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133-58-5-9/31 The Influence of the Weight of Ingots on the Quality of Structural Steels were rolled on a blooming mill to a cross-section 250 x 250 mm and then on a mill 800 into semis 140 x 140 mm. Ingots weighing 1.18 t were rolled on a mill 800 into semis 140 z 140 mm. For the studies of the macrostructure and mechanical properties specimens were taken from semis 2,10 x 250 on the following distances from the top of ingots %: Ingot 2.65 t 19, 58, 98 Ingot 4.5 t 19, 3% 58, 78, 98 The macrostructure-of etched specimens was evaluated'~ according-to MAP-]A(;hM scale. Thermal treatment of specimens for testing -mechanical properties was done according to MPTU2333-49. The macrostructure of ingots is shovm in Figs. 1-4. The results obtained indicated that: 1. Macrostructural defects in rolled steels were caused by defects in the cast structure of ingots. 2. Axial intercrystallite cracks,in rolled steel -18KbNVA of a cross-section 250 x 250 from 4.5 t ingots remain unwelded during rolling in spite of a considerable degree 1M21MA (in of reduction steel they are welded Card CIL,, 133-58-5-9/31 The Influence of the Wei-ght of Ingots on the Quality of Structural Steels 0n both profiles 140 x 140 mm and 250 x 250 mm (from ingots of all weights). 3. The axial porosity and v-shaped cracks in ingots of steels 40EhYAA and 30KhGSA are welded during rolling. 4. The degree of development of segregation outside the central zone of ingots depends on the chemical composition of steel and increases with increasing weight of ingots, but does not exceed the degree pemitted by MAP-MChM 1951. From the steels investigated the highest development of the se3regation was observed in ingots of steel 30KhGSA- 5. The weight of ingot has no influence on the mechanical properties of steels. 6. The indices of mechanical properties of steel 's investigated were high with the exception of the to-O part of 4.5 ton ingot of steel 3OKhGSA,, where strength and plasticity indices were lower than is required by standards. It is concluded that: 1. Increasing the weight of ingots of 18MiNVA steel from 1.18 to 2.65 ton to 4.5 t is not advantageous, as this deteriorates the macrostructure Card 3/4 of metal due to developing axial int ercrystal lite cracks which are not welded during rolling. 2. Steels l2Y-h2N4A 133-58-5-9/31 The Influence of the Weight of Ingots on the Quality of Structural Steels and 40HbNMA can be cast into 4.5 ton ingots as their structure and mechanical properties remain satisfactory. 3. The problem of casting steel 3OKhGSA into 4.5 t ingots requires further investigation. There are 4 figures. ASSOCIATION: Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Works) Card 4/4 LC~VO~U-l UNIMM, 1. A.1 WAQW, IL 1.1 TAMMEMN. 0. MM=. A. N. "Pon SWA"tud rw *A So "b" cbmlo" cmftrome a%"1 hod %I=, 30 %a 1939, nmww. KOLOSOV, M. I. Cand Teo S i -- (diss) "Crystallization of dead melt and L,,i~101& , oonditions production of sound ingots." Mos, 19590 20 pp including cover (Glavniiproyekt under tAb Gosplan USSR. Central Soi Res Inst of Ferrous Metallurgy), 110 copies (KL, 43-59, 124) -49- KOLOSOV, 04.1.- nzh.; PISCHIKOV, M.H., kand.tekhn.nauk Technical and economic efficiency In blast furnace smelting of ferroullicon with use of oxygen. I2v.vys.ucheb.zav.; cbern. mot, 2 no.6:155-160 Je 159. (14IR& 13: 1) 1. Nauchno-issledovatellakiy institut metallurgii Chelyabinsko- go sovnarkhota. Rekomendovann Imfedroy ekonomiki. I organizataii proizvodetva Moskovskago institute. stali. I I Oferrosilicon) (Oxygen--Industrial applications) PLUE I BOOK MCPWITATION sov/42D6 AOlOsovj, Kikhall Ivenovicho Anatolly Illich Stro 16nov., and Isar YakarlevIch Ayzensht.ok ProdLzvodstvo oharikopodshipalkavoy stali (Production of Ball-Bearing Steel) Moscow, Metall~rgizdxt,, 196~. MT po Errata slip inserted. 20650 copies printe do. Ed.: AJ. Lebodev) Ed. of Publishing House: Ya. Do Rozentsveyg; Techo Ed*: M.Ko AjtopoViCh a PWOSE: This book is Intended for production engineers and scientific workers in met&Uurgy and maohinery mmufacture. It may also be used by students in advanced courses at schools of higher education specializing in metallurgy and machinery manufacture. POVERAGE: The book deals with production techniques,, basic quality requirements, and in-service'conditimis for ball-bearing steel. Melting, teeming, rolling, and heat trento nt axe discussed in detail, and an historical outline of the de- velo]pment of'the mmufacturing process for ball-bearing steel Is presentedo PrOductiOn'Of BaU-Be&rIng Steel SOV/4W6 Sources of Impudtles In steel (AM"t&Wc idclUsiOW), methods of .determining the presence of Impurities., factors leading to the formation of defects', and methods of ccmbatting defects an also investigated. Material used in the book' is based on Practices of the Che;ysbinakj, Stalingrad, and 7.1atoust Plants-and the Serov and Kuznets * Metallurgical COMbines. The authors thank the fOl-10wing Persons for their assistance: Engineers NX. Keyi, A.M. xhizhaigbanko D.B. Royak, T.14. ftlinovskaya, L.D. Kossovskiy, Waina W.K. Ips&.ow N.S. Devchenkc, .9 P 1 0 D.G. ZbUkOy, V-F- ISUPOV, and Doctor of Technical Sciences I#No Golikove There sav 191 references.- 174 Soviet, 13 English, and 4 Germano TABLE OF. CaqTZM: Foreword 5 Cho I- Purpose and Camposition Of B&II-Bearing Steel Requirements for b&nbegring steel 7 Chemical c=Pwition of the steel 7. -Structure of the steel 9 13 Cho II& Structure of ths Steel Ingot CrYstOllization and structure of the steel Ingot 15 15 Card 2/6 ADRIANOTA, T.P.: ANDRRM, T.T.; ARAMOVICH, K.S.; BARSKIY, B.S.; GRWOT' N.P.; GURITICH. B.Te.; DTORIX, S.S.; YMCIrAYST. N.7.; ZVOLINSKIT, I.S.; ' UBLUKOTSKIT, A.F,; UPBLOTICII, A.P.; KASUCHMO, D.S.; ILIMOVITSKIT, KORUV, A.A.; KOCKINW, Te.T.; LESKOT. A.T.; LITWITS, K.A.; MATIUSHINA# N.Y*; MOROZOT, A.N.; PMUKAROY* D.1a: HATDXLII P.a.; ROKOTTAN, U.S.; SKOLYARINKO, D.A.; SOKOWT, A.B.; USIMIN, I.N.; SWIRO, B.S.; IPSHMM, Z.D.; AYMSKAYA, R.F.. red. izd-va; KARASV, A.I., [Brief handbook on metallurgy, 19601 Kratkii spravochnik metallur- ga, 1960. Moskva, Gos,nauchno-;tekhn.,izd-vo.lit-x7 po chernoi i tevetnoi metallurgii, 1960. 369 P. O~UU 13:7) (Metallurgy) S/137/61/000/006/016/'092 A006/A101 AUTHORS. Shved, F.I., Zhukov, D.G., Khizhnichenko, A.M., Kolosov, M.I. TITLE: Increased silicochrome consumption for stainless s-.eel melting PERIODICAL: Referativnyy zhurnal. Metall,urgiya, no, 6, 1961, 42, abst.-act 6V299 C'Sb. nauchno-tekhn. tr. N.-i. in-t metallurgii Chelyab. sovnarkhoza!', 1960, no'. 2, 57 - 64) TEXT: A teohmolog7 was developed for melting stainless i A i8w 9T (iniBiFA steel pri3viding for the addition of a higher SI-Cr amount immediately after 02 blast. it is Ahown that the addition of 25-35 kg/t Si-Cr 50 or 35-40 kg/t Si-Chr 40 causes an increase In the degree of Cr extraction from the slag and a reduced consumption of carbonless Fe-Cr. [3i] in the finished metal does not increase, since Si-rur is added to the non-dewKidized bath. It is noted that a further re- ductlion of [Si] in '"he finished metal is obtained by replaiing Fe-T!, introductng USUally aboUt 0.15% 34 ~, by TI metal waste, A nomogram was developed which may bo uoed to determine the optimium, consumption of deoxidizers per heat from the total consumption of 02, the amount of Si and C In the charge and a19- from the basic ity of the slag. V. Shumskly [Abstracter's note., Complet-e translation] Card 1/1 8/133/60/000/007/004/016 AUTHORSt Kcilosov,_X,I._, Candidate of Technical Sciences; Stroganovq A. I., Candidate of Technical Sciences; ]~tX2_L N.V., Engineer; Bogatenkov, V.F., Candidate of Technical Sciences; Vainshteyn, O.Ya , Engineer; Danilov, A.M., Engineer; Zverev. B*F., En- gineer; Antropova, N.G., Engineer; Khryunkinaq V. A.,-Engineer TITLEt The Use of Silicochrome .1 When Smelting St aIin Open Hearth Fur- naoes PERIODICALi Stall, 1960, No- 7, pp. 607 - 608 TEXT: In the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metal- lurgical Plant) and in the Zlatoustovskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod jZl_qTo-u5- tovsk Metallurgical Plant) in melting low-carbon chrome steels: 18XFT (_18 KhGT)o 17XH2 (17KhN2)9 20XH(2OKhN), 12 - 20X1J,3A(12-2OKh2N3A), 12-20)(2~44A (12-20WN4A) and medium carbon chrome-containing steelss 35-45)(H(35-45KhN), 33-37XC(33-37KhS), 30-35MA00-35KhGBA), 3oxrT(3OKhGT) five types of sili- cochrome were applied having the following Cro Bi and C content (in %)i Silicochrome. 12 - 20 40 - 50 Card 1/3 3/133/60/000/007/004/016 The Use of Silicochrome When Smelting Steel in Open Hearth Furnaces Cr 49 - 56 29 - 39 Si 15 - 19 40 - 54 C 2-75 - 4-50 0.12 - 0.20 When using 12 20 type silicochrome 7 - 20 kg/t were added, whereas of the 40 - 50 type silicochrome about 4-5 kg/t (in the GhMZ) and about 2.3 kg/t (in the ZMZ) and for 30 - 35 KhGSA 6-5 kg/t were added. When applying sili- cochromey steels of the required composition could be produced without any difficulty and the duration of the preliminary deoxidation could be reduced by 5 - 9 min in both plants, (i.e., by 0-3 - 1-5% of the melting time). The amount of chromeg manganese and silicon scale is practically the same as L/ for the conventional method (in Ziatoustovsks Cr 18%9.Mn 20%, Si 32%? in Chelyabinaki Cr 19%, Mn 25%, Si 36%). The lower amount of chrome scale in the ZMZ can be explained by the higher residual chrome content of the metal before deoxidationt 0-13 - 0-31% as comparod to the values obtained in the ChMZ : 0.06 - 0-13%- In order to obtain an optimum economical sffect~ when melting medium-oarbon-chrome steel, the amount of 20 typesilicochrome should be 11 - 13 kg/t in the ChM7. and 6.5 - 9.5 kg/t in the ZMZ and the silicon used in conventional melting be replaced by blast-furnace ferrosilicon. 1him Card 2/3 S/133/60/000/007/004/016 The Use of Silicochrome When Smelting Steel in Open Hearth Furnaces melting low-cabon steelaq 12 - 13 kg silicochrome per ton should be used when the chrome content of the steel is below 0.9% and 15 - 17 kg of sili- cochrome per ton when it in abd v a 9 %. The use. of silicochrome of the 40 and 50 typesia economical only in the melting process of low-carbon steels* The holding time of the bath after adding 20 type silicochrome, when melt- ing steels of a chrome content below 0.9% is only 15 - 20 min and for steels with a chrome content above 0.9% it is 20 - 30 min, on account of the de- crease in weight of cold additives in the furnace (15 - 20 kg/t) and, a more rapid absorption of silioochrome as compared to ferrochrome. The initial cost of steel when using silicochrome in the melting process was decreased in both plants by a total of 2 - 2.5 million roubles per annumq from 2 rou- bles/ton for the 40Kh type steel to 20-4 roubles/ton for the 20Kh type steel in Chelyabinsk and from 1.1 rouble/ton for -the 30KhSA type steel up to 12.6 roubles/ton for 20Kh steel in Zlatoustovsk. There is 1 table. ASSOCIATIONSs Chelyabinskiy nauchno-issledovateliskiy institut metallurgii (Chelyabinsk Scientific Research Institute of Metallurgy); ChelyaBinskiy, Zlatoustovskiy metallurgicheskie zavod-y-TChel- yabinsk and.Zlatoustovsk Metallurgical Plants) Card 3/3 KOLOSOV, 1-1-I.; "IMMOVI Aq-l,.; PI3GhIiOV, Acaearch bY ')Iant laboratil-ories and i,1:3titutes in 1950/. Stal 1 20 no.6:568 Ja 160. 14:2) (Choly-Libins%--3tool-l-letallura) I 0 L 0,S V , ;f PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITNrION SOV/5411 Konferentsiya po fiziko-khimicheekim oanovam proizvodstva stall. Sth. Moscow, 1959. Fiziko-khimicheakiye o9novy proizvodstva stali; trudy konferentail. (Physicochemical Bases of Steel Making; Transactions of the Fifth Conference on the Physicochemical Bases of Steelmaking) Moscow, Metallurgizdat, 1961. 512 p. Errata slip inserted. 3,700 copies printed. Sponsoring Agency: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Institut metallurgil imeni A. A. Baykova. Responsible Ed.. 'A.M. Samarin, Corresponding Member, Academy of Sciences USSR; Ed. of Publishing House: Ya. D. Rozentsveyg. Tech. Ed.: V. V. Mikhaylova. Card 1/16 -Phyatcochemical Bases of (Cont.) SOV/5411 PURPOSE: This collection of articles Is Intended for engineers and technicians of metallurgical and machine-building plants, senior students of schools of higher education, staff members of design bureaus and planning institutes. and scientific research workers. COVERAGE: The collection contains reports presented at the fifth annual convention devoted to the review of the physicochemicd bases of the steelmWng process. 7hese reports deal with problems of the mechanism and kinetics of reactions taking place in the molten metal, in steelmaldng furnaces. The following are also discussed: problems involved in the production of alloyed steel, the. structure of the ingot. the mechanism of solidification, and the converter steelmaking process. The articles contain conclusions drawn from the results of experimental studies, and are accompanied by references of which most are Soviet. Card 2116 Physicochemical Bases of (Cont.) SOV/5411 Regime and the Gas Content in Metal 94 Povolotskiy, D. Ya., I. A. Lubenets, M. 1. Kolosov, D. Ya. Vayn- shteyn, and A. N. Morozov. Desiliconizing With xygen for Pig Iron Open-Hearth Furnaces 99 Shalimov, A.G., and A. K. Petrov. Investigating the Effective- ness of Treating the Molten Electric Steel by Synthetic Lime- Alumina Slag 106 r ,The investigation was conducted under the guidance of S. G. Voinov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, with the participa- tion of staff members of TsN1IChM. (Central Scientific Re- search Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy) A. 1. Osipov, Candi- date of Technical Sciences, Ya. M. Bokshitskiy, Engineer, A. 0. Shalimov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, L. F. Kosoy, Engineer, A. I. Polyakov, and staff members of the Zlatoustovskly metallurgicheskiy zavod Card 6/16 KOLOSOV, Mikhail Ivanovich,- SMIRNOV,, Juriy Dmitriyevich,- STROGANOV, Anatoliy Ill ich; TSIFMIOV, Aleksey Georgiyevich; BOREVSKIY, Vladimir Moiseyevich; SM, Ye.B., red.; KOLBICHEV, V.I.# tekhn. red. [Interchangeable equipment for the pouring of steel] Smen- noe oborudovanis dlia razlivki stali. Cheliabinsk, Che- liabinskoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1961. 55 P- (MIRA 17:3) S7i!WGAIIOV, Anatoliy Illich; KOWSOV, Mikhail Ivanovich; LEDEDEV, S.I.,, red.; POZDITYAKOVA, 0-.T-.,red. izd-va; ISID-ITIYEVA, P.G., tekhn. red, (Production of quality and high-quality steel in basic open-hearth furnacesl Proizvodstvo kachestvermol i vysokokachestvennoi stali v osnavi3ykh martenovskikh pechakh. Moskval Gos. --aucbno-teI-Jm.izd-vo lit-ry po chernoi i tsvetnoi, metallurgii, 1961. 416 P. (MIRA 14: U) (Steel-Metallurgy) (Opene-hearth furnaces) S/133/61/oc)O/001/OOZ/016 A054/AO33 AUTHORSt Kolosov, M.I., Candidate of Technical Sciencesl Stroganov, A.I., Candidate of Technical Sciences; Vaynahteyn, O.Ya., Engineerj Keys, N.V., Engineer; Khryukina, V.A., Engineer TITLEt Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30xrT (18-30KhGT) Grade Steel PERIODICAM Stal', 1961, No. 1, pp. 25-- 28 TEXT% In the 1BKhGT grade steel defeats in the forin of blisters and twists were found, mainly In the top part of the ingot, resulting in 7% rejects. The defects in the ingot body were most probably due to pouring in such a way that in the ingot mold top a skin was formed at the walls. When 5-ton ingots were cast the defects de,cre'ased due to the sborter pouring time resulting in a smaller tem- perature difference between the beginning and the end of the aasting process. An efficient measure to prevent these defeats was topping the ingots at 19% of their height instead of 17%. Another type of defeat is the "tongue" observed on the face of the ingot when cutting the hot metal. In the 5-ton and 6.2-ton ingots this type of defeat increased to 25%. When investigating these "tongues" on, card 1/6 S11331611000100110021016 A054/AO33 Crystillization and quality Improvement of 18-3OXrT (18-3OKhGT) Grade Steel etched longitudinal and lateral maorosections and on the longitudinal hardened fracture, it was found that they were actually laminations of the central zone of the ingot. Macrostructuraltests revealed at the place of laminations'an accumula- tion of non-metallio impurities, extending along the axis of lamination. More- over, investigations of the longitudinal hardened fraotur* showed that this lami- nation is an internal defect of the metal connected with the crystallization of the ingot. Therefore, tests were made to determine the character of brystalliza- tion and the structure of 18-30KhrrT grade steel ingots. The crystallization prm- ess was studied in 6.2-ton ingots by the tilting method, radiometry and tempera- ture tests. In the r~diometrio method (Ref. 1, M.I. Kolosov, A.N. Morozov, et al.: "Rate and Sequence of the Crystallization of Killed Steel-Ingoti'. In the colleotioni "The Application of Radioactive Isotopes in Ferroui Metallurgy", Chelyabinsk, 1957), the Fe59 radioactive isotope was applied. The metal tempera- ture during crystallization was recorded at distances 665, 1,125 and 1,425 mm from the riser, with platino-rhodium-platinum thermocouples, protected by double- wall quartz tubes between which graphite rings were fitted at each level. During crystallization a double-phase zone formed along the axis of the ingot. The con- siderable toughness of the 18-3OKhGT steels makes the feeding of the central part Card 2/6 5/133/61/000/001/002/016 A054/AO33 Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30.XrT(18.xhGT) Grade Steel of the ingot difficult, causing the origination of A porous zone. As the location of this central porous zone coincides with the lamination in the rolled product it can be assumed that lamination is caused by the porosity of the metal. In the pla- ces of lamination considerable amounts of non-metallic impurities were found imped- ing the scalding of the lamination even at greater reductions. Based on the tests two methods were found to prevent laminatioft: 1) reducing the porosity of the cen- tral part of the ingot and 2) reducing the quantity of non-metallic impurities. 1) 314 order to reduce the central porosity, the process of feeding the central area of the ingot had to be improved. Measures were taken'to increase the time during which-the metal is liquid in the hood of the riser. It was found, however, that neither the application of "lunkerite" with an aluminum content of 28% in- stead of 14%, added in quantities of 3 - 4 kg/ton instead of 1.5 2 kg/ton, nor the use of lunkerite containing 35 - 50 % magnesium powder (1.5 2.0 kg/ton). yielded a considerable improvement of the maorastructure. Thus it was not possible to improvethe fejeding of the ingot with liquid metal by increased heating of the top. Better results were obtained in this respect when -'V*he riser hood was insulat- ed by asbestos sheets (10n= thick) between its casing and lining and by winding Card 3/6 S/133/61/ooc)/001/002/016 A05AIA033 Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30X M18-30Wr) Grade Steel asbestos cores, 22 mm thick, or asbestos sheets around the ingot molds, at a dis- tance of 500 mm from, fixed with sheet iron. The riser hoods were also mounted on asbestos disks. The longitudinal templates taken from ingots melted In insulated ingot molds showed a satisfactory density and the axial porosity found in conventional ingots was absent. The products rolled from ingots produced with the insulation method (140 x 140 mm section) were also free from lamination. 2) The second method to prevent lamination, i.?., the reduction of non-metallic impu- rities was tested with 3 kinds-of deoxidizing agents: a) Silicomanganese in the furnace and 45% solution of ferro-silicium in the ladle (tzcnventional method); b) 15 - 17 kg/ton,AMS alloy in the furnace and 45% solution of ferrosilioium in the ladle; c).manganese silicate in the furnace and calcium-silicon in the ladle. The best results were obtained with method b) (3-05% rejects due to laminati0h and 0.06% rejects due to maorostructure, while the oorresponding figures for meth- od a) are 5.05% and 0.5% and for method c) 17.0%) (see table), To improve the steel quality, further tests were.carried out in 1958 - 1939 to study preliminary oxidation with silicochromium, instead of AMS, the use of titanium-containing scrap instead of ferro-titanium for alloying and the optimum metal temperature prior to deoxidation, ensuring a satisfactory macrostructure and metal surface. By employing titanium-oontaining scrap the temperature drop in the ladle decreased Card 4/6 A054/AO33 Crystallization and Quality Improvement of 18-30,Xr ' T(18-301(hGT) Grade Steel and the toughness of s teel was reduced. Rejects du'e to isurface defects were 0.13% instead of.0.24%. in the conventional Melts. There are 2 figures, 1*'table and 1 Soviet reference. .ASSOCIATIONS: Nauchno-issledo-Vatefskiy institut rhetallurgii, Chelyabinskiy metal- lurgicheskiy zavod (Scientitic Research Institute of Metallurgy, Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant) ,It 10 1, IWO Figure I- "Tongue" Afect In 18KhGT NV A,~ 'N steel ingot A-V Q Card 5/6 -R, i~ m EMS-= M 10 6-- z, 011 0% 11 FOR i, Off-l" - m 1 S/133/61/000/002/010/014 A054/AO33 AUTHORS: Shved, F.I., Engineer and Kolosov Candidate of Technical Sciences TITLE: On Spotty Liquatio'n in 38)(M 10A (3BKhMYuA) Brand Steels PERIODICAL: Stall, 1961, No. 2t pp. 164-167 TEXTs According to certain research worke-s, spotty inhomogeneity in steel is caused by the segregation of phosphorus , sulfur, carbon and also by the separation of hydrogen and its penetration into the crystallizing metal. In order to establish the effect -of these factors on spotty liquation the con- trol data of 428 smelts of 38KhMYuA steel were studied at the Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod (Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant) in the course of 1957-1959. The relation between spotty liquation and the P and S content of the metal was plotted and is given in fig.l. It shows that the increase i 'n the concentration of the elements referred to raises metal rejects on account of spot formation. Fig.2 shows the accumulative effect of P + S. To elimin- Card 1/7 8/133/61/000/002/010/014 A054AO33 On Spotty Liquation in 38X M 10A (38KMuA) Brand Steels Before tapping 0.010 0.008 In the finished metal 0-003 0-003 A relation was observed between the hydrogen content (6-9 cu am/100 gr) of the 3SKhMYuA grade steel smelted in arc furnaces and spotty liquation. A sim- ilar relation was established for converter and open hearth steels with a hy- drogen concentration 3-5 cu cm/106 gr. Although the relationship between hy-, drogen content and spotty liquation could not be established beyond doubt by the authors, it was assumed that spotty liquation was caused by the absorp- tion of the mother lye in the cavity of blisters, lifted in the ingot top by hydrogen separated during crystallization. In this case the defects that form in the metal should be in direct proportion to the H-content and liqui- fying mixtures. The higher the H-content, the greater the chance will be for its separation in the form of blisters at relatively low levels of the ingot, and the greater will be the deterioration by spotty liquation, in the ingot. Apart from the marked effect of S, P and H on spotty liquation, the effect of other factors in this respect is relatively unimportant. In castings with a Card 3/7 S/133/61/000/002/010/014 A054/AO33 On Spotty Liquation in 38XP4 10A OMMA) Brand,Steele high P, S. and H content, spotty liquation was observed in all the ingots of one casting plate, regardless of pouring speed, while with a low P, S, and H-contqnt no spotty liquation was found, irrespective of the pouring ratesi In general, spotty liquation appears in all ingots of a casting plate, pro- duced at identical temperature and pouring rates. However, in ingots poured at higher temperatures, spotty liquation increased at higher pouring rates, while in ingots of lower temperature this took place at lower pouring rates (fig.6). All other conditions being equal, a minimum of spotty liquation will be found at an optimum heat content of the metal in the ingot mold, to- wards the end of pouring. There are 6 figures and 10 referencesp 9 Soviet, 1 Non-Soviet. ASSOCIATIONs Chelyabinskiy nauchno-issledovatellskiy institut metallurgii (Chelyabinsk Scientifio Research Institute of Metallurgy) Card 4/7 BOGATENKOV, V.F.; VAYNSHTEYN, O.Ya.; ZVEREV, B.F.; KOLOSOV. t". LUB--t!ETSt I.A.; MOROZOV, A.N.; POVOLOTSKIY, D.Ya.; Sfro(Mfl-5v, A.I., Desiliconization of open-hpartb pig iron'An the mixer. Izv. vys. ucheb. zav.; chern. met. 4 no.8:32-36 '61~ (MIRA 14:9) 1. Chelyabinskiy metallurgicheskly zavod, Chelyabinskiy nauchno- lssledovatel'skiy institut metallurgii i Chelyabinskiy politekhnich- eskly institut. (Cast iron-Yletallurgy) LO L-0 4 -0-V ka d. to k6V SVT!OGAII~V~, kanudj~eWuk KEYS, 161, B%rFUNK Fos df&n na YTI, Oalies -Linzg.; Y ZliA inzho.; DANILOVs A.M..,,inzh.1 ZVEM, B.F.s inzh,; AYMPOVAO HoGos inzh,,; KHRYUKINAs V.A.s inzh. Use of silic.on-chromium in open-hearth smelting of steel',, Stall- - 20. (MIRA 14:5) 1. Chelyabinskiy nauohno-issledovatellskiy Institut metallurgii; Chelyabinskiy i Zlatoustovskiy metallurgicheskiye zavody. (Steel-Metallurgy) (Silicola-alwomium alloys) BOGATENKGV, V.F.; VARTSTEIN, 0.1. [~Iavnshteyn, 0. Ya.]; ZVEW, B~F.; Z._I.; LUBMT, I. A. (Lubenelts, I.A.1; ~DROZOV, A. 1l.; POVOIDTKY, D,I. Dovolotskiy, D.Yaj; STROGANOV, A.I. Desilicification of Martin iron in mixerB. Analele metalurgie 36 no.l: 21-27 Ja-Mr - 16.%. STROGANOV, 4.1., kand.tekhn.nauk,* BOGATENKOV, V.F., kand.tekhn.nauk; ,XQIQkQY,-M-I" kand.tekbn.nauk; ZVEREE7, B.F.p inzh.; DAVIDYUK,, N.N., inzh.; POPOV, R.V., takhnik Heat balance of the riser head of an ingot. Stall 22 no.1:27-29 Ja 162. (14IRA 14:12) (Steel ingots). (Heat-Transmission) jyq STROGANOV, Anatoliy Illich; S-IM-IOV, _ch, ,_Aqyi Yuriy Dmitriyavich; SV91', Ye.B., red. [Selecting a method of steel pouring) Vybor sposoba raz- livki stali. Cheliabinsk; Cheliabinskoe knizhnoe izd-vo 1962. 54 p. (MIRA 17:2) diik_ d&ailfa-_~aiif. ~hb_ _purp~C_e_of -fatt-e- ni 1- 6 g___, -_ the- chickens of the early all-purpose breeds) mostly the New HampBhires, are used. CHICHIBABIN, Aleksey Yevgenlyevich. Prdnimnli uchastiye: REUTOV, O.A.; KITAYGORODSKIYp A.I., prof.; LIBERMAN, A.L., doktor khim, nauk; BAGDASARIYAN, Kh.S., doktor khim. nwukj PLATEp N.A., kand. khim. nauk- KOLOSOV ~XL p kand. khIm. nauki P V. M. , Icand. BOTVINIK, M. M. . doktor kiff."Ja; STEPANOV, khim. nauk; MELINIKOV, NJ.,, prof.; DEREVITSKAYA,, V.A., doktor khim. nauk,- LIEKHM, A.L., red.; SERGEYEV, P.G. (deceased]; ROMM, R.S., red.; SHPAK, Te.G., tekhn. red. (B asic principles of organic chemistry] Oanovnye nachals. organicheskai khimli. Iad.7. Pod red. P.G.Sargeeva i A.L. Libermana. Moskva,, Gotkhimizdat. Vol,l. 1963. 910 P. (MIRA 16:10) 1. Chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR (for Reutov). (Chemistry, Organic) KOLOSOV) M. -N. KOLOSOV, N. U. - "Synthesis of Eserine-Like Compounds. " Sub 1t, Apr 52, Moscow Inst of Fine Chemical Technology ineni M. V. Lononosov. (Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate in Chemical Sciences). SO: Vechernaya I-loskva-January-Deceriber 1952 - ~v -, - ~%- yCM-'Cl 'Tic fA, - I'l Carbchydrat!~s M.echanism of certain transformations and mans of biogenesis of carbohyrlrates with a branched carbcn chain. DoRl. AN SSSR 85 no. 0", 1952. 9. monthly List of Russian Accessions, Library of Congress, Decenbnr -195Y, Uncl. 2 ~0116novl I.T. 11. USSRIChemistizr - Antibiotics 21 Sep 52 truays of Synthesizing Optically Activ6 Analogs of D-threo-l-(p-nitrophenyl)-2- L~ dichloi-acetylamino-1,3-propanediol, "M.N. ShenVakin, E. H. Barridas, Ye. I.Vinogradova, N.G. Karapetyan, N.N. Kolosov, A.S.Kokhlov, Yu.B.Shvetsov and L.A.Shchukina, Lab of Org C-hem, Inst of Biol md Med Chalft.Acad Died Sci USSR Wdl SSSR, Vol 86, No 3, pp 565-568 Of the four steraoisomers of 1-(p-nitropheny)-2-dieliloracetylamino-1,3-propanc-diol, only one (the d-threo-isomer) is antibacterially active (chlororWcetin,chloraMihenicol~ levomycetill). To learn the relationship between the stx-,icture of these corqi~ds and antibacterial actillity, more analogs of t1hese con-ods must be synt,.,,esized. 'buo vay~s of synthesis have been worked out at present. D-or 1-threo-l-(p-nitrophenyl)-2-a--jno- 1,3-propanediol (I) is converted.into the 11-benzoyl derivative (11) 6tich is reduced to tilt; corrcspondinr~ amino compd (III). This is diazotized into (IV). The diazo group is then substituted in several different imays to from an optically active compd (V). The benzoyl group is then removed from (V) to from the arainodiol (VI) which is dich- loracetylated into (VII). The other synthesis also starts irith (I) which is reduced to the diartino compound (VIII). This is N-achloracetylated into the hydrochloride (IX) m1lich is diazotized into (X). (X) is converted into (VII) in the same way as (IV) was into (V). fReaction schemes are shown in the original pape~j Presented by Acad V.M. Rodionov 14 Jul 52 PA 247T11 KOLOSOV-1 ----------- !~ 7- USSR/Cheiistiy _,:A31A1b1d11 Sep -53 "Synthezic Investigations in the Series of Deriva- tives of--Indole, I. Synthesis of Urethans of I- Methyl-5-OxYindoline and 1,,3-Dimethyl-5-qxyindoline (D k- ehydrophyaostipol),"'R.N. Kolosov and-"N.A. Preo-, brazhenski~_Pmbscow Inst of Fine Chem Technology im M.V. Lomonosov Zhur Obshch.Rhim,.Vol 23, No 9, PP 1563-1569 Analogs of the alkaloid eserine (phyaostigmine) were synthesized: methylurethan of 1-methyl-5- oxyindolineo,and mothylurethan and dimethylure- than of 1 3-dimetbyl-5-oxyindoline (dehydxrophy- _80stigmoli# 26BT34 SHEffAKIN, --M.N.; BAMDAS, R.M.; VINOGRAWVA, Ye. I.; KARAFXTYAN, M.G.-, KOLOSOV, M.N.; KHOKHLOV, A.S.; SHUMOV. Tu.B.; SECHUKIIIA, L.A. Research on the chemistry of chloroa7catin (levoqroetin). Part 2. Study of the course of synthesis and the synthesis of optically-active analogs of chloromycetin (levomyastin). Zhur.ob.khIm. 23 no.11:1854-1867 N 153. (KLRA 6:11) 1. Institut biologicheskoy i meditsinskoy khimii Akademii meditainakikh nauk SSSR. (Chlormweetin) ZjL- wl tl r "Nd t T, Ir, R N, tielf'M with taicd. atut. of me0ya, foffowtd by Met fi-avc th'. mehi4d.Y'. ra. 2PJ-2' (frflm~ ek-- MDR"_ RatiL ~"- nictfitodi'le- wla thc 11cl snlt Showed ruiotk thr"hol'd fcvd at 1:EWO cowm. ir ftiu w!L rubbits. 1 (72 g.) and 3.6 'W% MCIMICILINIOU ia 215 mi. dry diqz"e was tic-mcd wt,h 20.4 g. Cffj~ C11C.; a' 15'. then stitred 4 lira. Lt room tmnp., ~etclijlc after evapa. 8a% m. 89-0*, Lt This hyd-- ogenated ovcf Raney Ni In the presence of Et OR-NW, as descri" above gave,96% bt 167-44"1" P&rc&, m. ICE 'i~; W ft V HCOJI a' 115 gave 825'a 1_-d,,,d.Pi '4 b- 162-0: pie- ru.,e En -,aL,, M. Th-i- h,_-_L,_d PALh Mr, 2 hm. at 140-S' gave rne,~ Ylmrincpw M. 14'-S*; P-.,: -c b-,e tre- I&L5 W; Itr ratt, m. 160 TL -ith McOVa, followed b3r MezNLOCI as described abo-ic of M. 0-.C- ltlrul.,t, M, vu-~5'~ Thm IM r-dt 4:zd [n.66- A, ~rcj CILLSO fq1-rr4Vft_ T GR ~T--,~_I, nr-.. rj:c- -prockst-D-L Liz .10i 9 ih- am= wit", Mel wh" ornmgr pkroxtef&yk1e, iu. IV NEC St- a-bive ~;-a a. A-;ra- acm-W-1 :45- ai !, ~c fwrvr le ~~Cj3cnj!-,xy of 'hic nytedu (levernycetin). VL Syn- c rul 5f new optically active anAlop of chloromycetin x--y,eEUI, Am , kf. -,v, m A:,i sh-mkma Zhut 06shcAel Khun. t,i 7 4, Dia :Iff"j, CH,ull D-mrca w~v. m, L -LI-0 M. -j X4 -,011). Trnat- meat -D-J-gun -IrL fiftr~,A and rtcrystd- f~ C" p,-es 1.4 g- lKzC(:N010- Cll"*'~[ (1). '-w uljl~l in 10 mi Me:i~ r'-duced -"!! N-C Ind If !,~ Imn v -,,nd III, prW-j. --C concd and r-crysid f-m Nff4Ai-AcORt giv" 2-VI ,Ig i;-PhCff; I-H ~:H~Nll, M~ 11 4-, C-L `7M And I-Ne f.coc-1 j~--'e-ri5o - - - - Oh-clf, ~1 ic 1c1fd)11)-V1!cOCHCj, 0-,OiVCJ1-cdNf~td1,c11- tA,eo 2fX3 4- :.vo f, !Ij 3. in tit, 1".1111, LUC /I Cy,. Lji, -.4j Iq KoAc jnNj~(jjj' gall' after difil- H-O 71%- P-P1SCjf-,Vc-,j1,c11foft)cjj( ilow:r I in-0 0-:0wer. tit. 153-t 47.51' 111- 146-7'. f.11 C~co). fil'ic Ac:. atu! tit. Arco .1 -." ' 'SHCO !~,V V.'W H,CH~ C11,OH1 ~i M-C I ITIC p-Ou'l 'ILh 1 3 M'Ics sG1vcnE iL~u. -r tit-[ i~L-,tIzcz1 Ill 4q. ii%~i alld ImA" a,, lit folluwc(i 1iy tit i Ac ift Rf It gave USSR/Chemistry - Antibiotics Card I~PZ Pub. 22 - 27/54 Authors t Sher7a!dn, V. M., Memb.Cor. Aced. of So., USSR; Koloscv, M. H.; rAvitov, M. xf, ; Crermanova, K. I.; Karapet-pm, M. G.; Shi-eMaM,'TT.'9'.'V, and Bamde jE.K Title I FLniation 'aetveen struct=-- and entLmicrobic activity of chlororgeetin yeet:Ln' and the mechanixn. of its noaction PariOdicD-l I Dok. Of SSSR 102/5, 953-956, Jun 11, 1955 Abstraot t It is shot-in that the high selectivity of the biological effect of chloromyadtin on microbes is deteiTdned simultaneously by the following fac-~Ors: 1) strong polarizing effect of the p-nit--opherql radical, the geometrical dimensions of which are of no importance; 2) strong polarizing effect of the dichloroacetyl radical, which should satiaf,7 even the most specific geometrical requirements; and 3) defined geometrical dimensions ,onding conforaation of the aminopropanediol group. The relation and corresp 1~ between the structure and biological activity of chloromycetin is explainad. Institljticn Acad. of Ved. Sc., USSR, Inst. of Biol. and Med. Chom. d" 'Myceifit)'-"~ Cq: of fW(%nkf obl~: 4dyPt ot cWorr=yoft on- W I jtzidetw6 in o machanista of actfort of chim.-ayceEia U. Q -'FU5Tv-?F ~H, u.- B. Sh% Oermisnova -6 Batudw Z Um Obshchef KA f4n X . . . , cf. C.A. 49, 11341111; Sri. 3291c.-Birl. tesu n acyl derim ol againit Sx#,bi"Lwus aurew, ~7 Bic4rkhk cbli, Ban'llus rtbhAr, and Vibm'ofuorescrns were performed, The rmlts indi=te that thr- p-nitropheuyl p Is ftuporWAt to the activity ff the dntg buth thmugli f"ll-ctroule behaylorand It-ft polarizing action (in itie mt c4 f the mot.; tLe geA=,etr;c dimenz!ms of thz~i part of th~ me!- -d 4re wt im art f t t i f t I t J n,co;a ic c ati ras o niptirt o georactr p Wmensious, in the arrilixopropatiedifil portion cf fife Mol. j.The N% gimp,can be shifted witliout juns of activity to with -azid compits. P-ChxC4ff' ;other, cortjug~it~d locations, or p-(L);NC*KCH. N--w linkages are highly active- ~coiiipdj. without thei \1'011~ croup or tho6e with it lit uncoula- ly d locatio= (p~~XCIH4(20!411-) are Inactive tir mak. ~ T ti m ~The~ biol. activity-df ~hlorcunycetin mialoas draps the- , en .,&F Irt the-seriesof 6-ph jrl subatitumts: Mi. CAV, . COAfe. Georactryand polarization in tce m. 84-S' (from EtOAc an-i (Cif-04), ancial, In. M-NI, DL-4MICK, pCcpd. by mixis-g the 2 itomer5, m. 44-5' P-9.) in, 3W mi. dry dfoxarm was treated at 12-16' with 2,45 g. CCII~CHCHICOCI over U br.; he alixture was fflttrtd aud coned. in mcuo, tietted y4rith RtOAc, viashed with dil. HSO, and 20% NaCl,,i ad cwd--, K N, USSR/ Physical Cheniatry - Molecule. Chemical Bond. B-4 Abs Jour : Referat Zhur - Khimi%.,a, No 3, 1957, 7233 Author : Shigorin, D.N.,, Shemyakin) M.M., Shchukina, L.A.; Kolosov, M.N., ana Mandelyevich, F.A. Inst : -rcaa~-e c" ~-ces USSR Title : On the Nature of the Intramole'eular.Hydrogeil Bond Orig Pub : Dokl. Ali SSSR) 1956, voi lo8, No 4,, 672-675 Abstract : The IR spectra of.moleculea i-rith intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HB) involving different degrees of participation of the .-'~J-electrons of the C-'0 group and of the multiple bonds conjugated with it have been investigated. The fre- quency of the valency vibrations of the O-H groups (the first utuiber in narentheses, in cra-1) and their shift to. wards longer wav~-Iengths in comparison to the unassocia- ted OH groups (second number in parentheses) as well as the BH energy ~Badcr and Bauer, J. Chem. Phys., 1937, 5, .er 839) (third number in pcre!itheses in kcal), the card 1/4 29 fractional contribution of -,i'-electron interaction energ.Y to the total BH energy in percent (fourth number in paren- theses), and the interatomic O.*.H distance calculated from standard bond dist. and the bond angles (fifth nUM- ber in parentheses in A.U.) have been determined for the following compounds: the vapor of the nonomethyl ether of ethylene glycol (I) at 120-12290665) 0) 0) 0) - ); I in C014 W), in the ratio 1:4oo (3605, 6o, o.96 0. 1.80); phenol in 11, 1:400 ratio (305, o, 0 0 gu. 20 oxyoctenol aiacol in 11, 1:400 (3530, 55, 0.90, 0, 2. '5; in 11, 1:400 (3475, 147, 2-38, 59.7, 1-95); benzoin in II, 1:400 (3468, 147, 2.39, 60-01 1.95); 2-hydroxy-1, 4-napht- hoquinone in 11, 1:400 3398 (187, 3.07, 03-71 2-25); 2-benvl-3-hydroxy-l, 4-naphlohhoquinone in II, 1:6o0 (3395, 190, 3-11, 69.1, 2.25); 2-(*,-~-naPhthYI)-3-hYdroxY-l, 4-na- phthoquinone in II, 1:6oo (3370, 215) 3.52) 72.71 2.25); ~ -methyltropinone in 11, 1:400 MA, 504, 8.19, 88.2, Card 2/4 - 30 - SJOWAKINO H.k.; SHCIIUKINA. L.A.;,VINOGRADOTA, Ye.I.,' KOWSOT, M.N.; TWIDUI R.G.; KARAn~YAX, M.G.; ROtIONOV, V.7a.; RAVIMLI, G.A.; SHVWSOTv Tu,B., BANDAS, JI.K.; CHAW, Te.$.; YUXOIAYlys K.K.; SMIN, TO.P. R.esearch data on sarkomycin and its analogues. Part I.- Synthesis of dihydrosarkonVein and its antipode. Zhur. ob. khim. 27 no,3t742-748 NT '57 (MM IOW 1 Institut, biologicheskoy i meditsinskoy khimii Akademii wditsin- s~ikh nauk SSSR. (&rkomycin). . , I , I ,.. I i 1. -1 , f .- I .. .i "'0 H i I I AUTHORSt Shemyakin, M. M., Koloaov, M. N., SOV/62-58-6-34/37 Arbuzov, Yu. A. ` ~nop Ty'ene,- ~V. Shatenshteyn, G. A. TITLEt The Course Taken by the Synthesisof Ring A of Tetracyclic Compounds (Put',sinteza kolitsa A tetratsiklinov) PERIODICALt Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye khimioheskikh naukpl$81 Nr 6, PP. 794-795 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Already in 1957 the authors of this report described the synthesis of tricyclic compounds in which 2 rings, with respect to their structure, resemble rings D and C of tetraoyclinic compounds. The third ring, which corresponds to ring B, contains a binary compound or a potential carbonyl group. At present the authors are studying the possibility of synthetizing ring Aand describe this synthesis. The group CHX . CO is 2 introduced into the initial ketone, ketone ester is ethylated, ethynkl carbinol (formula III) Y=C-:~!CH is hydrated in the neutral medium and oyy-ketoester (formula II;Y=--Ac) is-cyclized into an ox iketone (formula III; Z=H). Card 14 (Formula III; Z==CONELR . The scheme has the following formt V The Course Taken by the Synthesis of Ring A SOV/62-58-6-34/37 of Tetracyclic Compounds x x x \C02Et \ CO 2Et OH Y -"/ -\ 0 HO HO z There are 2 references, 1 of which is Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Institut organicheskoy khimii im. N. D. Zelinskogo Akademii nauk SSSR i Institut biologicheskoy i meditsinskoy khimii Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSE.(Inatitute of Organic Chemistry imeni N. n. Zelinskiy, AS USSR and Institute of Biological and Modieo-ehemistry of the Academy of Medical Card 2/-64N Sciences of the USSR) AUTHORS: Shigorin, D. N., Shemyakin, M. M., SOV/62-58-9-22/26 Kolgany- TITLE: Intermolecular InteractionoBetween Acetylene and Its Derivatives (Mezhmolekulyarnyye vzaimodeystviya u atsetilena i yego proizvodnykh) PERIODICAL: Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Otdeleniye khimicheskikh nauk, 1958, Nr 9, pp 1133 -,,1134 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Considering the peculiarities of the chemical structure of acetylene and its derivatives the authors considered it possible that these compounds might be able to form com- plexes with one another and with solvents. These complexes could result from the hydroGen bridge bonds R-C j C-H.X (X= O< , 0 = C