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Vffect of aminazine and mepasine on carabellar and medullary inhibiting processes. Farm. i toke. 22 no.2:99-lo4 mr-Ap 159. (MMA 12:6) 1. Laboratortya, chastnoy farmakologit (zav. - doyetvitel'nyy chlon AHN SSSR prof. V.V.Zakunov) Instititts, farmakologii i khinioterapii AM SM). (CIFSUMLLUM, physiol. inhibe processes, off. of chlorpromazine & vachtal (Rue)) (KUULLhR OBIONGATA, phyeiol. same) (CHLORPROMAZINN, effects on cerebellum & melulla oblongata inhib. processes (Rils)) (AUTONOMIG DRUGS, effects, pacatal, on cerebellum & medulla oblongata inhib. processes (Rue)) KRUGLOV, N.A. Ilffeet of some analgesic and narcotic substances on reciprocal Inhibition. 7~am.l tolm. 22 no.6t488-493 N-D 159. (MMA 13--5) 1. laboratorlya chastuoy Yarmakologii (say. - daystvital lrqy chlen AMN SSSR prof. V.V. Zakumov) Instituta farmakologii I khlmloterapil ANN 58 M (AnWISICS) (NARCOTICS Pharmaool.) (INHIBITION) Km-GLOVj N. A. "The Effect of Analgesics of the Morphine Group on the Process of Sensual InhibitiorP Second International Pharmacological Congress, Pr,-.gueq Czechoslovakia 20-23 August 1963 Institute of Phannacology and Chemotherapy,Moscow. Kf-UGLOV. N.A. 'Effect of the porphina group analgesics on central inhibi- tory processes. Uch.zap.Inot. farm. i khimioter. AHN SS3K. 3a - 65-75163. (MIRA 16:9) 1., Department of Pharmacology (Head - Prof. V.V.Zakasov, 149mber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences) of the InBtitute of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy (AKLLGFSICS) (INIIIBITION) -V US,qVComvzdcations - Radio MAY 1947 . Modulation "Plate A"vAauaulation," N G Kruglov" ' pp I'Vestnin I V-L 7, No 84 General ".~,"sZon of the plate modulation system, Used and approved in radio station at Riga. Dosirability of system foreconomic reasons is stressed, T16 IR Modulation', plate Trane4tters "A4tmatic Plate Modulation of Radio Broadcasting Tropemitters.," N. 0. Krugloyp Iblap 18 pp 'Iftaotekh" No 2 bescribee nev method called autoplate modulation vWch doubles the efficiency vith normal modulation sad Aqubles the pover of the tubes caqwtred to Class 0 plate modiLlIation. . It Is based an the principle e ly'amplify blgh-fre- that tubes in'cascade not on 've-soiew b*4 a 0- U40 a, plate modulators ~66 ST ! ~i! so so I A-A .00, 10 vo "i so 00 .00 0 3m :0 - .A G. A*A U 4 tmA. 2) UP ".jj~ Jb"Weii-lbe SWAM akk*ft of LE OWPA on" in mo& so -so Ow md I oe fl. map nd so up by ON" devu ad am& AOLM 0* Nab* of WOFAM sadoxy ""m 0 0 00 a on" ho won tar No- s. ka 00 0 " goo MW 00, twAid 61 isk Ow Ow WA*AOW mr1w 0 0WOM so do Lt. 04*Anw OWN pru" illeo,* ftwAh obOMW 4;00 P'l .4 0 400 boo '00 400 00 8; Tri -11~4 o o 0 0 J* 01 '14 06 fo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 00 00 00'* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 4 0 O's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 6 a 0 0 0 Sub 23 Dee 52 10501f-Anode !l,odqjati,,j 'n'f""Cow E'lectrical of or the T,)CJ -'n;linmarin - -ree or Vechern - los ky j ~ a, e in 52 7j, . Idi,, ors. r ast of -,-ec)jjcaj J nces). &RLGI,Ovj 11. IfAutomatic Pl4te modulation In 'Ow-POwered transmitters.0 SO. Radiop Vol, 8 P P- 45, 1952 "Ell 'I*;, Radio - Transmittvirs and Transmission Auto-anodic modulation In low-powered transmitters., Radio, ',o. 6, 9. Monthl List of Russian Accessionn, Library of Congress, ';uva-iber 1952 Uncl. KRLrj1DV, N. G. "Question of Plate Modulation 7,adio Tekh., JulYs 1954 7-7-r~ Xg. USSR/Electronics Self-anode modulation of 'transmitters FD-1053 Card Pub 90-1/12 Author N. G. llr~lov Title Some problems of self-anode modulation Periodical Hadiotekhnika 9, 3-21, Jul/Aug 1954 Abstract Author discusses the equivalent circuit 7nd certain problems of the.theory of self-anode modulat.Lon; indicates the most essential characteristics of the operation of basic aelf-anode modulatioLcircuito (i.e., with automatic bias variation and controllable bia4; and briefly examines the problem of the inertia of self-anode modulation. Four references; USSR, 1946-1952. Schematic diagrams; graphs. Institution Submitted 3 March 1951 KRUGIDT, N.M. Carry out ship repairs In a satisfactory manner. Rech.transp. 18 no.12:21-22 D 159. (KmA 13:4) 1. lachallnik slushby sudovogo khoxyaystya Volshokogo ob"yedinanannogo recbnogo parokhadetvas (Ships-Vaintenance and repair) la=TXH, Mikhail Illich; XRUGWV. N.F.. retsenzeat; MARSUROY, Y.N., retsenzent; KOPAVICH, Te.l., redaktor; MADV ".BY, L.Ta., takhnichaski.v redaktor [Rapair andinstallation of equipment in textile enterprises and light Industries; the general partJ Remont I sontash oborudovaniia pradpriiatil takatillnoi I legkoi promyshlonnosti; obahcbmia chast'. Moskva. Goa. nauchno-tokho. lid-vo Ministerstva legkoi promyshl. 338R, 1956. 310 P. (HLRA 919) (Machinery) "MR L( C, nd F,- ti '-c1. t k::~ t' t m.-ulial public w J' I I I t IL:! cil' Vitebsk, tile of C;O, nA~i- to h:i.:rcvc~;.e%t of' t*,I," -oanitf-ir:,- of thc- cit 6 . 25 (Duril n. rm; --,L-ate Cr,iu- oi` Lienin In-~t of Adv~-,nced Traininc of Fl--cAcinn-,; im S. M. Kirov); nU.i,10~--r Or COT',iUS !'0t -.--lven; pr.1c;e not i-ivk.~n; (KL, 21.-60, l,',0) SOV/96-59-8-22/2p AUTHOR., Kruglov, N.V., Candidate of Technical Sciences TITLE: Vibration Standards for Turbo Machines PMUODICAL: Teploenergetika 1959, Nr 8, pp 85-87 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Standards of permissible vibration have been drawn up for steam turbines and turbo blowem and considerable exper- ienoe of this subject is available. However, vibration in high-speed gas turbines is not fully understood. Experimental investigations are difficult; for instance, strain gauges cannot easily be applied to high-speed blading. Vibration measurements can be made on external surfaces of the frame but in the main this gives information only about main shaft vibration and does not disclose the sources of high- frequency vibration. On the basis of experience with machines running at 3000 to 5000 rpm numerous standards have been drawn up for permissible vibration. They usually define permissible amplitudes of vibration on the main bearings. Many factors that influence vibration in machines such as !,-learanaes, lubrication, wear of bearings, output, Card 1/4 foundation arrangements and others are not taken into SOV/96-59-8-22/27 Vibration Standards for Turbo Machines account. Vibrati-:)n cannot be limited simply by restricting the amount of rotor unbalan3c, for unbalance is not the only oause of -vibration. It will be seen that existing vibration standards are empirical and of somewhat limited validity, e7en for machines running at 7-000 to 5000 rpm, and the most that oan be said about machines running at 25000 rpm is that the amplitude of vibration should not ex,.,eed a few microns. However, since nothing better is available -the bestv uae possible must ba made of existing standards for medl,,;n-speed machines when evaluating per- missible -71bration in high-speed machines. The existing standards have ac~,,ordingly been analysed and the e %, alressed as graphs of vibration against speed. In curve , amplitude of vibration is plotted against speed in log/log coordinates; In -,urve (b) permissible values of amplitude are related to speed in linear coordinates. Existing standards are so written that the graphs are straight lines on log/log paper, 'but the slope differs between stan- dards. There is another method of asses3ing 'the intensity Card 2/4 of vibration besides the amplitude. name1j, the magnitude of SOV/96-59-8-22/27 Vibration Standards for Turbo Machines the maximum acceleration, or the dimensionless ratio of this acceleration to gravity. Existing standards all permit some increase in this ratio over the speed range 1500 to 5000 rpm. On the basis of the analysis, one way of defining permissible vibration is to assume a constant value for the product of amplitude and speed. If the existing standard values are extended to machines running at higher speeds with the additional limitation that at 30000 rpm the acce- leration should not exceed 2g, then the formula for limiting amplitude of vibration becomes: A-x2n2 2 900 g This formula gives a permissible amplitude of 2 microns at 30000 rpm and 20 x 10-3 mm at 3000 rpm, this latter value corresponding to the usual standards including GOST 5908-51.. The proposed formula also gives acceptable values for machines of intermediate speed. In some cases it may be Card 3/4 permissible to use a higher acceleration than 2g,, but in SOV/96-.59-8-22/27 Vibration Standards for Turbo Machines no 3ase should the amplitude be greater than the recommended maximum value on the graph. It will probably be found that the recommended standard is conservative, but It should only be relaxed when considerably more experience has been gained. Tnere are 2 figures and 3 Soviet references. Card 4/4 - I I *', 'I-. I T' ~ V. ZAKMSKIY. Iviin Pitrovich; KRUGIA)V, Oleg Vladimirovich: KIMPWOV, Y.I., otvotstvonny7 red.; WIT'6G'-A--.-', --iiihn a red. [Underground psification of coal in the Donets Basin] Podsemnaia gazifikatelis kmmontWkh uglai v Donbsese. Moskva, Ugletakhizdat, 1957. 26 p. (HMA 11:4) (Donate Bosin-Coal gasification. Underground) IMWLOV. O.V. . -, ~' ~' ~~ T-~ ---""O""~Calculation and alignment of oriented boreholes for underground coal gasification. Podsemegas#ugl, nool:39-45 '57. (KIaA 10:7) lo Lislohenskaya stantelya 'Podsougas.1 (Mine surveying) (Coal gasification, Underground) 11 mummok Suwary of overatl*ns at the Lisichamak 'PodlecroW plant during 1954-1956. Podion.gat.ugl. no.2.*31-38 157. (KLRA 10:?) 1. Linichanakoq& stantsiya "Podseagas., (Donets Basin--Coal gasification, Underground) (Livichansk--GAs producers) KRUG ~~OV, -0. V. I YUDRCROVSKIT, I. H. SomR romprka on V.I. Pronin's nnd D.A. Sokolov's nrticle "Methods of baring inclined directionAl borpholRs.* no.1:70-72 158. (MIRA 11:4) 1. Sinichmnskaym etmntsiyA "Podxsmgs-x.'1 kmntorA opytnogo napravlannogo buronlya. (Boring narhinery) ZHIRNYY, A.To.; KRUa1DV, O.Y. - POWSI11, I.A. rVA4A Connecting aM putting Into operation boreholon for underground gasification, Podx"m.paz.url. no.2%43-44 159. (MIRA 12:9) 1. Lisiclhanskara stantsiya "Podzeagal", nektor 10*15 Va"90YUSU060 natichno-isslodavatel'okogo I proyeVtnogo inatitnta podzemnoy gaHifikatail ugloye (Coal gasification, Undorground) (Boring) XHUGIDY. 0.V.; TU4BOROVSXIY, I.M. Deviation of the gallery In drilling directional boreholes. Podzem.gas.ugl. no-3:43-49 159. (MIRA 12 -.12 1. Lisichanskaya stantslya "PodzeWx," (Boring) (Coal gasification, Underground) -U.WGWV, O.V.; YUDBOROVSKIT, I.H. Calculation of the inBeribed action radiua of Mine face motore and boring equipment In directed hole boring. Podzen.gas.ugl. no.4:42-46 159. (MIRA 13-4) 1. Lisichanskaya stantsi7a "Podzemg&z.6 (Boring) (Lisichansk-Coal ganification, Underground) YUJ)IN# I.D.# kands klibn. nauk;-XfU1G1,(j-Vj P.V, (deconved); NAYUKOV, va, Certain dependence of the heat of comimation of gas on the rate of tile flow in the gasIfIcation channel. Trudy VNI1Pod-zemgaza no.12:19-27 164. (MIRA 18:9) Zarladka bortovykh kislorodnykh ballonov. (Vestnik vosdushnogo flota, 1937 v. 19, no. 8, p. 50-52, illus,) Title tr.s Ch&rging of oxygen cylAndere for use on board aircraft. TL504.V45 1937 SO: Aeronautical Sciences and Aviation in the Soviet Union, Library of Congress, 1955 -ACC-'NRi AT'7-0"44i_(_/V) SOURCE CODE: UR/2531/66/000/199/0107/0113 AUTHOR:__jjjaovL. R.A. TITLE: Measurement attachuent*for a ground-based puls*d-li~ht cloud- height indicator ORG: none SOURCE: Leningrid. Glavnaya geofiziches,kaya observatoriya. Trudy, no. 199, 1966. ~eteorologicheskiye pribory i avtonatixatsiya mateoro- logicheskikh izadreniy (Meteorological instruments and the ahtomation of meteorological measurements), 107-113 TOPIC TAGS: meteorology, meteorologic instrument, cloud cover, cloud level, weather station, automatic telemetering weather station, pulsed- light cloud-height indicator PURPOSE AND COVERAGE: The author reviews the various advantages of the pulsed-light cloud-height indicator over instruments using the triangu- lation technique in measuring the heights of cloud bases. He considers' that the former shows the greatest promise for use in automatic-tele- metering weather stations. Howeverl he points out thatp at present, 4 ACC NR, AT7004446 this Instrument has three significant shortcomings: 1) the pulse tubes are good for only 1000 separate measurements; 2) remote operation does not exceed 100 m; and 3) the instrument must be operated manually. The Hain Geophysical Observatory has developed an attachment for lot-pro- duced pulsed-light cloud-height indicator, thus eliminating the cited disadvantages and making this indicator adaptable to automatic-tele- metering weather stations with remote operation up to 5-7 km. A bl *ock diagram of the indicator and attachment is given In Fig. 1. The article also contains a circuit diagiam of the attachment. It is stated that the instrument error does not exceed 71 of scale. For lower and upper measurement limits of 50 and 1000 a, the sensor d.c. output voltage Is 60 and 3, respectively. The operating principle of the attachment and indicator is explained in some detail. The attachment, which measures 210 x 270 x 190 am. in connected to the cloud-heLght indicato 'r by a short 12-strand cable and to the automatid-instrumentation unit or con- trol console by a 5-strand cable 2 io 7 km long. In 1963, laboratory tests were conducted with a prototype system in which a 5-km-long com- munication line was simulated. For comparison purposes, cloud-height measurements were made with and without the'attachment. The results showed'no appreciable differences between the Indicator readings and the measurement-attachment readings. A table of the test results of 21 Ueasurements'shown'that In 11 cases the readings were LdentLcal, In'5 cases-they d ffered by only 10 a, and In-3 cases, by 20 m. OrLg. art. has-; 2 figur!A and, 1 tabl'o. 2 /4 ACC NR AT 70044 46 radiator rad Is 2 *-#ON receiver Fig. 1. Block diagram of It 1 pulsed-light cloud-height Indicator - I.ndicator add mefourement attachment. 1-pulse tube; 2-IEU-1 pho-, I to-multiplier and ;preampj 3-rectifier; 4-video am fier; 5-sweep generato 6-time-markiganstator-, 7-power source; S-AGC and . limiter; 9-measurino unit; i 6 10-relay unitj a4d 1l-. Viower source L pulsid-4ight, cloui-height indicator sensor I output I - - measurement. FrIam auto- I mitio program . I attacbment unit 10 Card 4 RIAT7004446 rw.A. X-67-41 Y'k *] USSR/Phy'sical Chemiatry Solutions. Theory of Acids and Bases, B-11 Abst Journal; Referat Zhur - Xhimiya, No 1, 1957) 489 Author: Vinnik, M. I., Kruglov, R. If.,, and Chirkov,,N. M. Institution: None Title: Acidity of Aqueous Solutions of Hydrobromic and Hydrochloric Acid Original Periodical; Zh. fiz. khimii) 1956, Vol 30., No 4, 827-836 Abstract: The indicator method was used in measuring the acidity Ho of aqueous solutions of HBrM and UC1(II) over the concentration ranges 0.275- 56-52 wt percent and 8.9-40.47 vt percent) respectively. From the ex- perimental values of R values were calculated for (f]110 + fB)fBH + (III) and fB/(fA - fB3'(-TV). The standard state is choden such that the acid ionization constant /W1Q, : 1. It is shown that the ratio III increases with increasing copcentrations of I and II and the ratio IV Is practically independent of the concentrations of I and Il and is equal to one. For aqueous soluttons of I and II up to 16-17 ml, the acidity Ho is numerically 109(affidcA), where allA is the Card 1/2 U.58R/Physical Chemistry - Solutions. Theory of Acids and Basesj, B-11 Abet Journal: Referat Zhur - Xhimlya, No 1, 1957~ 489 Abstract: activity of the acid determined from the emf or from the vapor pres- sure and CA- Is the concentration of the halide ion. K A D AIA U S,~ Frz /Ikz-~ A4 os k v4 Card 2/2 C P );~O VMIK. M.i.: EMLOT, R.N.; CHIRIOV. B.M. Acidity fu6tione of boron fluoride in phosphoric meld solutions. Zhur.fis.khim. 31 no.4:832-835 Ap '57, (?P-EA ln-7) 1. Akademiya nauk SSSR, Inatitut fisicheekay khtail. (Boron fluoride) (Phosphoric n^fd) W 28131 ;3ystrQ i bez puterl uhraM uro-,Ihay, dosrochno vy:-,-A~dtl plan kblt.-Pu~,a utovuk, (7.a(ladii partorj7arii,,atsiy). lolshevik Kazakillst'allap 0-16. I KR:Jr,LUJ, S. :rovvtly, (fast.), aiq losses, reap the liarve.,,t, thiis sufficient to civlplete the plan of vraiiLs Oread) stor-'ng-~. x--.atA preservinv). nrO')IeM L)f :)artyls ori,anizalUun). :Solsrievik, r..icaknst-alli, 1)L,), ;t0o~', [3age SO, LEMPIS At 34 Yru,~Iov, S. Illnvestiration of th(- convective hcat. Pxchan.,~(-_ bpL-:el-n ! r-Tanlilatred riterl-il -ind ni -ns llo-.4." MIn Higher Mucation ",oncow Ordor of Red Danner etrolnum Inst ill,"rll AcId("nict'll 1. GubkIn. i1olcow, 1.956 (Dissertation for the degree of Candidate In TPchnical Sciences) YZi?hnpva lo~to-jlsl , - 15, 1956. ?-:Orcow N n .' I KRUGMV, S.A. KRUGWI, S.A., Cand Tech Sci -- (dies) "Study of convective beat exchange betueen granular material and gas flow." Moe 1958. 13 pp (Kin of 111gher Eduo MSR. Moe Ordor of labor Rod Banner Petroleum Inat Im Acad .J..M. Gubkin). 3.10 copies (KL.. 20-58p97) KRIJULOV, S.A.; SKOBW, A.I. Investigating conveotive heat transfer 'between a granular material and a gas stream, Xhim i tekh. toPl- i masel 3 no*3:23-30 Hr 158. (MIRA 110) 1.Moskovskiy naftyanoy institut im Wcademiks. I.M. Oubicina. Heat-Transmission) luidization) 4 KRUGLOV, S.A. Heating apparatus with a granulated heat-carrying agent; some problems of design and utilization. Trmdy KII no.23:101-115 158. (KM 12: 1) (Petroleum--Refining) (Beat engineering) VIKEHM 0 Goergiy L'vovichj_XNjgjn,_SWyAy A1Okfi=dxvyjq_4j__USKAKOV, A.,A.p inzh.p retBenzent; YEFMOVA, TeD., ved, rad.; VOROBOYE-VA, L.V.0 tekhn. red. (Principles of the design -"-equipment and machines for petroleum refineries] OBnovy konBtruirovaniia apparatov J mashin nefteparerabatvvaiushchikh zavodov. Moskva# G-oso nauchno-tekhn. izd-vo, neft. i gorno-toplivnoi lit-ry,, 1962. 110 P. (MIRA l512~ (Petroleum refineriea-Equipment and supplies) Z, 'GLOV S.A. PAVELf A.; 5KOWD I.; FJIU v Reat exchange in a fluidized bed betwcer. a gas flow and the particles of a solid heat carrier. Izv. vys. ucheb. zav.; neft' i. gaz 8 no.1:59-62 165. O"ITRA 18:2) 1. Moskok,;,,,.Ly institut neftekhimicheskoy 1. pro-myshlen- nositl ~,,jni akadcml~a I.I.I. Gubkir.A. KATTZTXT, Mikhail Alaksandrovich; SKMIOTA, Klaydiya Alakeandrorna; SILIVISTROVICH, B.I., nauchnyy redaktor; WU redaktor; LYMXOYSUYA, N.I., takhnichaskly redaktor (Porous silicate products) Poristye silikatnys isdeliia. Moskva, Goes izd-vo lit-ry po strotto naterialan, 1956. 106 p. (KW 9M) (Building materials) (Silicates) WHlTAKIR, T.; SOLOVIYNV, S.M. (translator]; SOROKER, V.I., doktor tekhaichs- skikh nauk, redaktor; KRUGLOV, S.A., redaktor; GIADKINH, N.N.,takhredaktor (Lightweight conorets in the United States. Translated from the Inglish] LaSkis betouy Y $Sbho Paravoil a angliis.*-ogo S.I.Solov!ava, pod reds V.I.Sorokera. Moskva, Goa. izd-yo lit-ry po stroit. materialam. 1956. 147 P. (KIRA 100) (United States-Lightweight concrete) W., tj ;1!j T~ r, -, r - r i T XAPIANSKIY, Yakov lazaretvich; WINICH, I.M., nauchny-y red.; PHUGLOV, S.A.. rod.; GUSNSON, P.G., EBuilding yards with combines for concrete work] Poligon a betoni- ruyushchin kombainoz. Xoakva, Goa.izd-vo lit-z7 po stroitamaterialamp "I. lol(ppr;..t o...t.) (MIRA 11:2) "N L YUILMYXV. Alsk-sandr Ale',-L;ayevich; SUSHIKOV. A.A.. OUGLOV, S.A aktor; PYATAKOVA. N-11., Eilquipment for prestressing] Oborudovaula 8rmirovantia. Moskva, Goe. izd-vo lit-ry 1957. 198 p (Prestressod concrete) nauchnyy redaktor: t9khnicheskiy redaktor dlia napriazhennogo po, str9it. materialam, (JqLRA 10:10) pi u &4C V ""%, // KRIVITSKff. Mikhail Yakovlevich, kand.tekha.nauk: YOIMOV, Baum Semenovich, inzh.; IINKRASOV, N.D., doktor tokhnonauk, nauchrVy red.LjSRj4UN-j,~,. S.A., red,,- GILRIISOU, P.G., takhnorad, 0011- 01"P"lant manufacture of elements from foam cement and foam silicate] Zavodskoe izpotoylanie izdolit iz penobetona i penosilikates Moskva, Goo. izd-yo, lit-ry po atroit., arkhit. I Fitroit. materislam, 1958. 158 P. (MMA 11:5) (Precast concrete) S., inzh. Designs of asbestos-cement wall pansle. Stroi. mat. 4 no.11:9-14 N '5 8. (Asbestos Cement) (Walla) (Kmi nji2) XRUGIDV, S., inzh.; SOIDLOVSKIT, N., inzh. Yactory-made asbestos cement construction elements and products. Zhil. strol, n0-5:17-20 159. (MIRA 12t8)- (Asbestos cement) KRUGLOV, S. 10 UM/ketallurgy - Cast Iron, Tftbnology gap 52 "Production of High-Strength Cast Iron in Small Fowd- ries," M. M. Vyshemirskiy, S. 1. Kruglov, Engineers "Litey Proizvod" No 9., pp 27-29 .Cites~ difficulties experienced by small foundry shops due to necessity of having devices for making Mg alloys and for introducing these alloys into ladle. Attempting to develop simple and inexpensive tech- nological proce 9, suggests Mg-ferrosilicon with 20-25% Mg and 5;-60% Si as alloy most suitable for modification of metal in ladle in process of obtain- ing high-strength cast irons. A lication of alloy eliminates double inoculation vlig Cu-Xg and ferro- silicon Vh1ch occurs In usual process. 23" PA 233TS2 DEMINP V.N.; KIR!jG,,OVI S. L. S OMO problems of reference and informntion work (MIRA 1-1:2) NTI no.llt42-43 '63. In rore!gn countries. KOLCIIIIISM M. L. K RUGIDV S. L. Science ana technology dcaumoditation in an infomation system. NTI no.4,9-18 165. (14IRA 18:6) DFMINP V.N.; KRUC-LDV, S.L. Some problema in reference and Inforr-aticn work !n f'inreign countriea. Ft. 2. NTI no.1215l-414 163. (BUPA M6) - -11% a I vir U_T_~ AVA HOR: Kruglov, S. F., 56-4-43/54 TITLEs A Comparison -'ofthe t-Energy of a Synchrotron measured Calorime- trically and by Ionization (Sravneniye kalorimetri- cheskikh i ionizationnykh izmereniy potoka energii r-luchey ot sinkhrotrona)(Letter to the Editor) PERIODICAL: Zhurnal Eksperim. i Teoret Fiziki, 1957, Vol. 33, Nr 4, pp. lo6o- -1o62, (USSR) ABSTRACT: The measurements were carried out a synchrotron LFTI at 85 Key- By both methods the energy of the Frays is measured which is ne- cessary to produce I Coulomb charge in a a ecial chamber. When the calorimetric measurement is employed, the7-energy is absorbed in lead cylinders (R - 5,5, Ll - 11cm, L2 - 4cm) of different length. The temperature rise of the lead is calorimetrically measured. The results for the two cylinders differ by 2A'. When the second method is employed, the dependence of the ionization in a thin-walled cha- mber on the thickness of the absorbers which are placed before the chimber is measured. C, Al, Cu and Pb are used as absorbers. The data obtained by means of this method are except the Pb-measure- ment in agreement with those obtained by the first method within the limit of error. The second method was also applied tco thick- walled chamber. The measurement results of all 3 series of measu- rement agree within the domain of maximum erroro,There are 3 tab- Card 112 lea. i 9, 1, INM .A Comparison of thet -tuergy of a Synchrotron Measured Calorime- 56-4-43/54 trically and by lonizatiori ASSOCIATION: Leningrad Phyaico-Teohnicul Institute All USSR (Leningradakiy fi- ziko-tekhnicheskiy inatitut Akademii nauk SSSR) SUBMITTED: July 11, 1957 AVAILABLE: Library of Congress Card 2/2 ?4(3)(7) AUTHORt K r i g 3 0715 7- 28- ', 0 - " 3/4 0 TITLE: Calorimetric Measurement of the Energy Flux of r- Radiation From a Synchrotron(Kalorimetricheakoye izmereniye potoke energii I-luchey ot sinKhrotrona) /'/ _< A, PERIODICALt Zhurnal takhnichookoy fiziki,Vol 28.,Nr 10, PP 2310-2323 (USSR) ABSTRAM This paper starts with a description of the principal features and of the principles of operation of the calorimeter used in this ,.vork. The experiments were to disclose information bearing on a cimparison of the various methods in use for the measurement of the energy flux of the I-bromaotrahlung (Ref 6). The design of the calorimeter is described. It is applicable to measurements of the 9:iergy flux offradiation with a limit energy of the spectrum of 500-MeV. The tetuperature rise was measured by means of thermistors. The calibration of the calorimeter was carried out with the help of lead-canned cylindrical heating elements. It is assumed that the design of the cylinder adopted gu%ranteas a good thera;al con- tact of the heating element with the medium. The maximum error in the calibration did not exceed I %. Curves describing the calori- meter sensitivity were'plotted fcr cylinders with a length of 11 Card 113 and 4 cm. The energy flux measurements were performed at an Caloftmetric Measurement of the Energy Flux of 7-:28- 10- 53140 r-Radiation From a Synchrotron Emax , 45, 65,and 85 MeV. The rerul ts given in UeV Der I Coulomb of charve (in the standardized c6pper chamber) are in the range of 45tO 85 MeV independent of EZ~qx' a t!ili~,kness cf 15 =,i of copper of the frontal wall of thiq chW-er being chosen. E max is the maximum energy of the spectrum. The differenca of the results ob- tained with cylinderB of differert length dc no', vary by more than 3 %. The maximum error in thp meaulirements of the energy U, given in MeV/Coulomb does not ex-jeei 4 %. At present studies are under way which are intended to yield a 7criparie~,n with the ionization measurements with a calorimeter by investigating the absorption of the energy of the r-bremsstrahlit:.S in -;ari3us materials. A.P. Komar showed constant interest in the wcrk, Z. Kovarzh and I.V. Lopatin assisted in the measurem,3.nt, . N.N. Chernov was head of the synchrotron crew. There are 9 figuree, 4 table3., and 13 references, 1 of which is Soviet. Card 213 U., - Calorimetric Measurement of the Energy Flux of 28-10-33140 r-Radiation From a Synchrotron SUBMITTED: December 3, 1957 Card 3/3 6/139/094/06/021/034 E032/Ell1+ AUTHORS: Kruglov, S.P., Kov rzh, Z., and Lopatin, I.V. TITLE: Relation between the Roentgen and the Energy of Gamma Radiation Incident per Square Centimetre PERIODICAL: IzvestiA vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Fizikat 1959, Nr 6, PP 139-144 (USSR) ABSTRACT: It is usual at the present time to express the intensity of gamma radiation 2btained from accelerators in energy units such as w/cm;e or MeV/cm2.sec. However, frequently another unit is used, namely, roentgefi/min. On the other hand, it is well known that the roentgen loses its significance as a unit above 3 MeV. The present authors have used the calorimetric method to establish the connection between the roentgen and the energy in MeV/cm2 for Emax = 1+5, 65 and 85 MeV. The amma rays were produced by the synchrotron of the f eningrad Physico-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. The experimental arrangement is shown Card in Fig 1, in which T is the synchrotron targets 3 is 1/4 a lead screen, K is a collimator, M Is an Ionization chamber monitor, mr is a clearing magnet, KA is the A/ 6M3 S/139/59/000/06/021/034 9032/911)+ Relation between the Roentgen and the Energy of Gamma Radiation Incident per Square Centimetre calorimeter7 CT is an adjustable calorimeter table, C is the standard ionization chamber (13 mm copper front wall), HK is a thimble chamber similar to the Victoreen chamber (volume = 2 cm3), and ) is a lead jacket (3-1 mm thick). The distances between the various parts of the apparatus are indicated, and are in mm. The gamma ray beam diameter was determined with the aid of an X-ray film and was found to be 5.45 cm at the standard ionization chamber. The intensity of the gamma beam was found to be uniform over its cross- sectional area to within 2-3%. Recombination effects were found to be negligible.. In the first stage of the experiment the calorimeter was used to determine the energy of the gamma rays necessary to produce one coulomb of charge in the standard ionisation chamber,. The energy necessary to produce one coulomb of charge in the Card monitor was also determined. From these determinations 2/4 it was found that at Emax 85 MeV the required factor was 4.25 x lo18 MeV/coulomb in the standard chamber. S/i3A4/000/06/02l/031+ 8032/9114 Relation between the Roentgen and the Energy of Gamma Radiation Incident per Square Centimetre The second stage of the measurements consisted in the determination of the charge (in coulombs) collected by the Victoreeen chamber corresponding to 1 coulomb collected by the standard chamber. This gave the value of the ratio V/S where V refers to the Victoreen chamber and S to the standard chamber. The ratio V/6 = a then Indicates that a charge of a coulombs collected in the Victoreen chamber is due to a gamma ray energy which produces in the standard chamber 1 coulomb of charge. Knowing the volume of the Victoreen chamber, it is thus possible to determine the number of roentgens7 and knowing the area of the beam at this chamber one can determino the number of MeV/CM2. The ratio of these quantities gives the factor MeV/cm2.r. Experiments showed that at 85, 65 and 1+5 MeV this factor is 1.68 x 109, 1.65 x 109 and 1.56 x 109 MeV/cm2.r, Card respectively. The maximum error is 7-8%. Fig 2 shows 3/4 the results of the present work together-with those of other workers. Good agreement is found for the values 69163 S/139/59/000/06/021/034 9032/3111+ Relation between the Roentgen and the Energy of Gamma Radiation Incident per Square Centimetre at 1+5 MoV, which is the only point in common with the previous determinations. This paper was reported at the Inter-Collegiate Card Conference on Accelerators (Tomsk9 February 1956). 4/4 There are 2 figures and 6 English references. ASSOCIATIONi Leningradskiy fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut, AN SSSR (Leninarad Physico-Technical Institute. Academy-DT-_ SUBMITTED: December 27, 1958 EMLOV, S.P.; LOPATIV, I.V. Realtionship of absorbed energy wA lonixation-for Y-quants, of Imae 85 Key. Zhurstekh.fise 29 no.2:~73-275 r '59. (UM 12t4) 1. Iftsiko-takhnichasidy institut AN AM, Leningrad. (Gamma rays) /0 69427 S/139/6o/ooo/oi/ooi/o4i AUTHORS: Kruglov, S.P , Kovarzh, Z. EOW/Up"atin, i9vo TITLE: -C-ompari-s-o-T-of-7fonisation and Calorimetric Measurements of the Intensity of y-rays from a Sync hrotron ghebnykh zavedeniy, Fizika, PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh u 1960, Nr 1, pp 3 - 11 (USSR) ABSTRACT: It has been shown (Ref 1) that there is a discrepaficy of 25-300.0 between y-ray energy-flux measurements by different methods. The present paper is concerned with the physical reasons for this discrepany and describes experiments which have been carried out using -the 85 MeV, synchrotron of the Leningrad Physico-technical Institute of the Ac.Sc*, USSR. The y-ray flux was measured both by the calorimetric and the ionisation methods. In the calorimetric method the y-rays were absorbed in a lead cylindrical absorber and the temperature change was measured with the aid of a thermistor. Absorbing cylinders 11 cm and 4 cm long were used. The calorimeter employed is shown in Figure 1. In this figure, I is a perspex container, 2 is a steel chamber, 3 are polished plates, 4 are steel pillars, 5 are stirrers, 6 is an Cardl/6 aluminium plate, 7 are aluminium foils, 8 are bras 8 14K S/139/60/000/01/001/041 ~912/A~l Comparison of Ionisation and Calorime C a'surements of the Intensity of y-rays from a Synchrotron flanges, and all the dimensions indicated arc in mm. As can be seen, two identical calorimeters are employed in order to reduce the effect of fluctuations in the external temperature. The thermistors in the two cylinders had equal temperature coefficients (to better than 0.590 and were included in opposite arms of a Wheatstone bridge. The cylinders were well insulated from the chamber 2 and from each other. To achieve th4a they were suspended on thin threads in a vacuum of 10 mm 11g. The surface of the cylinders and of the mflectors 3 was carefully polished to reduce radiation losses. The envelope I was. thermostated. The instrument was calibrated with the aid an of a special hoating element which communicated/accuratoly known amount of energy to the cylinders. The calibration curve for a cylinder 11 cm long is shown in Figure 3. The accuracy is indicated by the dotted lines and is 4, 1%. A photograph of the calorimeter is shown in Figure 1. Card2/6 Figure 4 shows the disposition of the apparatus in an act 1 69427 S/139/6o/ooo/oi/ooi/o4i Comparison of Ionisation and Calorimet ~q~20610urements of' the Intensity of y-rays from a Synchrotron experiment. The y-ray beam which leaves the collimator K passes through the monitor M , a clearing magnet M1- and enters the cylinder LL of the calorimeter KJJ. A standard ionisation chamber C is placed behind the calorimeter in the path of the beam. The charge collected in this chamber per unit energy of the y-beam depends only on the Laximuzn energy Emax at a given temperature and pressure. The measurements were carried out in two stages; First, the energy of the y-beam necessary to produce one coulomb of charge in the monitor ionisation chamber M was measured using the calorimeter. Next, the ratio of charges collected, during equal times, by the monitor and the standard ionisation chamber C was determined~ The product of the two quantities gives the result. The second method employed was as follows. A thin-walled ionisation chamber was placed inside a block of a material. A measurement was then made of the iotiisation in the chamber Card3/6 as a function of the thickness of the material in front of it (transition curve). Since, in the case of complete 69427 S/139/6o/ooo/ol/001/041 ET~24E~l 4rements of the Comparison of Ionisation and Calorimetr e SU Intensity of y-rays from a Synchrotron absorption of the y-bonm, all its onergy is, in the last analysis, use&,in ionisation, it follows that the incident energy U of the y-ray can be related to the ionisation in the air-filled region of the chamber by Eq (1), where W is the energy necessary to produce one pair of ions in air I M is the ratio of the ionisation losses per cm of padin the substance employed and in air (averaged over electron energies) and I(t) is the number of ion pairs per cm of path in the air gap at a depth t If ~ is independent of t then the integral 71 (t)dt Is equal to the area tinder the transition curve. Figure 5 shows the ionisation chamber which was used. The high-voltago electrode B and the collecting electrode C wore iii the form of aluminium toils. 0.05 iTtm thick. The back-scatterer P also serves as the second high-voltage electrode. The depth of the working volume is 2 cm, With Card4/6 such a dimension of the air gap, electrons scattered -M 'Mg NY 69427 S/139/6o/ooo/oVooi/o4i E2~24F_ajl Comparison of Ioninatlon and Calorimetr e ur,ment, of the Intensity of y-rays from a Synchrotron through large angles will be deflected sideways and will not contribute to the ionisation. All the measure- .ments were extrapolated to zero thickness of the air gap. The experimental technique was similar to that in the case of the calorimetric method. It was found that the calori- metzic method is the most direct and accurate. The only assumption in this method in that all the absorbed y-ray energy is converted into heat and this holds provided chemical changes and changes in the crystalline structure do not take place. The transition-curve method for high Z materials (lead) gives a low result. The main reason lies probably in that the extrapolation to zero thickness of the ionisation chamber cannot be assumed as linear. However, in the case of low Z materials such as carbon, aluminium, and copper, the agreement between the calori- metric method and the transition-curve method is sufficiently good. There are 9 figures, 1 table and Card5/6 9 references, I of which is Soviet and 8 are English. 6 S/139N/G00/01/001/041 2(,E eWrements of the Comparison of Ionisation and CalorimetP22 u Intensity of y-rays from a Synchrotron ASSOCIATION: Laningradskiy fiziko-teklinicheskiy institut AN SSSR (Leningrad Physico-technical Institute of the Ac.Sc.USSR) SUBMITTED: December 27, 1958 Card 6/6 S/057/60/03Q/04/05/009 19~/ 02000 B004/BO02 AUTHORSs Kruseloy. S. P.. 1.9pat no It V9 TITLEt Investigation of the Energy Losses of &_Dremsstrahlung Beam From a Calorimetric Absorber. I PERIODICAM Zhurnal tokhnichookoy fisiki, 1960t Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 424-432 TEXTt no authors discuss the calorimetric measurement of the energy of accelerator bremestrahlungs. Since the absorption of the total energy of T-radiation yields too large Pb-absorbers with low sensitivity, small absorbers are used, and a correction of the energy loss is necessary. The present paper deals with the measurement of this energy lose. Processes developing in the absorber by r radiation are described, and the following second ry effects are discusseds 1) -f-quanta which under- went a Compton soatt:ring; 2) -r quanta from the annihilation of positrone and electronstA) bromastrahlung of the electrons. The intensity of the radiation leakage ;as measured by means of a plexiglass ionization chamber (Fig. I ig. 2 shows the experimental setup by means of the Card 1/3 MARI 81108 Investigation of the Energy Losses of a Britas- 3/057/60/030/04/05/009 trahlung Beam From a Calorimetric Absorber. I B004/BO02 : ynchrotron of the authorO Institute. The measuring chamber was arranged n a circular path at different angles 6 with respect to the absorber. The standard used was an ionization chamber placed upon the beau axis. All data obtained at 760 torr and 200C were referred to its indications. The measuring chamber was calibrated by means of Cc 6o and 120 key X-ray tubes in the rentgenometrichookaya laboratoriya VNIIM (Radiometrio Laboratory of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Metrology imeni D. I. Jdendeley.!~Y) (Heads M. F Fig. 3 shows the depend- ---i-n-ce -offbe -ohamber sensitiveness on the thickness of the plexiglass. In the experiment, a linear absorption coefficient of T - 0-50 +0-03 cm- 15 was obtained for all 0. Fig. 4 shown the radiation leakage reduction in plexiglass at different 0, and Figs- 5-7 and Table I give the angular distributions of the energy losses 6U measured in three different ab- 11 orbers. The results were calorimetrically examined (Table 2). The authors found the radiation leakage to be anisotropic, a fact which explains the hift of the absorption maxima. The second maximum at 1400 is not affect- :d by the diameter of the absorber (Fig. 89 Table 3). Hence, It was concluded that a gamma beam can never be completely absorbed, since Card 2/3 81108 Investigation of the Energy Losses of a Brame- S,/057/60/030/04/05/009 atrahlung Beam From a Calorimetric Absorber. I BO04/BOO2 1.5% of the incident energy is always irradiated in angles wider than 900, and the energetic albedo of Pb, i.e. at E. - 85 mev, has the fmax value of 1.5%. The authors thank Professor A. P. Komar for discussions, and Z. Kovarzh for his assistance in the measurements. There are 8 figures, 3 tables, and 10 referencess 4 Soviet and 6 American. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-takhnichaskiy inatitut AN SSSR Leningrad Unstitute of Physics and Technology of the AS USSR, LsniqgEad SUBMITTEDs August 289 1959 Card 3/3 t-Y7 MT t.'N= pYi T. 8h564 S/O 57/60/030/011/00 9/009 B006/BO54 r,3 0 0 AUTHORS: Komar, A. P. and Kruglov, S. P. TITLE, A Quantum Meter for Measuring the Bremsetrahlun Energy Flux From Betatrone, and S3aqhZrc!tr"nd Its Investigation at EImax < 100 Mev17 f PERIODICAL: Zhurnal takhnicheakoy fiziki, 1960, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 1369-1380 TEXT: The demands made on aninstrument for measuring bremsstrahlung energy flux are theoretically met by the now quantum meter developed by Wilson (Ref. 7). Wilson tested the instrument in theE ymax range from 300 to 800 Mov. The present paper gives the results of quantum meter tests in the range EImax < 100 Mev,in which the independence of the instrumentaltr factor on E,m,x and on the diameter of the gamma beam at the input of the instrOment is not so clear as at high energies. The authors also give a mathematically accurate theory for the quantum meter which was missing Card 1/ 4 84564 A Quantum Meter for Measuring the Bremsetrahlung S/,057/60/030/011/009/009 Energy Flux From betatrons and Synchrotrons, B006/BO54 and Its Investigation at E ?max < 100 Mev in Ref. 7. In chapter I, they describe the operation of the quantum meter and the theory of transition curves, and discuss its use for energy flux measurement. The design of the quantum meter is illustrated in Fig. 2, and the instrumental factor (for argon, CO , and air filling) is thorough- ly calculated. Table 3 compares the theoreilcal and experimental in tru- mental factors (for argon and air) in 1018 Mey/coulomb units. Cha pt:r II describes the methods and results of the authors' experiments. F Ig. 6 shows the experimental arrangement. First, the authorsstudied the de- pendence of the sensitivity of the quantum meter on a parallel shift of its axis with respect to the beam axis (Curve 1, Fig. 7). The curve ob- tained is symmetrical, and shows a minimum when displaced by about 7 cm- For comparison, the authors give the curve measured by Wilson at Eimax - 800 Mov (Curve 3), as well as the curve obtained from an improved quantum meter; this curve (2) shows no minimum. The diagram of Fig. 8 illustrates the sensitivity of the instrument as a function of the angle of rotation round the beam axis. Fig. 9 shows I K/lC - B(E 7max )/A, where IK/IC is the ratio of the currents of the quantum mete- and of the stand- Card 2/4 8456h 5 A Quantum'Mster for Measuring the Bremsetrahlung S/05 60/030/011/009/009 Energy Flux Prom^,Betatrons and Synchrotrons) B006YB054 and Its Inveollgillon at E < 100 Mev 11 Imax 0 ard; B(Eymax) ie the constant of the standard for a given E,M,Xl and A is the instrumental factor of the quantum meter (Table 3). Finally, the results are discussed in chapter III. The most important 'result of experiments made in the range Eymax - 53 4 85 Mev was that A showed a very email energy dependenoet even at lower energies. At Elmax - 300 Mev, for example, A is only 4.5% smaller than at Eymax - 85 mev. Some explana- tions are offered for the increase of A with decreasing E I. Tamm Ymax iand S. Z. Belsn'kiy are mentioned. There are 9 figures, 3 tableoland 20 references: 5 Soviet,and15 US. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy inatitut AN SSSR Leningrad (Institute of Physics and Technology of the AS USSR.- V) Leningrad) SUBMITTED: March 25# 1960 Card 3/4 -Al 84564 A Quantum Meter for Measuring the Bremestrahlung S/05 60/030/011/009/009 Energy Flux From Betatrons and Synchrotronsj B006YB054 and Ito Investigation at E 100 Mev Imax 0 mr 4 r ~O Fig, 6: Experimental arrangement T - synchrotron tazgetl a - lead ohioldl KJ1- collimatorl M monitor ~q (4.0 g/cm4 A1)j mr- magnet which purifies the quantum beam from electrons; X - quantum meterl 0 standard ionization chamber. Card 4/4 R dw- KRUGLOV, S. P. and Phy -Math Sol, -- "Comparison of ionizing and oalorimetrio t~ ~14u~ I measurementa of 0-i -radiation energy trom electronia aceeleratores" Lon, 1961 (Radium Inst im V. 0. Khlopin, Acad Soi USSR). (KL, 1-61, 183) _19- 3/058/63i/000/002/007/070 A059/A101 AUMORS: Kruglov, S. P., Lopatin, 1. V. TITLE. Determination of the energy dissipation of a I-beam from the absoroer of a calorimeter for E 'r-max , 85 Mov. PERIODICAL: Referativnyy zhurnal, Flzika, no. 2, 1963, 70, abstract 2A4!)7 (In collection: "Elcktron. uskoriteli", Tomsk, Tomskly un-t. 1901, 192 - 202) TEXT: The nature and the magnitude of the energy dissipation of a 'r-beam from the absorber of a calorimeter are studied. See also RZhFlz. 1962, 5B44. (Abstracter's notei Complete translation] Card 1/1 KRUGLOV, S.P. Comparison of ionization and calorimetric measuremento of an energy flux of brawastrahlung from a synchrotron. Zhur,* tekh. f12. 31 no.9:1092-2103 3 161. (HIM 24:8) 1. Fizito-tekhnichookiy inatitut imeni A.F. Ioffe AN SSSR, Leningrad. (Bremetrahlung) (Synchrotron) 250 3/057 61/031/007/01Vq21 B1047B2206 4,,(,a40 -*UT~Ro~ Kruglov, S. P. and Lopatin, I. V. TITLE4 Electron spectrum forming in light substances through bremostrahlung with E 80 Mev :&ax PERIODICALs Zhurnal teikhnicheskoy fiziki, v. 31, no. 7, 1961# 076 887 TEXTs The authors describe a method for the,calculation of electron spectra of light substances. Introduction and first paragraphs deal with the measurement of the energy flux of r radiation according to Bragg-gray (L. H. Gray, Proo. Roy, V,)c., 156Ai 579t 1936)' and determination of the spectrum of the eleotronu developi4 in the substance. The behavior of the electrons and photons in the substance in which cascade showers dev -d ot th op, is described by the complicated integro ifferbntial equations cascade theory. Exact solutions of these equations are not known, and approximations by S. Z. Belenlkiy (deceased) and 1. P. Ivanenko (UPN, 624, 1959) are referred to.- Since the energy, beginning from which the cascade processes clay an importantpait, is the' greater the lower the atozic number, these procesues may be neglected for 14ght substances MEMBER 3/05 61/031/007/019/021 Electron spectrum forming... B104YB2o6 (graphite, water, aluminum)t if the energy of the photons and electrons does not exceed some ten Mev. In this case the electron spectrum may be .40~ ddtermined by calculating the initial energy distribution of the al6otrons produced through jr-radiation by taking their moderation into account. L6, 419, 1954) proposed such a calculation which is$.' H. Brysk (Phys. Rev., . however, complicated and requires much time. Brysk et d. (Am. J. Roent- genol., Radium Therapy, 74, 323, 1955) gave a simplifica-tion of this methodo The authors develop a method for calculating the electron spectra in light substances, following the method developed by D. Va-Cormarol: et al. (Brit., J. Radiol., 25, 3699 19521 Nucleonics, 12, no. 10, 40, 1954). The authors obtain expression N(E) N '(to) N (Ej dE,. dEO (3) for the energy distribution of the electrons where Sz in the total moderating power of the substance in Mev/cm. The ap4otrum by L. I. SAiff: (Phys. Rev., �J, 25?, 1951) was used for calculating the initial energy distribution of the electrons (Fig. 1). Fig. 2 shows the dependences of the differential croBs sections of the Compton effect (curve 1) and those Card 2/6 25036 S/C)57/61/051./007/019/021 hl-ctron np,~ctrum forming.,. B100206 of pair formation (rurve? ?) in aluminum on the photun -rnergy at -fixed electron energy, CurvF? 5 it; ttv, sum of tho t-fic ,ross 13f-ctions, i. P-, it gives in Mev the total number 11 (Ec"I hi)) of the Plectr,.)na and poflitrons of a givl?n enprgy E,,, which ar- prorlij,-d by ,tie photon rir I cm 2. From thiu tho total numbf!r of fAoct,rorin L-4 lhd-n c-11k:Ulatf'A Wil'ti K T!wk h V) 11 ~ Y,, , h 9) itt)). Th,!, e ra 1) h t I 1 -1 rm I n ~, .1 -oi I i ic 3 -1 f I n t, og ra I a hp, e. of 01- fonn N ( E'l 9 W,Jh9 ar-, qjvpr, in a labl,--- with the aid of which rhe initini erivrgy iiistribution of tho cleAtong pruillir~ed in graphito and aluminlim bv %Any 1-rarjia~ion w,~h th,~? maximtim -ri.~rgy of 80 Mev~ may b~- calnulati,rj. The n,jtht_,r~, f,irther ~h- wo9kening of th- r- rvitatirin with ppn~,tration Iopth wh~-ri -akiilating the Pn-rgy disfrillutit,n of the r,--p,:. Thi! ~ riiaisit i,Jr: i,7, ,b.5ijm.!d to change -xponfiz.Ailtlly with thi. J-~O~h. In thin tio, auth~,rs refer Cari 7_77- Elor~trori spectrum forming ... 2';') 3 () to G. Whtt#-Grodatein (NDS ciiruInr, ~85, 191~7). F lov 1, giv-) R graphical ef th., ow rgy (I j Dt r ibut. ,onu ,I* t tio ~ I,,(, It orm 3 ft I W111,10UH ,1,~pths in Al and graphitf!, calrulatf-d I%y fc~rmula 11). Th-, rolt-1101-:3 thank Professor A. P. Komar for tht! nill 7. I*c..r ~tss-kstanca with the cal-.Oaticow- Th-rs~ i.~Y- nnl _I-) Y-f-rt?ncesi 5 Snvi4~--blo,7! and 24 non S(lvii,,' V ASSOCIATIM F17iko-t(-ktmjrjj_-v,~,jy j-i.,;fjt-jt im A I-ffo AN 3SSR Loningi-nd A F 1~.ffo, AS I '3S R 1--n * rw t - i .1 SiFBYTM:Dt Auglist Card 4/6 .7 S/05~7E2~C 31/012/007/013 B J, B104 B112 ~H A U 0 Xruglo-v,_S._ P.. TITLE: Comparison of ionization and calorimetric measurements of the energy flux of synchrotron bremestrahlung. II PERIODICAL: Zhurnal tekhniche9koy fiziki, v. 31, no. 12, 1961t 1451-1461 TEXT: In a previous paper (S. P. Kruglov, ZhTF, XXXI, no. 9, 1092# 1961)l the author compared results of bremostrahlung measurements by the Indirect ionization methodl with those achieved by the direct calorimetric one. The determination of ionization current curves in a slotted ionization chamber, as proposed by W. Blocker et al. (Phys. Rev., 12, 419, 1950), was shown to give much smaller values of the bremostrahlung energy flux. The following potential causes for the deviation are examined: 1) energy losses from radiation leakage and photonuclear reactions; 2) under- estimation of ionization losses due to electron scattering out of the chamberl 3) inapplicabilitr of the Bragg-Gray principle. The relevant corrections are determined. In light elements, the deviation was found to result from the neglect of the radiation leakage from the absorber and Card 1/3 31721 B/057/61/031/012/007/013 Comparison of ionization and... B104/B112 by enerly consumed in photonuclear reactions. In elements with higher (Pb, Cu , the deviation is caused by a wrong consideration of the ionization losses from lateral electron scattering. New measurements were made with a so-called extrapolation chamber with continuously variable gap. 'With itt lateral electron scattering could be determined very exactly. Bearing in mind the radiation leakage and photonuclear reactions, the results agree well with those of calorimetric measurements. The quantometer proposed by Re Re Wilson (Nucl. Instruments, .1, 101, 1957) -was of great importance for the measurements. Professor A. P. Komar in thanked for interest and help, I. V. Lopatin for help with the .measurements, and the leader of the synchrotron team for cooperation. There are 8 figures, 2 tables, and 18 references: 3 Soviet and 15 non- Soviet. The four most recent references to English-language publications read as follows; He We Koch, J. M. Wickoff, Phys. Rev., 117, 1261, ig6o; We Re Dixon, Can. J. Phys., 31, 785, 1955; Proceedings of the Third Annual Rochester Conference, December, 18 - 20, p. 23 and 26, 1952; R. L. Walker, J. G. Teandale, V. Z. PeterBon, J. I. Vette. Phys. Rev., 21, 210, 1955- Card 2/3 .41 I S/057/ 1 031/012/007/013 Comparicon of ionization and... B100112 ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheakiy institut im. A. F. loffe AN SSSH Leningrad (Physicotechnical Institute imeni A. F. Ioffe AS USSR, Leningrad) SUBMITTED: October 3, 1960 Card 3/3 S/057/62/032/011/012/014 B104/B102 AUTHORS: Kruglov, S. P., and Lopatin, I* V. TITLE: A study of the energy leakage of a bremastrahlung ray from tho absorber of a calorimeter. II. PERIODICAL: Zhurnal tokhnichaskoy*fizikivv- 32, no. 11, 1962, 1599-1403 TEXT: In Part I of this paper (S. P. Xruglovt I. V. Lopatin, ZhTF, 30, 424, 1960) the angular distrioution of the energy leakage from absorbers of length I - 120 mm and diameters D - 55, 75, 95, and 120 mm was studied for an energy of E-,M.x 85 Mev. The diameter of the ray on the surface of the absorber was d 35 am, in some measurements it was 20, 45, 60 or 80 mm. Now the same experimental arrangement is used to determine thm dependence of the energy leakage from a cylindrical lead absorber as a -function of its diameter and of its length for different values of E,m.x (Figs. 2 and 4). Using these results, the energy leakage from absorbers of different lengths is represented in Fig- 5 as a function of the energy leakage from an absorber of length 120 mm. The curves enable the energy Card 1/5 S/057/62/032/011/012/014 A study of the energy leakage.... B104/B102 leakage of different absorbers to be estimated if that of an absorber 120 mm, long is known. Absorbers shorter than 60 mm are found to be unsuitable. The fraction of the ray energy carried away by the transmitted component is estimated on ths basis of the papers of L. 1. Schiff (Phys. Rev., 83, 252, 1951) and G. White-Grodstain (NBS Circular, No- 583, 1957) (Fig. 6). An experimenter developing a calorimiter has to determine thooo absorber dimensions that will guarantee a given energy leakage. For this purpose a large number of diagrams based on the results obtained are given, supplying the desired dimensiona for a lead absorber with different & ymax (50, 85 and 300 Rev). There are 7 figures. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy institut AN SSSR ims As Fe Ioffej Leningrad (Physicotechnical Institute AS USSR imeni A. P. Ioffe, Leningrad) SUBMITTED: June 15, 1961 (initially) October 30, 1961 (after revision) Fig. 2. Energy leakage as a function of the absorber diameter. Legend: The curves 1 to 5 refer to the ray diameter of 209 35, 45, and 80 am. Card 2A 584 8/02 62M 02/008/018 5/0 B17SYBI04 AUTHORS: Komar, A. P., Acadelnioi&n AS UkrSSR, Krugloy, S. P., and Lopatin, 1. V. TITLE: Sensitivity determination of a quantometer for energies of 15-300 Idev PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Doklady, Y. 145, no. 20 1962, 309-311 M TEXT: A quantometer is used to measure the area ST i(t)dt bounded by 0 the ionization current i(t) and produced by I-Lrradistion of a body. This area is proportional to the energy current - 6 U -2 S 69 T where ,)is the energy consumed for the production 9f ion pairs; * is the electron chargel is the mean ionisation losel 6 2 Is the density of the matter; and 6 9is the density of the gas. The value of 8 as determined Card 1/3 Sensitivity determination of a... S/020J62/145/002/008/018 3178/B104~ with a quantometer for Emax > 100 Nov differs from S by I %. In thAs casel the sensitivity of the instrument is 0 . I . -f. ~Z -!-, where X0 is the V (jQ 63 X0 plate diameter of a multiplate ionization chamberp and ; is the mean spacing of the plates. At energies of --* 100 Nov# 0 ronaini constant. Tor 6 very low energies, C* - -1- --4 -1- -L and q increases by 2.5 % as W~ 6 ZXO ST Emax drops from -100 to'15 Nov. Yor these energies it is necessary to compare 'the data with a calorimeter. The experimental arrangement is shown in Fig. 1. The curves obtained for the sensitivity of the quantometer are normalized using experimental data, ana the sensitivity can thus be- represented an a functio:6 of 3max in V&P range 15-3W May. The error is less than 10 There are 4 figure$* Card 2/3 S/02 62/145/002/008/018 ,Sensitivity determination of a... B178YB104 ASSOCIATION: Fiz1ko-tekhn?icheskiy inatitut im. 1. P. Ioffe ALkademii nauk SC-SR (Physiootoohnioal Institute imeni A. 1P. Ioffs of the Q Academy of Scienoes USSR) SUB."UTTED: April 14, 1962 %i Card 3/3 $ Fig. 1 L 17334-63 EWT(m)/BDS' AFFTC./ASD/AwL AR ACCESSION NR: AP3004889 S/0120/63/000/004/0053/0058 'i AUTHOR: Krugloy, S. JMatiq, I. V. TITLE: High- s ens itivity calorimeter for measuring enerily flux of bremostrablung up to 10 sup -5 v 1 SOURCE: Pribory*i t ekhnika eksperimenta, no. 4. 1963, 53-58 TOPIC TAGS: calorimetert bremostrahlung, energy flux ABSTRACT: The calorimeter is intended for measuring weak bremostrahlung from betatrons and synchrotrons. The article describes the following design and development points: 2 x 10-6 to 2 x 10-s' w energy to available for the abiorber of a thermistor-type differential calorimeter; two 7. 5-cm-diameter. 8-cm-long cylindrical lead absorbers are used. the absorbers are heat-Insulated and placed into a thermostat-controlled oil bath: Wheatstone -bridge measuring circuit is used; calibration, errors, and corrections for incomplete absorption of the beam ellrY., lVial"" ~4 -iW-11;~- 1j, I., P~' 'ACCESSION NR: AP3004889 "Theputhors are thankful to by the calorimeter; techniques of measurement. A. P,-KEmar for discussing the project and making a number of valuable com- ments, and to V. M. Suvorov for his help with the experimental work on the synchrotron. " Orig. art. has: 6 figures, 8 formulas, and I table. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-technicheekly Institut AN SSSR (.Physico-Technical Ynatitute. AN SSS SUBMITTED: 09Aug62 DATE ACQ: 28Aug63 INCL: 00 1 SUB CODE: NS NO REF SOV: 006 OTHER: 003 lCard L 18474-63 EW(M)/13DS A"TC/ABD !XCESSIONN AP3'k05500 S/0057/G3/033/008/O9d9/0053 A Lrl-, I GR: .1t. 11. Xxruglov , S. P. ; Lo p at in, L V. TIMX. with a "!;tandard'I ionization chamber cnargy measurement '01;121;: Zhurnal tc1dinichoalmy fiziki, v.33, no.8, l9C3j 3,119-01.3 I:cp--c OnO.-Z.", moasurommit, 1;i=ia-ray , Lransstrahlung, ionization chamber, standard instrwant A:,'jT;L%CT-, Tho "alandard ionization clia:,ib,,~r in a ai;aplu 130 zin diamator cylindri- Cal with coppar ond plotas that wns built *and calibrated at the Physical- Institute, Lunin.-rad, with thv intention that it be copied elsewhere and employed, with tho Luningrad calibration, ns a secondary standard for the measure- nont of the onorgy flim in collimated gi,.;2-ray boars. The construction of the cham- ber is shown in tho 1~nclosura. Tho Instrument Vas calibrated against a caloriziatcr, usim, sync',.rotron b.-c.,isatrahIun[;, over t:ia rar,,;a from 15 to 00 MeV. TI-e scnsitivi- ty is about 2:.!O-j'9 coulo;,.b/.~:cV nnd varics by over t.iis ranr,c. The liitivity aloo vnr!Q5 sli_,-htly with tho b--.-ua di;=.Ltor, drop7,inG by about 5'16 ns the 1;n-a-i 4.1ia;.~otQr is i4ticronsed from small valLics to It- =. The napor also briefly Card L 18147h-63 instrmient, consivAn.,; of rt standard capacitor ard an elect;-onic for wa!;urijij; the cur.-wit. "Tho authors express thoi:* Vratitude to V.S.1.31mv, I.P.I,ly*suv, V.M.S,-wor~w, 1.,'..Pronin and Yu.X.Poroskolxo,,, r- ' Nk,;io participated I'l tile measuromonta. Orig..u.,t.has: G figures. 1~1;30C 1 IT I (Y,;: :'ivJ'~~o-taldinichoskiy Whyslico-technical lllll~'TED: :;~)Jlllllil Ct Cord 24', im, '. It ut i,,. A. Z. I of f o -Ul SSSR, Leningrad Inntituto, AN SS!;;.) AM ENCL: 01 KOMAR, A.P.; U~GLOV, S.P.; IDPATIN, J.V, Comparison of absolute energy measurements in a beam of bremBetrahlung conducted in laboratories of various countries. Zhur. eksp. i teor. fiz. 45 no.3:824,-825 S 163. (KERA 16s10) 1. Fiaiko-tekhnicheakiy institut imeni A.F. loffe AN SSSR. (Bremastrahlung-Measuisment) ACCESSION NR: AP4018371 s/012o/64/000/001/0088/0090-*""- AUTHOR; Kruglov, S. P.; Lopatin, 1. V. TITLE: DArapolation ionization chamber for high-energy gamma-ray measurements SOURCE: Pribory* I tekhnika ekaperimenta no. 1, 1964, 88-90 TOPIC TAGS: ionization chamber, extrapolation Ionization chamber, bremostrahlung spectrum. absorbed energy, aboorbed energy depth distribution, Ionization chamber variable*aIr gap ABSTRACT: A new extrapolation chamber Intended for mcaouring Ionization vs.~ airgap relations in described; It was used for measurements with 15-85 May br eras strahlung. The chambqr gap Is adjustable within 45-1 mm, with a etting error of - 0. 03 mm or legs, which permits extrapolation of j)pccifIc Ioniz:tIon, down to a zero airgap, The chamber permits varying the thickness of test .Card ACCESSION NR: AP4016371 material from I to 450 mm (isao Encloeure 1). The chamber allowed a clarificas tion of the cause of a discrepancy between the garnma-quanturn energy measured by the calorimeter method and same measured by ionization -cur rant vs. thickne9o,of,materlal curve8o lohization lonnan were misjudged because of the lateral scattering of electrons which reoulted in an energy stream under - estimated by 25% and 15% for Pb and Cu, reopectively. "The authors wish to thank A.'P. Xomar and V. N. Dy*nlkov for their asnistance in developing the chamber.-" Orig. art, hats Z figures. ASSOCIATION: Fiziko-takhnicheakly inotitut AN SSSR (Physico -Technical Institute, AN SSSR) SUBMITTED: .17Jan63 .'DATE ACQ: IOMar64 ENCL: 01 SUB CODE: NS NO REF SOY: 002 OTHERv 003 Crd