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ACC NRs Ap6o36839 structure. The results Indicate that the observed.higb resistivity of the alloys is connected with the structure of the metastable y' phase and depends on the nature of, the alloying elements. The necessary condition for obtaining the y' phase is quenchin from the unstable 0 phase which exists In such alloys, The resistivity decreased as a rule with increasing atomic number of the additive, and increased very strongly with increasing atomic percentage of the additive, This report van presented by Acadenicii G. V. Kurdyumoy 4 February 1966. Orig. art. has 1 3 figures and 2 tables* SUB CODEt 200 U/ MEN DAMR: O3Feb66/. ORIG R17: -OOT/ OTH RM 005 Ccwd 2/2 -- - Iz- I..Vt z r-- E- - I 1,1!r r -t- I - tC Lf 2- , - F- 4 0 * 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000 0006ONNON 0- $I it " as is ita 2 a 4 is As it aa is UU w 0 - 1) - 0 aa it m of of aa r C LAU I.. v- L I a r . a a a I v I 1.1fl. -J, I it AA a (X 0a 6ad 6 11 4 a4 4 1 ~Vqo %- 'It MUM Of (eftocmo(Ybdenufn by the Silicuthtrmal without use of electric futuAte. Trkhmiki 1938, No. 1. 24~-7.-Cak-incd mulyh. cmts. MOOj KIN). So~ (1,94, SO* 8.7 end FvO .*A)4'7o. was rrduml by Fc~Si in thr prewntv ut Fe In a A;xvi41 florns". Ife-Nio tAilainni in fhe Lab. exp1q. '""fairml Sto C 11.11-o.13 arki .14 0.24- 1) A. A. I'mitmov Coo o0j coo Ioew 00.4 see *09 COO P Ot met --oO It no* sotl am I Asa3 0 0U is a. -0 a tv at it a at K a Or a PC aIt it I f o 0 0 0 a e.0 0 4_0 0 0 0 4 0 & 06 4 0 o of 0 0 * 0 If W 11 2 a Al it 0 WON& a At ft Jit It Ad -L lal a -a A-6--A -A *0 soil Ple4esdats of WWWWWOM trems toli, V. liltu so tin and R. Otillorash. Trady Moiborsbote Itia.smit tin. f. V.Ndixe 1030, No. 12,24-W- Chm Zm& M9, 11, , So 4M --A study is mported on (6,e ;;dzkm .( sm , SOS I . . . alunsinum from ash such as Is oWairwd he large quatstit" c' I 098 ; , ft 1br bu tion nt mkkval ftft4g of high ash content i h, =mg=k "0., Th. .1 "tob"4 C&O l *so A. Fr4 1,04. PrAh 11.10. AV1% 10.76. %Os NO ofmi C oo* PUS70. lAb. tstitm. yiekk4 an millay contiming of .04 1 7 A 40 4 l 1*-32, C up to 0.6, 1 . ebmt 0.2. and 8 less thall IM11%. The *Wy woo produmd by a gog4rwv pr"ftst Aw iahwh ortiod clsomal was Ifted to he the best tediocing In this, sob also mis a# a re&4ring ol nWWdn# owl to be sd&A was "it 'doctory '-p- kv ct"71"S out The process woo 1700-170. U. m4m* 0 9 ova. saftoms -0 18108j .4r a- G-c 48W1 I if 5 1 1 "IF-1- of it a' tt a MW &-06896*60996600006000404 0 41 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 a of at 41 mito 1-4 0 00 loo -00 -00 loo .00 ZOO a 0 woo woo 4`00 1400 woo zoo woo too 000 000 its 0 *81AS1 dW 4.. its a a L 1 9 FM 0 it 9 1 As Of 2 0*000000004000M didolo Sri 1*1 0u 0. 6 6 U 4 1 a Ad A' A' N_ a of 0 a Id so 14 It 11 0 At M".6- ii f-A-4 " I A, 114 4.0 `-7-0 440 f0f#Ij#4ft .1tv, ~ . 1--.11 ... . .1. -.1- -- 11-- - ~ ~ -- - --I W1611100 of Istrolvecs"'? *I a (084"tross Into Iff4lbi'llf-11 M W141FAIMIr toy At an-I 1,1 11P411, 40, 00 .1 111 Istin-J'flody 110JAW 11off. %ji Ills, V.* an active heat I.I.Atlit, it obtaltird. Itipm hawc-4 the oo .8 -%X" I I-No. 12.37-M, CAtirm.Ziglir, I . U. I,- W yk III in I hi# vot,e Io I., IKII-j- F.. I bi, 14'.1114 1 to" nf I jj~ C. A. 31, 4(ko-ot.-Ciskn. 01 Its, hesj I it Its.ul W In the alloor '-~'75 its, wollmooi,. 11.~ 1.1 Its. fm- 7 00 Ir ?.,I* v*#. for Is silivotherntal reftl frilte. ilkvn. 02,1 its. Al. 0.31s) its, botar tt-aft, and 1141ft kg~ *0 9 Ub- CxPts- vtfiW this cakn. The trwilm twk p fluorile are requil elf. The C k1wil"It ;4 ON Mlay did not ,i- MY SJOWIN A Mae was formed whkh coo(Almd tm ext"d is.p% Thr irrri-iuuxtien wilr-" SO mcftnic St. The reduction was likewise introol I Irnm slas Inclutit,114. 'the tomY444 reductiors pew-^ IIY & Milk-0013"Inal reduction of 0*8 Walfrismite with a cientlor large &list. of heat bring %jjppt;rjI %n x1joy tit hilh.* thin (it the dc~llolieil under [All, o`tIft4h1bf1FV* if$ 0 content 01M TJ m7p) WAI Pelklibeed. lout the W Yield WA, 141,11. ki1xv--hir p"Rholl."t i, Firlill- :Ot, fordy M 6 Aj`~. IL'Ak-n. of the heat tilifillit-C in ttw Ittulptrit "it ill%, lw jorolturd Itmo - fori-lite toy the AN. Oil- tb.,.l tviticlifm of wolfrantite XXVV a high ". voluf. MindAtIfflult! sfUt file 4`1111114% 111CF1111W jAI + fritmilwon) IKII)ts, showed the forrytituntraters produeed promsvc Howell", I" the rvolut'lion 4 whechle the W fly this proreto to be (if .4titfu. tality and the W yield to be 92%. yield was h,%* thoin ivitirn vniffismitt, wAq u~tl. The W Ili i:! For She forlidursk. WhCelitr W40 1110rr diffit-1111 III rr.IIUV IhAu III&I In *Chlffll~ 'on, I is. of W In the *Iloy :1017 its. ill wolirtmite and 014 Its. At are required. A difad"uttagr mit?, AmordinX to H.. the r"ulto of the l4b. ritlits. are Sold , of this prrxv" 14 the Comparatively high Consumption cd uffirien, it ofIrr m kuyvey tolf the rificaror" tod the dil. I At po!dcf. Throrelk-al cvkmv. showed turther thst in Irrmt praceg4cs and to-how thradvantAgr4of thruw4thr 00 flusnarr"s prorr" in the ptudliefilon oil Imottlicun falbef (hall (tit u%rof the clec. Ifflellifix forwor, NJ I.. %C AML! FR,! 01741.1,L10CAL JiTIRAILONIF CLASSIFKAIKIII I L* 114;vj ~Jf I*. aft @#,ill do a., &i6 3 1 v 1rx Uso A* K3 A% 3v ~Ix An A a fW a x 0 410 0 00001 0 0 If it Co At X a It of tf It it Of 03 AI is* d"d 111111 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o a 0 0 do 0 0 0 do Ca do 0 o do 0 0 0 0 0 do IS a do 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 Site 0 f 0 do 0 11111 0 00 0 * 0 11111_0~40 0-0 Roi-o-A-0-0 0 0_0 0 do do 0 0 o 0 do do 0 0 0 **0 -00 -00 v0d, 400 coo coo coo r tro 0 ties Igoe 0 0 0-1111144A 0009&00090000000 we a a 4 0 ,A -9-4-1 -A-1. - 9, b~6r 3 I-M-1, 00 A 00 A Phyak"beWeal ptInciplee of allk4a rollactwo in the odlictimoliffrosillcon. V.114 wyut W 8. K. [Avis r%fiv"Ply itcri "U'd G.-IM ).-The point I. of dc rluft, Is thil In (he Itroduclion of 1109, q is pro-, Of 3.47.4m a requit of reducing Si(h by villd C. Reduction 00 it hy CO is not likely, sim-c by the Nertut equation even at 99 MDWO011%oxidit"SA. Thr likely reaction tberefori is Theequil.const S 00 111 I.W this reaction 10 called. frivo X ~ (Pco9.AmMAv1-: So &.J&o,). where /to 6 the partial pressure of CO and Am. Ac. and A&AN are the corre-spotiding activity Indears. 0 0 Z; It ran be assumed that Amot - I and Ac - I and there. 00 j foir K - A&Xcol.' Fri"is free energy cakna. K is onn- puted far temp%. between 22M stiff 2101)*K. At 1943*K. 0 O'K - 11.3 awl Pro - 3.41 atm. At this temp. (1(170'; 00 '3 the reducilon of SIOS ;ill procred ralpidly. At 2IMPIC. . 'fIW%K-MOan4 co-15.4atm. Undersuchcon- Of u ditiot" the reaction will Proceed very rapidly. Further 0 0 14 riW In temp, Is U-Cless and will lead to km of Si Im. 03 a diagram of state It can be wen that of 27w-veraf JLj_4rI"%-II4r Fe dlicidv% the tnot stable is FeSi. Thelatteris ift formed In the presence of 11.3 wt. '!'car Matom %. The' formation of FeSi prormis according to I%% + Fe + C - FeS + 2C0. The thermal effect of this reaction C F Saisoinclutics the beat of formation of FeS. Purtherther- *I- modynarnk- calcris. are made for the formation of 43 and. 73 wt of ferrosilicon. The former is f3rmed at INV)-- 3 7 [20'Kt.- (_f.527-47') and the faller at 1804RI'K. (1567- 97~'). Iloth irmIn. are below rite temp. at which Si alone 4is"diseed. Thf-*calctm. are for pure subilsom. Ufidtf.__-_______1_-____ _W W'4" ZN;6694 ~' W tv ft " - . ft . 4. ~ .# . J~ t-- 11. 1,; 1 j040, 1~;Iuctlnn ermilitions. the prero4v of Al. Co. 161n. S. a ~_ id , of P will tffrct a change fit the ditcuw*d picture. Ilasch as( - St P 9 a 4 .7 6 1 bN.AW 10, AS 0 W v a IV 0 It Or a Ill IS It a a .00 00 .00 -00 $00 =00 coo =00 4 too coo ::0 0 me 0 0, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 * 0 0 0 00000141 0000 00 411sib"al 0 o 6,4 0311W 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 W.*=611 014'-* 6TO!; 1 A 0 12 0 U 11 It It 4 it "Pill Dun AVISM X10 12 It so 4 u it a Iffill aft ooioc* LI-L-1-1-Aill At. Q AA U.1 C~ A", I a I 0 4 00 ,,A Grap" on4thod for cakulatinS a chugg for smolong -00 00 j f2frOGUO0. V: P.- FfyWirt &A Vu. A. Pavicoso (Jifoscusir 0o .4 Inst.sterl). -WSl 7. 124-009474).-Smutgritm are Sim lot cakg. the charge in smelling FeSi. The nonwilranom 00 &it t+p(ted on the 1*4% of 3 cquatkms; for the quantity .0 00 U( frolucing agent needed. qualitity Ot PC turnings, awl 0 wt. of the alluy. The quantity tof feducing agent (cake) .60 00 4 mleol is calcd. Irmi: y - a(SMWC) where (SiOO Zi; o- the 'UOs ectittent in the quart tilt, (C) is Ole C costent -00 0 fit the MILICifft Itittfil, INS(h ill %, &H-1 4 14 4 Cneff, Flr .00 :o ff~ 46% FeN a - 44.8 xmJ I-mr M% VeN a - 42.9. ~ It It is woo auututtl Out the PC tufflifigs emilmill IN1% t4 PC. tilt quantity u( turnings nmW is -tvid. frous Z - 16(5i(h) - =00 NJ /0.90 where b is a coeff. equaling 041 and 0.14 for 43 and 75170 &1", frsp., and K is the quantity at Pe anif of coo 4-flict elements except Si entering the &Hoy (favu the quart. =*o 60.3 tile, For the 451,allar. lbequatt- Ilty oil PC vs4moldisest Is colvispenmitil toy the Fe sletivr) COO (.11 tAllct oomtcrs; Illus K m 0. For tile 7517C alloy, X a&0 004 ivc&kd.tabe2.8. The wt. of the alloy obtaltwi iscskd. 00 frcon equAlincis which in their simptifK4 horru becurnt M. 0.1114(51601) *IUl .11. 044(S%0h) fOr 45 SnLl 76 !1-00 % 9 alloys. relp. flaotch -Ir t:** 1400 boo boo j: Aso.$ 0 Gi i i aw It Some.) .41 v., o1vt Ani sopwo "six U marfailtv filpip Do* no fill Wact It 01 KW $1 1 Ilk 0110*0001000000000000004POO09 i*406000000006000000i o o * 010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 * Ole 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 * 0 * 0 0 * 01 1&0 AM* Of* tltflL_ 90A IIIA tbWRWdYA4fUiC rOMMOft tosewnst im tha ptudoctias of fenvaum aMora baft; IN the dac. MW kw~dcn al tuvwUllk cw=pd& in the NW.1 TM cqw. at jd~bm an " # istw-'. depem&mt. Givendwe"U.Con"AwrtladvocWUL, d the rmctbW substsum am rftMT C4W. For Ow Only Fe Wad& walde at den"d tMps.. X - a"- Is./arft wbers a is Av w d whi. of dansub wA Mxpds. at fq". MA Us 19 %M MWAROOM Of 10" 00 canocents in the Karl! On the &WAM*dM 0 a" a re 97 Md a 3%. and a wap. d Imal(K., In to be 1400 and the diance. ang. a - US X 10'#. Itus. tbw pr*waca ad Few Ow"Idy saw" tha Oak five- tion of bw 81 In the mW phaia. AnAestawls, hr Fe". ago the al=MWe 14 The odt. X - 0.9100 a w 0.9719. 6*0 eAls affwu dm i... i of 6" A saly OWII cassm be TWO'd; . wikii~oiv dkw=.'COu4j. be dctd.. gl" jrqg &W my be dlwvvwded In cakm. 1U ftka. d tands. own Is oes ukamm Mm thad dmxv Mv equtions. of aW snoyWs diments Is Ukwated by OtsaidW wW thmaWyn4ade " kg tW r,4,1"i,, Th, doe 004 zk=Wa. Fat FtvTl. K Is e". to be JJ X 10-1. in- -skCwW laujou" rcwt6m at on 4 fkadog that u kkk UnMe. AftTi diacm ama*. data -be OdM- from evaWLbk pbys.. i Ng data an The bests of kwasation of C=Pds. ad &WO4 ck- jAJI" goo bWlkW goo mats w" S &W Al kruc&M (be caW. of thn mm. consts. is the soelt. AP far TiC. ZcC. and WA an jfawb 1900 aw"dies to Keky. The Mwft wicate that am cat- Was am dabk ad that in 4.1 wC the MW pbm, It *=W be Into soment . that pmast. =" al It C wM Cuabbe into C.UbidM The Ond- IW Uls skd P&M. boo Jkj4.ILA M x 0 V*q 1040 SIVISISIN of"@* 04# as* r I NA ff go *, 0 10 -0 .6 WWO104 0 0-0 0 0 0 0 6A 0 1* 0 -16 0 0 0 LUIM IN,-VP. "Investigating the Effect of Some Factors on the Service of Electric Resistance Alloys." Theadi for degree of Cand. Technical Sci., Sub 10 Fob 49, Moscow Order of the Labor Red Banner Steel Instimeni I. V. Stalin. Summary 82, 18 Doc 52, PlasertatiolIg Presemte4 -For Rgerees D_Sciepce and ill 1949 From Vechernypya Moskva, Jan-Dec 1949 TA 4- t."AtiedJ1, uf A t,116 ~ i~', .I 71 eII2,c lit. jrn let Vr; t3c al v, urts It redaktor; Bole, Yet tekbniclieski3r redsktOrD .1lrJOP3 'Proisv0dat" ferrosplo'vOT; 't.COM64, ,.hwtokhn. ,a-vo lit-ri PO s1loy productiOD; e Goo* rig' - C)dcrof il"J (IT is. 1409kva 1951- 496 1)- (MLRA 8:4) ejektrom$t9,llurt9' gli. pt. 20 chernol j tove oj metsilur (Nis t....tallurgy) (Iron P* winners lilt Vo -ze IELIXIT hnIcs; on the works of StB11n Pr5 ence and tOc New achjev~ments in So~"t sc'i oj-=noe obshchestvO po rasprostraneniAu PO"t' - y skva, znanies 1952o 30 P- (7ses ogramI7 lektsli Ser-11a 3. no. 11) Broshiur of 1951 -o znaii- Y~Osco"- y-sten cheskikh I nauchnykh DA ------------ USSR/Engineering Metallurgy Card 1/1 ; Pub. 41-11/18 Author : Sokolov, L. N., Yelyutin, V. P., ard 7AIesakiy, V. 1. Title : Investigation of the plastic properties of commercial titanium Periodical : Izv. AV SSSR. Otd. tekh. nauk 3, 110-115, 1954 Abstract : Studies behavior of titanium specimens in upsetting test and in test- ing for tension, torsion, and impact at various temperatures, from 20 to 1,OOOOC. Diagrams, tables, micrographs. Institution Submitted by Academician M. A. Pavlov, April 3, 1954 s. fyw 4 YELYUTIN,'V. P. (Prof.)(Ph. D.): PAVLOV, Y. A.; WRKULOV) R. F. (Eng.) "Temperature Detex-minations at the Start of the Reaction in a Reduction of Oxides by Carbon." In book: Application of Radioisotopes in Metallurgy, Syr-Tosiwm XVAIV; Moscow; State Publishing House for Literature on Ferrous and Nonferrous Metallurgy, 1955. T, 45-5'x- Prof. B. P. 'YELYUTIN, Ph. D.; Y. A. PAVLOV, Assistant; R. F. MERKULOV, Engr/Chair of Rate Metal Metallurgy, Moscow Inst. of Steel im I. V. Stalin. YELYUTINJ V. p. (prof -) (Dr. Tech. Sci- ); MAURAU, M. A.; pAVLOV) Y. A. ; ------ S,-,el'L-led Titanium with Gx-aphiteI" in book The Applicaticn "The Interaction of ;y,, symposium XXXIV ; Moscow; State publishing House for of Radioisotopes in MetallurE ferrous Metallurgy) 1955-(ruy--1.1~ Literature on Ferrous and Non V. p. yELyuTIN, Dr. Tech. Sci.; M- A. MAURAKH, Assistant; Y. A. PAVLOV, Assistant/ Prof. st.of Steel im I- V, Stalin, Chair of Bare Metal MetallurgY.- Moscow In YELYUTIN, V. P., Dr. Technical Sci.; HATIWISON, A. K.; I "The Degree of Homogeneity of Mechanical Mixtures of Metallic Powders,," in book The Application of Radioisotopes in Metallurgy, Symposium XXXIV; Mozcov; State Publishing House for Literature on Ferrous and Nonferrous Metallurgy, 1955- p - 2,7~- 292- V. P. YELYUTIN, Dr. Tech. Sci.; A. K. Nathanson, Assistant/Chair of Rare Metals Metal- lurgy, Moscow Inst. of Steel im I. V. Stalin. USSR/Engineering Metallurgy Card 1/1 Pub 41 11/16 Author : Yelyutin, V. P., Maurakh, M. A., Pavlov, Yu. A., MGsccjw Title : Penetration of liquid titanium into graphite. Periodical : Izv- AN SSSR, Otd. Tekh. Nauk 5, 129-132, May 1955 Abstract : This investigation was made necessary because with the present method of melting titanium in a graphite crucible there was too much loss of the metal by its penetration into the graphite and also its seepage completely through the crucible and onto the heating elements. This caused the breakdown of the heating furnaces. In conclusion the author states that ordinary graphite crucibles are too porous and cannot be used. It is recommended that graphite crucibles with higher walls and smaller bases, made of the lowest porosity graphite, be used in melting titanium and that the metal be kept in the crucible, in its molten state, for minimum periods of time and at'the lowest temperatures possible, above melting point. Graphs, tables. one refer- ence, USSR. Institution Submitted April 1, 1955 1. A, ~ *-~-, I - ". 1 1- t I . I : '-. i_'- .. 9 YT /- /yc, 7 //Y, ~/, ~ / IN WWWW1 yFl Y U T 11 V. D-8 IjSSR / Liquid" jzik&) No 4, 1957) lio 9092 Abs 'Tor - Itef 2hur - Y A X.., mautl~h) 14. N. cl.Commercisi Titanium Author yelyalny- face Tension of Licill 1 Sur Title *.'SensitlIan( . ota. tekhn. no~ 1956, go 4, 129-3-31 orig pub T ZV -AN SSSR, .9 of the measurements Of I of a method and result 0.1~ Fe, leas DeacrIPtiO' rof co=ercial tit&niwn (I n 000 mg) in Abstract the surface tension an 0-1~ Ca) and less tha erature d^ tha,n 0.2$ Si, less tI the crystallization temp the liquid siate. At 3.510 � 18 dyne/cm. Card . K'k- d rest. Zdox-,,,"* 3 no.3-5-6 Vir 157 Hyglem of studant's work an (j4i 10:4) 'br,zovanira SSSR 1. 14inistr vY'Rsb o o M (sTUDIN 2s 7 6' h 4> 1'6/ PHASE I BOOK EXPLOITATION 230 Yelyutin, Vyacheslav Petrovich; Pavlov, Yuriy Aleksandrovich; '-U-r-TH, ~-r ~se~ye ~0; Ubkseyev, Yevgeni7 Nikhaylovich. Proizvodstvo ferrosplavov; elektrometallurgiya (Production of ferro-alloys; Electrometallurgy) 2d ed., rev. and enl. Moscow, Mashgiz, 1957. 436 P. 7,500 copies printed. Ed.; Alekseyev, Ye. M.; Ed. of Publishing House: Rozentsveyg, Ya. D.; Tech., Ed.: Vaynshteyn, Ye. B. PURPOSE: The book is intended as a textbook for students at Institutions of higher learning. specializing in metallurgy and may also serve as a manual for engineers and scientific workers. COVERAGE: Theoretical and practical data on production of ferro- alloys are systematized and generalized in this book. The theoretical foundations and technology of producing various ferro-alloys are discussed, Some information on physical chemistry is given in order to facilitate Card 1/7 understancL4-ig of thermodynamic calculations. -Production of Ferrb-alloys; Electr~metalliurgy._(Cont.) 230 Problems of economics and 6f safety engineering in the production of ferrous alloys are elucidated. 'The present edition of this book gives a more detailed description of technology and progress in Soviet and non-Soviet ferro-alloy industries than that given in the first edition. The bibliography contains 93 references, 69 of which are Soviet, 15 in FxAlish, 6 in German and 3 miscellaneous. TABU OF CONTENTS: Foreword 6 Ch. I* Brief Notes on the Thermodynamics of Ferro-alloys 7 Ch. II. Silicon Alloys 27 1. Physicochemical properties of silicon and its compounds 27 2. Composition and use of silicon alloys 39 Raw materials for production of silicon alloys 42 Theoretical base for reduction of silica 46 Card 2/7 ,Production of Ferro-alloys; Elpetr6niettalurgy (Cont.) 230 5. Production of high-grade ferrosillcon 55 6. Aluminum-silicon alloy 80 7. Calcium-silicon alloy 87 Ch. III. Manganese Alloys 97 1. Physicochemical properties of manganese 98 2. Manganese ores 105 3* Manganese alloys 109 4. Carbon ferromanganese 110 5. Production of manganese-silicon alloy 124 6. Production of medium-carbon and low-carbon ferromanganese :L28 7. Production of metallic manganese -133 Ch. IV. Ferrochromium 153 1. Physicochemical properties of chromium and its compounds 153 2. Grades of ferroc hromium 166 3- Chromium ores 168 4. Methods of obtaining ferrochromium 172 Card 3/7 Production of Ferro-allOYB; Blectrdmetialurgy (cont.) 230 Ch. V. Ferrotungsten 215 1. Physicochlmical properties of tungsten and its compounds 215 2* Tungsten.ores 1 220 3. Methods of obtaining ferrotungsten 222 4. Selection of production method 246 Ch. VI. Ferromolybdenum, 249 1. Physicochemical properties of molybdenum and its compounds 250 2. Molybdenum ores 256 3. Methods of obtaining ferromolybdenum 258 Ch. VII. Ferrovanadium 28l 1. Physicochemical properties of vanadium and its compounds 282 2, Development of the production of ferrovanadium in the Soviet Union 286 3. Vanadium ores 288 Card 4/7 Production of Ferro-alloys; Bleetro'meta2lurgy (Cont.) 230 4. Production of vanadium 290 5. Production of ferrovanadium. 297 Ch. VIII, Ferrotitanium 311 1. Physicochemical properties of titanium and its compounds 311 2. Titanium minerals and ores 320 3. Thermodynamic bases of the reduction of titanium oxides 321 4. Technology of production of ferrotitanium by the aluminothermio process 324 5. Obtaining metallic titanium 332 Ch. IX. Zirconium Alloys 335 1. Physicochemical properties of zirconium and its compounds 336 2. Zirconium minerals and ores 342 3. Production of zirconium alloys 34J 4. Production of metallic zirconium 34 Ch. X. Ferroniobium 350 Card 5/7 e 230 j0..; Bloctr6mets1lurgy (Cont') ounds 350 FerrO-al to comp 353 Production of a, properties of nlo-blum and 353 rhysieochemi,o as rind ores 1. NiobiUm minev onjobiUm 358 2, on of ferr 3. product. Is 359 Ferroboron 363 Cho X1. sicochemical properties of boron and 'to compound 363 Phy Boron ores ferroboron 369 tion, of 3. Froduc XI-j. FerrOphosphorus osphorus and its 369 Ch Pbysicochemical properties Of Ph 371 Compounds f ferrophOsphoruO ces 375 production 0 Iron in Sl.otric Furna OIL Ch. production Of Cast du0tiOn Of Ferro-alloys 39- Problems in the Pro Cho FConomle Card 6/7 Production of Ferro-alloys; Electrometanurgy 1. Production planning 2. Production cost of ferro-alloys 3* Organization of production control. Appendices Bibliography AVAIIABIZ: Library of Congress Card 7/7 (Cont.) 230 394 401 412 416 434 rd, 24 x2i -8-13 34 AUTHORS: Grigorlyev,G.A.~ Telyutin, V.P. and Maurakhj M.A.(Moscow). TITLE: Viscosity of molten titanium. (Vyazkost' rasplaviennogo titana). ,e Tekhnich PERIODICAL: "Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Otdeleniy eskikh Nauk" (Bulletin of the Ac*Sc Technical Sciences Section), 1957t N0.8t pp. 95-101'ZU.S.S.R.) ABSTRACT: The titanium was molten in graphite crucibles which were sufficiently dense to hold the molten titanium for twenty- five minutes without appreciable penetration of the metal into the crucible walls. The authors used the method of Meyer which was further developed by Shvidkovskiy, Ye.G.(2) and was intended for measuring torsional oscillations of a cylinder with a liquid suspended on an elastic thread and then determining the viscosity from the logarithmic damping decrement and the period of oscillation of the cylindrical crucible suspended on the thread and filled with the molten metal to be investigated, The authors used ahigh tempera- ture viscosity meter embodying a vacuum resistance furnace with a carbon-grap&te heater, the design of which was described by Yelyutin et alii (3), a sketch.of which is Cardl/2 shown in Fig.1, p.96. The estimated measuring error was 5 to 6% and the Ti used in the experiments was produced by Viscosity of molten titanium. (Cont.) 24-8-13/34 the magnesium-thermal method and remolten in an are furnace; it contained less than 1% admixtures, i.e. max 0.2% Fe, max 0.2% Si, max 0.4% 0, max 0.1% N. The results obtained in five series of measurements at temperatures between 1730 and 1920 C are entered in Table 21 p.100 and it can be seen from the obtained data that the viscosity decreases from 0.89 to 0.37 centistokes if the temperature increases from 1730 to 1920 C. Calculated results show that the free energy of the viscous flow is a linear function decreasing with temperature. The heat of evaporation/energy of activation of the viscous flow ratio equals 2.7. There are 2 tables, 4 figures and 10 references, 5 of which 4we Slavic. I I SUBMITTED: April 26, 1957. AVATLA Library of Congmse Card 2/2 y E'L Y 0 r/ Al~ V, P. AUTHORs Yelyutin, V.P.y Xinister of Higher Education, USSR. 3-11-1/17 TITLEs 40 Years of Higher Schoola in USSR (Vysehaya shkola SSSR za sorok let) PERIODICAM Vestnik Vysshey shkoly, 1957, llv PP 3 - 10 (USSR) ABSTRACT# The author gives a description of the educational conditions in Russia before and after the Revolution. He states that the development of higher education made enormous progress during the post-revolution period. He indicates some figures relating to this evolution. The number of students in 1940 amounted to 811,000; in 1950 to 1,247,000; in 1957 to 2,001,000. Compared with 1919 the number of students increased by 16 times, especi- ally in the fields of engineering, transport communication, agriculture, forestry, and economy. The creation of vuzes in remote areas was considertbly-activated. The organization of new vuzes and the expansion of those already existing was car- ried out in the Ural, western and eastern Siberia, in the Far East and in Central Asian republics. The number of students increased in 1956 by 1.6 times compared with the figure of 1950 and bY 3.2 times compared with 1940. In tha eastern areas Card 1/2 there are 25 technical, 7 agricultural, 6 medical and a few 40 Years of Higher Schools in USSR 3-11-1/17 other higher educational Institutions. In the Soviet Union there is no republio without a national university and other higher educational institutions. In 1956 the Soviet higher and secofidary special educational institutions released 770,000 specialists, and during the last 5 years - more than 2,700,000. The Soviet Union has now 38 universities, and the number of students amounts to 200,000. A characteristic feature of the higher schools is the uninterrupted endeavor' to improve their education methods. ASSOCIMON: Ministerstwo vysshego obrazov&WAya SSSR (USSR Xinistry of Higher Education) AVAnANX: Librax7 of Congress Card 2/2 SOV/163-58-1-17/53 AUTHORF)s Yelyutin, V. P., Pavlov. Yu. A., Glukhovtsiuv, B. V. . .......... TITLE: The Interection Betwei~n Nickol-Vanadium Alloys and Refrac- rories (Vzaimodeystviye nikeleyanadiyevykh splavov s ogneuporsmi) PER10DICALt Nauchnyye doklady vysshey shkoly. Metallurgiya. 1958. Nr 1, PP 87-92 (USSR) ABSTRACTt The present investigation was carried out to improve the tech- nology of high-temperature alloys, especially in regard to the removal of inclusions of rion-metals or gases in alloys. Nickel-vanadium alloys were used as 161tial materials the neir of which was produced at 1 800 - 1 900 . The melt of the nickel-vanadiu,m alloys waE carried out in crucibles of Al? 01. BeO, ZrO. with diffsrent duratJon of storing. The analysie sho,ved that the alloy3 were rich in -gasca nuch an 0,072 - 0,0222~ 02 and 0,01 - 0,0951% N 2' It was found that the high gas content of the alloys is caused by inclusion of the initial Card 1/4 materials, especially the aluminum thermic vanadium. SOV/16i-58-1-17/55 The Interaction Betneen Nickel-Vanadium Alloys and Refractories To determine the suitable refractory for the nickel-vanadium alloys the interaction between the alloys and the refractory wan Investigated, Vanadium is a comparatively activP metal in the melt and reacts energetically with the refractories of the crucible, bringing impurities Into the metal melts. In the re- actions mainly VO reacts. In the interaction between VO and the oxides of refractories also V20 3 is formed. The lower sta- bility of ZrO2 as compared to vanadium melts is probably a consequence of the reaction 2ZrO + V ~FkZr 0 + VO. 2 . 2 3 By means of radioactive indioatorn the character of the ln'~er- action bet-ieen the refractory and the liquid metal alloy with a vanadium content of 30% was determined. ZrO . was used as r,~-- fractory to which the radioactive isotope Z ~5 'was added. The investigations showed that non-metallic impurities can be avoided only if the melt to not overheated and is left in the state of melting for as short a period an possible. The reaction products were Investigated also by means of' x-ray Card 2/4 structural analysis to explain the charactez of the interac- SOY/163-58-1-17/53 The Interaction Between ffickel-Vanadium Alloys and Refractorips tion between the refractory and the liquid nickel-vanadium alloys. This analysis showed that in the interaction betwp,~n the alloys and the refractory ZrO2 is reduced to Zr- The character of the interaction between the alloys and the refractoriec of beryllium oxide was not explained by th.,? Y-ray structural analysis. Probably only little vanadium oxide is formed in the interactionj this vanodinm oxide dis- solves in the melt. Beryllium vapor is formed whIch alao diti- solves in the metal melt. Experiments on the interaction of nickel-vanadium alloys and Al 0 were also carried out. 2 3 The macro- and microscopic investigation of the surface off zirconium bricks 3howed that in the melting in zirconium crucibles in the case of a longer peri6d of storage the metal melt penetrates the ZrO.. In melting beryllium and aluminum oxide in crucibles the interaction between the liquic metal and the refractory is much smaller. Card 3/4 There are 1 figure and 1 referenceo sov/163-'~6- 1 -17/5", en Nickel-Vanadium Alloys and Refractor~J,~.,: The interaction Betwe 1 Institute) ASsoCIATION: MoskovskiY institut stali. (Moscow Stee SUBMITTEDs October 1, 1957 . Card 4/4 AUTHORS: Yelyutin, V. P., Merkulova, R. F., SOY/163-58-7/-2/49 Pavl ov-1 _M TITLE: Investigating the Reduction Reactions of Metal Oxides With Carbon (Issledovaniye realttsiy vosstanovleniya okislov metallov uglerodon) PERIODICAL: Nauchnyye doklady vyashey shkoly. blettLIlurgiya, 195a, 11r 3, PP 10 - 14 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The influence of the temperatures on the reaction velocity of the reduction of metal oxides with carbon was in- vestigated. Activated and non-activated charcoal were used as reducing agent; it had been obtained by the inter- action of the gas mixture CO 2+ 04o 2 with metallic magnesium. The initial temperature of the interaction between carbon and motal oxides, as for instance MoO 39 Fe OV V 0 11b'O and TiO was determined. The reduction 2 2 5' 2 5 2 0 of V 205 was investigated at 6oo, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 C, 41r44)-i the reduction of MoO 3 at 500, 590, 600, 650 and 700 0 C, Investigating the Reduction Reactions of Metal Oxidea SO-1/163-58-3-2/49 With Carbon the reduction of Fe 0 at 500, 600, 700, and 000 0 C, and 2 3 0 the reduction of WO3 at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 C. The reduction processes take place at the same time with the increase of the reaction velocity they reach their maximum at the corresponding temperature and then slowly decrease a0ain. The increase in temperature effects an increase-of the rate of the reduction process. The kinetic curves obtained show that the reduction processes of the oxides have an autocatalytic mechanism.Vased on the results obtained the apparent activation enerCj of the reduction processes of the oxides with metals was calculated. The following values were found for the activation energy: kcal/1101: V20 5 -2,3)1'1003 - 14,3, Fe 20 3 - 11,7 and WO 3 -18,0. The linear dependence between the initial temperatures of the rednotion and the activation energy of the corresponding processes was found. -1A There are 4 figures, I table, and 9 references, 3 of which are Soviet. "3~~ I.,Lz 18(6) 'AUTHORSs Yu.A., soll/163-56-4-2/47 Glukhovtsev, B.V. kTLE; Flu idity and Density of Nickel-Vanadium Alloys (Zhidkotekuchest' i plotnost' splavov nikelya a vanadiyem) PERIODICAL. Nauchnyye doklady vysshey shkoly. Metallurgiyat 1958, Nr 4, pp 12 - 16 (USSR) ABSTRACT: In order to determine the fluidity of nickel-vanadium alloys of a content of 25, 30, and 35 % of vanadium, the method of pouring the alloys into molds of the Ruff-type was chosen. By this method, the tests can be carried out in vacuum or in a neutral atmosphere. The metal was melted in crucibles of beryllium-oxide with argon in a high-temperature resistance furnace with a graphitic carbon heater. A special furnace structure as shown here allowed the metal to be poured into crucibles without disturbing the tightness of the fur- nace. The experimental method of Yelyutin and Maurakh (Ref 6) was c=plofred to determine the specific gravity of the smelt. This for- merly used method is rather simple but reliable.- By investigating the fluidity of the nickel alloys of a vanadium content of 25, 30, Card 1/2 and 35 % It was found that these alloys showed a rather good fluidi'W; -Fluidity and Density of Nickel-Vanadium Alloys SOV/163-58-4-2/47 e.g., their fluidity surpasses that of stainless steel. T"he fluidity of nickel-vanadium alloys of the investigated composition increases with increasing concentration of vanadium. Measurings of the density of molten nickel-vanadium alloys showed that it -.~a5 lower by 0.3 - 0.4 g/cm3 than the specific density of the solid samples. TILere a.e 5 figures, 2 tables, and 6 references, 4 of which are Soviet. ASSOCIATIONt Moskovskiy inatitut stali (Moscow Steel Institute) SUBMITTED: March 29, 1958 Card 212 . .......... 3-58-6-1/34 AUTHOR: Ye.lyulillk,__,~ Minister of USSR Higher Education TITLEi The Higher School Is Confronted with Great, Responsible Problema (Pered vy9ahey shkoloy atoyat boAhiye, otvetstvennyye zadachi) PERIODICAL: Vestnik Vysshey Shkoly, 1958, Nr 6, P 3-10 (USSR) ABSTRACT. In recent years the training of specialists has been substantial- ly improved, both theoretically and practically. The system of obtaining an education without ceasing to work in one's profession has been considerably expanded. Out of 2%lOO,OO0 higher school students, 880,000 are being trained by the evening and correspondence system. In recent years higher education has developed vigorously in the eastern provinces of the Soviet Union. At present over 500,000 student a almost 25 % of the entire number, are being trained there. in 1950, there will be established in the East the Khabarovskiy avto- mobillno-dorozbnyy(Khabarovok Automobile-Roads Institute) and the Akmolinskiy sell 8kokhozyaystvennyy institut (Akmolinak Agricultural Institute). The Karagaddinakiy gornyy inatitut Card 1/3 (Karaganda Yining Institute) is being reorganized into a The Higher School Is Confronted with Great, Responsible Probleno 3-58-6-,W4 f polytechnical institute with a branch for evening study in( Temir-Tau. In the light of N.S. Khrushchev's speech at the 13th VLXSM Congress, the question of shop practice must play not only an instructional, but also a great educational role. It is considered expedient and necessary, beginning with the 1958/59 school year, to considerably increase the admission to vuzes of persons with not less than 2 years experience in industry, agriculture, and other branches of the national economy and culture, who are recommended by the social organizations of theenterprises where they are working. The new,ruleo of enrollment into USSR higher schools this year provide.for admissiont with work being discontinued, of persons awarded a gold or silver medal on graduating from secondary achools or of excellent pupils of secondary.special schools, who are in the top 5 % of the graduating class. The encourage- ment of youth with shop or personal experience does not pre- vent capable young.people with secondary education from enter- ing the vuzes, even though they have no shop practice. The now rules of admission providelthat 20 % of,adminsions be allotted for general competition in case applications of persons having priority exceed 80 % of the vacancies. At Card 2/3 present a 7 year plan of higher school development is being 3-58-6-1/34 The Higher School Is Confronted with Great, Responsible Problems planned. The most 'important task of the 6igher school is to supplement the cadres of Soviet intellectuals with young specialists who-have not only acquired the highest professional qualification,.but also have been educated in a spirit of un- conditional loyalty to their country and to the cause of the Party and Communism. ASSOCIATION: Ministerstvo vyeshego obrazovaniya SM (USSR Ministry of Higher Education) Card 3/3 AUTHOR s Funke, V. F., Yely-utin, V. P. 78-3-4-6/38 TITLE. Some Data on Equilibriun Diagrams of Chromium-Niobium. Systems( Nekotoryye dannyye x diagramme ravnovesiya sistemy khrom-niobiy) questions and Answers (Voprosy i otvety) PERIODICALi Zhurnal Neorganicheskoy Khimii, 1958, Vol. 3, lir 4, pp. 866-867 (USSR) ABSTRACT: Question :In publications data exist on the fact that at 13000 the cubic face-centered 1TcCr (HgCu2 type) phase changes to the hexagonal phase, which remains constant up to 15goo. What is your opinion on this fact ? Answer: That refers to the diagram: tantalum-niobium, where the transition of one modification into the other is found. In the niobium- chromium system this cannot be obser*ved, any longer. Question: What is the opinion on the accuracy of determining the liquidus- and solidus points and on the analysis of alloys? Answer: Tbit can easily be observed in the iron-aluminium Card 1/3 system where the great crystallization intervals permit 78-3-4-6/38 Some Data on Equilibrium Diagrams of Chromium-Niobium System exactly to determine the temperature, to which the de- termination of the liquidus point in the fusion method corresponds. Ifere it can be determined that in the interval of 3000 the lag of the temperature in liquidus can amount 4~a 4o - 45 0. Tl,%ttyields lo - 15~ of the tempe- rature interval of.crystallization of the alloy. For measuring temperature the thermocouple element is used in this case, which is connected with the molten part of the sample. Besides, here the cooling-down curve (Thcrmal ana- lysis) is recorded. In determining the fusion temperature according to both methods a difference of lo - 2oO is found. After this the accuracy in determining the temperature of solidus in alloys, which must amount to + 15%,is classified. .Question: How is it that you put in the (~hromium-niobium dia- gram such a low melting temperature for niobium - 21000 1? Answer; The melting temperature of niobium lies higher, Card 2/3 however this problem was out of question, since in the ex- 41 78-3-4-6/38 Some iata on Equilibrium Diagrams of Chromium- Iffobium Systems periment no pure niobium, but 99,54, niobium with 5% tantalum content was used, because pure niobium was not present. (See article publ. in Izv. Ali SSSRI OKhN, No- 3, 68 (1956)) Card 3/3 V . doktor tekhne u833kl R,Y., inzho; PAVIA)Vt IzLTJTIN, _it,,-prof ru..ket-dots*, knd. tekhn. uw1k. im by, solid carbon- a at the start Or metal oxide reduct Temperature stau no*'38:79-i7 158- Sbor. I.ust- talj.~,gl, redkIlikh mgtal,.Oy "o,kllkl* Institute, -1. Wedra me stali im. Stalina, The (Cbddation_reduotjou roactiOn) ( rmowtry) (Re,dioisotope jj~lnduetrlal applications) SOV/137-59-1-575 Translation from: Refcrativnyy zhurnal. Metallurgiya, 1959, Nr 1, p 75 (USSR) AUTHORS- Yelyutin, V. P., Mozzhukhin, Ye. I., Shulepov, V. I. TITLE- Effect of Combined Chemical and Heat Treatment on Heat Resistance of Alloys (Vliyaniye khimiko-terr.-ticheskoy obrabotki na zharoupornost! splavov) PERIODICAL- Sb. Mosk. in-t stali, 1958, Nr 38, pp 427-432 ABSTRACT: The authors investigated the effect of combined chemical and heat treatment (CHT) of the surface of specimens of a TiC base (71.5% TiC) alloy cemented with a NiAl compound containing 54 atom-1/6 Ni and 60 atom-16 of metallic Nb, Zr, Cr, or Be on the resistance to scale formation at 1150 - 12500C. The CHT consisted of annealing of the specimens covered with a 50:50 mixture of ZrO2 and alloying metal and 1% NH4CI in an H2 atmosphere at 15000. Saturation of the surface with niobium. and zirconium does not improve the resistance to scale formation of TiC - NiAl alloys - GHT with beryllium and chromium increases the heat resistance by 19007o and 2001o, respec- tively. The authors note that a change in the procedure of saturation Card 1/2 of the alloy surface with chromium (for example at 11500 temperature SOV/137-59-1-575 Effect of Combined Chemical and Heat Treatment on Heat Resistance of Alloys in an atmosphere of air) has no effect on its resistance to scale formation. How- ever, CHT conditions should remain constant (15000 temperature for 0.5 hour) for Be, because any difference in the interaction between Be and TiC and NiAl re- sults in a different concentration of Be in these phases. The authors submit that during longer CHT Be reacts predominantly with the NiAl and that the TiC grains become exposed, which lowers the resistance to scale formation of these alloys. R. A. Card Z/2 Lyt/-r /p1 MUT131 W,, The technical cadras in the U=sand the U$ ."Przegl techn 79 no.2: 62-64- 158, .(Rusvja-TscbnOI09Y) (United StatOls-TschnOlogy) Zan 114, Vvacheslav Petrovich ,Tj I vy Mosjrva3 ~rysshaya Shkola StrarW sotsializra- Sotsokgiz3 1959* 98p. Tables. Bibliographical Footnotes* 614,V07-141 V' Y AYZMOLIB, F. [Bisonk-olb, Friedrich], prof., Dr.Ina.habil.; MAURMI, M.A., kand.tekhn.nauk, prepodavatell (translator]; MOZZHOUN, Yo.I., )cnnd.tokhn.nauk, prepodavatell (translator]; NATANSON, A.K., kand.takhn.nauk, prepodavQtalt (translator]; LRYIN, B.Ye., kand.tekhn.nauk (tranalatorj; prof., doktor, nauchnyy red.; RUMMY, V.S., red.; ELIKIND, L.K., red.izd-va; ATTOPOVICH, M.K., (Powder metallurcyl Poroshkovaia metallurgiia. Pod nauchnoi red.Y.F.Eliutina i A.K.Hatansona. Upskva, Goo.nauchno-tekhn. izd-vo lit-ry po chernoi L tsvetnoi metallurgil, 1959 518 p. Translated from the German. iKIRA 13:1) 1. Kafedra metallurgii redkikh metallov i poroshkovoy metallur- gii Moskovskogo institute stali (for Kaurakh, Mozzhukhin, Natan- son). (Powder metallurgy) 18-3100 AUTHORS: TITIE.- PERIODICA14-. 77678 Sov/148-6o-i-1/34 _Le~~~ Pavlov, Yu. A., Lysov, B. S. Free Energy of Formation of Vanadium-Oxygen Solutions Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya metallurgiya,-1960, Nr 1, PP 5-11 (USSR) ABSTRACT: The authors iwvestigated the solubility of oxygen in metal while treating vanadium with liquid calcium within the temperature range of i,000-1,90CP C. The,equilibrium of,the system V.- 0 was investigated by heating (to a certain temperature) vanadium, contaminated by oxygen, In the presence of molten calcium or magnesium, with subsequent determination of residual concentration of oxygen in metal. The ex- perimental part was conducted in the laboratory of rare metals of the Moscow Steel Institute (Moskov- skly institut stali). Tne initial material con- sisted ofi distilled calcium, containing 0,3-0.4% N 2; Card 1/12 Free Energy of Formation of Vanadium- 77678 Oxygen Solutions SOV/1118-60-1-1/34 magnesium of MG-O type; and calcium-treated vanadium containingabout 0.5% 02-f 0.2.d,,, N21 and 0.2% C. Vanadium was crushed to the particle.size under 1.0 Rim. Tne experiments at 1,000 and 1,2000 C were conducted in steel crucibles, and at 1,5000 C In molybdenum crucibles. The crucibles contained 1-3 g of vanadium and 5-10 9 of reducing metal, Tne diagram of changes of free energy in the system vanadium-oxygen for 1,0000 C was plotted by 0. Kubashevskiy and coworkers (N. P. Allen, 0. Kubas- chewski,, 0. Goldbeck, J. of the Electroch~!m. Soc., 98, 417, 195) (see Fig. 1) who determined the value of free energy by the equilibrium content of oxygen' in metal after its treatment by liquid calcium, magnesium, alLd barium, Card 2/ 12 Free Energy of Formation of Vanadiujn- 77678 oxygen Solutions sov/148-6o-1-1/34 VO + go VO It Oard 3/~2 0 to ?0 .30 40 Fig. 1. Equilibrium diagram of a vanadium-oxygen aystem. Free Energy of Formation of ianadil-vn- Oxygen Solutions 711484-60-1-1134 Table I gives the equilibrium content of oxyj.~-en in vanadium and the corresponding values of partial free ene .rgy of Bolid solutions z 02V. Table 1. Eq~iillbrltim oxygen content in metal and partial free energy. 0)(14CM CONrENT- PARrIAL r4ZEV IN tiCtAL AFrr-R Eqrjt,&j flEOLICEA TACAr"em r, -I. CAqMO" Wivm 0 26; 0,34: 0,21 1899w HA&M1C5JVtj. . 0 181; 0,163; 0.10 224000 C.Al,t f #j" - - 0.41 6.134. 0.18. 241000 Card 4/12 Free Energy of For-mation of 'Vanadiwl- 77678 Oxygen Solutions SOV/148-60-'1-1/34 The authors determined the equilibrium concentration of oxygen In vanadium htits melting temperature, by analyzing the metal obtained by the reduction of its pentoxide by calcium in the presence of IodIne. Tne equilibrium oxygen content was considered to be the minimum oxygen content established by several tests. The value proved to be 0.02%. These results correspond to the results obtained by R. K. McKechnle, A. U. Seabolt (J. of the Electrochem. Soc., 97, 311, 1950), who obtained the following content in various samples of vanadium: 0.025, 0.031, 0.017, and 0.02c%. The results of determination of equilibritLi, concentra- tions of oxygen in vanadium, treated by liquid calcium, at 1,000, 1,200, 1,500, and 1,9000 C are givenin Table 2 and in Fig. 2(a). Card 5/ 10- Fre a Energy of Formation of Vanadium- 77678 Oxygen Solutions SOV/1118-60-1-1/34 Table 2. Equilibriijm concentrations of oxygen in the vanadium-oxygen system at various temperatures and reducers and corresponding free energy values. TCHPIFIZArvRe 0,KY6Cm 4WEM MtrIJAL KEDUCER E0 Y tr4 tip-rAL F-9 V z r-Pi V_ 9 CN 4 OC low 1273 0,13 241000 214100 CALCIUM 1200 1473 005 231500 193700 15W 1773 0:03 216300 167300 19W 2173 0.02 197 9W 133300 MA&MES10H 1000 1273 0,16 224000 107 2M 1200 1473 O,E,8 213940 178 9ca Card 6/ 12 Free Erler,W of FOrInation of Vanadlull- OyySen Solution:1 77678 Card 7/12 acentratiOns of oxy en in Fig. EquIlib-rium COIIt vjith calcium: test vanadi= after treatmer cording to thermodynamic data. (b) calculated ac data for oxides. Free Energy of Formation of Vanadium- oxygen Solutions Card 8/12 77678 sov/148-6o-i-1/34 The authors' calculations were based on conditions of reduction of vanadium (containing dissolved oxygen) by calciumi 101V + Cal tr-- Ca0s; A Z;. M.! This reaction-is characterized by the following change of free energy: A Z; A Z*co A Z(*Ojv. (2) At the same timez A Zz RT In K. (3) 'When activity of CaO and Ca is equal to 1, the equilibrium constant can be expressed by: 77678 Free Energy or ForrnatiOll of Vanadium- sov/148-60-1-1/34 oxygen Solutions %he region tlues of free energyjp characterizinz o The VE urri-oxygen (in presence of of so-Lid solutions vanadi -1 be calculated by substituting d calcium) caj ie equilibrium values of' liqui equation ti and F19- 3). into the above tions (see Table 2 oxygen concentra Card 9/12 of Formation of vanadilun- Free Energy oxygen Solutions ova T Card 10/12 .80 tL 12 77678 SOV/1118-60-1-1/3'I av, Z 60 'M ff 1 -/6 Alf WNT 2 4 LOVO z Is 0 0XV f TF #00 1000 . 3 ~d 11/12 for caption. See Ca Free Energy of Formation of Vanadium- Oxygen, Solutions Caption to Fig. 3. A vanadium-oKygen ("reatment 'treatment 2Mg + 0 - 2 M. 77678 sov/148-6o-i-i/34 Fig. 3, nomogram of free energy of formation of solutions. M 2V + 02 = 2 Z-01v by calcium); (2) 2V + 0 21= 2 ZO_7V by magnesium); (3) 2ca + 0 = 2CaO; (4) 2 2mg0j. (1j) 21C -1 0.1 u 2CO; (6) 2V + 0 2 Tne established relationship of chancre of free energy of formation of' vanadium-oxygen solutions gives means to peilform the thermodynamic calculations involving other reducers. The described methods can be used for a more general problemi the thermo- dynamic analysis of solutions of metals with oxygen in the presence of third component. There are 3 figures; 3 tables; and 5 references, 2 Soviet, 3 U.S. The U.S. references are: N. P. Allen, 0. Card 11/12 KubaschewzkI, 0. Goldbeck, J. of the Electrochem. Free Energy of Formation of Vanadium- 77678 Oxygen Solutions sov/.148-6o-l-1/34' soc., 98, 417, 1951; W. C. Lilliendahl, E. D. Gregory, J. of the Electrochem. Soc., 99, Nr 5, 1952; R. K. McKechnie, A. U.-Seubolt, J. of the Electrochem. Soc., 97, 311, 1950. ASSOCIATION: Moscow Steel Institute (Moskovskiy ins,titut stali) WnMITTED:~ January 26, 1959 Card 12/12 ~ ", ." "' 3 /4P. 9.200 3/148/60/000/002/007/008 ATJMORS% Mozzhukhin,-Ye.I., Yelyutin, V.P., Umanskly, Ya.S. TITLEi The Effect of Sinter,4Conditions on the Strength of Carbide Base Alloys CiFUU'r =ze by a NiAl Compound V1 PERIODICAL: Izvest-tya vyashikh uchebnykh zavedenly, Charnaya ~atallurglya, 1960, Nr 2, pp 142 - 147 TEM To determine optimup sintering conditions ensuring the pre- paration of h1jxh-,_qjrenRjh_AUqys.0 the authors studied the of feet of various sintering conditions on the properties of Ti-earblde'bnd Ti-W-cax-bid0base alloys carburized by a Ni-Al compound. The effect of sintering conditions on th~ strength of alloys during be .nding tests at room and elevated tempera- tures-was mainly studied, Students of the Moskovskiy institut stale (Moscow Steel Institute), Ye.A.~ Bvchkova, JL,V. Maksimova and Ye.I. Oginskaya took an active tke studies. The carburizlng alloys contained -54-- 60% (at) Ni. The given theoretical compositions of-the investigated alloys are con- tained in Table 1. The specific weight of Ti-W-carbides was calculated from 3 the weight and volume of the carbide component in hard alloys. It was 11.4 g/em q1 Card 1/ 4 S/148/60/000/002/007/008 The~Effeot of Sintering Conditions on the Strength of Carbide Base Alloys Carburized by a NiAl Compound for TL3 carbide, 6.16 &/cm3 for Ti6O carbide. The alloys were prepared of Ti- carbide powder and complex Ti-W-carbides. Powders of the initial material were mixed in alcohol for 48 hours, dried in air, pressed into briquets and dri,4d In a vacuum cabinet. Sintering was carried out in argon and hydrogen atmosphere, in a laboratory vacuum furnace with a graphite shaft and In a TVV-2 furnace. Optimum sintering conditions were determined from the results of measuring the strength, hardness, speciflo weight, and changes in the com- position of the alloys. Greatest changes in the composition were otserved in sintering Ti-carbide-base alloys In a vacuum. Loss of individuall ccmponents through sintering was oaloulated after ainterirA in a vacuum, hydrogen and argon for 1 hour at 1,7000C. The loss amounted to 15% TI, 67% Al and 13% C of the total amount of the component in the alloy prior to BinterIng. Minimum loss was observed in sintering in pure argon. Table 2 contains the composition of the T100B (15) alloy prior to and after sint-ering under different conditions. The strength of alloys during bending was investigated with the aid of a special device on a two-ton testing machine at high temperatures card 2/ 4 q/ 8/148/60/000/002/007/008 The Effect of Sintering,Conditions on~the Strength of Carblde Dane Alloys Carburized by a NIAI Compound without shielding atmosphere. Figures 1 - 5 show the effect of the sintering temperature on the alloy strength during bending. Highest strength of Ti- carbide'base alloys was obtained by sintering for I hour at 1,9000C. A raise of the sintering temperature up to 2,1000C did not affect the strength (Figure 1), although shrinkage and density of the alloys increased. Extended holding up to four hours entailed decrease in strengthl holding time reduced down to 0.5 hra entailed a decrease in density. The authors oontradict the statement made in [Ref 41 that the optimum temperature of sintering for a TIC-NiAl alloy was 1,6500C. They proved experimentally that alloys of highest strength and density.were obtained at 1,9000C and above. It was-establiahed that optimun mechanical properties of the alloys depended on the optinram amount of the licraid phahe during sintering. To obtain this, alloys with a lesser content of'binder should be sintered at higher tempgratures which ~ralse the amount of the liquid phase due to the dissolving of the carbide component. Card 3/4 q/148/60/000/002/007/008 The Effect of Sintering Conditions on the Strength of Carbide Base Alloys Carburized by a NiAl Compound There aret 2 tables, 5 graphs and 7 references, 6 of which are English and 1 Soviet. ASSOCIATION.- Moskovskiy inatitut stali (Moscow Steel Institute) SUBMITTED-, May 25, 1959 Card 4/4 q-410o 1451 858211 S/148/60/OW/003/015/018 A i AUMORS: ~bzzhukh1n,_Ye.I,; YFlyutin, V.P.; Umanskly, Ya.S. 1) Strength of Carbide Alloys emented illAl and'CoAl Compounds TITLE: bV PERIODICAL: Izvestlya vysshikh tichebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya rje*,allurgi,,ra, 1960, No. 3, PP. 131 - 135 .11 -_1 61 TEXT: An Investigation was carried out with titanium and titanium-tungsten carbide powder bound with NiAl and CoAl compounds. The effeit of the composition and of different quantities of the binders was determined. The results are illus- trated by curves. In case of titanium carbide with 15 volume % NiAl the binder composition bad no effect on the alloy strength at room temperature, but a pro- nounced effect was observed at 1,0000C. Alloys bound with binders of stoichiome- tric composition proved strongest, and alloys bound with NIA1 with 60 atomic % Ni weakest. Alloys with over 025 -vol=e % NiAl have the maximum strength. The strength of TiC-NiAl at 1,000 C was in all cases higher than at room temperature, which not fully corresponds to statements made in a previous investigation (Ref.3). Me alloy with high NiAl content had a considerably higher heat resistance than with low NiAl content. Titanium- tungsten carbide T-15 (T-15) and T -60 (-1-60) were bound with CoAl with 60 atomic 56 Co, with 10 and 15 volume % CoAl, respectively. Card 1/2 S/148/60/WO/003/01,=/018 Strength of Carbide Alloys (bmented by NIA! andCoAl Can - A16l/AO29 pounds A higher strength was observed in alloys with 15 and 20 volume % of NiAl at 9000C than in cold which is explained bv higher plastioity of NiAl at c)OOOC. At. higher temperature the alloy strength dropped. The high strength of TIC-NIAl alloys in hot state Is apparantly also due to the plasticity of NIA1 and stress redastribu- tion. This phenomenon had been observed by G.S. Kreymer, O.S. Safonova and A.I. Baranov (Ref. 4) in WC-Co alloys (maximum strength at 2000C due to softened coball-) The following conclusions were dravni: 1~' Titanium carbide alloys bound with NiAl j - have higher bending strength at 1,0000C than at room temperatire. 2) Titaniim- -tungsten carbide alloys with 16% titanium carbide bound by NiAl retain their strength up to 900-1,OWOC, 3) Titaniiur-tungsTen carbide bound with CoAl has a higher strength than analogous alloys bound with NiAl. 4) At room temperature the strength of titanium carbide alloys doeq, not depend on the composition of NIA1, but at 1,OOOOC It does. At 1,OOOOC alloys bound with NiAl of stoichiometric com- position have maximum strength. 5) The carbide base composition is Important for alloys bound with NiAl. and CoAl. Alloys with pure titanium carbide and titanium- tungsten alloys with high titanium content (64% T-10 have low strength at room temperature, bulk, they retain their strength or even Increase it at 1,000 - 1,1000C. There are 4 figures and 5 references: 3 So7i,~t, 2 EnglIsb. Card 2/2 81002J601000100810021002 0111/0222 AUTHOR: YeIntin, V.P., Minister of the Advanced and Intermediary SpOUM BdUCAM5 of the USSR TITLEt On the Condition and Problems of the Preparation of Specialists in the Domain of Meohanisation and Automatization of the Engineering-Technical and Administrative-Managing Work in th* USSR PERIODICALt Veetnik statistikif 1960, No.8p pp. 29-32. TEXTo' The specialists in the domain of the mechanization and auto- matization of the engineering-toohnical and administrative work need a good finishing education in mathematics, electrotechniquep electronics and computers. Therefore there exists the special branch "mechanization of accounting and calculating problems" at suveral high schools. In 1959/1960, 1489 students learned in this special branch. From 1950 to 1959, 1322 students finished this special education, among them 700 oompletecitheir studies at the Moskovaiiy ekonomiko-statisticheskiy inatitut (Moscow Economical-Statistioal InatLtute) and 3Q0 at the Moskovskiy aviatsionnyy inatitu-t(Moscow Aviation Institute). Furthermore the specialists in question were prepared in the mathematical faculties in the Moscow and Leningrad universities. In spite of this the specialists Card 1/3 SIOO JY601000100810021002 C11 C222 On the Condition and Problems of the Preparation of Specialists in the Domain of Mechanization and Automatization of the Engineering-Technioal and Administrative-Managing W6rk in the USSR in question are not sufficient. Therefore it is considered to educate the specialists also in the Khar1kov Engineering-Economic Institute$ in the Moscow Mechanical Engineering Evening Institute, in the Moscow Poly- graphical Institute, in the Moscow Historical Archives Institute and in the Moscow Engineering-Ea 'onomic Institute. Since 196011961 the education in the special directions "mechanization of the accounting and the calculating problems" and "programming on quickly working mathematical machines" is given in secondary schools. At the same time an advance of the quality of the preparation ahall be reached, theoretical and practical educations shall go hand in hand. The establishment of books is essential. A strengthened mathematical preparation of the students is aspired. A research on the domain of mechanization on a broad bass is essential. This research is performed already successfully at the Moskovskiy gosudarstvannyy universitet (Moscow State University) at the Loningradakiy institut tochnoy mekhaniki i optiki (Leningrad Institute of Fine Mechanics and OptiGe), Moskovskiy energetichaskly institut, Card 2/3 S10021601000100alOO21002 0111/0222 On the Condition and Problems of the Preparation of Specialists in the Domain of Vechanization~ and Automatization of the Engineerlng-Techn.'Lcal and Administrative-Managing Work in the USSR (Moscow Power EnginesTing Institute), Moskovskiy inabonerno-okonomicheekly institut (Moscow Engineering Economical Institute) and the Moskovskly ekonomiko-statiaticheakiy inatitut Q!opcow Boonomical-Statiatical Institute). There are still too little disse'rtafi-o"n's -6-ii -theiies of this special branch. A better notice of foreign experiences idnecessary. Card 3/3 YZIZUTIN, V.P.; EITAYGORDDSKIT, I. I.; JUSPE N, TO.I.; R&EKIN, T.B. CowpooltIon of microlite and of the metallic comvund JIIAI. Zhur.prild.khim, 33 w-3:559-563 Mr 160. (KIRA 13s6) 1. Moskovskly inatitut stali i Moskovskiy khimiko-takhnologi- cheskiy Institut. (Nickel compounds) (Aluainum compounds) AUTHORSt Yelzutin, V. P., Natanson, 5/032/60/036/03/036/064 shulapoy., V.-J., rUdkovskly- 8- T BbIO/BI17 TITLEs A Device Used to Mew=9 the Electric Resistance of Alloys at High Temperatures PERIODICALt Zavodakays laborstoriya, 1960, Vol 36, N'r 3t PP 344-346 (USSR) TEXTs A special device has been designed (Fig 1) for measuring the electric resistance of samples I x G x 20 up to 10 x 15 9 40 am in size and used in powder metallurgy, at 2000 to 25000, with a standard furnace of the type TVV-4 used to heat the samples. The sample is attached to molybdenum- or tantalum electrodes by spot welding. The electric resistance is measured by the compensation method (Fig 2, circuit diagram), and calibrated resistqrs are used which were V calculated by the following equations R. W R V (Rxand RE- electric resistances of the sample and the calibration sample, V. W voltage drop in the samplev VE- voltage drop in the calibration sample). Phase transfoxmations occurring in Ni-Al-Be alloys were investigated, and it was found that the electric resistance ranging between 0.1 and 0-5 ohm has to be measured at Card 1/2 A Device Used to Measure the Electric Resistance B1032160103610310361064 of Alloys at High Temperatures 3010/3117 0-01 to 0-05 a at most since otherwise the sample heats up excessively. The sharp change of the electric resistance and the temperature coefficient of the electric resistance as a function of temperature which has been observed in the alloy consisting of 55.5 atom % Ni, 37 atom % Al, and 7-5 atom % Be at 14000 in attributed to a transition of the alloy from the two-phase to the one-phase state. There are.3 figures. ASSOCIATIONs Moskovskiy institut stali im. I. V. Stalins, (Moscow Institute of Steel ineni I. V. Stalin) Card 2/2 M65 s/148/61/000/007/001/012 E073/E335 AUTHORS: _yelyutin, V.p., pavlov, Yu..A., Surovoy, Yu.N. and Shulenov, V.I. TITLE. Electric Conductivity-and Thermal Expansion of Vanadium, Molybdenum and Tungsten Oxides PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Chernaya metallurgiya, 1961, No. 7, pp. 12 - 17 TEXT: The oxides V20 51 moo 3 and WO3 are n-type semi- conductors. The electric conductivity of V 205 was investigated by several authors within a very wide range of temperatures (-200 to + 1 200 OC). One of these authoradid not study the temp- erature range of interest to the authors of this paper, whilst the results of the others might have been influenced by the interaction of the V 205 with crucible material. As far as the authors are aware, data on the electric conductivity of MoO 3 and WO3 are available only for temperatures below 200 0c, in Card 1/9 2,5065 s/148/61/000/007/001/012 Electric Conductivity .... E073/E335 this paper, specimens for tests were produced from oxides of high purity by pressing and sintering in an oxygen stream. 2 The applied pressure was 1 5 t/cm The specimens were sintered at 600 oc (V205), at 700 '~ (m003 and at 1 000 OC (WO3). The tests have shown that to obtain a stable density and electric conductivity the specimens have to be held at these temperatures for about 6 hours. The electric resistance of these specimens was measured on a potentiometric instrument convisting of a potentiometer, a mirror galvanometer and a DC source. The measurements were made at elevated temperatures by means of apparatus, a sketch of which is shown in Fig. 1 0 - test specimen, 2 thermocouple; 3 - heater; 1* - stainless-steel. tontainer; 5 lid-, 6 - stress-bearing current leads; 7 - clamping arrangement; 8 - pressure-current leads). The results have shown that the plots - reciprocal of the temperature ver-sus logarithm of the specific conductivity -- have a pronounced bend located somewhat lower than the observed temperatures of the beginning of reduction of these oxides with carbon. Card 2/9 28065 S/148/61/000/007/001/012 Electric Conductivity .... E073/E335 Figs. 2, 3a and 3ra show the dependence of thn electric, conductivity on the temperature and the reciprocal of the temperature, 1.04/T . for V2051 M003 and W03 , respectively; In Fl.g. 3 Curves 1 apply to the heating and Curves 2 to the cooling process. The bSnds were observed at about 380 OC 0 for V20 57 at about 460 C for MoO3 and at about 700 - 725 C for, WO 3' The temperatures of tho beginning of interaction of these oxides with carbon are, respectively, 438, 475 and 782 OC. Thus, at temperatures at which the reduction with carbon begins, a physical transformation occurs. which is accompanied by a slowing-down in the increase of the electric conductivity with temperature. From the point of view of the Semiconductor properties, this corresponds probably to a transition from i.mpurity- to intrinsic -conductivity of the oxides. Card 3/9 28065~/i48/61/000/007/001/01 2 Electric Conductivity .... E073/E335 In a special series of experiments with specimens consisting of V205 and finely-ground graphite, pressed and sintered for 6 hours at n50 0C, it was found that the electric resistance increased monotonously at all temperatures with increasing holding time. On the other hand,, the electric resistance of 0 pre,.4sed graphtte powder was found to drop on heatAng to 300 C and remained constant on further heating~ This behaviour of oxide-plus-graphite specimens is attributed to Interaction between them, accompanied by the formation of CO + CO the carbon consumption of the reduct:ion react.2on leads tc a de,-,rea~ze in the elertric conductivity of the specimen sinc e the ranductivity is basically determined by the electric con- dut.t.ivity of the graphite. It follows therefrom that the speed of change of the electric resi.stance at various temperatures clan serve as a characreristic. of the speed of the process -if reduction of the oxide by the carbon. Fig- 5 shows the dependence of th speed of change with time of' the e1er-cric: r#_=-~istan,-~.e (.6-PA ', r,.,0- /min) as a function of the temperature OC) Zf the V 0 plu-i C specimenA~ a sharp increase was ard .79 2 5 ~ Electric Conductivity .... 2 80 65 s/148/61/000/007/001/012 E073/F.335 0 observed at about 380 C. The conclusion drawn is that the beginning of appreciable reduction of the oxides coincides with the transition from impurity- to intrinsic-type conductivity. The results of dilatometric measurements on V 2 051 MOO3and WO3 specimens, for heating and cooling rates of 150, 200 and 250 OC/h, respectively, are plotted in Fig.6 E V2051 MOO3 (Fig.6a), 0 VO3 (Fig. 66 )],(change in length, p versus temperature, C). The temperature was measured with an accuracy of + 10 OC and the length with an accuracy of 0-5 Ii. Thermal expansion occurs up to 350, 440 and 680 0C, respectively. From these temperatures upwards, which correspond approximately to the bends in the temperature-electric conductivity curves, contraction of the specimens was observed. This contraction is attributed to polymorphous transformation or to plastic deformation caused by the measuring equipment as a result of the sharp drop in strength of the oxide at this temperature. It is concluded that at the temperature of the beginning of the reduction process, a change is observed in the physical properties, which is accompanied Card 5/9 2 8 0 6,5 5/111 8'/6i7OOO/OO7/00i/Ol 2 Electric Conductivity ... E073/E335 by a sharp decrease in the strength of the sintered specimens and by a slowing-down of the drop in the electrical resistance during heating. The beginning of the intensive chemical interaction corresponds with the transition frow impurity- to intrinsic-type conductivity. There are 6 figures and 9 references. 8 Soviet and 1 non- Soviet. ASSOCIATION: Moskovskiy institut stali (Moscow Steel Institute) SUBMITTED- January 25, 1961 Card 6/9 35217 S /I /t 8/6'Vouc/col loollol 5 E039/E435 .Xuti V P. Pavlov, Yu.A. , 7's lao Fu-I.- lang AUT11ORS: ill TITLE: The connoction beti-;-eon t, .)e 1)0-1.-Inin- or red-,Ic,,ion and the semiconductor properties of oxides PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchobny1ch zaveden-Jy. Chernaya -metallurCziya, no.1, 1962, 111-19 TENT: Th emecbanism of reduction of metallic oxidles is insufficiently understood, particularly fox- tenperatures below 7000C at which the speed of re,(.;encration of the oxides of carbon is insignificant, hence new ;-.iethods of investigation are needed. In this work the change in electrical resistance of the hiZhor oxides of vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten was investigated at -the temperature of their initial interaction with carbon. Samples of cornets (2 x 6 x Ito mni) were prepared by pressing the powdered oxides at 1.5 tons/CM2 and sintering in an atmosphere of oxygen for 6 hours at 6oo"c (VP-05); 7000C (1)'1003) and SOG"C OWO~). The electrical resistance of the samples was measured by a compensating method using a high temperature four-point probe in an atmosphere of argon at temperatures of 200 to 5800C (V205); Card 1/2 Y, S/148/62/000/001/001/01= The connection between E039/E435 320 to 6oo0c (moo3) and 500 to 8500C W03). The results show that the resistance of t1te samples has a typical semiconductor character. A discontinuity occurs in the curves relating electrical conductivity ,-Ind temperature and it is :010'.-In that the temperature at wbich tiiis discontinuity occurs is approximately the same as the temperature at which reduction of the oxides be-ins. The effect of adding SiOq to V205 i-,ras also investigated. The transition temperatures are: V-005, 373 to 430OC; V205 + 0.08" SiO,-), 381*C; V205 + 0.17',o /0 SiO2, 416*C; V905 + 0-35% Si02, 11330C; 1,1003, 1115 to 11800C; wo3, 675 to 695DC. Ii is also shown that the temperature for the initial reductIon of the oxides depends on the width of the forbidden zone .'-Eo. The larger /"Eo the highcr the transition temperature. The addition of SiO2 raises the transition temperature of V`05 and simultaneously lowers its chemical activity. There arz 3 figures and 2 tables. ASSOCIATION: Moskovskiy institut stali (Moscow Steel Institute) SUBMITTED: June 17, 1961 Card 2/2 35224 s/148/62/000/001/009/015 E073/E535 AUTHORS: Voleynik, V.V., 11fin Lysov, B.S. and Mauralch, M.A. TITLE: Electric conductivity of solid and liquid titanium PERIODICAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy, Chernaya metallurgiya, no.1, 1962, 137-140 TEXT: Although data on the electric conductivity of titanium up to temperatures of 13000C have been published, similar data relating t.o near-fusion temperature and to the liquid state have not been published. An electrod6less method was applied for measuring the resistivity of titanium. This is based on measuring the stationary torsion angle of a sj~ecimen suspended on an elastic thread in a rotating magnetic field. The stator coil winding of the measuring instrument was provided with a high temperature insulation and the coils were placed inside a water-cooled steel housing. Graphite heater elements *ore used which permitted obtaining temperatures tip to 25000C. The method of measurement of the resistivity is that applied by other authors for measuring the resistivity of molten metals. The temperature Card 1/3 Electric conductivity of solid ... S/148/62/000/001/009/015 E073/E535 dependence of the resistivity of titanium e , mohm-cm is plotted in a graph. Curve 1 represents the values obtained by the author of this paper, curves 2 and 3 are published values. For the liquid metal t-i values were obtained: A - for melts produced in ThO 2 or BeO crucibles, B - for melts produced in graphite crucibles. The author points out that the data for liquid titanium at 18000C (points A and B) are not entirely reliable and should be verified with a crucible material less active towards liquid titanium than the graphite, thorium dioxide, and beryllium'oxide used in these experiments. From the test results the temperature coefficients of a- and P-titanium wero detorminod. Th'e specific resistance of a-titanium in the temperature range 20 to 4500C can be expressed by 61.5 [ 10-3 1 + 2.48. (t - 20 and for,P-titanium, in the temperature range 880 to 17000C, can be expressed by -4 ep = 143 1 1 + 2.13-10 (t - 8801 There are 1 figure and 11 referencesi 5 Soviet-bloc and 6 non- Soviet-bloc. The four latest English-language ref ces read s Ref.2; McQuillan A.D. J. Inst. Met ., 78r,20qg, 1950-51; ar~oi~Sws: e I.fl.ectric conductivity of solid ... s/i48/62/000/001/009/015 n073/13135 Itcf-3: T.L.Iiyrtt.,rrans.Amer.Inst.min.(metal) 1,',zigrs-197,903,1953! Ile f. It :W.C.14fichels, S.-i-alford. 1]'IIYB.Rev. 76,1711,19119, 11cf-10: 13.Weber, M.Thompson. J.Amer.Cernmesoc- 40(11), 363, 1957. ASSOCIATION: Moskovskiy institut stali (Moscow Steel Instittite) SUBMITTED: April 6, 1961 p. rnohm-icm J00 /.V Figure Card 3/3 T" C GORELIK, S.S.; YELYUTIN V .; MOZ$UKHINL Ye.I.1 URAZALIMV# U.S.; FUNKE, V.F. X-ray investigation of rearystallization processes of titanium., zirconiumt.and molybdenum boridem, and titanium and tungsten carbides. Izv. vys. ucheb. zav.; tavet. met. 5 no.41143-148 #62. (MIRA 16:5) 1. Moskovskiy institut stali, kafedry redkikh metallov.. fiziki metallov i rentgenografii. (Boridea) (Carbides) (Crystallization) a/126/62/014/003/Oi4/022 B193/9383 AUTHORS: 1 tin, V.P., Momzhukhin, YeeX., Panov, A.V. and 1 "1 V*P*' K~ ~ha I ~il t n ~k. .TITLE: Study of internal friction of copper on specimens prepared by powder-metallurgy techniques PERIODXCAL: Fizika metallov i metallovedeniye,~v. 14# no* 3. 1962, 443 - 451 TOM The object of the present investigation was to study the effect of various factors (compacting pressure, sintering conditions) on the internal -friction of green and sintered copper-powder specimens. The test pieces (70 x 5 x 0.5 - 1.5 mm) were prepared trom electrolytic copper powder (20 - 30 It particle size), 99-915% purity, whAch had been given a preliminary reducing anneal (2 hours at 400, C) in hydrogen. The internal friction was determined by measuring the amplitude of forced oscillations of thl'specimen near its resonance frequency on an apparatus designed by one or the present authors (a dekeription is given of both the equipment .,.and experimental procedure)* Typical resuits are reproduced Card,.I/ S/l26/62/ol4/oO3/Oi4/022 Study of iiternal friction E193/E383 in Figs. 3'and 5. InFig- 3, the internal :friction (~an 6 X 10 of green ompaets,prepa~red under a pressur4tof 4 t/cM , Is plotted against temper:Aure (00, curve 1 representing the results obtained on h64ting a freshly pirepgred compact, curve 2 showing th6 results olAained on subsequentt~6o4ing. Fig. 5 shows the temperature dependence of tan 6 X"10 of compacts sintered at 900 OC in ~L'vacuum (curve 1)'anct'hydrogen (curve 2). Several co'i~clusions we*i"e reached; 1) Temperature-dependence of internal'friction of green copper-powder compacts have two peaks: a low-temperature peak associated with the grain- boundary effect and a high-temperature peak associated with the presence of oxygen; thp internal friction of green compacts decreases with increasing compacting pressure. 2) The internal friction of green compacts, measurle d during the first heating. ~cycle, in lower than thAt observed during subsequent cooling; this can be attributed'to sintering taking place during the first heating cycle and'during the first intbrnal-friction measurements, 3) The high-temperature peak disappegra if isintering is carried out in hydrogen at 900'- 1 000 C& Card W'd S/126/62/014/003/014/022 Study of internal friction .... E193/E383 0 4) On increasing the sintering temperature from 600 - 900 C the height of the low-temperature peak increases and the peak' is shifted toward s higher temperatures; further increase in the sintering temperature brings,about &.decrease in the height of this peak. These effects indicate chat on raising the sintering temperature from 600to goo C the contact ar.ea increases at a rate faster than the rate of the grain orowth; on raising the sintering t emperatur e 'from... 900 to 1 000 C the rate of grain growth becomes faster.., There are 7 figures. ASSOCIATION:. Moskovskiy institut-stali *(Moscow Institute of Steel) SUBMITTED: Februark 5j 1962 Card 39 5 AUTHORSi T-TLEs 5/032j62/028/009/007/009 B104/BI02 Yelyutin, V. P.,, Panov, A. V., Natanson., A. K.,. Shulepov, *7. ~-., ~a~V~asiilyev, 0. A. A device for measuring the internal friction and shear modulus at high temperatures PERIODICALi Zavodskaya laboratooftya, v. 28, no. 9, 1962, 1123 - 1126 UXTj This device can be used to determine the internal friction and shear modulus from the damping of torsional vibrations in wire samples (0.2 - 1 mm diameter) at temperatures up to 25000C. The sample is suspended vertically inside a tubular tungsten beater and has's zone 100mm long wherein the heat increases uniformly. Bits temperature is Measured by a thermocouple whose hot junction is situated half way u;ong it. The sample is fixed-at its upper end whilat'the lower end is twisted by a vibrating mass. The latter has two long arms which carry permalloy magnetic cores to excite torsional vibrations in the sample, which are visible and are recorded magnetoelectrically. At temperatures below 10000C the number of vibrations is counted up to a certain value after Gard'1/2 S/032/62/028/003/007/009 A device for measuring the... B100102 which their amplitude decreases. Above 10000C the amplitude of each individual vibration is measured. The measuring error is only %Q Und increases only slightly at very high temperatures. There are 4 figuren. ASSOCIATIONj Monkovskiy institut stali i splavov (Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys) Card 2/2 3/076 62/036/007/007/010 BIOI B130 iXTHORS: ,'f-elyutin, V. P. Pavlov, Yu. A., Shuiepov, V. I., and 14yaki- 3he~a, TITL',--,: Electrical resistivity of V20 5' 1400,1 and WO 3 when heated in.' hydrogen atmosphere K-IRIODICAL: Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii, v. 36, no. -7v 1962, 1.524 1527 TEXt: The initial stage ofthe reaction of V 0 moo and 710 with H 2 51 .31 3 2 vias studied by meazuring the electrical resistivity (apparatus see Izv. vyssh. uchebn.* zavedeniy, Chernaya metallurgiya,-no. 7, 1961). Oxides sintered in an 02 flow for 6 hr were used. At all temperatures applied (200 - 7000C), resistivity was und'to diminishoin the course 0 f8 C 8*heating. JR/RAZ-for V 0 was 0.002 at 250 C, 0.004 at 300 , 0.007 at 350 C,-O.016 at '7750C, an3 8.027 at 3800C (start of reaotion with H ). For moo- and 2 3 710 AIVR47"rose slowly at low temperatures, and'rapidly n4ar the beginn- 3' Card S/076/62/036/007/007/010. Electrical 'resistivity ... 11101/D136 ing of reaction with 112(4300C for MoOV 6300C for WO3 The slow rise corresponds to the extrinsic conductivity of the oxides with chemisorbed H2 reacting as donor with the oxide, while the steep rise of the curve is due to the changeover to intrinsic conductivity. Here, an-intense reac- tion with F.2starts in the gaseous phase owing to sublimation (diesocia-~ tion) of the oxide. There are 4 figures and 1 table. ASSUCIATION.., t:oskovskiy institut stali (Moscow Steel Institute) ITTED: Ularch 1 1960 ja/ja RU PMN.Vp 51)(c) XULl ACCESSION NR: AT4048120 8/0000/63/000/000/0065/0%4 crmorea in rn reniamu eiont7nuan azter rrarm w-Rta Trnm zp-rn in tt,- rir2t in* to imyn in t" C-3111