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KILUIR, N.A. -w~W~tAUVWKI$AOLWW46- Surface electromagnetic waves in rectangular channels. Zhur.tekh.fis. 25 no.11:1972-1982 0 $55. (NmA 9:1) (Wave guide*) (Ilectric waves) -,~e USSi/Radiopbysics Superbigh Frequencies, I-11 Abst Journalt Referat Zhur - Fizika, No 12p 1956.9 354p Author% Bespalov., V. I., Miller, M. A. Institution: Titlet Electromagnetic Waves in Rectangular Slots in Which the Bottom Is Covered by Dielectric Original Periodical: Uch. zap. Gorlkovakoun-t., 1956, 3o, 61-75 Abstract: A discussion of the prcpagation of electromagnetic waves in a rec- -taugular U-shaped slot, the bottom of which is covered *ith a layer of isotropic dielectric. A now method is proposed for knding the natural waves, propagating along the slotj the fields are found in the form of a superposition of TZ axd TH waves relative to the di- roction of the aperture of the #lot. From the dispersion equation obtained it follows that the attenuation factor of the f;Old of the surface wave is independent of the width of the slot and consequently, this dispersion equation is valid also for a slot that varies in Card 1/2 USSR/Rullophysics - Superhigh Frequencies., I-11 Abst Journals Referat Zhur - Fizika, No 12, 1956, 35453 Abstracts width along the direction of propagation. Usual methods are used to obtag*the attenuation due to the losses In the metal and in the dielectric, and to find the directivity pattern of the radia- tion of the first propagating wave from the aperture Ct the slot. The directivity pattern for this wave has a trough-like form. Bibliography., 9 titles. Card 2/2 ? ~:~i ic i(. i Y , L . !". . , "'.1 - -I. . 1 1;, -, - ) AVEF=V Y,.Lll. 7. A. r L V Kr tbe Thr*e.Cqutiw"r ftow 'a ',x DIOdo Iloise Gebemtor in M. Bravo :.ZhJVCtA>Vl~ kiy , A. V U T ;.rPkhL)V4. so 6. O'B JVC T USSR / PHYSICS CARD 1 / 2 PA - 1832 AUTHOR 1K , TALANOV,V.I. .TITLE Electromagnetic Surface Waves directioned by a Boundary with a Slight Curvature. .1 ;FERIODIGAL Zurne'techn.fis, z6f fusc.12, 2755-2765 (1956) Issued: 1 / 195-7 In the paper by the same authors, Zurn.techn.fis.21, fasc.11, 1610 (1955) the properties of electromagnetic surface waves directioned by flat boundaries were investigated. This problem may be looked upon as a limiting case of the problem concerning waves directioned by a cylinder (in the case of an infinite value of the ratio between the cylinder radius r 1 and the wave length A ). The present work aims at investigating this boundary transition more closely than had been the case in the previous work. It was furthermore important to evaluate the dis- tortions which were carried into the surface field (in the case of high but finite values of the curvature radius of the directioning boundary). Apart from the practical point of view, this is of interest also as a matter of principle, because there exists a certain class of waves which in the vicinity of a direc- tioning boundary lose their surface character even if the curvature be ever so small. At first the equation for the wave numbers is set up.For this purpose a cylinder with any radius r-r 1, on the surface of which homogeneous boundary conditions prevail, is investigated. The problem consists in finding the radicals of the equations which were set up. With any value of the parameter p-kr 1 these equations can be solved only numerically; if p, - kr, >> 1 (r, >/-> ~ ) is V Zurlttechn.fiap26, faso.12, 2755-2765 (1956) CARD 2 / 2 ?A - 1832 sufficiently great, the asymptotic value of the radicals can be found analyti- cally. (k-. 2") The condition p, ~> I corresponds to the case of alight curvatures of tye"directioning boundary, which interests us here. Only those boundaries are investigated here which are curved only in the direction of the propagated waves. For this reason the azimuthal waves were dealt with. Azimuthal waves can be divided into two groups: stable waves, which remain on the surface in the case of any curvature of the boundary, which are threedimensional, and may e.g. be realized in the grooves of a rectangular profile with ideally con- ductive lateral walls, and unstable waves in the case of which, even if the curvatures of the boundary are alight, a radiation field occurs, and which are in the main line two-dimensional. On the basis of the solution of the problem of the rotation of azimuthal waves, corrections to the propagation constants of the waves, which are characterized by a finite but sufficiently small curvature of the directioning surface, are found. For nonstable waves the pro- pagation constant becomes complex. Radiation losses diminish considerably in the case of a curvature of the boundary in the direction of the field. INSTITUTION: 64. ON "M WWR" ZQUATUW POP. Moos W Tag ~ LRY Or WMTALLIC ARRIAU -IAAAW-SL.- M MY Z-70,27k706956). In wasam.- 'a Is,, Vol. 36, No. Diwussion: of an error in the use of integral equations In tM Wory of aerials when the field due to the exagnetle currents Is Ignored. Sims an arbitrary field can be represeented as a field of Vurs17 slactric currents distributed over a aimed surface Z, the Introduction of fictitious Mag"tic currents does not appear RecessAn. It Is, however, a Coure"Ient Madient wwn calculamig ths trapedance dwwtartsilca of these aerials, For the cw* of An serial under load or for a finite conductivity of the ruetal, the tangential consr4nents of Lhe electric and T!M-Lk~- over Z are related by the roUtion RT - f(HT) aj Z.F.Voyner -51" MILLER, M. Tensiometryj a modern measurinF, method. p.165. (Elektrotechnik, Vol. 12, No. 6, June 19157, Praha, Czechoslovakia) SO: Monthly List of East European Accessions (EEAL) 1E. Vol. 6, Nc. 9, Sept. 1957. Uncl o6507 AUTHOR: Miller, M.A. SOV/141-58-4-24/26 TITLE*. Princ p -e.6'f Generation of High-Frequency Oscillations (Ob odnom printsipe generatsii vysokochastotnykh kolebaniy) PERIODICAL:Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniyj Radiofisika, 1958, Nr 4, pp 166-167 (USSR) ABSTRACTz It was shown earlier by the author (Ref 1) that the motion of a charged particle in a slightly non- homogeneous electromagnetic field can be represented In the form of the super-position of an oscillatory motion with a frequency w and an average motion (averaged over a period 211/w) which can be represented R = -1C 40; R describes the motion as a function of time while 0 represents the high-frequency potential. The sum of the kinetic energy of the averaged motion and the mean kinetic energy of the oscillatory motion in constant in such a system. Consequently, if a beam of particles is directed towards an increasing potential Card 1/3 at the point of reflection corresponding to I = 0. a o65o8 SOV/141 _58-4-24/26 A Principle of Generation of High-Frequency Oscillations Card 2/3 total transformation of the energy of linear motion in the oscillatory energy takes place. Thus, assuming that during the instant when the total velocity is zero and the particles recede from the interaction space, the kinetic energy of the particles becomes transferred into the field. Consequently, the principle can be used to devise a high-frequency oscillator. An example of this type of oscillatory system is considered. The oscillator contains a parallel tank with a capacitance C and an inductance L, the quality factor of the system being Q. It is shown that the system can be described by Eq (3), where Cl is a certain additional capacitance due to the presence of the space charge. The author expresses his gratitude to A.V.Gaponov, Ye.V.Zagryadskiy and M.I.Kuznetsov for 06508 SOV/141-58-4-24/26 A Principle of Generation of fligh-Frequency Oscillations a number of valuable remarks. There is 1 Soviet reference. ASSOCIATION: Issledovatel'skiy radiofizicheakiy institut pri Gorikovskom universitete (Radiophysics Research Institute of the Gorlkiy University) SUBMITTED: 14th June 1958 Card 3/3 Z& /411 A A AUTHORS: apCODY-1, A. V., Miller, M. A. 56-1-44/56 TITLE% On the Potential Wells for Charged ?articles In a High- -Frequency Slectromagne 'tic Field (0 gotentsiallnykh yamakh dlya zaryazhannykh chactito v vysokochastotnom elektro- magnitnom pole) PERIODICALt Zhurnal Zkoperimentallnoy i Toortticheakoy Fizlkil 1958# Vol. 34, lir 1, pp. 242-243 (USSR) ABSTRACT: As is well-known there exist no absolute maxima and minima of the potential in an electromagnetic field in solenoidal domains, which excludes the possibility that a charged particle remainn in the state of stable equilibrium. This fact also prevents the possibility of the localization of a particle, provided that under localization a state to under- stood ih which a particle with an energy staying below a certain limit can leave a limited domain under no initial conditions whatever, This statement, howeverg does not apply to the case of a higlt-frequc-ncyoltctrofqagnetic field where the particle (as shown here) can be !Qcallaed. The authors investigate a particle with the ohar~;e e and with the mass Card 1/3 m which moves in the outer electroma,6-nctic field On the Potential Wells "or Charged Particles in a Hi.-h- 56-1-44/56 wFrequencj Electromagnetic Field iLit --I, iwt 9 (r,t) - E H(r)e In nonrelativiatic (r)e H(r,t) approximation the equation of moti-:n reads r + +(1/c) rr where 7Z . e/m applies. At a sufficiently hiGh frequencycoof the outer field the solutions of the just-menti,)ned equation can be represented in the rorm of a sum of a function ~'(t)_-Iowly varying (vrith regard to the period of the oscillaiion's of the outer field) and of a function i~`(t) oscillating with the frequencyco. After averaging Co above-nentioned equation over the period of the high-frequency field the follovine p1lation is obtained for i.,/M: Y (t) = In, 4) - (~1124 2 1EI . B~, averagina over the t?mp the Porc'e act j3 upon the particle beoioier; a potential forco, where the potentIRI of the force is pro- portional to the square of the molulus of the electric field strenth and is not dependent on the si&n of the charge. There exists an infinite number of possibilities for the construction of the potential Wells for (1). The simpleat of them is realized in the quasielectrosTatic multipole fields. rn order to determine the natiire of the motion of the particle within the potential wells the authors Card 2/3 investigate the first integral of the last-mentioned On the Potential Wells for Charged Particles in a High-FrequencY 56-1-44/56 Electromagnetic Field equations. When E - 0 applies in the center of the potential well, the particles with an energy of - V are localized within a certain domain on whose boundarigs the conditions LcJ2 /h7j >> I E I > 2.(V 1) 112 are valid. It is also possible to build up threedimenNonal potential wells of unidimensional and two-dimensional potential wells. There are 3 referenc*s, 2 of which are Slavic. ASSOCIATION: Gorlkly Oftin Udiarsity . (Gorlkovskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet) SUBMITTED: October 15, 1957 AVAILABLE: Library of Congress Card 3/3 AUTHORS: Gaponov, A. V., Miller, I A SOV/56-34 A; TITLEt On the Use of Moving High-Frequency Potential Wells for the Acceleration of Charged Particles (0b ibpollzovanii dvizhush- chikhsya vysokochastotnykh potentaiallnykh yam dlya u3koreniyP_ zaryazhennykh chastits) PERIODICAL: Zhurnal Eksperinientallnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, 1958, Vol. 34, Nr 3, pp. 751-752 (USSR) ABSTRACT: When using oscillations of different frequencies generally a potential relief f(,?O,t) changing with increasing time is ob- tained. This way especially an accelerated motion of potential wells can be realized and consequently charged particles local- ized in such wells can be accelerated. The authors investigate 2 wave running in opposite directions (+z). W'th equal frecluenc- ~-Y (x 1W't ies and amplitudes they form a standing wave 0 Y,Z)e , where %E+(x,y,z) is a real function. The potential corresponding to t9is field may give absolute minima."For the reason of a dis- placement of the potential wells on the z-axis the phase of one of the oppositely running waves must be changed. The authors re- Card 1/3 strict themselves to a non-relativistic motionlAcj I rcpT (1.1) where E is the length of the gap, T is the period of oscillation of the control field and cp is the average velocity of the particle (electron). For the purpose of analysis it is assumed that the electro- magnetic field inside the gap is in the form of iWt iWt E(r)e and H(r)e The motion of an electron can therefore be represented as the super-position of an Card 1/6 86858 S/141/60/003/005/013/026 E192/E382 Some Properties of Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles oscillatory motion: (1) 2 iWt r (t) q/W E(r)e ~(I)M iTi/wE(r)eiWt and a continuous motion obeying: ..(0) r = 'V~P(r(O)) (2.1) (2.2) where I is the ratio of the electron charge, e , to its mass, is the high-frequency potential expressed bys � = JIF,/2wl2 (2-3) Card 2/6 86858 S/141/60/003/005/013/o26 E192/E382 Some Properties of Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles This averaging description of the motion is valid if the conditions defined by Eqs. (2.4), (2.5) and (2.6) are met. on the basis of Eq. (2.2), the integral of the averaged energy is given by: ;. (0)2 /2 + (t (r(0)) = const Firat, the ideal case is ccvndAdered which corresponds to the maximum value of the electron conductivity G )J1 (Refs. 7, 8). A rectilinear beam of particles with input velocity v BX enters a gap whose high-frequency potential increases monotonically. It is now possible to choose the "output surfacet' of the gap so that the o'verall velocity of the particles on it is zero (see Eq. 3-1). In this case, the kinetic energy of the electrons will be fully tranar4kre4: to the electromagnetic field. This corresponds to the maximum possible value of the electron conductance. However~ Card 3/6 86858 s/i4l/60/003/005/013/026 E192/F,382 Some Properties of Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in actual conditions the value of the electron conductance will be lower. The optimum Y2 lue of the conductance is given by Eq. (4.4), where V. = mc/p_ , I is the current in the beam and f(r) is the field distribution in the gap. In the case of a non-optimum bunching or sorting of particles it is necessary to derive special formulae. The beam is assumed to be rectilinear and it is oriented at an angle a%I with respect to the output boundary x = 0 of the gap. It is assumed that the tangential component of the vector E at this boundary in equal to zero so that E is expressed by Eq. (3.1), where V.,,.f(zn )/LEis the amplitude of the uniform field in the bunching space. on the basis of Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2), the trajectories of the electrons can be written as Eqs. (5.2) and (5-3), where e = wt and p is the phase bunching parameter which is defined by Card 4/6 86858 s/i4i/60/003/005/013/026 E192/E382 Some Properties of Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles Eq. (5-4); here, t b = 'rb/w is the instant of the particles entering the sorting space and xb and z b are the coordinates determining the boundary of the sorting space. Now, the electron conductance can be expressed as G = GC)VI-T F(u) , where Ii is defined by Eq. (5-12). The function F(p) can be referred to as the phase debunching factor. At p > I it is impossible to obtain real values f or and T' 3 In the limiting case, when ji .. )p 0 and It: Ir , the function F(p) 4 k + I On the other 2 38mall hand, for /p the function F(A) is approximately expressed by Eq. (5-14). For the case when the field E in the sorting or bunching space is in the form of Eq. (5-1) but the output plane of the gap is at an angle y with the plane x = 0 , the phase debunching factor is expressed by., Eq. (6.4), where ';r is defined by Eq. (6.2). For small Card 5/6 86858 s/141/60/003/005/013/o26 E192/E382 Some Properties of Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles Eq. (6.4) is written as Eq. (6*5). A graph of the debunching factor (given by Eq. 6.4) is shown in Fig. 1. It is of some interest to determine the change in the velocity of the electron beam while passing through a gap. The velocity of the electrons in the direction of the field can be fdund directly from Eqs. (5-3) and it is expressed by Eqs. (7-1). The above analysis can easily be applied to the systems whose gaps are subjected to the interaction of static fields. There are 2 figures and 8 references: 5 Soviet and 3 English. ASSOCIATION: Nauchno-issledovatel'skiy radiofizicheskiy institut pri Gor,kovskom universitete (Scientific Research Radiophysics Institute of Gorlkiy University) SUBMITTED: may A, 196o card 6/6 191 :~_158ar 1J, Al -j,.o 0 to AUTHOR: _-Mille- - TITLE: Electron Gaps with Oscillator Systems s/i4i/60/003/003/014/026 E192/E382 Large Transit Angles in PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Radiofizika, 1960, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 848 - 859 TEXT: The article is a direct continuation of the preceding work (see pp. 837 - 847 of this journal) and it is devoted to the investigation of the interaction of thin electron beams with electromagnetic fields in resonators. It is assumed that an electron gap is in the form of a high-quality resonator with a predetermined structure of the electromagnetic field which corresponds to one of the natural frequencies of the system. The field excdted in the resonator by the electron beam oscillating at a frequency w is written as Eq. (2.1), which is analogous to Eq. (5.2) of the preceding article. Here, V-.,(t) is a slowly varying voltage function which is described by Eq. (2.2) and LE is the characteristic linear Card 1/6 86859 S/141/60/003/005/014/026 E192/E382 Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in Oscillator Systems dimension of the resonator; f(r) in Eq. (2.1) represents the distribution of the electriT field inside the resonator. For the amplitude function V (t) it is possible to obtain the following equation: d2V dV, 2 2 da -~j + 2iw- + (W - W iwa (2.4) 2 dt co6 V11 dt where w co6 is the natural frequency of the resonator. The simplified equations for the system are in the form of Eqs. (2.6) and (2-7), where Q is the quality factor of the resonator, while the parameters a s Eqs. (2.8) and (2.9). The current expressed by Eq. (2.10) so that a by Eq. (2.11). It is now necessary (3.2) of the preceding article with Card 2/6 and a c are defined by vector in Eq. (2.9) is of Eq. (2.8) is given to combine Eqs. (3-1) and Eqs. (2.5) and (2.7). 86859 s/141/60/003/005/014/026 E192/E382 Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in oscillator Systems For this purpose, the current of Eq. (2.10) can be represented by Eq. (3.1). Now, the parameter a is expressed by Eq. (3-2) where various constants are defined by Eqs. (3-3), (3-4) and (3-5). The final system of simplified averaged equations is in the form of Eqs. (3.6). Here, the quantity M determines the frequency displacement due to the electron beam. It is seen that for T1 = const., the frequency shift is given by Eq. (3-7). Since the quantity 31' is comparatively small, Eqs. (3.6) can be approximately written as Eqs. (3.9), where Gpe3 is the effective conductance of the resonator and GN, is the real component of the electron conductance. The formulae are used to analyse the system with a two-dimensional electron beam of finite thickness (D,X x ~ D which is 2) parallel to the plane x = 0 In this case, the electron conductance is given either by Eq. (4-7) or Eq. (4.8). In particular, when D 1 = 0 , i.e. when there is no gap between Card 3/6 86859 s/14i/60/003/005/014/026 E192/E382 Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in oscillator Systems the beam and the collector, the electron conductance is defined by Eqs. (4.9), where G I = I/Ve - The dependence of the electron conductance for RD 2 = 1 on V, /Ve is illustrated in Fig. Ia. If it is assumed that an ideally nar-row electron beam enters the electron gap at an angle ab (with respect to the collector plane), the electron conductance is defined by Eq. (5.7). This formula is identical with Eq. (4.9), if it is asrumed that Di = D2 = D . A graph of the electron conductance expressed by Eq. (3-7) is shown in Fig. 16,. For the case of a system with longitudinal bunching (an inverted coaxial diode, where the electrons with the initial velocity v b are injected through an external sheath having a radius b ) the electron conductance is expressed by Eq. (6.2). A graph of this function is given in Fig. 1B. Card 4/6 86859 s/141/60/003/005/Oi4/o26 E192/E382 Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in oscillator Systems It is of interest to estimate the principal parameters necessary for obtaining the oscillation conditions in the above systems. These parameters are the current I and the voltage V. I corresponding to the steady-state oscillations in the system. It is shown that the current is expressed by Eq. (7.2), where L;r is the effective dimension of the resonator which is W defined by Eq. (7.3). The voltage VI is expressed as follows: V (kLE )2 (kLE)2 VI = --2- - _ 10 (volt) (7.6) 2 Ue n n where n = At/T A is the transit time through the gap having a length LE and T is the period of oscillations; Card 5/6 86859 s/141/60/003/005/014/026 E192/E382 Electron Gaps with Large Transit Angles in Oscillator Systems n thus represents the number of waves or oscillations along the gap. There are 2 figures and 9 Soviet references; one of the references is translated from English. ASSOCIATION: Nauchno-issledovatellskiy radiofizicheskiy inst�tut pvi Gorlkovskorn universitete (Scientific Research Radiophysics Institute of Gorlkiy University) SUBMITTED: Play 15, 1960 Card 6/6 3319? L - - S/1 1/61/004/005/001/0' E039/El35 AUTHORS: Miller, M.A., and Talanov, V,I. TITLE: The use of the surface impedance concept in surface electromagnetic wave theory. (Review) PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Radiofizika, v.4, no-5, 1961, 795-830 TEXT: This is a comprehensive review paper which deals wifli some general questions on the way in which the theory of surface electromagnetic waves is related to impedance and on the gui,lji~g properties of boundaries, It is assumed that in the general case surface impedance may possess spatial dispersion. The value of this in the study of free waves, as well as for the solution of the problem of surface field excitation by means of various sources, is shown. The work is discussed under four main headings, as follows. 1. Free surface waves, This section is divided into ten parts and starts with a discussion on surface impedance, In the case of a closed boundary surface the tangential form of the vectcr field is given as: Card 11.4 33199 The use of the surface impedance s/141/61/004/005/C)0-1/021 E039/E135 2 Ei Z ik bLl I k k=1 LJ where n Is normal to the surface, ik is the characteristi,-~ index oi orthogonal coordinates In the direction of tho ..' "!I The tensor Z R 4. jX in a practical rationalised E T -'.' 41 ik = ik ik of units (used in this survey) has the dimensions of impedan'r and is called the surface impedance tensor. It is shown that surface waves guided by a plane boundary become plane heterogeneous waves and, for cylindrical surfaces, cylindr4-cdl. heterogeneous waves, A large part of the work on surface wa%-F~s is devoted to the guiding properties of surfaces.. The basic: properties of surface waves are discussed in detail, firiefiv the eondition for the existence of surface waves near a plane z = 0 leadE to the relation: Rey Imy -> 0 Card 2/1~' 33199 The use of the surface impedance S/141/61/004/005/001/021 E039/E135 The phase velocity of such waves is always less than the velocity of propagation (for a two dimensional plane the velocity of light c = I/ Ve-ji ). Discarding non-essentials the solution of the equation for local fields for ~2 I gives: Y� N (1-15) if M and N are considered real it is comparatively simple to classify all possible forms of surface_waves. Fig.1 shows five different regions for the parameters M and N. In the first three the condition (1.13) is satisfied. in region I (N > 0) there is only.,one positive root (-_,, > 0, 0) and only one Y type of surfalce wave is possible. In r-3gion II, (W > -N, N < 0, jj > 0) the simultaneous existence of two propagated waves is permitted. In region III - 2 (M 4C -N, N < 01 M >0) there are two complex roots with positive real parts. The regions IV and V correspond to the propagation of non-localised fields. In IV Orl < -N, N < 0, Irl 4 0) Card 3/ 1~ 33199 The use of the surface impedance s/14l/61/004/005/001/021 E039/EI35 both roots of Eq.(1.15) are complexv and in V (~I>-Nj N