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Z:,tMYSWVA. K.H., RATINER, N.A. .; , a SUBJEM USSR/Hypertension R5-4,,5/-34 ~AUTHORi Ratner, Doctor of Medical Sciences TITLEi Hypertension (Gipertomichookays, Bolosal) PERIODICAL:. Vauka I Zhisal April 1957, 4, pp 11-13 (USSR) IBSTRAM Among cardie-vasoular illsesess, HypertensismAs one of the oat frequent. Iti maim.- 4"ptoo I# :permaxe' sod, blood, n atlyincrea* arteries. Headaches, busting in the ours, and p reduced ability, are the consisquencese Bypertonstea to mot@ frequent asong,clty Inhabitants then with"people In rur'el dtitrictes Thle'll1nome to not limited to people eve .40 yre r and older# but,hasialso been Observed with such younger patients' . classifiod this-diseas*1441 an Tho Soviet scientist G.F. Laughas . methods independent alluent,,thua ensuring a better approach to of curing it. Hyportomia can be cured if its psychic sources or* eliminated and proveitive,treatment in applied In due course. Soviet Academician A.L. Vyasnikov the conclu- sion that Hypertension Is due to heavy neurosis leading to. disturbances In the cardle-vascular system. For therapy# the,. Card 1/2 Soviet medicine Diabasol is recommended for oral application in !E!J RATNER. Nina Aleksandrovne. prof.; DANILTAX, I.G., red.;,ZUMA, N.K.. GLEZER, G.A.; SPIVAK,-G.L. Use of ismelin (guanathidine) inh rtensIion. Terap.arkh ype noo8:102-109 #62, 15:12) RTMIM, flina Aleknandrrovna, prof.; GLEZE."', Gervikh Abramovich, v kand. rned. nauk; NIKOULYIT, V.A., red. ACC: NR. AT6034488 SOURCE CODE:--'-UR/3166/66/000/133/0059/0073 Amuo'yaj AUTHOR: A. Z.; Ratner, N. S. ORG; none TITLE: Subsurface drainage into the mountain rivers of Central Asia SOURCE:, Leningrad. Gosudarstvennyy gidrologicheakiy inatitut. Trudy, no. 133, 196~, -Isaledovaniya podzemnogo stoka v reki (Studi,es, of has& ~flow.inco rivers), 59-73, TOP I CTAGS drainage system, surface water, hodograph, underground water, rain, show / Central Itsia -ABSTRACT: The Makarenko method (genetic analysis of hodographs) is. ~,used to make a quantitative estimate'of the subsurface. drainage into,,- 1' the mountain rivers of Central Asi no, a. -Subsurface waters i these regia n origindt6 primarily from malting seasonal and permanent snows and glaciers, rainfall generally playing a secondary role (less than,15.% in'L the larger rivers and almost zero in the high mountain streams where theirainfall (maximum in the summer) is largerly lost chrolugh evapora- tion). Them dynamic coeff,icient of well and river, discharge depends, on.-~, L rock lithology.and struo~t re' as well as on climatic conditions in~each U. 'Card '1/5 . ACC NR, AT6034488 ACC NR, AT6034488 ~, I' I ACC NRt AT6034488 individual area., River-gage data for the 1936-1958.pectod.were analyzed to.derive.the following characteristics of subsurface drain-,'' age: mean annual discharge (runoff vol6me), subsurface4unoff.,do'th P coefficient'of subsurfac'e discharge Into the ri vers. and the uininuu,- discharge, by year, during low-water perio6da. :Results are tabulated 4n, graphic form for the,relationship of subsurface-flow charaeteristics~te the average clevation"of tho'citchmint-,ares for itne 4rea ,a In ce'ntral- Asia (see Fig. 1). on a 1i2,500.0_00 Uap,(see Fig * 2),and'on a U&P ~showing subaurface~drainage Info'nountain rivers-Ii 0arcest'a'ai'of total river discharge (see Fig. 3)'.' It is estimated that thin surface water reserves accumulate In this isigion* rate 01 /see inal .55.5 km/yr. The mean subsurface discharge Into.rivereja 3.971 an amount w4ich, in 105, times smaller than that In the csucssuls-~aad_ twice as much 'as that In the-Uralse Over-the entire ereae-tbs-coeffim~ subsurface d1o'charge varlas betwees 20-40%. OrIge art* bass-1 5 figures and~5 tables. (W. Ai. Sol SUB~CODE: 08/ SutH DATRi.-mose/ ORIG RRYs 018 Caid /5 5 ' AUTHORS: V.ya. Ratner,.R.I. and Shapiro, TITLE: Pickling '6upronickel in Sulphuric-acid Solution with Addition of Ferric Sulphate (Travleniye mellkhiora V Bernokislom rastvore s dobavkoy sullfata.okisi zheleza) PERIODICAL: Tsvetnyye Metally,,195a, Nr 10, pp 70 - 73 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Cupronickel is normally pickled in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid with hexavalent chromium as an oxidising agent, but this has disadvantages. At the Revdlnskiy zavod obr&botki tsvetnykh metallov (Revda Non-ferrous Metals Treatment Works) an investigation was carried find a better pickling liquid. After laboratory tests had shown almost All the preparations recommended in the Soviet literature (RefS 1-3) to have disadvantages, the work was extended to sulphuric acid containing ferric sulphate. The sulphuric acid remoV6s. the outer scale and.the ferric ions oxidise the eopperland' nickel and cause their solution. The tests were carried out with 3-30% H2 and 40-200 g/litre of Fe SQ at S04 2( ")3 0 0 16 100 C. 50 - 70 C was found to be the best temperature (Figure 1), securing a,sufficiently.rapid~ solution without evaporation losses. The reAuction.,of.. Card 1/2 bov/1 6-58-10-1~d.2~ Pickling Cupronickel in Sulphuric-anid Solut on with A i i6a of Ferric Sulphate ity of pick ed- ferric-ion,concentration with increasing quant metal varies to the same e:ktent per unit surface (Figure,2). The relative decrease' in sulphuric acid concentration remaine&theroame for all solutions tested (Fiv*,3) The., optimal sulphuric-acid:and ferrous sulphate concentrations,-, were found to be 10-20916 and 40-120 S/litre, respectively,. giving a pickling time of ?-10 min, with fresh solution. In works tests, surface quality was found to be better.than with chromie reagents; laboratory tests showed metal losses to be lower. The authors regret that the adoption of this superior method is hampered by lack of commercial ferric: sulphate. Solutions of this type were-found to be applicable nickel and stainless steel. There are 3 figures~and 6 references,,5 of which are Soviet and 1 English. ASSOCIATION; Re-~-.dinskiy zavod obrabotki tsvetnykh m tallov e (Revda Non-ferrous Metals Treatment Works) Card 2/2 SOV/136-59-6-19/24 kUTH,OR: Ratner, TITLE: ing of Non-passivating Nickel Anodes in a Sulphuric Acid.Solution of Ferric Sulphate, (Travlehiye nik&,levykh.nepassiviruyushchikhgya anodov v sernokislom rastvore sullfata okiai'zheleza) PERIODICAL:Tsvetnyye metally 1959, Nr 6, pp 91-92 (USSR) ~ABSTRAGT: Non-passivatin6 nickel anocles ia the w6rkilig condition.. must possess an active surface capable of.conducting electric current efficiently, free from scales and foreign inclusions. In the manufacture of such,anodes:..' ed pridr'to rolling in a mildly., " 0 the ingots are. heat oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of 1150.-"1190 C- which causes,the'.formation of a dense.layer,or.scale consisting.of NiO and NiS. It is p ossible, toremove such scales.mechanically butthe cold working suffered_..~ by the metal as a result of impact of abrasive particles sharply decreases the working properties . of the anodes,.: lowers the quality,of the nickel.deposited Mechanical, electro-chemical and various:chemical. methods were used for cleaning the non-passivating Card 1/3 nickel anodes from scale. These were, however, SOV/136-59-6-19/24 Etching of Non-passivating Nickel Anodes in a Sulphuric Acid Solution'of Ferric Sulphate. unsuccessful and unsuitable for shops with small floor. areas. The purpose-of this work was to find a method small firms. As the scale consists of Nio and*NiS,,the etching reagent had to contain substances attacking both compounds. For the solution, of.nickel oxide the usual acids were used and for the solution of nickel sulphide, mangane5e.dioxide and,hydrogen peroxide were used. According to Nekrasov (Ref 4) and.'.._~,: Layner (Ref 5), ulphat in acid soluti t* s e 0311 is 3-ve oxidizing agent. The-positive results obtained by W* Ratner (Ref 1) with etching of German silver ith a sulphuric acid solution of ferric oxide ha've.shown the. possibility of.its application for the cleaning of nickel anodes. The results of a number of experiments, have shown that the most complete removal of scale occurs when the anodes are held for 2 to 3 hours in a solution containing 200 to 350 g/litre Fe2(SO4)3 and 10 to 20% H2SO4 at a temperature of 60 to 800C. Cards' 2/3*, The sulphuric S/124/62/000/001/044/046 ' D237/D30 4:, AUTHORS: Kraychik, M. M. and Ratner, R. S. TITLE; Fatigue limit and methods of its improvement in. welded joints in low-alloy steel, PERIODICAL,.: Referativnyy zhurnal, Mekhanika, no. 19 19629 -i. in-ta zh. 53, abstract 1V468 (Tre Vsesd n. , d. transp., 1960, no. 195, 146.1-161) TEXT: quoted of the dependence of the, magnitude of the fatigue limit on the coefficients of asymmetry of eycles~ for welded joints of the steels CT.3'1 (St's 37) and C-i-.92-(St- 52). Details are given of the author investigatti on ~of the welded H beam and diagrams of fatigue limits of welded Joints in the steels of type 14 and MCT. 3 (Mst. 3) versus the magnitude of average stresses. Experimental data are compared with~ the results of analytical constructions by the method of B~ N. Duchinskiy and others. It~is shoym that in investigating Card 1/2 AUTHORS: Kraychik, Y.M. and fttAQT _.-R.S., Candidates of Technical:.1 sciences TJTL~,. Vibration :ftrength of "Reld Joints of Low-Alloy and Low- Carbon Steel (0 vibratsi6nnoy.prochnosti svarnykh soyed i neniy.iz nizkolegirovannykh i malougleradistykh staley) PERIODICAL: Svarochn6ye proizvodntvo, 1958, Nr 2 pp 18 22 (USSR): ABSTRACT: InforrIationis presente& on experimental.investigations carried out in order to reveal the effect of the vibration..,,',... load cycle on the strength of,weld joints, in low-alloy and'. low-carbon steel. Equal strength "Amits, of low-alloy,and low-carbon steel with a high stress concentratim were, ob7l, served in cycles approaching symmetry and were waintained:" in cycles with posit ive asymmetry. Diffe 11 rence in,fatig e-q-1, limits increased in.proportion. to increasing asymZetry h)AD I N V V O.T. TV,% I A.. -in, mate iGI., dUrl re,~ 01A !rntIt.11 nt., arog r 1. RAT LEM, S. B. Rataor, &-jLi: M. ew4 pub , faveftim" Ike Intel, arvmral;~*, ' ' , WA4 hool" (wets by ai movibod of c6i"d Gook WGILI U ro If-7A rok 144; )W"Akwl. No-A8W#(NA.)9:,G. (I M). W. too". rvp"Invir" W" 14, twakr Inv~~ It, 16A-on f+11don JVW6W 14 tO Cwb Of fld!~ . Oar fvv~f #V: 4 AWAMM a law. W to ttto mm of 0104 04 ibi mak"ve- tuft No brift" Uw,b*Ak* Ill ctmllnol.: To got" 110 6k" was owmmpF4 inglartli we film" -A w" wets M Avok bma*A in emb A41010404011 Who *A warialb fto!w~ boloolloampli valors a( M. ~Jy seat F '"-"Wfw~a r;. Man Wkiii A (aii n~ ba*) lelip I *6*im of aakeral n&bw.: a Woo sibm I* waka ok meal Pketalial low" m wmapldw an, w.: Author IM 6 , - , k fai in 66 o a m X , "Itoom of vmkwm~' Ao li've mmlmt~ 4d AS& *k" I* hL *Ab nakift Imp away of roAmA oinked of IW,: 7- filwc . I Yll. S. I AND FUTINER, S, - 13. XMIL'R, S. B. FD 195 USSR/Chemistry Rubber and Elast Card 1/1 Authors Bartenev, Q, M,, Ratner S. B.,,Novikova, N. M., Konenkov,, K. S Testing of rubber in regard to its resistance to low temperatures by m easuring the loss of elasticity: Periodical KIAM' prom. 32-34 (224 P26), June 1954 Abstract. n Authors regard as urEa%tisfactory the standard procedure C06T 408-51; i which the resistance of ruLber to Jow .~,~mperaturcs I* determined by~ M2415_ thc incren-oc in rigidity On the oi~ u~o .0 at t',. to deformation at 20' Deccribe detail a procedure developed by them in which the temperature T of the rubber increases by the factor l/K. As distinuivited f rura th~ GOST.piccedure, determination of k (coefficient of resistancc to low tem peratures) by the new method does not depend on the time during which.the deforming force is applied.. Four USSR references, one since 1940; two foreign references. Three graphs, two.figures. t tl 7 J, V, at Cum FOLTZ=. OEDIUL'. Z S&-, lama Illiducoli 01--sl , 1 IL Al- kic,: Jou xh4r.- R Wl 95 S m . . . 4, 'Pon 6r, Jo6d; 1, Adr ru DArtenev c a "I form wi ~d b i& r i4 l y s o mam as v 0c t s ng o . - is u~ m40o ifirialon." ltaliMrlhem di Ao cm work oUJ,, Burn, "d ~ h 'd l in foe Indlu nd I *W W a .w o w , S RX of sildiq Is the cokfrw &cr6"~' R~bl first fi=e&�e,6,LhGgi bob~~ -. Ili trAflar of. M46~'i foi of fflo _tey 6 sids tft'p$t rofvws~ A- ifys~-~ R. 1~ T N Category USSR/Atomic and Molecular Physics Physics of high-molecular substance D-9 ~A~s Jour Ref Zhur Fizika, No 1, 1957, No 1018 Author Ratner, S.B. Lavrentlyev, V'V. Friction and Klectric Conductivity of Rubber Title- o Orig Pub Zh. tekhn fizikl,~1956, 26P ac 4, 853-856 Abstract Data are compaxed on the vaxiation cf the coefficient of friction electric conductivity, strength, and pa.Tmeation to gas, all as functions of.the amount of filler in the rubber, aud the ideas developed by S.B. Ratner (Dokl. AN SSSR, 1953, ~3, No l,),,cvn-_-ern.1mg the nature of friction) are checked. The. authors cirticize the views 1-f Scbal-lamach,.(,4ch&ll&m6ah.,,.Ai~'-Procoedings of the Rcqal S,:~ciety, 1953, B66, 386), on the nature of friction of rubber, sho ing,that experimental data axe satisfactoril.y,described by the following *Ap-h equation for the-coefficient of friction:,,~,.,~& where is the specific load-and h the hax-dn-esa of the rubber;^.. Is the part of the friction.-. coefficient irA#:~peRdentt of the load, and A is a canstant. Card, 1/1, SOV/138-58-8-3/11 H0- AUT, 15: . TIT LE - (Testinr) of Rvbbee b,7 Abrasive PaPer (0b isk, ranii roT;iny po-shk-ur7-:r0 PE71IODICAL: Kauchullc J Re"zina, 19-5,11, Nr pri 14 01 (Ussrt) ABSTRACT: r-"- 1-tst GOST 40i~-1941, and- also th Thr Soviet. _'.ard.'. e Interm-tional standa,rd ISO 217 (i1w.C.19,55) stipulate a Ma t, wear test avainst I.Lbrasive paper on a Grassel C,.Jne. Tlu:-si_, -tcats give considerable scaiu,ter, and L the mear -ic r le h tL inaex of the alt-rs 3, SE is A- nnv- soviet tandard,L GOST -Ap oxcimate f-or bel Pr mulae have r.' . _Phy "r Of %Ine rubber i-lo ab 11 sh i~~ il r,h-ich relate ~,JeL S ~-.ies,and to its conposi,lon cal and r.,echanical proper' 1L -.yq ourves for rate of wear verst: lr"IeL .1 &ho 4u e (T) n cm- JiLy e v o. r& t, s 'ab ra s i o n ivie in minut I I, s _111 es). wear rate diminishes. rapidly at first'L and. then continues %C a tt, a stable rsLt -for _a-s Under er _",O_ c somt~ _'_jjtje' L The aro ,he CVrV(L!s are eqvc-tl and correspond to Uie volume wornL 0_" L av; a y fron he L specii;,e ns j all ~7,hichL starte'd rlithL Mn oj~ P rotrus ion from Ithe ~clamp. : The st:s4ble we-~x rate, c mences Card 1/5 j; e 1f -'of the speclyten has been 7c rn r 'not more than h, SOV/138-58MIS-3/11 Mear (Testine) of Rubber by Abrasive Paper away. The wear Index should be determined by this~stable. rate of wear, but the difficulty is to determine whezi f r the init Jai ins tab ilit of It beeins. The reasons 10 Y -0 mu '3 t wear rate ate examined. The abrasive paper Itself be conditioned, -but as curves 2, 3 and 5 in. FiC61 Shov"p initial instability. is still exhibit d With.a repeat e test with a specimen of the same type of rubber on pre-m. viously conditioned paper. The authors review. the short comings of existirC methods of, test, Including the ISO Dupont-methods GOST 426-1941, and the German standard' test. Results with the first two methods are compared with results to the new GOST 426-1957 standard in Table 1. V is the specific wear index and P4 the coefficient o4' variation. - The effpct of the heirht of the mon and the influence of bending are considered F .2 shows the relationship between rate of wear (am ri in ver.SUB flexibilit-'Y as determined in foM.1la (1). This indicates that the stable zone coi-,imeroesrihen the valUe lies betwe,en 0.5 and 0.8 riun The principle cause of seatter in.the early part of the.tegt'nay be attribu 3 shojis varlous ted to bendinZ of the specimen. P Ir, star,,uss In the wear of a specimen of 1 am.X 1 ota area. card 2/5 Fir,.4 shows the wear rates with specimens of various SOV/138-58-8-3/11 TestjnE) of Thabber by Abrasive Paper hei-Ilt,8, r~md v arious shapes. Th-I blac'k symbols are. for ly lorC specimens, and the *.-!hite for short ones. While cylindrical or spherical shapes Cive stable wear rates_,~- it is. concluded ";hat the most aultable chan,,.e to 1~ M; o' th s~,,Amdard 9, en e the he 2 Cm is to redto specimen forom 3 mn; to 3.5 mrl. This will 2ive a 5.1 to 10 n, Iniu t e t 0 st tL a 11 IL C o m n d u m 15 0 p a e rThe . char- ac',;eristics off' t he rubbers tested to oftain the plots`--~~_' in Pic. 2 are o iven ill T;:Z)le 2. The f ormvla - (2) relates rate of wear ~o the properties of Ithe rubber and t e abrasive paper. &V is the loss of naterial in AocordiTC to GOST 42G-l!R'7;7, N the no-mmi load should.be_. 'I p IC',and t, time of test,. five minutes. K. is a con- - stant. talcin~, into account the abras ve paper and has. a value,;in this 1. J&-stands for. test, of 0.4 k,,:,/crp coef-"icient of friction and 49.for 'Une ~trerz~th of tile rubber. 1q , is the percenta8e extension of the Speo,Wen: in a standard test to determine the elasticity of the F, rubber This fr',ormula is justi-I"ied by practici-Al telst, the results of which are shown in FIL.n.. The devIation~.'t nts vepre3entinL -iear fora Card 3/5 of the poi actualrate of i SOV/138-58-8-3/11 17ear (Testing) of Rubber by Abrasive Paper very large variety of rubbers, from the line calculated accordi IrC to formula 2, Is not .more than 2'.0%. -A spe 1,c.fic wear Index coefficiegt V is given in formula (3 cm Avi-hour. W is the 'work of friction#: V is expressed in With Corundum 150 Raperv the constant A becomes 700..G~-As expressed in &cm . and .,as before, Is a percentage: -:Z Since ra and depend only on.. the composition of therubber the relationship of values.: of V with different abrasive papers should remain constant. This is. confirmed by the results shown In Table 4v where't.,;... four different rubbers were tested aGainst twopapers 0 d fferent abrasiveness. The relatlon~ i' ship Y2/Vl is,'con.;;'..., stant However, this relat lonship, W ill not. hold if -the nature of the abrasivep rather than Its Grain sizep lsl~l altered widely. While coarse and standard:electro- corundum papers gave rood agreement, a silicon paper Card 4/5 5. e gave a different result, as indicated in Table Tabi SOV/138-58-10-5/10 -AUTHORS: 11. L; Ivanova Mel'nikova, M. V; Sakhnevski S. A; Y Ratner, i3. A;Reznikovskiy, M. M, and amirnova, TITM fl-ea-r _Tes*t_1_rC__of Rubber (0b otsenke istirayemosti reziny) MRIODICAL: Kauchuk i Rezina-, 1958. Nr 10, pp 18 22 (USSR) ABSTRACTr The mochanism of, abrasive wear of" rubber is Imperfe6tly, underutood. 'LaborAtory tc:sts with different types of equipmentEAve Inconsistent resultst and results of laboratory te3ts do not ~t&ree serrice o~.road tes'-s. T*fie relations b-Are n the three mechanical par-a e meters, F, frictional for-4ep' N, normal lo.;,.d, and Tj, rtibbliC speed are 'discussed. Three i~odes of tf.*st are' possible:, (a) F variable, N and U.Constant, (b) K' variable and. (cJ U., variable. These -r-ive respe,~ti*!s 'lear Indices, V V -wl V ' V Is expresse ' 1U ' #U I q n cm ar fto t he Pn. A specific uear 1h dex- v, is r (crq3&,-ih) where W 1s11rcr1c.,.L%:-,~ ,Iven: N done aga-inst f riction. Int s specific wear index- take s into account the coefficient of frictioh %. ru of "-he Wh_ e r... C / Co e,"L,O_ Since /k varion fror dif f-rent rubbers Ir L I A Ib~ ra_ ard 1 4 tween the indicea VW, VyU and the specific ;ndex vg, rz off Rubber SO11/139-59-10-5/1-0 will vary for different rubbers. This is illustrated in Fir,so' 1, 2 and 3 where.the relative wear, accoi-dl:,.L~ to different indicesAs plotted against filler content in the ~rubber sample. Actual values for dlfferent~ rub-~ bers o^ the indices V apd V' are given-In Table "A,0 V1 NU - v, c - EU The speciCic ear, index V is calc ated only under the. constant"normal load.'regime. The final columns in the table give relative-values for these IndIces 'For cca- ValUeSL P-firlson ~-ith relative obtAined an-actual service. tests Q'-iven In the last column). The inde:k Vpti shorts. best correlation Ttith service or r6ad tests, and it is ibCCested that this inde% ~~rouid be more appropri,~-.te rubber intended for tyre8. This vhen testin,, is bcol: Cht out further in Pi-A whete thAn r9lative indices of labo, at-ory tests are. n.11161h rel!AAve ,-iear th'actual. roi-I tes'US. (aymbols 1, 92 3 frl -4 -are .. - index 7 symbols 5 and G -Ave V and symn6i-~ -A". 4.0i, Alar Index V7~- *hU6 ind-11ces, should: have air. v ind #V correlation arcors a-,-n ~11risa when v is taken as an'D, deN thvollplh~ chari-es in temper'..Ltuoz. a t the rubbins suv- _aoe. The third role of test ~iitlh F aml~ N IT variable. h~&s received little atl;en t ion, but of since ito 'represetits the conditions of wear 'Wear Te st in(- of Rubber, 80-7/138-58-10-5/10 Wear test r 0 16 n~ throueh skidd orde. laborAt ry condit ~-tnd road or serVice tests have diffecent- intensity, partl' cularly as regards temperature. Table 2 compares contact pressure, rubbl-q~~, speed ttn-d tempe ratu re f or a tyce, at -~30 ~km/hr with 3 slip with conditions under:t-he COST 423 57~ (Government Standard) 'test under constant load conditi6nd~,e~,,- on a Grassel test machine.. The contact pressure in them laboratory test is very much loyter-uhile the temperatures: Is miich hi-lier. The'r1ear index V -- is not peoportiona-1 Lo the normal load N. Ho,;,rever,, tNUe product Y~A is propor_` :' tiotial to 11 and,is a suitable -wear index as has beeg' Proved on, tests ~~uth N var,--in,!; from 0.55 to 12. icls/c, I t i s s u. g grest ed that it aould be more realis.tic.., to, conduct laboratory tests at hip-,h contact pressures, but to z*duce' the, coefficient of friction by usln&'less ab rAhjveL test surfac6s. Methods using radioa tive'tracers Card 3/4 dould, enable the intensity.of laborat"'ory: tests, to be We a rTestine oil 'Rubbers SOV/139-59-IU-5/10 A'U"I'A Ozi 6: 1110.-OV YU. A, Ratner, 3. 13-- swlf~7-2 I VA 5 TlTLf., On the Por-,e of. the Radial Contraction of Rub~-1--e Aini-51, at a Teraperature Drop (0 sile radiallnogo szh-z~ rezLnovykh kolets 'pri ponizhenii temperutury) -1,.210DICAL: 28, Ili- zhurnal tekhnichesko~r fiziki, 1958, Vol. Pp. 1,1,~a 1451 (USSR) ABSTRACT. The influence of the cooling, the role playe(i by tine degree of contraction and the.role of the dross-zemiorial. fie form in contraction and bending were investigatel. T. authors arrived at the following conclusionss 1.) Iihe cooling of rubber packings-leads-to a steep decreasia of the radial force. the intensity.of which ir pllloportioztA -if the to tile initial pres5ure. The relative chaige does hardiy depend-on the degree:,)f deILo.-m."tion,.*.I:'L -ing e of the pact. -s str ssed by oontraction. This points to the' nain part of the loss of hiZ;h-ela3tioity as well a to the`.~L~~ i second4ry role played by the linear expan3ion 2.) The magnitude of the contact force remaining after cooling is proportional to thia initial preasure. The Card 112 paekin&s stressed by bending on cooling lose k, much 61 'Rubber Wear Tests by,Means. of a Metal Grid SO -25- -42/6 V/32 11 depend on the propartie6 of the rabbsi. and usually: Vary inversely. In the present case varied bet-,,;,een I and 6,(Fit Z' the dependence of the wear III on the lo~~ and degree of compressi SMI-26, Mi.0 13, on for rubber of the types SU-40,, and S101-0 (SKB)), In cormarison to noft,types of rubber, stiff, types of rubber show slighter at alower degree of compression,- and higher wear at a high degree of compression, (many rubber parts wear in the course of certain deformationso, i.e. elongation). For comparing laboratbry,tests, with the. :important to knowthe aep ndence of~ operating conditions it is e the specific- wear of sariple~lt having various '. (noainal). contact. , suxfaces,, on the specific preszure. (Fig 3) 0 and to correlsts . . ..... test values obtained with the metttl grid,, with, the wear vai~e5:-,_:,,._.1.1 of the same rubber sample obtained by means of smmooth steel, arabl surfaces. Whzm selecting types of rubber,. we, e by at'eel. surfaces. wear tests.with. a metal grld4 aad L,-Action tests wita. a metal grid,rauat -to made.. There are 3 AV-Mxrs.-, and 5references -Soviet. 3 of which are &SSOCIATION: Sverdlov'si-,iy..ztv(.id.rezinov~,!-,h tekhnichaakikh lzdelly~ Card 2/2 Sve ra I 6v sk Plant for"Com;teraial. ---------- u Frictjcm of' kubh-r,~r- Sukhoye i -rz~nichnoyc t.reniye. Frilk (Dr- ts i o n ny v c~ nnza t, e ri P 1y V!ld 2oun& ry ri cti o ti., Friction "laterials) -L Zd-vo AN SSSHP Errata zlin insert(,~d. 3, 5(X'; con-~ es n r i n 0. -d' . e -r--, c s Its: T r i v-31 y v 2) V- 'tut r, in v d v r~ C) r., c -v Akcidemiw~ n u'k "J33H. In s t. 1 0 leni a Ed -a -11'skiy, i en I. V. KI Doctor of -ec.hzdc~ I .~;c c e. F. , L r p 1 01, si 1' -:41 O~ Publishing iiouse: ll." I G r u r t., s 11 Tech. Ed. 6 G. v- Th c o I I P- c t o n, nub I i ~si h 4~-ld bv he In-Litut vla'-A. ived; V 41 (~llstdztute of ~'c i. e n c E, o"' 1-k-cidnes-, Aeademv of ociez-.c-s U '-5) S 1 c Q I I t z i 3 a e, Y - at ti--,e III V,-~p-.-;3yuz!wiyF- Ponferent- ir ro 1 1 z lr~ v IjE-- ~j (Tj,,4j-j j," -Ui= Gon~ erence on rrict-lon P r in A ril 9-15, 1958. 3. it eni k, G. and 1`611,nlkava, 1,.'. V. On Frictiontia. 'N,.'ear (in Lhe P.I-asion) of 4'tibl-er rl 6 u 1- e i I.-rvnic'-noye Ilreniyr.. vrlktsiqn:,y, e :71z~ ri,~,ly (Dry ry Fri ction. Frict-Jon 1,:aterl 1sl A. Bound., a 10 ~ c 0 w t'i - v 0 2 r . Errata slin inserted . 31) !q 1&0 coiies printed. A r ud 2) ~F! -a n c Y Aktuei~,aya nw--';-, jO:-'jj. Instiluut z; t i n oll ed e n I ~F Ed' 1 V S'-'i Y, cctcr of Tach, 4 C--~ 1 ~C- C.;Ces, nrofe or E d . of' Publisi-A n;- i; s: p C I., cl c c t) ect ion mib I i!3 i i- d ~by the Insti tul 11' ya, C a d e_IV A n s t J. t u t e of ~)Cierice of PL-~, c h i q e of joienecs US:3R)L_contains pErers rit ed at the Ih V,-esoyuznaya konferent- rl:i v '0 a 1 reniYu - i iznczti v mw~asl,inrnhh (Third All-Union vonPerence on Fri c ior. 1,"evx, t -i ~kwhi nez~ A -.,)ri 1 9~-15 1958'. 5/061/61/000/024/0841'o96 B101/B110 :AUTHORS t Ratner S, B,., Klitenik, G, S,, MePnikova, M,. V TITLE- Frictional wear (abrasion) of rubber PERIODICAL%~ Referstivnyy zhurnal., Khimiya, no, 24, 1961, 5B5, abstract 24P,(,32. (Tr~ 3-y Vse5. konferentsli po treniyLi A iznosu v ~SSSR,: 1-460, 95 104) mashinakh~ v. 2, M, AN TEAT. Abrasion (A) of rubber with.sandpaper on the Grasseli machine a co. e s h ow s isidera-ble spread of values which is due to.the bending of t. Specimen- This spread can be eliminated by reducing the specimen heiaht to 3,0 - 3.5 mm, If A is,caused by a metal network, it is not influenced by the oiling of the friction contact. This makes it possible to, in- .:vestigate swelled.rubbers:.,..For A with sandpaper and with network I const P c holds for the intensity I of wear,.~ P is the specific p p mal load, c a coefficient, For sandpaper ci~l which corresponas to or I n the Shalamakh equation; for network c >,,l .Hence the influence of rubber hardness-differs with different load, A satisfactory correlation exists -L-~seen A. with network and with s bL teel disk. The correlation between A Ca rd 112 S/191/60/000/007/0-2/015 B604/BO56 p AUTHOR: Ratner. S, B. -a, Testing of Plastic5- Communfeation 1. TITLE: Th,~~ Mechani The Phvsical Characteristics of the Mechanical Properties of Polymers PERIODICAL: 'Plasticheskiye massy.. 1960, No. 7, PP, 59 66 TEXT: In view cf the fact that:'here are r~ tc-xtbooks and no ,,koLl~rses on the mtzchanics Of po,lymers, the w-i-thor endea---~~-.s, In a,eer'Aes of articles,to explaln, the most Important results obtalned for the.. teoh- .al useof polymer materials', for 'which purpose (in- the following nj~ publications) the results obtained by the fizika-mekhanicheskaya SC4 'Laboratoriya NI1PM (Physi.-;aland Laboratory Ic. f the ~en -rr- tobe oaken into ac!,-ount, tific Reseal-ch Institute of Plastics) In the present report the allMo-rdefi.-'Ps thi; ~-eascn., for the elasticity f polymers as being the r-!~sialt cf the lerg,T.1, anl f lexibility of the 0 Mole.cule chain;, and desoribes the three physi:~-a, s tates of polyme---= 61t4 v I r 1' fs a to n hi g h - e I a s tc i t 'Car'd 113 flevefluevice on tGari ara -411mperauure. . un Me taais of deformation as a function.of temperature In th,~ -rase of a diff Prent, cal state .(Fig, 2) "on is qx -ed A-lastic. deformat -plai ~=d ure 5 the t)nfo,_r,, (fig s --;n th;~ efft~!:t temne how I _9 Fig: 3), and in F,g a t~ire and rat,~, o f str-~? sa up,:!.n the beha-v ic, - c, f a polymer -5 O,howr%. The hIgh-elastic state :.5 -defined :as ly~~ng above t~e -,ri trification tem .,.r- pe aturs~, T the enforced-fla~,:tict',y as being b~-Iow T T ab 1 - I In v v Table 2 a clazsiftca~Jor. f a"', polymer materia'6 and ribbers~ o a the basi3 of their useful temferature T intj 3-'x gzcups t ;i given. A., L--,nea-~ polymer.5-. a- zubbe. I -3 ari, -r,' -ax,iz-qt;~s: T br kbr'ttler I tess t,~mperat--tre)i 2) rubberi. T~T tT t W br amorphou3 thermorlasts, T < T-/T I B Cross --jArJced - po rubber T~T,~T b or, t T T/T lymeXs* 4~'~ 5 ',r1 t br br a-_ a "Reac top'A a t;j'- ln,~ T /T Card- 2/3- P 5 I-i The M c h a n i o a',' T e, s t; r, i~, 17 F 1 3/'9- '60/000/007/012/0'!5 Communication 1, The Physical -B004/13056 A s-ri,stics of the blechanical Pr6per~ies of Polymers The'mechanical,propertles of the polyme~r-- ;a r r~ L o m r. r ---d 'ov 1 .11 thcse of e.-Psci~ally of taQfals and he :%-respond4ng c-quaticna w i t t d f r; r d ri. fo, -, m, a t 4. o r. h a r i ns s - eI a3 t I c ~ty, r~~iaya..,.cn fatiguekFi g. i-.tion (Fig, 6) and thermal expan si on- ~ Frcm this ccxzparisor t~e author concludes that for plastics two.categories, of tes', methods, are neo e s s ary 1) 3uch as gAve a general charactfa:-!7.ation of thi- mater.~a!-., and 2). such as deterri-Ine-the properties n;tcessary for speoi al rpurpe s e,& T~-Ire are, 6 f igures, 2 t abil z and, 23 referenze,;: 21 S o i t. and 2 US, 3/ S119116010001008101,11014 AUTHOR: Ratner, S. B. ari- TITLE Mechanical Testing of Plastics.,Report 11. The Peculi ties of Test Methods for:Plast.ics. Statlic 'Tea ts PERIOD IC AL: Plasticheskiye massy$ 19600 NO, 8i PP- 53-59 TEXT: The present paper is a discussion of the specific properties of plastics and, their test methods, which. must be specially adapte.1 to individual application. After giving a survey of the systematic classification of test methods, the present paper deals vith static methods. A table contains the existing methods for deformation and b strength rOCT(GOST) OCT(OST), ASTMD, and DIN qtandards-0 e- Th standard .a., in most cases provide for a constant, rateof load application# whereas-the testing machines of the zav,od-I'Metallist" (Plant."Metallist") and of western origin operate with const nt deformation rates*:A Te- a I - - I ; ~~ tion- of the, Komitet standartov (Committee :on Standards) for hard plastic ,a 0 000 kgl m2), se 'hard (10,0 (Modulus-of elasticity E >.1 c > 4006),. Plas,tics (4000 k9/cm2) is-pr6sented. 200) (E soft and''elastics < 200 > E~ > Card I/ 4~ 1'echanical Testing of Plastics. Report II. S/191/60/000/068/011/014 The Peculiarities of Test Methods for Plastics.BO04/BO56 Static Tests 'Tile author recommends the function a= f(O (Fig. 1) from which mcdulus,~ proportional limit,:breaking lengthl and strength maybe determined. If 0 is stress as function of deformation E , the linearity.of t~e function- 1 may :be obtained from equation (2): a = 01(i + F-110O)m 'r- al(I + mf/100)t~ where m ;.>, 1 is determined.empirically. The tangents of the a curves1co-1 2. incide with those of the a curves in the case of arbitrary m* The tangent of their angle of slope is equal to them initial modulus, For determination,: of the modulus of hard and, sem1hard plastics, the following formula,. wh i eh hold s f or wood according. to rOCT,-6336-52 (GOST 6336 -52 ), Was: re commended by_EIIPP. Together with R. A. Po2ova and A. P. Zuvev tile Knti- I author determined the Brinell. hardness of K�-3 VF-3), Voloknit, Vl- 451 (FKPN- 1 5T, P - 451 x nm-~ i o (FKP11- 10) ,,w n )k -9 (iCPzh_9)'O;~'/4 -43 e 0/1-1-43). K-18-2 (K-18-2), Viniplast, - ry-piopylezie,",po 1y f ormaldehyd ~ Steklovoloknit *m.6160 (Plastic material with fiber glas-8 p.6/60)j caprone resin-68, Khostalen, and high-pressure polyethylene (Fig. 2). Stable' values were obtained at an indentation depth h -:0.3 - 0,5 Card 2/ 4 Mechanical Testing of Plastics. Report II. The.Peculliarities of Test Methods for Plastics. B004/BO56 Static Tests rOCT (GOST) standards$ however, provide for stresses, at which h becomes, either too large o r too small for some plastics. The equations El (h ~- h /h, (4) and P h /h (5) arerecommended for-determining 1 2) 2 1 elasticity and plasticity, respectively. Here, El + P 1 (h indenta- tion. depth under load,-h after removal of the load). roCT4670-49 2 (COST 4670-49)i however, does not provide for a separate determination ofz- El and P, but only for that of El P. For soft plastics, formulas W and (5) :were transformed for elongation by means of a pendulum dynamometer.,. For the testing of polymers for relaxation at.high temperature, the, appa_._.I.I,~, ratus nnp-50 (PPR-50) of the CKH514(SKIBM) system is used in the U'SRr, The, limited strength and its, time- and temperature dependence according'.- to the Zhurkov equation are pointed out. The;tearing strength,of rubber't' is standardized acdording:to GOST 262-53; Fig. 3 shows the test arrange-, ment. The author mentions S. P4 Zamotayev, Head of the TsZL Uralmashzi4oda~. (central Plant Laboratory of the Ural Machine ?Iant) , as -well as t. Panshin, and.thanks V. K. Bukarina of the fiziko-mekhanicheskaya Card 3/4