limiting capacity of a communication system is given.
The older, well-known Shannon formula generally used for these calcu-
lations holds true only when the silgnal-to-noise ratio approaches
infinity.
Institution:
Submitted
December 15, 1954
-.-
,- Ir j)), K j
-~,-,--
K
BLOIR, B.L.;KHARKNVICH, A.A.
Reply to L.M.Fink's remarkL Radiotekhnika 10 no.10:75 0 '55-
(Telecommunication) (HLRA 9:1)
MAR VICH. Alelcoandr Alakeandrovich- XOSTIM&O.A.Z., redaktor;
~ a
TUMAIUUIVL#---H-; ., e"MuluTMTKIv redaktor
[Notilinear and parametric phenomena in radio enegineering] lelineinye
I paramet riche skie iavleatia v radiotekhnike. M013kV9. 006. 12d-vo
tekhaiko-teoret. lit-z7, 1956. 184 p, (MLRA 10:1)
(Radio aircuito)
K,'AIKFVICI*) A. A., (Prof.)
"Questions of the Theory of Information in Systems of Automatic Recuation,
Telecontrol and Telemetering,"
pappr rcpd at tl~e Session of the Acad. Sci. USSR, on Scientific Problems of Automatic
Prodliction, 15-20 October 1956.
Avtomatika i telemekhanika, No. 2, p. 182-192, 1957.
1 9015229
KHAR VICH, A.A., doktor tokhnichookikh ujudc.
On the best cod*. Blektrosylaz' 10 no,2:65-70 .7 156.(KERA 9:6)
(Ciphor and telograPh codes)
KHARK3VICH,,,&,A-
On the theory of an ideal receiver. Slaktrosviaz' 10 no.4:28-34
Ap 156. (Radio--Raceivers and reception) (MLRA 9:7)
KV1WV-V'Cd,
SUBJECT USSR / PHYSICS CARD 3 PA - 1705
AUTHOR BLOH,E.L., RARKEVIC,A.A. NONIS Theorem.
TITLE On the Question of the Geometric Proof of SHAN
PERIODICAL Radiotechnikaq 11, fasc. 119 5-16 (1956)
issued: 12 / 1956
In the course of previous works (Radiotechnika, fasc.2 and 7, 1955) the
authors endeavored to prove the theoren, on the pezietrabilit~ limit geometri-
cally. Accordinf; to SHANNON this theorem is: C - F loG + Pn
2 P1)
P here denotes the average power of the transmitter, P - the power of the
perturbation in the stripe F, C - velocity. lit the present work the theorem
is presented in MANNON'S form and also geometric proof of the second state-
ment made in this theorem. It was found that SHANNION failed to take the follow-
Ing into account: 13yun in thu case of the densest arrangement the coefficient
of the filling up of the snace by non-intersecting sphere8 is diminished If
n = 2FT (T - time, n - dimension) increases, and at n -~ oo it tends towards
zero. The authors corrected this error committed by SHANNON and obtained an
expression which deviates from that of SHANNON: C -* F o g ( 1 + L-) - 11
Ll Pn
The difference between the two formulae is very essential in the case of com-
parable P and Pn , namely just in the case of such conditions as are of par-
ticular interest lit modern radiotechnology. On the other hand, SHANNONIS
formula has been generally accepted. This contradiction could be explained by
Radiotechnika, i1, faso. 11, 5-16 (1956) CARD 3 / 3 PA - 1705
authors regret not being in possession of this proof. It would be of im-
portance because then not only SHAjnjOjj9S theorem could have been proved
eecmetrically, but it would have been possible to show whether the
limit of penetrability can be reall-zed by means of a receiver that is
ideal in KOTELJNIKOV'S sense.
INSTITUTION;
-sandr Ale
.KHARKIVICH. A le-k .AUqAUv"WKOSTIYANKO. A.1., red.; GAVRILOV, S.S..
70 kwn-. Fe- Trw""~
(Spectra anct analysis] Siektry i analis. IzI. 3-e. parer. Moskva,
Go~. izd-vo tekhniko-teoret. lit-x7, .1957. 236 p. (HIRA 11:2)
(Speotrum analycia)
KAZARYAII. Rafael' Avetisovich; KINSHINOV, Boris Ivanovich; IIAZAROY.
Mikhail Vas illyevi ch, BERG, A.I.,rodaktor; D*IGIT, I.S.,redaktor;
KULIKOVSKIY, A.A.,rad*ktor; SMIRMOV, A.D.,radaktar;
TARASOV, F.I.,rodaktor; TRAHM. B.F..redaktor'; CHICHIK, P.O.,redaktbr;
SHAKSHUR, V.I.,redaktor;
,"A.A.,redaktor; FMDVBDBY,
L. Ya., %akhniches~iy.redaktor * _p. ~.Ozu - -
[Xlembnts of the general theory of communications) Xlementy
obahchei teorii sviazi. Koskya. Goo. energ. izd-yo. 1957-
94 p. (Hsasovaia radiobibliotaka. no.263) (K[aA 1o:4)
(Telecommonication)
PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITATION 476
Kharkevich, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Teoreticheskiye oanovy radioavyazi (Theoretical Bases of Radio
Communication) Moscow, Gostekhizdat, 1957. 7~41 p., 25,000 copies
printed.
Ed.: Kostiyenko, A.I.; Teeh. Ed.: Oavrilov, S.S.
PURPOSE: This monograph is addressed to third-year students in
radio communication engineering institutes.
COVERAGE: The material presented in the book constitutes a course
designed to provide the students with the fundamentals of radio
theory and technique as applied_&o all. Ru eqxWjat disciplines in
radio engineering, such as~-"dbiveii, aimp.lifiers,-tranmitt-drs, radio
broadcasting, television, etc. Practical problems of radio
engineering are not treated in the present work. The circuit
diagrams, and certain structural presentations,,therefore, are
given-only as illustrations of general principles. The material
presented in this book differs from the preceding course on the
Card 1/7
Theoretical Bases of Radio Communication 476
fundamentals of radio engineering in that it contains a special
section on the fundamentals of radio communication. Some of the
classical material (the section on the theory of circuits, for example)
has been eliminated from the present work to make room for new
material. The course of study presented in this monograph corresponds
on the whole, to the program adopted at the 1953 Conference of
Representatives of the Moscow, Leningrad and Odessa Institutes and
later confirmed by the Administration of Schools of the Ministry of
Communications in August,1955. This course of study consists of
three parts, the first two of which are embodied in the present work.
The third part of -the course was published in 1956 as a separate book
by the same author. 'There are no references.
TABLE OF
CONTENTS:
Foreword
PART I. FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIO COMMUNICATION
5
Card 2/7
Theoretical Bases of Radio Communication 476
Ch. 1. Communication and the Signal 7
1. Communication: perculiarities of radio communication 7
2. Block diagram of-a commiinication'cir6ilit 9
3. Concept of radiation and the propagation of radio
waves 10
4. Physical characteristics of the signal 14
Ch. 2. Modulation and Codes 21
5. Modulation: general concepts 21
6. Spectra of modulated oscillations 28
7. Vector diagrams of modulation 37
8. Pulse modulation 39
9. Code: general concepts 43
10. Kotellnikov's theorem 4T
11. Quantization 52
12. Pulse-code modulation 56
13. Multichannel communication 58
Card 3/7
Theoretical Bases of Radio Communication 476
14. Frequency and time division 60
Ch. 3. Noise and Noiseproof Feature 67
15. Noise: general description 67
16. Fluctuation noise 69
17. Probability description of noise and signal 75
18. Noiseproof feature 79
19. Methods of preventing noise 83
20. Relative noise ImmunitY of amplitude and
frequency modulation 87
PART II. LINEAR FHEN014ENA IN RADIO ENGINEERING
Ch. 1. Problems and Methods of Linear Theory 94
21. Linear phenomena systems 94
22. The superposition principle 96
Card 4/7
Theoretical Bases of Radio Communication 476
54. The round waveguide 325
55. Excitation and filtering of waves in the wave-
guide 330
56. Losses in the waveguide 336
57. Cavity resonators 342
AVAILABLE: Library of Congress JJPAsv
8-4-58
Card 7/7
AUTHOR-: Kharkevich, A.A.
264
TITLE: Possibility of signal spectrum compression. (0 vozmozh-
nostyakh szhatiya spektra signala).
PERIODICAL: "Elektrosvyaz"' (Telecommunications), 1957, No.4, April,
pp-3-11 (U.S.S.R.)
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present article is to clarify at
least a few of the basic assumptions underlying the
problem of signal frequency spectrum compression. This
problem has lamely been given much attention but most
works bear more onto the practical rather than the
theoretical side of it. The author begins with general
considerations governing the input and output signals,
the amount of information and with the theorem of
conservation of information. The non-statistical
possibility of spectrum compression is next considered
and two examples of spectrum compression of the signal
with information:
I = 2FT log m
are given, where F is the spectrum bandwidth, T is
the duration of the signal, &t - the interval between
&t
symbols, expressed by the Kotelnikov theorem as 1
and m is the equiprobable value of the quantised
signal x(t). The author then proceeds to consider
theoretically the possibility of spectrum compression by
changing the signal statistics. He establishes that F
Possibility of signal spectrum compression. (Cont.) 264
may be compressed, for a given constant T, by increasing
the entropy I,; this would lead to the elimination of
internal correlationst which in turn, would equalize
the probability of independence of separate symbols.
Since the internal statistical correlation decreases
the entropy and since then, for transmission of a given
information, a signal with a large FT product is needed,
this leads to redundancy R. Two formulae for R are
considered: It
Tr_
0
where V = log m and
0 FOTO
where F and T are actual spectrum bandwidth and
duration of the signal and F and T - are same
but for the signal with the s9me inforgation but for
maximum value of V = V. The redundancy of AM and
FM Signals is next considered. The, redundancy R for
AM is being shown to be 0.5 and for FM to be 0,97 (in
both cases they are eliminated eventually by detection.
The author also mentions that the reduction of noise
inteff6rence in FM signals, due to the increase in
/7 - /7'
INFORMATION THEORY
"Cri the Theoretical Cptimuti Corwinication Syste-,:i" by P.A, MarIkevich,
Elektrosvya_Z', Vo 5, MAY 1957) PP 15-18-
From the theoretical point of view, the choicc of a cornizAcation
systcm reduces to the choice of a mathod of transmission (i - e., ccle),
and of a method of reception. An optitium sySten s:,,ould give the be3t
reproducibility for a specified noise rejection, or conversely, the
best noise refection for a specified reproducft:~lity.
It- is shovn that obtaining the optinun, syctc-m reduces to a certain
variational problerm, the fornulation of w11,1ch eciiinains the noise-dis-
tribution probability. The itatement of the problem is illustrated
with ~-cveral examples.
Card 1/1
MON I
8 -
29A CARD 1/1 PG 832
SUBJSCT USSR/Mk.L ICS/Geometry
AUTHOR CHARUVI A.A.
TITLE A problem.
PERIODICAL Uspechi mat.Nauk 12, 2, 184 (1957)
reviewed 6/195T
The author gives the following problem:
Determine the number of corners of a more-dimensional cube the distances
of which from a given corner and one to another are not smaller than a
given magnitude.
AUTY.CiR. 1harkevichi A.A.
.L Ij S
arlson of Several Possibil"'tiec Se:adinC Simple
TIT I;B Pi-,tu'es (S ic,zhnostey p,~,redachi
- r ravneni ye nekotorykh vozm
prostykh risunkov)
PERIODICAL. Blektros-ryaz' , 10/58, Nr 5, PP 44 - 4? (TJSSR)
APSTRIM! The previous work of Shannon, Loeb and Benjani'M is
1,qent-Loned" Conventional rit,ethods of sendinf, si.:ftple line d_ra,.,.'d_a,-,s
are ineffic.ient; sin~;e the area r-owred by the of the
d-rawing is a minute fraction of the total area of the figure.
T-wc, suggestions are examined, in one, the co-ordinates of
several noints in the course of the lines are transmitted; in
the other, the scanninU is --arried out alone,-,- the factual lines
therasel-,-es~ The improvement factor ~ratio o -v Voluz-_es
in -_;onventicnal and -pro-Dosed wethods) for each case is Civen in
and (2), respective3y, In oracr to compe-re the t- m, o
sy,,;tem-,t , it i s aFsuwed , ii)t I I it iVCly 7 UMt U,C 11U,11:110r Of 0 ,'1 MbL)1E3
trail-smitted is linenrly related to the total lentth of 1.inQ in
the drawing. The se.,ond system is r:.~Dre ef'L'c-~~t,_ve than 1.1~e
f.,-rst by a fc,,:.tor approximately equai to '~ Lc L,11) /3, TIh e f i r s t--
w;--thod makes inadequate use of the statisti_*~s of tte zessage
,)ul; the :3econd encounters particular diffi2ulties in
Card 1/2
r, C:f
SP-'fe-ral Possib.-ilijties ir 5E-
p
'rhe drawing does
be so P no+ consist I cf a conti,-Iu,)us 1-ne, it r
eq .ust
-repared 01' scrutinise-d With a rather
r, ulDmont including information GtOraze ca-a,~i4-y
-.-.her hand, q -
the fixEt method c On ~,he
repeated transmission with an be ~,ade `,'re effecrive by
r
'Jif f e
by f a rent dire",'4_iOn cf scan. or
ral irst storing the information and then rejuC,'AS-r1_[..' i
It at a
which wakes better use of the channel Capacity. The
se,-cnd method may also be improved by 7akin,- 'L
Cder Probabilities, use Of h her
0 for exaMple, that the nLumbcr andL-';.-ind of
rianr-es in dire,-'tion that the'lii'le may make is in many cases
'--r,7 -restricted. There are 3 figu-res and 2 references
V.-i--h. SOViet and 1 EnGilsh. of
8UB1',',ITTED-
Uard 2/2 , February 24,
AUTHOR: Khar 42XL9Z,. A - A. SOV/106-58-11-1/12
TITLE The kossibilities of Spectrum Compression (0 vozmozh-
nostyakh szhatiya spektra)
PERIODICAL: Elektrosvyazl, 1956, Nr.11, pp.3-8 (USSR)
ABSTRACT: At the present time the problem of spectrum compression
has still not been completely solved due mainly to
theoretical difficulties. There is however one class of
process about which one can say something rather definite
and which may be useful for the further development of
theory and technology. This is the class of modulation
processeao In human speech sub-carriers are formed both
by,the expulsion of air from the throat and by the vibration
of the vocal cords. These carriers then support quite
narrow-band modulation spectra. In the system of trans-
mission considered the original spectrum is analysed by
~'bank of narrow-band filters whose outputs change slowly
with time. Eq.(4) gives the instantaneous spectrum from
a typical filter. At the receiving end, for reconstituting
Card 1/2 the original process, a noise generator feeds a bank of
The Possibilities of Spectrum Compression.
SOV/106-5a-ll-1/12
filters and a system of amplitude modulators which
control the strength of the outputs from each filtero
A further simplification is possible if we replace the
noise-fed narrow-band filter by a simple sine-wave
oscillator. The problem now reducas to the transmission
of amplitude and instantaneous-phase modulating functions.
it is concluded that the use of simple sinusoidal signals
for reconstituting speech is quite inadequatep ai-1 this
is borne out by the experiments of Marku and Dage (Rof.6).
There are 6 references, of which 4 are Soviet, 1 English
and 1 German.
SUBMITTED: June 30, 1958.
Card 2/2
AUTHOR: Kharkevi 103-13-8-1/12
TITLE: On the KotellniYov Theorem (0 teoreme Kotellnikova) survey of
Some of the Latest Papers (Obzor nekotorykh noveyshikh rabot)
PERIODICAL: Radiotekhnika, 1958, Vol- 13, Nr 0, pp. 3 - 10 (USSR)
A13STRACT: The Kotellnikov theorem (abroad it is called the sampling
theorem) dating from 1933 is the basis of all pulse signaling
systems. An accurate relation it is only valid for functions
the spectral density of which is equal to zero for all frequen-
cies outside a certain finite intervalg the spectrnm width. The
transmission functiont however, represents a random process;
a random process the spectral density of which is equal to zero
in the finite interval is a singular process, i.e. the process
values can be predicted with any accuracy for any tine. This
again means that'processes with strictly limited spectrum can
not transmit informations, i.e. that no process representing
a signal can have a finite spectrum.- For this reason some
papers were published in 1956-1957 which dealt with Kotelinikov's
theorem. It would be the most natural thinC to reZard the
Card 1/3 theorem not an an exact statement referring to a function with
On the Kotellnikov Tneorem. Survey of Some of the :~',,V/1013-13-0-1/12
LrAest Papers
finite spectrum but as an approximate assertion referring to
a function with an infinite spectrum. This opinion in uttered
in the paper by I.T.Turbovich (Ref 3). The evaluations of the
error by the approximation (Refs 3 and 4) rLaree with each other.
In the paper by Zheleznov (Ref 5) a more generalized problem
in posed from the very bo,,,,innin(;: the beat representation of the
randora function u(t) I)y an expansion accordlnLm- to the method
used in formula (10) is to be found. In the ALA-scheme a physi-
cally nimilar expansion is reali-.,od. It reals: continuous
quasiateady signale u(t) with an infinite spectrum can be trans-
mitted by means of fi,-ures followinE; one another everyU 1- se-
condo with an accuracy arbitrarily close to the final accurracy
90 , when the periodIr 1 does not exceed the correlation inter-
val'r 0 and the siCnal duration T is much longer than the
correlation interval IC 0. This formulation comprises the recults
of all papers. Only the theoretical inforTation content of the
Kotellnikov theorem remLined uninvestiCated. This -ap was closed
Card 2/3 by the lecture delivered by KolmoCorov (Ref 6). U
On the Kotellnikov Theorem. Survey of Some of the 108-13-0-1/12
Latent Papers
Concluding the author states that the Kotellnikov theorem is at
present regarded as an approximate (and not accurate) assertion,
and that it makes possible the following statement: 1) An
approximation formula for the process in the form of a series
of lagging functions, and 2) to give an approxinate evaluation
of the number of measurements of the random vector proceeding
from the desired accuraoy in the determination of the E -entropy.
There are 1 figure. and 6 references, which are Soviet.
SUBMITTED: February 24, 1958
1. Radio signals--Theory 2. Scientific reports
Card 3113
AUTHOR: Kharkevich, A. A. SOV/108-13-9-14/26
TITLE: Letter to the Editor (Fislmo v redalctsiyu)
-PERIODICAL: Radiotekhnika, 1958, Vol. 13, 11r 9, pp, 69 - 69 (USSR)
ABSTRACT: This letter su--ests the compilation of an atlas of
typical pulse generating circuits. First the ordinary
block diW&M if various complicated devices are listed.
Then the principal circuit diagrams are compiled. This
is where this atlas would be of great help. This atlas
should contain a complete presentation of the most
modern circuit diagrams of individual blocks, which have
been examined and which already have stood their test.
Only a minimum number if variants should be incorporated,
giving technical information and data on well established
modes of operation. The next stride in this direction
would be the industrial production of types of circuit
elements. Elements for such a rationalization are already
in existence in the USSR and abroad.
Card 1/1
ich, red.; RAYEVSKIY, S.Ya., red.;
ov I ~ch
'"~AKH=L.AAHOOVV. ~SG.11 .0 . - ~tteekkhhnnq ~rree 0v.0
Grif ormation theory and it's applications; collection of
translations from the English) Teoriia informataii i se pri
lozheniia; sbornik perevodov. Pod red. Khorkevicha. Rosk-~;~,
Gos.izd-vo fisiko-matem.lit-ry, 1959. 328 p. (KIRA 12:12)
(Information theory)
AUTHOR: Kharkevic2:.., sov/lo6-59-5-11/13
TITLE. e er to the Editor: Photo-Telegraphy from the Point
of View of Telegraphy (Fototelegraf a tochki zreni.ya
telegrafa)
PERIODICAL: Elektroavyazl, 1959, Nr 5s pp 73-76 (USSR)
ABSTRACT: The object of this letter is to compare the potentialities
of black-white photo-telegraphywith normal telegraphy
for transmitting written information. It is shown that
telegraphy is more efficient than photo-telegraphy. For
the purposes of comparison, the original information is
assumed to be in the form of type letters situated in
rectangles of 1.5 x 2 nim dimensions. if the resolution
of the photo-telegraphic apparatus is such that the
finest detail is a 0.2 wm square, then the number of
elementary squares per letter is 75, requiring 75 binary
digits (current pulse (1) for black; no-pulse (0) for
white) per letter. However, it cannot be concluded that
the Baudot code which use3 5 digits per letter is
therefore 15 times more efficient than the photo-
Card 1/5 telegraphic method, since photo-telegraphy has greater
sovio6-59-5-11/13
Letter to the Editor: Photo-Telegraphy from the Point of View of
Telegraphy
interference-stability. For true comparison, it in
necessary to reduce both systems to a common condition
of interference-stability. The author considers the
construction of letters from a grid containing
3 x 4 =.12 elementary squares. LYhis number is not
sufficient for all the letters of the Russian alphabet
but this is not important for the author's argument.)
Letters with the simplest forms, constructed in this
manner, are shown in Fig 1. Due to interference, errors
arise in which a no-pulse digit is replaced by a pulse
digit (or vice versa). This is called a single error.
If two digits are incorrect, it is called a double error
and so on. The smaller the probability of replacement
of one letter by another, the greater the interference-
stability of the system and, in its turn, this
probability is smaller. the more the letters differ
from one another. This probability can therefore be
qualitatively expressed by the number of different
Card 2/5 digits in the different letters, The number of
SOV/106-59-5-11/13
Letter to the Editor: Photo--Telegraphy from the Point of View of
Telegraphy
different digits is called the spacing. The spacing
between the different letters is not constant, the
spacing between the seven simplest letters considered
being shown in Table 1. Letters having the greatest
spacing with respect to tile otheys, e.g. the letter T,
are the most atable. However, the spacing alone is not.
sufficient; two different letters can differ from a
third by the same spacing, the difference lying in the
"direction" of the elementary squares, i.e. on the
direction of the scan. If the bla~:.k elements are
denoted by I and the white by 0 and the scan of the
letter rectangle is as shown in Fig 4, then a 12 digit
binary codeas shown in Table 2, is obtained, The
spacing increases with the number of digits. thereby
increasing the interferonce-stability but dtcreasing
the efficiency of the transmission. It is possible to
increase the spacing by departing from the normal letters
and using new simplified configurations satisfying the
Card 3/5 demand for maximum spacing but this, in fact, is the
sov/1o6_59-5-11/13
Letter to the Editor: Photo-Telegraphy from the Po_4nt of View of
Telegraphy
principle of the telegraph system. The usual 5 digit
Baudot code is next considered. The inininjum spacing
between two code combinations is unity. ThuR, for a
single error, a different letter is received and the
error remains undetected. A simple error detecting
code can be obtained by adding one more digit and
making the number of O's or I's in any code combination
an even number. The least spacing in then two and this
code with 6 digits ix as effective as the 12 digit
photo-telegraphic code considered earlier. Using the
same scan sequence an shown in vig 4, "images" of the
letters can be constructed. The resulting images are
shown in Fig 5 and the letter spacings are tabulated in
Table 5- Comparison of Tables 1 and 5 and of the images
permits direct comparison of the telegraph and photo-
telegraph systems. Table 5 shows the spacing of the
telegraph system to be equal to, or relatively better
than, the spacing of the photo--telegraphic system
Card 4/5 (which refers to a 12 digit code). It is concluded that
sov/lo6.,59-5-11/13
Letter to the Editor: Photo-Telegraphy from the Point of View of
Telegraphy
in telegraphy an optimum code can be chosen
independently, whereas in photo.-telegraphy
simplification of the letter forms leads to longer
code combinations for the same interference stability
and hence to less efficiency compared to 'the telegraphic
system.
SUBMITTED: 19th January 1959
Card 5/5
-rig
24846 8/106/60/000/004/001/007
6:2r-00 A055/A133
AUTHORS: Blokh, E. L., and Kharkevich A. A.
TMU: Antifading coding
PERILMICALi Elektrosvyazl, no. 4, 1960, 3 - 6
I.M.: A method of signal transmission is described, uzing correcting anti-
int,erference codes and allowing to enhance the reliability of communications in
the presence of fading. Assuming that the transmitted communication is coded by
n-digit combinations of a uniform code, a group of N such combinations is taken
and written down as shown in Table 1, number N being chosen so that the time of
transmission of N binary digits should be sufficiently long compared to the aver-
age duration of fading. Transmitting Table 1, not by columns, but by horizontal.
lines, a part. of the transmitted signal will vanish owing to fading. Replacing
the vanished digits by an asterisk, we obtain Table 2 for the received signal.
If -the received digits are now grouped according to columns, we obtain code com-
binations from which certain individual digits have vanished. If N - and this is
the essential point - was chosen in conformity with the statistics of fading, the
disappearance of an individual digit from the combination can be considered as
Card 1/~
Antifading coding
24846 s/106/60/000/004/001/C/J7
A055/A133
an independent event. The digits that vanished owing to fading are distributed
in a random manner in code combinations. If each column contains one combinatiOn:
the errors in the same positions in the adjacent combinations are stro-ngiy corrg-
lated. L:Ut if, several combinations, representing a certain section of the com-
IranIcation, are placed in one Column, the error can already be, considered as in-
deperident, not only within the given combination, but also within the limits Of
the corrimani cation section. In the case of an additive interference, a certain
In the case
d-igit is replaced by an erroneous one (e.9. 0 by I or vice versa).
of a multiplicative interference of the fading type, the digit is not replaced$
I MU ;t-red, it,
Lhan r vanished digits st be re,
.,ut vanish-is altogether. If not more
is sufficient to use the code with a distance between combinations at, leastequal
t,7, r + 1. Comparing the received combination with all possible ones, it Can De
Feen teat the received combination coincides with the transmi"'ted one and differs
all other cambinatio~ns in at least one digit. Trne transmitted -ombination
ran t,hu3 be identJfied and, consiqueutly, all the va-nished diwits can be restozed.
-:f tne same code is used in the pre9ence Of an additive interteritnee, it- will
Tnc-rsly allow to detect errors whoze number does not exceed r '-, it will not allow
be impossible. -T-ne interference-
thern, and their correction will thus
kiilir4 feature is characterized by the probability -,f an errol-fl,c-e recepti-in )f
Car,l -2/5., ~Y
Ant,ifading coding
24PI16 5/106/60/000/004/001/007
A055/A13_3)
a sequence of L elements of the communication. The ratio-9 between the duration
of the vanishing of the signal and the total transmission duration can serve as
the parameter determining the fading action. When no correcting code is used, the
probability of error-free reception of a sequence of M digits is
P, 0 0
or, for I ~M
p, e
When a code restoring not more than r digits in-each n-digit code-combination is
used, the probability of correct reception of each combination is
I _ Cr_P1 r+1(1 - ~)n-r-l n
n E
and the probability of error-free reception of the section of M digits of the
initial sequence will be
n M
r
[l Ck ;k(l -)n-k]m
P2 k-r+l n
or, for E 1 M Cr+1 r+I
P(r) e ill n
2
Card.3/~!/
(2)
248h6 S/106/60/000/004/001/007
Antifading coding A055/A133
In particular: (R-1)" +1
P~') 2 2 (3)
p.(12)e 3! all. (4)'
A comparison of (3) and (1) shows that the use of the code that restores one.di-'
git is expedient if:
M+l
2
A comparison of (3) and (4) shows that the code restoring two digits must be us';a
only if:
n(n-1)(n-2)
3m(m+l)
There are 2 tables and 5 references: 4 So-&t-bloc and 1 non-Soviet-bloc. The rer-
erence to the English-language publication reads as follows: Price, Gr6en. ~.Acom-
munication technique for multipath channels!'. Proc.' ME., 46, no. 3, 1958.
f3MUTTED: November 24.. 1959
Card 4/5(1
27633
S/19X61/000/002/013/039
*Awl 76 D216 302
iWTHOR: hharkevich, A.A.
TITLE: The value of information
PERIODICAL: Referativnyy zhurnal. Avtomatika i radioelektranika,
no.2, 1961, 33, abstract 2 V252 (V sb. Probl. kiber-
netilci, no. 4, M., Fizmatgiz, 1960, 53-57)
TEXT: Information is usually collected for a certain spccific
purpose and it seems therefore logical to raise the question of
~he value of information as depending on how this information helps
in obtaining this purpose. The same information may have different
values, depending on the aim. Existing theory ignores the meaning,
of information and its value for the addressee. In the case when
the aim - for the attaining of which the information is being
collected - can be clearly determined, the valiie of the infornia-
tion can be determined as the increase in the probability of attai-
ning the aim. If, up to the instant of receiving information, this
Card 1/2
The value of information
94 61 000/002/013/039
S/I
D216 30
probability is po and after the arrival of information this proba-
bility became pl, then the value of the received information c;ai
be determined as
Pl
1092 PI - 1092 Po = 1092 Po
It is shown in an example that the value of
negative when it decreases the probability
It is suggested that it be called, in this
A few examples of evaluating the value of
2 references.
information can be
of attaining the aim.
case, disinformation.,
information are given.
Card 2/2
N . .
ly ..
KH;xRMICH, A.A.
In regard to professor M.S. Heiman's article. Izv. vys. ucheb. zav.;
radiotekh. 3 'no.4'519-520 Jl-Ag 160. (MIR& 13:10)
1. MoBkovskiy elektrotakhnicheakiy institut evyazi.
(Radio--Study and teaching)
S OV /I 1/ 12
AUTHOR: Kharlc~Vich, A. A.
TITLE: &n Principles of Readir..r Machine
~T-
PERIODICAL: Radiotekhnillca, i-960, Vol 15, pp -A-9 (USSR)
ABSTRACT: The paper discusses some geneval problems of construc-
tion of reading machines. The definition of a reading
machine Is given as a machinc which -~u,6omatlcally
recognizes letters, or othe.- o!' a pi-Inted
or, written text. Any reading machluo ha:3 to perform
the follo',-iing basic operations: (a) presen-,ation and
examination; (b) preparation of description; and (c)
comparison of the description .,itth a standard, i.e.,
the proper vecognitiori operation. The examination
consists In the action of the ureserit-ed oattern on a
transducer, normally of the photoelectric type. There-
by a corresponding electric sic-rjai Is prrod-ucedl. The
desc-10tion Is the most lmnartlan, o-.c-atlon. I t
cons I sS In f orm trig a s Ignal deoc rInil-1- the pa!'- tern
Card 1/6 4
In a rrianner, most convenient foz., vecognition purposes.
Or, Pi-Iric ltle_- of Rea,l 1-.;7 Mac- Ine 1,,onstruc %lot-,,
s 0", 1 1
card 21c',
Opei-at-lon.- (a) and (L)) ma, ue (,,,eratlon
In princ.1ple, docs noel
diffleultles. It Is obvlouo --0a1_'_ln,, mac'nlr%e
Mku"t, have some kind of' m(nno-,- !,_i .he
:,I p t I or u3 a,, k3 In a 11,~rco OC veu~iinig
muchInes the examination Is r-,iaille hy scannIng, 'ahereby
the readIng follows a trajectoi,~, ~ In the plane of the
pattern . This trajectory is 0-
composed of' separate sections. 'rn, e ~;2annjng 31q;nal
may also be used for the deocrip,_'o~:. -It is Iniportant
in thiz case that an optimal scannin- selQctlon be
made. Two kinds of deocription ai,e consIdeved: (1)
absolute descriptIon, pevirilttinf,, ~(,,jluorat~on of the
de3~;rlbed object with ceptain accut,ac~, ; (2) reiative
description, containing only the features by which a
certain object differs from other objects-of the same
set. The latter description Is sufftcLent for recog-
riltion purposes and is more economl-cal. An optllrriuum
descrIptlon should be 'he slorteo' ol~-,,ce a
z;liorter descriptlon meano a T 1,. C
autlhov j-,Ives examples Of it
'77 - r-, ~ '
On PrInc1ples of Reading Cori ~3 1, rl-ic t Ion I i , U
S011110;3 - 15 -2 - 1 /12
lie points out, however, that the probicir, of minliTilzation
of absolute as well as of relative descriptions is not
only still unsolved, but has no"'l- even been suffIciently
clearly formulated. The simplest scannin'c', methqds are
in direct relation with a certain system of coordinates.
The usual TV scanning, for example, is related to the
rectangular system. There is a special type of
scanning called follofi-up scanning. lieve, the scanning
ray follows the contour of the pattern, and thecut,ve
itself is used as coordinate axis. One of the de-
scription methods consists in the use of the scanning
signal for description. There is another method, called
topological descrilption. This method consists in
counting the topological features of the pattern.
Topological description has a rather general Qhavacter.
However, it Is not sufficient for the recognjtiQn of
letters and digits which are topologically identical-.
e.g., 6 and 9. Therefore, some elements of geometrical
description must be added. Since letters and digits of
various forms and sizes must be recognized, the problen
Card 3/6
On Pri.nciple"! of'
Card 4
/6
trar,Lt'oruiatlons 13 of' great P, 11-~ ct-ated
that !,r.(-)In -a prai.-tical point ot, v"Y"'. "'011C."l-ur, scannLrlt-,
to an lmpoi~tant de_,cv1p1,-1on It does
no,t vary with respect to the actual!~., uc~!,._Jrring trans-
fVvmations. Topological descriptlo,; also ~ioes ncLt,
vavy . I lowe v c i-, I t,-, t e c hn I q ue I ~, :, t I L I c omp I e x .The
recognition may be an operation slmuLtanco~is or stepped-
up. When t'he pattevris to be rccoj~nLzcd are character-
ized by n features of which an~ ilia-, be either present
or absent, then the description of a pattern is an
n-digrlt binazy number. In case Of' SIMLIltaneQus recog-
nitLon, n-digit numbers are compare,1. In case o' a
stepped-up recognt~ion each of the binary' numbei'
Is compared step-by-step, thus okeratLng with (ine-digit
numbers. This leads to simplification of -uhe machine.
The stepped-up method permits descriptions of varying
length. However, simultaneous description is more
nolseproof than stepped-up description. The recognitiOn
Is the more reliable, the more the dlesc rip t ions of thcf
pat-terns differ from one another. The (A'C33CriPtI0r1 JIC-
ferences may be associated with the concept of distances.
On Principles of Reading Machine Construction 77556
t(Y11/108-15-2-1/12
Card 5/6
Thus, in addition to the above requirement of
minimization, a description must satisfy the require-
ment of a greatest minimum distance between two de-
scriptions. It is not clear If this distance
maximization may be formulated as a mathematical
problem. The actual printed characters need some
preparation, which consists in elimination of minor
faults. The preparation may be a separate operation
or may be combined with the examination. On the
subject of the so-called self-teaching reading machine,
It Is stated that this prepares the standard description
by Itself. This Is done under control of a human
operator, from which t'he machine receives signal-s of
approval or disapproval. Under the action of these
signals the description is corrected. When a sufficient
degree of reliability is achieved, the self-teaching
process is terminated. The paper concludes that a
detailed classification of reading machines must be
postponed until unsolved problems are cleared up. By
finding optimum solutions, the still very complex
technique of reading machines may be simplified considaably.
63149
S/108/60/015/009/001/OCB
B002/BO67
AUTHORSt Blokh, E. L., Kharkevich, A. A., Members of the Society
I
TITLE: Some Properties of Communication Systems With Fading
PERIODICALi Radiotekhnika, 1960, Vol. 15, No- 9, PP. 3-9 "Y
TEXTi Only additive fluctuation noises have as yet been theoretically
studied. The signal received is regarded as the sum of the emitted signal
and the noise. On the other hand, multiplicative noise, the so-called
fading, has hitherto not been theoretically treated. It consists in the
fact that the intensity of the received signal is subject to random
fluctuations. Three cases of interference are distinguished in the
theoretical treatmentz 1. Additive noise. II. Fading. System with an
active pause (phase modulation or frequency modulation). III. Fading.
System with a passive pause (amplitude modulation). The dependence of
the carrying capacity on the transition probability is computed for
each case and graphically represented (Fig.). Furthermore, the identifica-
tion of the regenerative codes is considered. As computation shows, case
I requires distances as large as possible and code combination as long as
Card 1/2
83909
S/10 60/015/010/002/008
B01 2YB060
AUTHOR% Kharkevich, A Active Member of the Society
TITLE: The Discrimination of Continuous Signals~3
PERIODICALt Radiotekhnika, 1960, Vol- 15, No- 10, pp- 11-13
TEXT: The author examined the possibility of representing by one or
several numbers a signal given in the finite region in the form of a con-
tinuous function., The optimum selection of such numbers is discussed. The
present considerations were made in connection with the construction of
identification machines serving for the identification of continuous
circuits. If in the range of 0