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December 31, 1967
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- - - - - - - a I A I - - - L 11 is w '% @4 1,N I zi -m -Ir , ii- -L, -L a --h r a R I I Y Y L@-A- T-1 AA N QC W 9t t-2 I j 1. C' lee A. Kabachenk.. 00 4: 6.,Vo.4.43@711wdjl; -00 - f-wined dwing the coking of pitch can itic-11 lw calst4l; 0 0 ihn, the total yield of eirctrocle C can be int-mawd froul -00 1 0, Z @ . .41 4'j- 1 1. 7"11% m the miltinal pitvh. The most t l %r h t 400 00 d(@ .ir wp. A v y aliona proi-edurs, j@ to the pitc ld -fid remove the mecortilary far Irons the evrle. lilt Or 0 111 ,( ".c,-oridary" tar twing 111% ot the Pift-11. Continual litch- f the ki h goo e vi, ng o g irculatilm o(tht pitch tar during t .r olixt. nduerwr.4 the chests. prolK-rtie- of the coke P.oinvatt-Cmitum goo 00 a zoo goo well I NS& 411TALLUAGiCAL LITINATURE CLASSIFICATION ;V 7-- goo moo C- aht @llits, CW a.. Lis j U 0 AV 90 All; it m n It ' ' ' ; 7A M A S a Od 0 p 9 -1 g kUO A Ij KAI 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0**ego, ego : : : Imlgloa // l 000 000 0 0 is 0 9 0 a Ils : : : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ,/ 1- 0 W W W W W III W 4 1 A r I , to 1] 11 it )a 15 ;4 or 111 395 Tj D ), )s .1 .17 711 ?" m 11 u 1. la 1. it W :1 41 one A V f-i-4-A--L- L AA Of CC W CC t It .-C r-L--f_6 It 1 9 cmullat"lle tv"Ill At th, Pt Itictlon .1 filath Itivitin t 01111111411 N'-k' I Omn IYA N'. ",:I 111, -41 1.., xylctle iracts"ll, 1). 114; ItAl" 1, licil"I ilb I Id') .. Is, '111 - 0 a, lillit at W" with 1.5 VtA,. ul 92-51"; ll'SO'. I'liv pruduo s@ thommighly wailird with 11A), Aq. NAOII, Witt IIjO, a;Id unIxilyttictiud %@mstituctits Atv remuvrd by tcasik- distu. The resalual remn. subimted 'to ftactioatal dittu. 0 0 x in IW'uO' yidds A pr-Itict III. IL5 RS'. It. C. 11. A. 00 40 =0 0 o 9 coo sl go Pill zoo so j Do too go S S 1, .11.11116N.L tl?fR.tLRF CIISSIF&C-TIC- I z 8 too T -- - --- is 0 ---t All I S 4 6d 0-- 1 W 66 0 43 a 3 1 0 1, ; K K it ot SE rl it U at d44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : : : :1* 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 : 0 0 0 go 000 0 v oo 0 0 Is 0 *'* IS so 09 00 9000*0 000 0114-@ a a A a 10 a- IF I a 4- 1 6 1 A C 1 1 .4 11 11 1 It Ij D 19111 " 25 41 41 44 0 P 0 L 1 6 4 -J I L A J, Q A I I U V Ir I I j AA 08 (A to tf I , A @ Direction of tat vapon and 9"96 inside of the charge 90 during coking. I. N. A. Nikoll'skil and M. A. Stcpau- - * `-ThV - nky. xhim. Twdotv Toplim 9, 2S-42(T0-W uw3 in direction of tar vapors and g side of the charge was 41,11. in a special 2pp. consisting (if a fiarna,e with nnc- charriber covered with lid which has a cokin d heatin id 5 c g, g partitions dividing the free space allove thr charge inrU-- 7 independent portiom, a condensing app, for removal of tir, thcrtnocouples with galvanometer and ni.trumurtrrs for m -4suring tenip. and pre@ul,e. The duraitou of vxpts'. 2 4-3.-1-1 lit%., which perruitivi the ti,nip. of lbe chameat licaled %ille to reach 6190 0m)" W111 FrAN the it-Isalp. lit ' . lar V'.l.'l. imidrof (fie atedmilewaskeptatw4l 00 oking charge have no basic direction along the ciAck, and 0 al""t; the walk: a I'LL'tic m-alli did not "reattr a great fe. coo 0 ese,tance for the movement of gases and vapois; ga-w-i, Will zoo 0 0 valmrs evolving froin the coking charg'- have a inain di. Zoo - of g - I'l-tion along the vet ticals, i, e.. prm"d along thow zones @ it r;*O a O Ir Is* A. A. Ilotigotpy COO - 00 zoo 00 zoo 00 go f i L *t TALLtjr,(,1CAL LIT[HATLOC CLASPO'K.M. E-Z " %I TS LV 3 is r V IF a 0 N @ P to to 19 K a It R 9 Pt rt it 11 11 d 0 1 if a I "to n 10 0 l 0 00 0 0900 0 0 0 0 G * 0 6 0 * e 0 se 0: 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000 go -1 7 W1 _6 If' wo Wv Wit W11 WU Wu V7 I Wo M W-w-VT- it 14 [1 ju 11 Z: a 14 b A 27 x .14 AD it -V I , A I r.. A-K Q A I T MCC CO ktis I tt! lft&tM*Gt Of tOdd At InsdJUM tempelAti"es. N. A. Nikul'Ail and N11. A. 8 Cakr .;P1d Chrfn. (IT. S. S. R.) 108. 2% Khin: Reknit. ZAar. 2. No. 4. 113-11 (RK19).-Ilir inkt. twhich in rt,kAt at MV-SOW) contains 211- A% of v,platile sulwntuv% mil 7% f Itill. 'Wilma a Imam most. of A.11 1, pre-ot th.- v,_1 in enriched by the wet inethad anti dried. Altcr us ii-intival fropti I lie furnam the coke in tnixed wit It water. Th,--lixed 00 carixin"(-ontaiiistttoi%ttsrL"%.volatil~-,sutitaticeslt-12% 06 j and aib V-10% and haq a heat conten Of 1201-734) r2l. Front the treatment of the coal a tar in obtained which e(mtains:J5-4.)%nfphenots in oils fr,)tii which C&HLOH anti o-. m- and P-Cif$C41-1,011 can be obtained. Treatment of gas coal!; yields up to 8.5% of mr, of whit@h is 00 z inutor fuel and 2% is Dirsel engine fuel. W. R. I feri'na 0 r OVA S s-1 ,LA, otTALLUNCKAL LITERATijOt CLASSIFKATIC" ..Ac- v U -t, - 0 4 : 0 4 4'@ 11 Ij 14 J3 MuJIN4.1au" O.C d v-.. i t j k v v a I- es T"- -00 00 '09 goo too a** goo '09 too .00 An I S Od 0 . n 6 q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 1: A J1__L Af , - 00 Six 0 60 46, 11 '41 17 1 IT, Via "K V V1, 11 It it al I] h r u . t, ..(, ,4!@1"04.1 Production of coutrismat resin with a scaftenwil tem- perature of 100 ISO'. M. A-- Steltantritkn mid A. t.. Min,Lavii. Coke ind Cke"s. k V. S. S. U.) 190, X- @% 3:11 al. I Wal 01114illVd ill Lill. eAllt'. 'UH (ill' I-11-1111AW11 -11 1-iii tire Oliver$ malld Ow r-1111, '11 vull'. tv,l, -I wl a ... 14"Itial .,*It are QW, dr-O.J. I b.. jjj@tjVt-j 111C PWYjHVtijAjjOjj "I 111C Ow N%hnr,bOr&v JVC hiniu, ( . .1. 36, ;412hl) Ituctima tilimilivd. A*Ta. Ill liar fit'l taw t1w..4, "ll ill, -m "I'lailwal "A' Ilk) 1.01, U11,11 ill 1'. 1:41-@ A Ilighti-rilml, t-ill .1%. .411,611,4 with M Ill, 1,4% 111,61,11A 114d t, 1.1*1 (.1ciAddillat all, .%[Ci,. @%flvt j-l%.mvj it'll wal .411.t mllmg. tht, pf'.111cc %- (11tvired AIM " "tc, With UP ."h 1.*,,;. vv Nutpil mail 1. M. 1 11,41111 it, C, 11, A ASIS-SLA &RIALItinrKAL LITIMATURE CLAISIPIC4111)" O.C u Ar 100 At! Olvill oleo Kit its WITH UIR I 0 0 0 0 0 0 la q see vee =00 zoo Noe _imi An I I I M4 0 4 a I N 0 51 43 13 -3 1 u ano T 7 T T 7 ' T -, T 7 7 7 1 A ; wl. I f 7 7 T, 7 xVIF 7,F Ir 9 r# jj r, I, ,, - - L1,L, f.);j J, Lah r V Y 4 1 1 PA U U A) tt Obtaining Coumarone rwsiav by thenvAr orf"Lion 0 S,ln Si"nrnko and A. H. sksys. Ir. . $: 1. 17'.V- 1. of. C. A - 30, 19"'.-Thc ItTrene, ififfefle MI couniarone fractions from the heavy xylene fraction 1) A 140-60* call be thernsally p"13mcfIxed withmet 11W of III, : When polymerization occurs under rrflts%. the pttKI- S04. 0 oct h2s a higher tthA. wt. than when reactitm txvtjrs at 2LIW aml C,7 asm. in an autoclavr. The indent fiactim n-An with a lower in 1 m% ttl i ld f i l 0 . more u a . e o v" a ower y g wt. than that front styrtne. Longer polymerization rai"e, thed. and yield of the resin.4, but dm not change the m-1. wt, This is alteml only by temp.; lower temp. produces or's 11 se,in, whIa higher mot. wt. The min fcmnfti by hearing ' at *-':.11)* and t*P 7 alm. for 48-W hrs. at 110 . The bl b l I h l s" ur can e e usilpo m ymer ysrj,i i, U) FAN;@ and t I.Avint-rit"I later by aildn. of 16vA),. If. M. L. J Z W I k A 1ftALLU&GK.L UTf%.TLQj CLASSLF)CATION U is A 1 ;4( Rif RX .1 1( 0( 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 f tal no A 114 An 0 is a I W Is s An 09 i -0 0 roe we A 68-1-9/21 AUTHOR: -.Stepanenko M.A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, and Ma-Eu-sy-ak _,rkgoleva, T. Ya. , Engineers. TITLE: Coal Oil Pitch as a Binding Material for Briquetting Goals. (Uglemaslyan,yy,5ek - svyazuyushchiy material dlya briket- irovaniya ugle PERIODICAL: Koks i Khimiya, 1957, No.1, PP. 32 - 35 (USSR) ABSTRACT: A product obtained by a thermal treatment of a mixture of coal and high boiling fractions of pitch distillates of anthracene fraction II, as a solvent is called coal oil pitch. In the paper the preparation of coal oil pitch and its further use as a binder for briquetting coal is described. Coal oil pitches were prepared froih coals r, riv and nC and a mixture as (ratio of anthracene fraction II and heavy pitch distillate 1:1.2). Properties of coals and solvents are given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Preparation of coal oil pitch: coal crushed to-3 is mixed with the solvent (% of solvent for r-.. ","" and K 32% and for PC - 24%) and heated for 3 hours at @VX - 380 The yield and properties of coal oil pith obtained are given in Table 3. Coal T was briquetted under the following conditions: softening temperature of coal oil pitch - 65 - 75 OC; proportion of the binder 12%; fineness of coal - crushed to 3 mm; temperature of mixing and press- ing 150 OC; the' temperature of the press-mould 95 OC; Card 1/2 68-1-9/21 Coal Oil Pitch as a Binding Material for Briquetting Coals. 2 pressing pressure 400 kg/cm The shape of briquettes is shown on the photograph. Changes on storing of the properties of the binders used are shown in Table 4, and changes in the mechanical properties of briquettes on.-toring, in Tableo5- The,quality of briquettes was good; they ignite at 900 0, ini- tially with a smokey flame and then with a colourless flame. There are 1 figure, 5 tables and 2 Slavic references. ASSOCIATION: UKUN AVAILABLE: Library of Congress Card 2/2 & L-:,- A 68-7-11/16 A'JTHORS:3te'Pane&_o, V-A Matusyak, N.I. (Ti-KhIN), Kuleshov, P.Ya., and Saltanp F.L. TITLE: Intensification of the Process of Production of High Melting Pitch'. (Intensifikatsiya protsessa polucheniya vysokoplavkogo peka). PERIODICAL: Koks I Khimiya, 1957, Nr 7, PP-43-46 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The use of oxygen for the intensification of the process of production of high melting pitch was investigated on a laboratory and works' scale. The comparison of laboratory experiments of blowing medium pitch, pitch tax and their mixture (75% + 25% respectively) with air and oxygen Is iven-in Table 1 and Fig.l. Then blowing with oxygen 8 1/hr per Xg of pitch) the waste gas contained about 60 to R 70% of oxygen. Better utilisation of oxygen was obtained when additional mechanical stirring was applied, so that oxygen consumption was r6duced to 6 1/hr per kg of pitch per hr Mble 2). Industrial experiments were carried out in two continuously operating reactors joined-in series. Dim- ension of the reactor: d = 3 M; htotal 4.7 mr the ratio of h pitch to d = 1.6; charge 59 tons. The comparison of re- Card sults obta'ined in laboratory and works, experiments is given 1/? in Table 3. It was found that by replacing air with oxygent 68-7-11/16 Inten,sification of the Process of Production of High Melting Pitch. the reaction time and the total oxygen consumption can be decreased by 2'05 - 3.0 times (at similar blowing.velocities)p or the reaction time can be decreased by 105 - 2.0 times with a decrease in the total consumption of oxygen by 6-7 times (in comparison with air). In the latter case the use of mechanical stirring is necessary. In considering the most suitable type of apparatus for blowing oxygen it is stated that a bubbler type reactor is the most suitable. There are 3 tables and 2 figures. ASSOCIATION: Zaporozhskiy Coke Oven Works. (Zaporozbskiy Koksokhimi.- cheskiy Zavod)'. AVAILABLE: Library of Congress Card 2/2 I L;RL-._ r-T----7 --7 ABSTfUCT: Laboratory experiments on the production.of Pitch With high softening temperatures are described. It was possible to obtain two types of pitch: (a) pitch with a softening ably above 1500C but fluid at high tem- Ad temperature consider e content of 18-2v@vt peratures and (b) pitch with a volatil high melting temperature and remaining solid at 3000C. For the production of the latter type of pitch mechanical agi- tation was found to be necessary. The apparatus used is shown in Fig.1; experimental conditions in Table 2; proper- ties of pitches obtained and their elemental composition in Tables 2 and 3 respectively; the evolution of gas on coking of high softening pitch in Figs. 2 and 3; plastometric properties of pitch with volatile content of 18.5% in Fig.4. There are 3 tables and 4 figures. ASSOCIATION: UK@LIN. AVAILABLE: Library of Congress. Card 1/1 68-58-2-5/21 AUTHORS: Ste anen@koll Soldatenko, Ye.M., M-atusyak, N.I. n ogoyavle'=@ oj an @B vie@nkiy, K. A. TITIE: X-ray Analysis of Pitch Cokes (RentgenostrukturiVy analiz pekovykh koksov) PERIODICAL: Koks i Xhimiya, 1958, Nr 2, _Dp 31 - 35 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Results of X-ray structural investigations of pitch cokes from Zaporozhe, Khanzhenskovsk and Kemerovsk Coke Oven Works are described. In the evaluation of pitch coke as a raw material for the electrode industry, the most important is not so much its initial characteristics, but the dynamics of changes of the individual indices on thermal treatment and in particular the ability to increase the density. Therefore, not only initial samples were studied, but also samples which were submitted to ignition and graphitisation in industrial furnaces of the Dneprovsk Electrode Works. In addition to parameters of X-ray structural analysis, as indices character- is-ing the coke substance and its structure, the chemical composition, specific gravity and specific electrical conduc- tivity were determined. Copper radiation with a nickel filter was used for X-ray powder photographs. As a criterion of the degree of order, the sizes of "packets" along c and a axis V. e taken, i.e. the width of interference bands (002) and (10 Cardl72r X-ray Analysis of Pit-ch Cokes 68-58-2-5/21 The results obtained are assembled in the table. There are 2 fiCures, 1 table and 7 Soviet references. ASSOCIATION: MIN AVAILABLE: Library of ConSress Card 2/2 1. Coke - Properties 2. Coke - Structural analysis 3. Coke - X-ray analysis 4. X-rays - Applications SO-V/68-59-4-13/23 AUTHORS Gogoleva, T.Ya- and Stepanenk.@Jf .:o TITIa,,: Surface Tension, Dan-sfVy and Viscosity of Coal Tar Pitch (Poverkhnostnoye natyazheniye,,plotnost' i vyazkost' kamennougollnogo peka) PERIODICAL:Koks i Khimiya, 1959, Nr 4, pp 42-45 (USSR) ABSTRACT: An investigation of the above properties of coal tar pitches at elevated temperatures produced on the - Zaporozhlye fforks has been carried out. The characteristic data on pitches investigated are given in table 1 and the results obtained in table 2 and figures 3-6. The apparatus used for the determination of surface tension and viscosity are shown in Fig 1 and 2 respectively. It was found that the temperature-density relationship in the region of high temperatures (180 to 36000) is linear. Coefficients of thermal expansion of pitches with softening temperatures 65, '03 and 1450C were calculated and the dependence of the above coefficients on the softening temperature of pitch was determined (an increase of the softening temperature by 10 is Card 112 accompanied by a decrease in the coefficient of thermal SOV/68-59-4-13/23 Surface Tension, Density and Viscosity of Coal Tar Pitch expansion by 0.000001). The viscosity of medium pitches within the temperature range 155 to 2951C and of high softening pitch in the range of 240 to 3450C was determined (Fig 5). The dynamics of changes in the viscosity of pitch with increasing heating temperature were studied. Two regions of a sharp change in the viscosity of pitch were observed: one on passing from the solid state into the plastic state and the other on passing from plastic state into the fluid state (Fig 6). There are 6 figures and 2 tables. ASSOCIATION: MIN 4 Cafd 2/2 GOGOLEVA, T. Ya.. STIPAMOK09 N.A. Thermography of the coking process of coal-tar pitches. Koko i khim. no.,13:47-51 160* (MIRA 13:6) 1. Ukrainskiy uglekhtmicheekly inotitut. (Pitch) STEPANMO -A.-L; MATUSTAK, II.I. Physicochemical properties of pitch coke. Koka I L-bime no.6:28- 31 160. (MIRA 13:7) 1. Ul-crainskly uglekhimicheskiy inetitut. (Coke) STEPANWOv Mariya Aleksandrovna; BRONr Yakov Abramovich; KULAKUVp LEYTES, V.A. v; LIBSRM, S.S... red.izd-va; ANDREMv B.P,p [Production of pitch coke] Proizvodstvo pekovogo kokea. 11harIkovp po-ebarnoi i tsvetnoi wtallurgUrr 1961.-'-3:Ll p. (MMA 14:7) '(Cbke industry-Equipment and supplies] STEPAPENKU, M.A.- MATUSYAK N.I. .4 Physibochemical characteristics of coal pitch coke. Koks i khim. no.1:29-33 163. (MIRA 16.-2) 1. Ukrainskiy uglekhi-icheakiy institut. (Goice-Testing) STEPANENKO, M.A.; GOGOLEVA,T.Ya. Uses of coal-oil pitch. Koks i khim. no.12:43-45 163. (MIRA 17:1) 1. Ukrainskiy uglekhimicheskiy institut. 4 -4 A t 0. U r. gel," V 't"'. gon oes Swjmm@ 0 EXIMMINEXI OR x terial% lJouse. %iewcd Dinas The oo= 0 on, grains 4% a oo= called inthectmentiagglaw. .1 each rich 00- pand 00-1 cr"tallitte Ku"k 00- than 00-- of Kursk. - - -------- 70 1110 ft it Is K K't a K It a It ow 0:0 0 0 geoge goo* 0000 a a a a a a a a a a a 0 a a a a a m a a a a a a a .4.1 W a 11 1 uW I AE W It U 13 U 0N V 0 10 AD 41 0 4" i I 1 0 Gi 1 Cm 0 a Im tF.". t_ J HAIN I i T F M. G., Galkin. P. L. "d Korebagla. A. A. -OWTUir USK OF RLMUAN QUART8171115 FUN 4 0 MANWrACTURK OF III% . Tran%. Inst. Hids. Ma- 0 & (aa-.4, Vol. .11. State Technical Publishing , too 6 0 Nltwow. 14MO. 27 pp. I'Ykv (145 kopeks. Re- : 9 6 in Glasteck. Ber.. 9 111 U (1931).-Quartsites [OF are tit two gtouPs: Ceff"Um 00d Fkb in ccenent. first group is charaCtefitta. uluaRY. bY cGIRM QUWta I content 01 anWfpbUus quartz (gism) having a unal The other group is erroneously Cementing medium. i nd f h i 10 ns a n o t e gra amorphatt, and differs in the s iW origin and ItistOrY ok Th @ Ip e ge * Cmp we givem. The fim crystalline Quartlitf. J I .? in ctu"t. tridynatims emuch easier and dom not ea- later. Firm.grado Dinam, can be mrale from Cuero quAruites by special firlnC The 4411,41tiltes (A should be considered as chakrdony modsloom and of Und as Cententlirss. Mate fine-gTain"I than tbow goo 00 - --f - ree TV 1 4 64 a q a ora a U 1 1 -w ir t I I 0 goo 0 0: 0 go 00 000 0 0 0 9 'it, o- Is rnl _M A L A 9 0 PU- I I w 13MLIT11% 340 ..0 l. CODIRS GSOWS L,1.04 .of. A?CMIALI POOP 41 Iv3pAmilviaw V'v Sa S I Kuzwkh G. CORROMON. or FtM.VACB 8 t-ocss. -Keriii7i Silklo. 10 161 22-@M. 24-28 (1934).-L*tails are given of examinatiom of lank furnaces and ci the devee Of caff,"", :on 3010 91 v It It K a a 0 ;;o 0 a 0 too Poo 61 a a It a N n a at a a I 1 0 6 v I I 0 40is 0-4,10,0V 0 0 Ole w 9 a q 0 w 9 w w v w w v - - 'N,;-jj DR:$ hPA." Lit L;U HU kV 340641 U#J a ti L 6 n A. 4.L W U 4 A. I . . I &.,I --T-- of *I A combination furnAce for giAlts IIIAllujActure. It", L. K. k,,%Acv allJ It. M. 1%-I,L. A-A.. I MIVT411". lto. -.I. al 'j; Kht". Ref"JI. /4u, 2 V.. I. 122(1 (kill) @ -- Hipts. .. a 4_1, The conihinattion sysit-ol cjjjj,bi"(-.j the wtwk 14 the %haft 1wowt anti the bath flortLwr. to jjlrh4fj ill thrIM111 fie"t '" *1141 lk', t1l @ I'ItC t,tt.&t jrrry,,il -,I the XL&"@j,r-j,jcior ftlft-,@ i4 -11"u, 1@d hy nicani of a so* A'A' I-v tht, W. It. Milo of 00 s; coo 0 .0 00 Mpg. .00 00" '00 -00 too J. it a .(TALLUR&KAL OffEATURE (LAIS10KATION 00@111 .0 am ti@- it, IF a D a a I, 1 415 u Of rt q I u dna 0 it 41 NO It K It it 6 V! 0000000000000 voi*69090990900999690:f 0 0 0 0 0 0@9 go* 0 00 00 00 0 0 9 0 oil a 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 4111, so 00-010 041 e - - - - T 'IT ' 1. @. ' 1 1, A U 1. Y? A A T @113 11 m m A A A - - - 11, Aq I.., Calltat re"40144 -all mmpdsa 4d low in reargamit sank infuse" using G ! A A @ kUtrAMaxav Aso o* .41 Keraw. 'Prom.. 1043. X.. .1-5. pp 3 .4. l 112_ l@1 s i 1 ti:s arv given for the following ca,": (1) melt. o Ing of gla." frorn a mW6 charge. (2) melting of gla,% front is 1 1'Ale ebarSt. and (3) ttlelting In it filfIVICC with A WWII 1 The effect tit ullik., tine In the loft -xi fairl kxmi,timptim. varLstimi, in Illelons- Sul"Ption when quelting %1AILite VILIfNe. And hydrillilic cult. ditions in the fur"v under vitriotis operating conditions art o6o di-cumiled. IVZ K. '3 1 eel al 2 _ 4%. SL roe rOO 2 see -ices see goo wool ttoo rise -T 11 FW 0 0 10 1 W 0 -3 U 0 W If it ff It Mfg rg it .0. 1 U A'4; 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 g 0 'S p 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Goes* goo 0000 . . . . . .. !t M J1 Z; 0 JJ n ZS U R IS N U U @ 15 k ly C -1 0 E MIL -A- J1 1.014.11 -, -1 1 - . - - - -1. ... - - *0 r p4;tc- Differential melting of glen and Its appikatWo In tiC@. L, K, AND %L0. 81711PAW41KO. I K,,um 1',am . 1947, No 2. pli @-, 0.'- Niiii-'e RK17 restrarch ' It.%, IWvo vmliv.loo al the Nln@cow rectillolofficul Imtill1w of Light hitht,tivamlaf the theptir- I, d"isiled t" oIWla(r tuld'.1 the 111-1 allitat,'"A.1 It III),v of rmlivAly changiuX the prormi of g1w,%inelting and ditions. -tich :k@ the usi@ of a adfatr haw. loath i the con,tructioin of the gla-melting funutec by d"-rmtsing content n the charge. And the law III u-I @havinjl, I, a flat- inviliox vviiiot A@ a rt-,tilt of lb6 work twit shaft- retbacing a&l1t Ordiumily. two unit, ..I,. ill't.d1r.1 @ilh ftwerhamix-l- o,at, bavc itern pill into o,wration. 'rbr.W eachiankfurnacv; I fie ittiodwr delwnil, on I far omil-it im, f th ch r th d d t l th i o f l h f air INtWj mt Ow lueltillig tit the Itla", involving o e e r@ an l , a t . .%oi e %,, i e ge. S pu flat- prelimimary tivatincot tit the charge first ill the 'I ill fiirtl,lcv The ti- ofoltrof IhrW ollit, s%lth .1 I"ok 111to.1t, '00 and theo tit the forvehjuibrr front which the inoltrit m;v, nt whi@h w;i.% equiplied with onv Fourvatill inachuir raiwd the 125W to 1320' C. is paswd into the melting scction of be output from 12 to I I ton, per 21 hr tit 17 law Is final rh,... haroac . In thi* prove- the printary stage of glavsturl fit t Units C311 Work With OIlly oJIC Charge, not rL-41111ring the ro withall it, tonle,irabiv 1% vIinfinated front he Imial addiliml, If Ciallet. The 11"Inopenvily If I it, gk- k 8 I -11WItillS JUMALT Ily IltiliAllt the IM11. 411 file It tit l l W31 not affected I'v the 111,1.,11.111no ..I Ille.. 111111, oace.oid by @xh.,u,tiox part tit the fitrunce IrAws through f o t it/ k the lott-chainher aud the %halt to Iltut the moving charge, 0 (lie thrrouleffivicticyof flat- whole unit kruiwd. ThisalsS) ITI,Ikc% it lk-lille tit reltulate the X;i% Inedillin liver the logo Charlg@ aild Io v.oY Ol, pallial pre-um therein. Thr unit Xoo No 0 trot WOO 1 A I L MITALLURGICAL LITIOATUOI.CLASSWKAT .0100 -Z - see , sit it-' air -4iwv7 it iq.%) 0., jet 611111O.C -r- -F- 2- 1 T I U 0 AV 00 As . . - i 1 @ - , 1 0 fail 0 IS 5 1 N 111 9 All 4 3 0 IF ME 0 SO DOOR MMI an 199 Platt 111111 11 1 0 It I of 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 a Ozi A 1.1 U U U ij V u it -V 121-n - D - 14 M--M -V A 19 30 11 12 11 JJ 35 U 1Y 11 19 W If a Li ILj -r Q A - JL Y I I A I Z AA 10 --t-j - -L N -L k.-. .. AS 1-cle 00 -00 ftm"" ad so fm SKP- - ! -00 oo a NKO A-40 r 0. ToMA-5VICI1 MA10 i MAMj hI -' ' ' - Ir! o 09011-ln the SKP fuflta@-"- ""'r the 1I1 11@43 KF Vd@V. S while all P""I'm nary -IP in 6 tank tio l f : aq,, orma n pn , S stages gre trantil"mi tti a dWt JaWliambrF in vshk'h the 00 chane mown tkmn an kwlkmi botumn towa"l the 1AUk nk and b a th t di b f a e rom nat est anti is heated by ra y roximatecakuls- A i h ( Of 0 sifusce sawc on of t e greater port pp i l 0 %) : ca tiunt, indicate that the SKP orteno has more econom ce (for the k furn I h a utilization of hest t an an ardM r goo Same output). In ramition. th on aives greater out. k moo inc put Ed the tufniKv at normal temperature conalit 00 '41 B. Z. K. goo pi, S v - I L A 11TALLURGICAL L17FRATURE CLASIAPICAT 11 of I's 11 It 4 OF ' . 0 00000:300000000000:00*@0 of @000000 000000000000000000 goo goo 40 see 000 NOOJ altill UK 0.1 It, 1 fW 0 0 9 1 IN 91 -J a 133 1 1 '0 .1 0000*0000000000000 069000699000000000 gal, 19 jk _ it u I TAr-n -*-- !I- " F 'L_ c-F 4 'It I@X_ I *0 4 ' k" *0 00 r go S~ NOW% *1 Week uM dw "SKP" embinstim liitr@ 00 ko aski 1. 0. Tonmadwitich. Log. tMG9044, d Prowl,- 190) - ke A a 43 MU d CA 0 a! . . . y S. . ; , tArger nw&ts Ol the 11SLIVII (wasim. having giam-mitIting tank dintitnaktitis in exciting, of IOU sq. in,. have bm, Cm- stiticted riectudy. camigm. of it CYWWI virwilct IPA* S60, 71.23, RA O.B C&O 7 4@5 V 74 MgO 4 57 40 16 . . . . . , . , and SO, 0.30%. Marshall Sittig AS. %L 1, .11ALtUROKAL t1T1tt.1%Wt rlAMPKAM)i L dwy alt u AV '0 it it 0Pit 0969 K4 An VlUtt RK 0 000 090 0 0 * 0 0 A 0 ;7T db Ab a 0 000 0 WO 04 0 0 0 0 0 -so so so Vo 400 ; 44 4 Wei dilitt ad 4FWW Ali I 0 x a 'I W@w 0AD a 0 a 0 * 0 40 g, 9@ '04 '4 _06 S=A_--D',1,FK0, M. G. Electric heating of glass in the Foureault channel. G. M. Ashkinazi, E. V. Zhukovskii, and M. G. Stepanenko. Steklo i Keram., 6 (3) 3-9 9). --Electric heating was u-n-Te--rTa-e`R7 Tocombat streaks and devitrification. The electrodes (3-in. steel tubes) were immersed to a depth of 20cm. It was possible to attain complete isothermy of the melt under the debiteuse, with a total rise in temperature in this zone of 300. Temperature distribution along the depth of the melt in the preheating chambers was considerably improved. Tem- perature difference between the surface and a depth oV 55 cm. was reduced from 1600 (original temperature) to 1100C. Equalization of tempera-lure was caused by a 150 to 200 drop in the upper levels and a 300 to 400 rise at a depth of 30 to 55 cm. At a depth of 55 cm., the temperature rose from 990 0 to 1030031 thus eliminating the possibility of crystallization. Devitrificaticn was completely eliminated, and straaks were considerably reduced. Temperature curves and a schematic diaeram. of the electrical system are given. B.Z.K. CA amdmd dimension, of -follow Math. mudymb of operation and imitatioma of far tamb 6 - VMS torso al III :@Il 11130'1 =.Idbe expec4ed; under ordinary , , witb so of 1100-13W Col./M.S. the tmp,. at mir (and PS) Irml ad ezewd W(HMOI. The , " surfmaltivere- powagar should ta 33-6 m.1/sq. m. of surface bring hatted(tbiawmall5m.lintimsecakus.). B.Z.K. 'J 00 L -by electric beating of the Improving the optics of sheet itais MOIL Nf.. i@ 'i I G. M. Asitsci%All. ANU I., V CHERK- Vlzinvcrom., 7 1213 6 (111NI). Fltvtri,* bratinxof VAT" %*KO- the .It for one month at the Pruktaril glasswork. resultevi in a miuction of streaks stut devitrificatiou. The optimum coudi- tions are 55 to M v. at the clectrodes anil a current %trrugth of 141) to IN amp The electric heating Iowvrc4I the troilicraturr gratlient In the inelt along the wMils an,l depth of the canal Irmn W' to 2 V, unit the temlieraturr in the delith of the inelt in the working canal ro%e 35* to 40". The intrit advantagrous ditri. bution of the ctectrocles is directly liefore the hfidgewall in the working chamlirm for hoth direct and rnn@vc-titive It-citing of tht. melt- The hvAil% of the clectruclei. 1110 mut. in alLuncter. are ZI ittimered to it depth of 30) to;159) min. from the s4irface and 20o 9 mm. from the inner wall of the canal. The con%couption of elti:- tric unergy kaliout I0 kw.-hr. lier IQ) sq in of glas, Tent1wra- 1 tare turvt% with and without electric ht-ating arv KIMI Cf 8! Cs-,am. Abowas. 19W. july. it. I 10h It z K@ L A SITALLIOP.GKAL LITIOATUME CIASSIFICATICH 1#11314 "it G-T UN! t . I- T U tt AT 00 11 9 ot IT V, 0 r* a IT It of 91 pf tt It a MAD 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 , l- AA A X -4-1 t, I I ai df-4v Iti 4 1 0 a q 3 g .0 0 lee req zo 40 ZYGENSON, L.S., doktor tekhnicheskikh nauk, professor; STEPANERKO, M.G., re- daktor; GRIBOTA, M.P., tekhnicheskiy radaktor. [Making models] Modelirovanis. Moskva, Gos.izd-vo "Sovetakaia nauka," 1952. 371 PO' (MLRA 8:5) (Engineering models) STEPAIMTKO,M.G. . professor. dol--tor tekhnicheskikh nauk Imnortance of the convection flawin glass furnaces. Stek.i ker. 12 no-9:17-22 S'55- (KLRA 8:12) 1. Vsesoyuznyy nouchno-issladovatellekiy institut stekla (Glass manufacture) po- -02M- W K -RMxPP iR -.0 STEPANE14KO 14.G doktor takhnichaskikh nFulk, professor. Design of a glasetank furnace. Stek. I ker. 13 no-9:27-28 S f56. (MLRA 9:10) (Glass manufacture) 8 (4) SOV/112-57-5-10448 Translation from: Referativnyy zhurnal. Elektrotekhnika, 1957, Nr 5, p 131 (USSR) AUTHOR: Stepanenko, M. G., Lur'ye, V. M. TITLE: Design of Electric Glass -Melting Furnaces (Proyektirovaniye elektricheskikh steklovarennykh pechey) PERIODICAL: Tr. Vses. n.-i. in-ta stekla, 1956, Nr 36, pp 51-70 ABSTRACT: Electric glass-melting furnaces have a number of advantages compared to flame-type furnaces; it is expected that in the near future, when new large electric stations will be put in operation, such furnaces will receive wide usage in the USSR. At present, however, the problems of design and construction of glass-melting furnaces have not been satisfactorily solved, either in the USSR or abroad. In designing electric glass-melting furnaces, their fundamental parameters are selected after those of the flame-type furnaces, or else they are selected arbit3rarily. As a result, the per-unit energy consumption of actual electric furnaces fluctuates widely. The prospects of electric glass melting require that reliable methods for designing Card 1/4 SOV/112-57-5-1044,3 Design of Electric Glass -Melting Furnaces the furnaces be developed, particularly methods for furnaces of 80-120 tons per day capacity. The principal distinguishing feature of electric glass melting is that heat is produced within the glass melt proper; the heat is not transmitted via the glass-melt surface as in the flame-type furnaces. This results in a more uniform temperature distribution over the entire glass-melt volume, and in lower maximum temperatures at individual points; the tempera- ture under the furnace roof does not exceed 1, 2500C, which results in a higher electrode and lining durability. The process in an electric furnace can be forced by using higher glass-melt temperatures - Horizontal convection in an electric furnace is weak, and the furnace outlet requires additional heating. The glass-melt surface in the electric furnace is a cooling surface, hence the viscosity of the surface layers is higher. This can be prevented by a lower roof, by coating the surface with a special mixture, by a vacuum, and by placing high-capacity electrodes near the surface. Decreasing the surface area and making the bath deeper did not result in a decrease of heat losses Card 2/4 SOV/112-57-5-10448 Design of Electric Glass-Melting Furnaces through the surface because the losses through the walls increased. An operating voltage of 70-110 v is used; it can be increased to 220 v. The bath width must be limited in order to limit the voltage, As glass melt is electri- cally hot, workers and glass-forming machines that come in contact with the glass melt must be insulated from the ground. Usually the single-phase type of electric furnace is used. The most expedient surface configuration is a long rectangle. Attempts to construct a 3-phase furnace have been unsuccess- ful so far. The construction of an electric glass-melting furnace is much simpler than that of a flame-type; the electric furnaces are usually protected by a metal housing. Three types of electrodes are used; the wall type, the through type, and the semi-through type. The electrodes are made from a graphitized carbon or from high-melting metals. The latter require compressed-air cooling, which lowers their efficiency. With through-type electrodes, the temperature and current-density distribution over the glass melt is nonuniform because of different cooling conditions at various spots of Card 3/4 SOV/112-57-5-10448 Design of Electric Glass -Melting Furnaces the melt. Wall-type graphitized electrodes are the best. Thermal and electrical calculations of an electric glass-melting furnace are difficult, and in practice the required power is determined on the basis of the bath volume. The design methods for a single phase wall-electrode furnace suggested by the authors permit determining its fundamental parameters with sufficient accuracy, except for the calculated resistivity at various spots of the melt, which is associated with the distribution of working temperatures. Capacity per unit volume and energy consumption per ton of the glass produced are two most characteristic performance data. V. P. Kh. Card 4/4 af@HC)7? _Aepanerko, MI, U. 'e [TL':I Nomogram for the _@*etermlnatior, of the SDecific Lle.@t (.On- sumption in Glass Melting (Nomogramma alya opredelpniya udellnogo raskhoda teDla na varku siekla) Steklo i keramika, i958, Nr 8, pp. 8-12 (US3?) AH",TRACT: The therma) parameters of the thermoctimical reactions of glass melting have been known for a long time and were Dublished by M. A. Matveyev, B. A. Rleymenov (Ref 1) as well as by Kr8ger (Ref 2) in technical. literature. k1so Kuzyak, SDkhov (Ref 2)and kafessor Ginzburg (Ref 3) carried out research work in this field and obtained higher para- meter values. The author prefers the data supplied by XrNger as his conceptions coincide with thoce by "rofessor M. A. Bezborodov, I. D. Tykachinskiy and others, and lie constructs the nomogram on the basis of his data, (:iee table). Text,araturee of 1450-15000 were assumed as to dominate in 'Lue practice of industrial glass melting (Table 1). For the calculation of the specific heat consumption that temDerature Card 1/5 is taken aE heating temperature at which the glass mass is sov/'12-58-8-4/17 Nomogram fur the I)Ptermination of the Specific Heat Consumption in GIas-q i t i np ortev;*ng the cooling and working zone, The influence of the !'acto,-:3 - the ratio between charge and broken glass., as wf,"! a2 the humi,d4ty content of the charge - are descriv@--d ill detail. The elaborated nomogram (see figure) consi:,rts of () t'iejdL, Find takes into account the ratio between soda and sitlftLte, the humidity content of the charge,the maximum fur-nace temperature, the heating, of the charge gattes, the amount ot' broken glass and the correotion for sodium sulfate. A number of published calculations of the heat consumption in thi, melting of 1 kg metal is mentioned (Table ,1. ""hen the utiLization of the nomogTam 44E described and iiiiistrated bv oxamples. in table 3 the recalculation results carried out by means of the nomogram of earlier r-ublishi,!d :aluPs of the snecific heat consumption in trie meltinp of varLous kinds of glass is mentioned. B-. - mear.- of this n@:;mogvam the Pxact values of the quecific heat cortsuffpLion cari be cb- t-I-Aned on different nonditions. 'Phis way the degree of the efficiency of variou.9 Lah Ifurnaces can be compared. There ,are I figuri@, 4 table!@, and 8 references, 5 of' v.-vich are Card /'i SOV/ 72-58-8-4/17 Nomogram "or the Dr-term-ination of the Specific Heat -I_',)nuUmj#ion in Glass I !"elt-ing 1. Gaiss--Melting 2. Heat--Measurement 3. Nomographs--Preparation Card 3/,3 ;"@'T'70R: Stepanenko, .11. SOV/72-c!1-9-1/2o TITLE: The Efficiency of Glass Melting Tank Furnaces (Koeffitsiyent .poleznogo deystviya vannykh s'ueklovarennykh pechey) PERIODICAL: Steklo i keramika, 1958, Nr 91 PP 1 - 3 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The e-I'ficiency of pot and tank furnaces is usually com- puted according to the following formula IT- Q ut-ilized . 100 where Qapplied denotes the entire Qepplied heat content of the fuel burned in the furnace, and ",tilized denotes the amount of heat required for the melting of the batch. For the computation of Qutilized no customary method is established. Hence the results obtained by different authors vary, as it is corroborated by the papers by V.A.Kiizyak, A.A.Sukhov, D.B.Ginzburg and @'.G.SteDanenko (Ref 1). The Soviet scientists V.G.Gutop, D.3.Ginzbu--,r as well as foreign ones found Card 1/3 that the conception of '@@uzilized as denoting only the Tile Efficiency of Glass MeltinG Tank Furnaces SOV/72-18-9-1/2o amount of heat required for the melting of the glass is erroneous. They, hovievert abstained from giving a precise definition of this quantity and thus did not make possible a determination of the true value of the efficiency ?L. According to Professor I.I.Kitaygorodskiy (Ref 1) the reaction of glass formation of commercial glass types proceeds according to information given in the table. It *,an be seen that the de-gasification of the melt requires higher temperatures than the melting process proper. The amount of heat consumed in that process must be added to 'the quantity of '@utilized. Thus the efficiency of the furnace is increased as can be seen from the figure. The computation of the heat required for the de-gasification meets with difficulties. On the basis of data published by a number of authors (Maurakh, Udovenko, Ginzbura, Kuzyak, Sukhov) the heat required for de-gasification can be assumed to amount -to 5e,- of the heat of eltii,g. Experiments carried out by the Institut ispol'zov.,iniya gaz@ -I'AN USSR(Institute of Gas Utilization AS USSR) and by the Teplotekhnicheskaya Card 2/3 laboratoriya GIS(Heat Enginet@ring Laboratory GIS) yielded The Efficiency of Glass Melting Tank Furnaces SOV/72-58-9-1/2o the same results. A separate heating of the fining zone permits to reduce the heat consumption. Investigations of furnaces in operation permit to design perfected types of furnaces, in which the melting and the fining zone are run under optimum conditions. The values of QUtilized computed in this way will permit to compare the advantages of different furnace processes in a correct manner and to pass an accurate judgement on them. There are I figure, 1 table, and 8 references, 5 of which are Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Gosudarstvennyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut stekla (State Scientific Research Institute of Glass) Card 3/3 'U T' HORS Kreclioar 1,1. G. SOV/72-58-10-7/18 V. A. Stepanenko , , , TITLE: influence Exerted by Gas Density of the Bricking of the Regenerative Svstem of Glass-Melting Furnaces Upon Their Efficiency (Vllyaniye gazoplotnosti kladki regenerativnoy 2-istemy steklovarennykh pechey na ikh koeffitsiYent poleznogo deystviya) PERIODICAL: Steklo i keramika, 1)58, TIr lo, pp 28-3o (USSR) :'@.BSTRACT: Teplotekhnicheskaya laboratoriya Instituta stekla (Thermal Engineering Laboratory of the Glass Institute) investigated within the last two years a number of glass-melting tank furnaces for the manufacture of sheet--lass. It was found that by premature combustion of gas, by sucking of air of untight bricking the heating power of the gas is reduced by 8-17 %. On the basis of numerous analyses of the composition of generator gas in tank furnaces of the plants Lisichansk, Gorlkiy, Konstantinovka imeni Oktyabrlskaya revolyutsiya the diagram (Fiz 1) was established from which the heating power of the gas in the individual cases can be determined. Figure 2 shows the dependence of the burning temperature Card 1/2 upon the quantity of excess air in the use of purified gas SOV/72-58-10-7/18 Influence Exerted by (,as Density of the Bricking of the Regenerative System of Glass-Melting Furnaces Upon Their Efficiency in Gorlkovskiy stekollnyy zavod (Gorlkiy Glass WoAs. ) as well as of gas not purified in Bytoshevskiy stekollnyy zavod (Bytosh Glass WoAs). ', In order to obtain a certain temperature level in the furnace, more gas must be added, thus increasing the fuel consumption (Fig 3). These deficien- cies were observed in all furnaces exalined by the Glass institu'e. In order to eliminate these deficiencies it -s necessary to seal $he joints in the brick work as described in the papers of Ifokbratyan. At present, D. B. Ginzburg, IA. A. ';.,Iatveyev (MKhTI) are carrying out experiments with a new sealing plaster in the plant imad ODrlkiy. The fiiel-oonsump- tion of the furnace is reduced by sealing of the walls, thus increasing the output of the furnace considerably. There are 3 figures. Card 2/2 15(2) AUTHOR: Stepanenko, M. G. SOV/72-58-12-3/23 TITLE: Gas-Electric Tank Furnaces for Glass !Zeltin,3 (Gazo- elektricheskiye steklovarennyye vannyye pechi) PERIODICAL: Steklo i keramika, 11058, Nr 12, pp 6 - 13 (USSR) ABSTRACT: As an examole of such installations, 'the autho2 describes the furnaces of the Karkula factory (Finland), featuring a combined oil and electric U heating system. (Figs 1,2 and 3). The latter is effected by means of special air atomizers and molybdenum electrodes. The workinc- temperature of the furnaces amounts to 1530 - 15500 0(crystallizing range) and 11500 (feeding range). Figures 4 and 5 show the arran--ement of the electrodes. Further, the fuel consumption in the furnaces and the current density of the electrodes are indicated and described as being too high for molybdenum electrodes, according to the paper by E.V.Borell (Ref 1). In fig-ure 6 'the electrodes are distributed in such a way as to secure their Card 113 sy=etrical j)erformance; the author assumes the Gas-Electric Tank Furnaces for Glass Helting SOV/72-58-12-3/23 oueration of the electrodes to be i nd ividual" 1Z.- cortrorl I ed The table shows the specific heat consumption, depending on the specific output at a tank surface of 20_m2; in figure 7 this dependence is represented graphically. In conclusion the author states that .-as-electric furnaces represent a progressive furnace type and that it would be therefore useful to adopt them in the Jlass industry yf the USSR for' the manuICacturing of piece products. The construction of such furnaces must be sped up in the Moldavskaya SSR. At the Gorlkovskiy stekollnyy zavod Lror1kovs11y glassworks) the changing over of a large furnace producing 140-160 t sheet glass a day to the gas- electric heatin.,r system is to be effected. As no experience in this connection has yet been made, the performance of these furnaces is to be thoroia.vhly investijated, in order to obtain the prerequisites for thle quickest possible charging over of other sheet. glass producing furnaces. Measures must also be taken, in order to secure the production of molybdenum electrodes Ca r d 2 3 in the USSR. There are 7 figures, 1 table and 1 Soviet Gas-Electric Tank Furnaces for Glass Melting sov/72-56-12-3/23 reference. Card 3/3 . . . . . . . . . . . . VC 2141t,11" m - $*.I. AvIvTI-V j*: fvrc .104180.0 2.0'1.311ji. I-pl@ out rtdc -.1tuaiii -A-& 'llivir.tvi. ul J. tj.3.j.q.., us jo Jet ... 74 -doole CIA -- I Seliq ... WIS -112 jo ?vjjo.o .0101.1.0 ;a 0%1.wtj.l .1j.4 %M,c .1 V1 yet O.I.imo-S .-I, -j-P.J4 f4oj@u;.v 2. 1JOSIng t1wollo.4) U, 22, 1 OA Tj go 0 n 4""nic .41:-JoAd .1e: Jo 7. Weld t" Voiotia o I.T*or jo-olf" _r @erj..VT..- rve Po R - 41 UI 'V=ACV ! 1: j. l-'-: x1mz ...... . ea joint p,,.pvm J.j ".V 3. O,1"pj3vI 'j:.; .0 Idol -01 J,, P T@-V:@ T- f.112,1@...A -,Hrira out I* Uet J. JIDUO03 2 1 41 .1 11 OC .011 .0 2 qt-It dd -?I 'A '1K61 X.I.,vor ... In .,;% go jo im.410 ...I VILNIS, K.K.; POLLYAK. SUFAHMO, M.G. Most satisfactory temperature conditions for the melting end oi glass tank furnaces. Stek. i ker. 15 no.4:1-@'Ap-158. NIRA-Ili5) 1. Institnt stekla. (Glass furnaces) 15(2), 15(6) SOV/72-59-3-3/19 AUTHORS: Vilnis, K. K., Stepanenko, D1. G@ TITLE: Heat Exchange Between the Char-e and the Hearth of the Glass C, M,elting Furnace(Teploobmen Tetlidu shikhtoy i plamennym prostranstvom steklovarennoy pechi) PERIODICAL: Steklo i keramika, 1959, Nr 3, pp 8 - 11 (USSR) ABSTRIICT: The authors state that data contained in publications are very contradictory with respect to the dependence of the melting rate of glass as well as the furnace efficiency on temperature (Figs 1 and 2), and are therefore not a reliable basis for the intensification of the melting process in tank furnaces. Relatively few investigations have so far been carried out in the field of heat exchan-e research (D. B. Ginzburg, Ref 1). The present paper offers an explanation ,e between the upper furnace structure, the of heat exchanF CJML-ge, and the char -e foam in the melting region, basing ,5 shows the dependence on K. K. Vilnin' paper (Ref 2). Pi@qiro ' Card 1/2 of temperature of the charlire stirface on the ma.-Inittide of Heat Excliant.,e Between the and the Hearth of the SOV/72-59-3-3/19 Glass MeltinL Furnace the heat current flo-,%,inC onto it, and figure 4 depicts the heat amount absorbed by the charlire, Figure 5 gives the variations of temperature in every point of the char..e stir- face. Tht@ heat amount absorbed by tile melting zone depends, firstly, on the ratio of tile areas occupied by the char@e and the charje foam, and secondly, on the --i-agnitude of the absolute temperature in the upper structure. The efficiency increase of tank furnaces for .-laso melting is not only brought about by providing high temperatures, but also by the rational exDloitat-ion of thc. heat exchanje both in the gas zone and in the glass mass. Further accurate invPf--fi-@a- tions are reouired for this _jurpose. There are fi@ttres and 4 references, 3 of which are Soviet. Card 2 2 15(2) AUTHORS: Stepaneako.., M. G@ Favlov, V, S. SOVI/72@59-4-2/21 TITLE- On the Effect of a Bloc:king Device on the Thermal BalwAA of the Cooling Part of a Tank Furnace ( 'Vliyaniye zagraditellnogo ustroystva na teplovoy balans studochnoy chasti vannoy pechi) PERTODICAL,. Steklo i keramika.. '1959 kIr 4, pp 6-11 (USSR) ABSTRACT: For the purpose of increasing the specific output of wtal@, the melting temperature of the furnace must be increased. Since the working temperature of the glass mass must, however, remain unchanged in this case, the processing part of the furnace had to be screened off, Howe-wer. it was found in this connection that the temperature of the flow of the glass mass to be processed was considerably lower, Since nothing else had been changed in the design of the furnace this could only be ex- plained by the introduCtion of the lower colder glass mass into the flow to be proceased which was confirmed by temper- ature measurements performed by the teplotekhnicheskaya labora- toriya JnBtituta stekla (Heat Engineering Laboratory of the Glass Institute) and foreign investigations (Ref 1). This might.. however, cause deterioration of the quality of the Card 1/3 glass mass. For' this reason, inve3tigations had to be carried On the Effect of a Blocking Device on 'the Thermal SOV/72-59-4-2/21 Balance of the Cooling Part of a Tank Furnace out in order to find a design of screening which would guaran- tee an increased output of glass mass without a deterioration of the quality,, In figures 1,20, and 4 the different types of furnaces with and without shuttle are shown and discussed. The velocity of the upper layer of the glass mass was deter- mined by using floats and the amount of the convection cur.- rents by using the A. A, Sokolov formula (Ref 2). In table I the technical and operational characteristics of the furnaees investigated are given and table 2 gives the thermal balances of the cooling parts of the tank furnaces, In table 3 the balance of the glass mass in the range of the blocking devices of the furnacesis given, Maximum specific temperature drops may be observed in tanks with deeply immersed shuttles and low screens. This explains the opinions expressed by I- I, Tukh and M. B, Epellbaum (Ref 3). In table 4 the thermal balances of the flow to be processed in the range of the screening device of the furnaces investigated are given, Figure 5 shows the dependence of the output of first-quality glass on the coef- ficient of the introduction of the metal@ The investigations Card 2/3 carried out of the furnace output as well as the operational On the Effect of a Blocking Device on the Therma' SOV/72@59-4-2/21 0 1. Balance of the Cooling Past of a Tank Furnace and technical values are considered to be a beginning of the investigations of a screening device which makes it possible to find an optimum design and optimum operational conditions for increasing the fusibility of the tank furnaces without risks- The influence exercised by the blocking device on the quality of the production must also be thoroughly investigated. There are 5 figures- 4 tables, and 4 references,, 3 of which are Soviet.. Card 313 PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITATION SOV/5484 .3tepanenko, Mikhall Georgiyevich Puti sovershenstvovaniya vannykh steklovarehnykh pechey (Ways of TMproving Vat Glass Furnaces) Moscow, Gosstroyizdat, 1960. 160 p. Errata slip inserted, 2,200 copies printed, Sponsoring Agency: Gosudarstvennyy nauchno-lasledovatellskiy institut stekla, Ed. of Publishing Housei S. A, Gladysheva; Tech. Ed.: L. A. GeraBimuk. PURPOSE: This book is intended for glass technologists. COITERAC7': 2he book describes reverberatory, electric, and gas-and- e1e-;-,1c vat furnaces for the manufacture of glass. Heating methods.,fuel supply, heat distribution,, heat exchange, w6rk space arrangements and the effect of partition structures on the oper- tional efficiency of these in large industrial furnaces are dis- cussed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the design and construction of special purpose vat glass furnaces. The Card-1,/3- Ways of Improving (Cont.) SOV/5484 author thanks 1. 0, Tomashevich and V. V. Pollyaks Candidates of Technical Sciences; K. K. Vilnis., Scientific Worker; V. S. Pavlov, As irant; and V. D. Soskova, Junior Scientific Worker, There are E4 references: 56 Soviet, 20 German, and 8 E@glish. TABIZ OF CONTENTS: Introduction 3 Ch. I. Present State of Glass Vat Furnaces in the USSR 5 C". 11. Vat Furnace as a Technological Unit 9 Ch. III. Glass Furnace as a Heat Exchange Unit 14 Ch. IV. Prospects of Developing and Increasing the Technical and Economic Efficiency of Glass Furnaces 138 Card- 2/3--@ PATRIN, P.A.1 in2h.; KISBVW, V.Y.; TSIPEMK, M.I.. Inzh.; YonisiffsKry, #.A., iand.tekhn.nauk; SIDOV, V-G-. LURIYIC, K.S.; STAPARIM, N.G., prof. Over-all mechanization and automatization of the heat treatment nf ceramic stones (comment on K.r. Rogovyi's and D.O. X)novalov's article). Stroi. mat. 6 no,3:25-27 Mr 160. (NTRA 13:6) 1. Severo-Kavkazakaya nauchno-isaledovatellskaya stantslya po stroltalletyu i stroitellnym materialam (for Patrin). 2. Zaveduyushchly laboratoriyey tresta karagandastroymate- rialy (for Kishenev). 3. Ukrgiprostroymterialy (for TSIpenok). 4. Zaveduvushchiy kafedroy energeticheskogo oboradovanlya i avtomatiki RostovBkogo inzhenerno-stroitell- nogo inatituta (for Voznesenskiy). 5. Glavnyy inzhener inatituta Roestromoproyekt (for Sedov). 6. Glavnyy teplo- tekhnik instituta Rosstromproyekt (for Lurlye). (Kilns) (Automtic control) STAPA"MO, N.G. I ....... ... 'Glass" by N.Uchalov. Reviewed by M.G.5tepanenko. Stek.i ker. 17 no.3:48 Mr 16o.' OURA 13:6) (Glass manufacture) (F-achaloy, N.) STEPANENKO,, M.G.; PAVLOV, V.S. Ways of improving the productivity of pot furnaces for plate glass. Stek.i ker. 18 no.8:12-15 Ag 161. (IOU 14:8) (Glass furnaces) cl",;r-, .IT, CIS 111;, 2.1, C '7lOctrOchc-'c,-d activztion 0-7 c=czlts. Do-'-!. -'l:' 141 0-1:172-175 ("IMI. 14:11) -rodsta-vleno akadpi-,z':c,i 1.V.Belo,.-r.... L@ . - (Cement) (Eloctroeher-istry) NOKHRATYAN, Koryun Amazaspovich, kand. tekhn. nauk;,�T7 _ M.G., -- doktor tekhn. nauk, prof., nauchnyy red.; NAUI-;'OV, M.M.., kand. tekhn. mai*,, nauchnyy red.; ROGOVOY, M.I., laureat Gosudarstven- noy premli, nauchrqy red.; KOSYAK321A, Z.K., red. izd-va; RUDAKOVA, N.I., tekhn. red. (Drying and firing in the structural ceramis industry]Sushka i ob- zhig v pron7shlennosti stroitellnoi keramiki. Moskva, Gosstroi- izdat, 1962. 602 p. (@aRA 15:12) (Ceramics) (Building materials) STEPANEUKO, M.G., doktor tekbn.nauk, prof.; PAVLOV, V.S. Method of calculating tank glass furnaces with developed working end arrangements. Stek. i ker. 19 no-3:1-6 Mr '62. (MIRA 15:3) (Glass furnaces) doktor tekhn.nauk, prof.; LIFSHITS, A.V., inzh.; SIMIN., G.F., inzh. Study of heat exchange in tunnel ki-1ns during the firing of ceramic wall materials. Stroi.mat. 8 no.7:28-30 JI 162. (MMA 15: 8) (Ceramics) (Kilns) VI LNIS, dolitor tii-h ntiuk [decea A.Yu., imli. Opt, r,-,Al depth of furnaces for dark green glass. Stek. i ker. 21 rio.1:0,-13 Ja 164. (WRA 17: 8) 1. Institut stekla (for Vilnis, Steparienko). 2. Krasnodarskiy utekolvnyy zavod (for Kaplan). 83579 S/056/60/038/005/012/050 Boo6/BO70 X@ 10 AUTHORS: Kovallskiy, N. G., Podgornyy, I. M., Stepanenko, M. M. TITLE; Investigation of Fast Electronsfin Strong Pulse Dischargesf PERIODICAL% Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1960, Vol. 38, No. 5, PP. 1439-1445 TEXT: At firsty the authors describe the experimental arrangement and the method of measurement. The apparatus used was essentially similar to the pulse-generator used for earlier investigations. The condenser bank consisted of 12 condensers of the type AM -3/50 (IM-3/50) with a total capacity of 36/AF. The discharge chamb'&r was of porcelain, and had a length of 1 m and a diameter of 17 cm. During one discharge, the condenser bank supplied up to 45 kv. The discharge chamber was evacuated after each discharge and filled anew with gas (hydrogen, deuterium, or spectrally pure inert gases). The authors (partly in collaboration with others) had observed in earlier studies (Refs. 1-4) the appearance of a hard X-radiation and an acceleration of electrons (up to (300t2O)kev for an VV/ initial discharge voltage of 40 kv) while investigating controlled Card 1/4 83579 investigation of Fast Electrons in Strong S/056/60/038/005/012/050 Pulse Discharges BOo6/BO70 thermonuclear reactions. Following these studies@'the authors investigated the dependence of the maximum electron energy on the parameters of the discharge. The dependence of the limiting energy in the electron spectrum on the pressure of hydrogen in the discharge chamber (in the range 4.10-31 p0@==6.10_1 torr) was determined by means of a magnetic spectro- graph, and is shown in Fig, 1. In the range 2.10- 24 P04!:-1-3-10-1torr the curve shows a high maximum; the peak value of the electron energy is 295kav. The pressure dependence of the electron energies is analogous to the pressure dependence of neutron yield in discharges in deuterium, but deviates somewhat from the pressure dependence of the intensity of the hard X-radiation. The dependence of the limiting electron energy (EO) on the initial voltage Uo was also investigated (for po @ 7.10-2torr, in H2)' Fig. 2 shows E0 (U0) in the range 30< UA45 kv. E 0 steeply rises with U 0 up to Uo - 40 kv, and then falls. Further, Eo was determined as a function of the strength of an external magnetic field in the range O< H