# SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT ZELDOVICH, YA.B. - ZELDOVICH, YA.B.

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CIA-RDP86-00513R001964220013-3

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RIF

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S

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100

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March 15, 2001

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13

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Publication Date:

December 31, 1967

Content Type:

SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT

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Z,ELt DOVICHIya-B., PAIZER; P. (moscov~
"On Radiation Generated by-Strong Shock Waves."
,report presented at the First All-Union Congress on Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics, Moscow, 27 Jan - 3 Feb 1960.
ZZLIDOVICH. Ya.B., almdemik (Mooltva)
ProgTOOD Madolu direct traneformation of heatlinto electricity.
Pis. v shkole 20 not50-32 6-0 160, (MIRA 13:11)
Mermoelectricit7)
ZZLIDOTICH, Ya.B.
Scattering by a singular potential in the perturbation theory
and in pulse representation, Zhur.ekspA teor.fix- 38 no-3:
819-824 * 16o. (141U 13 t 7)
1. Inetitut, teoretichookoy iekoperimental 'my fisild Akademil
nauk SSSR,
(Scattering-Mysica))
Wi-
83729
S/056/60/036/00OZ/0 2104" f";
B019/B-070
AUTFOR., Zelldo ich, Ya. B.
TITLE: Existence of Now Isotopes'of Light Nuclei and the 'Equation
of State of 11autran2ji
PERIODICAL- Zhurnal eksnerimentallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki,
Vol- 38, 110. 4, PP- 1123-1131
TEXT: P. E~ Nemirovskiy (Refs. it2) studied the possible existence of
isotopes in the range of 8.L-Z!L-84, and A,-T, Baz' (Ref. 3) in the range
of IT~;A L-40. Both predicted the existence of unknown isotopes of which
020 has been discovered in the meantime. In the present paper, the auth-or
studies the limits of stability of light nuclei, and predicts the
8 12 13 15 17 191
existence of the following isotopes. He , Be 0 , B , B , B
C16 - 20"N18 - 21, Mr?20' 0 ~X`
0 The table on page 1124 gives the isoto_,sa
predicted by Nemirovskiy, Baz', and the present author. The presont
author has made a theoretical study of the existence of heavy nuclei
consisting only of neutrons. He first mentions that if such nucle-J. exi,.-t
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2 83719
Existence of New.Isotopes of Light Nuclei and S/056/60/038/004/012/046
the Equation of State of B0110070
at all, their density must be esentially smaller than that of the usual
nuclei. He-has, therefore, studied the properties of a neutron liquid of
low density. This problem,to that of a Fermi gas with resonance i5teracticr-
of the particles, -the eneray of the gas beinC proportional to &j2j7~
( W densi-ty of the gas). For finding out the equilibrium density and the
coupling energy) the author bau studied the affective radius of tu~,e
nuclear forces and the interaction in the state with 1 / 0. The accuracy
of the calculations is not sufficient to det-armino the siEn of tho en-eTC,-1-
and to answer the question of the existence of neutron-nuclei. The author
Land and
thanks A. I. BazI, V. I. Golldanskiy)
P. E. ilemirovskiy for discussions; and D. V. Grigarlyov ~o help in the
Rr
work. There are I table and 16 ref renc6s, 8 Soviet e d 8 US.,
SUBMITT:KD: October 22, 1959
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83772
S1056/60~03!Y00310301045
BOO /B06,
6 ?00
AUTHOR: Zelldovich, Ya-B.
TITLE: The Theory of Instable States
PERIODICAL. Zhurnal eksperimental',noy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1960,
Vol. 39, No- 3(9), PP, 176-780
TEXT: Exponentially damped states such as occur in al2ha dec y are de-
scribed by a complex energy value whose imaginary part indicates -the de-
cay probability. The wave function of such a state increasen exponential-
ly with respect to the large-distance modulus. Thus, the ordinary methods
of normalization, perturbation theory, and expansion in a series of eigen-
functions cannot be applied to such a state, In the present papers the
author develops a perturbation theory which yields an expression in the
form of a quadrature for the change in the decay probability and the mean
energy in the case of arbitrarily small potential changes. If the state
is described at the first momen'. by a certain wave function, the wave
function then approaches, in a long time intervalg an exponentially damped
function of a certain amplitude. This amplitude is also given in quadra-
tures. When treating the problem of energy perturbation and of the aq)litude
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7-
..............
83772
The Theory of Instable States S/056/60/039/003/030/045
B~06/BO63
of the state exponentially damped in time, the author uses a term that
plays the role of the norm of this state:
lim 2 exp(-ar2)r2dr. First, he considers a particle moving in a
aj'O T . I
0
spherical barrier potential (a - particle in the Gamov theory of alpha
decay), and.shows that the perturbation-theoretical expression (11) for
6E; (where Ec = E can be derived in an elementary way and may
2 ~2
be written down in the simple form 6E1 f )e bVd T/ d-z. Then, he considers
the non-steady problem, and studies the initial wave function ~P(r It-0)
T(r) with the asymptoti.- solu tion t(r,t) = Aexp(-1E`t)X(r) + O(r,t)'
3/2
where O(rt) decreases for small r like t- For this purpose, he com
pares the function *(r,s) - --I. r,t)OQxP(i.rt)dt, suggested by
11. A. Dmitriyev, -with the ooeffioienta A and a from the soluticn
J(r,s) a X(r)l(s-El) + *1(rs), Finally~ he generalizes the formulas
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83772
The Theory of Instable States 3/056j6O/O39/003/030/045
Boo6/BM3
obtained to states with 1/1. He thanks G. A. Drukarev, A. B. Migdal,
V. A. Fok, and L. A. Khalfin for discussions, and N. A. Dmitriye]Lfor
his helpful assistance. N. S. Krylov is mentioned. There are 6 references:
5 Soviet and 1 British.
SUBMITTED: April 16, 1960
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M21
5/056/60/039/004/039/048
Boo6/BO56
o?4-, bYo
AUTHOM Zalldoviah, Ya, B., Perelomov, A. M.
TITLEt The Effect of Weak Intertintio4 tUpgn the Electromagnetic
Propertiesl'of Particles
PERIODICALs Zhurnal eksper.ima ntallnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1960,
Vol- 39, No. 400), PP. 1115 -1125
TEXT: It was the purpose of the present work to investigate the contri-
bution made by weak particle interaction to electromagnetic interaction.
In the introduction; the pr -oblem as such is discussed, and the contents
of the paper is given. In section 2, the graphs (Figs. -1-6) which make a
contribution to the electromagnetic properties of.the neutrino, the
leptons (e andp,), and the baryons are investigated; the contributions
are determined n orders of magnitude of the weak interaction constant for
individual cases. For this purpose, two variants of the theory are
studiedt that of four-fermion interaction and that of the intermediate,
heavy, charged X-boson. In several cases, the order of g is reduced by the
introduction of the X-boson, I.e., the affect 'is increased. In gection 3,
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84~21
The Effect of Weak Interaction Upor the B/056/60/039/004/0"'19/048
Electromagnetic Proportion of Particlea 13006/BO56
the general electromagnetic properties resulting from the Lorentz and
gradient invarianoes of the theory, from the probability and the theory
of universal weak interaction, and from the theory of the two-component
neutrino are dealt with. In section 4, the interaction within the frame-
work.of the perturbation theory.is investigated, and the order of
,magnitude of the divergence of the integrals obtained is determined. The
characteristic electromagnetic properties of the particles are numerically
estimated. In the case of baryons, one assumes that strong interaction
replaces weak interaction already at momenta of the order of M n (Mn
nucleon mass). In section,5, the experimentally observable particle
scattering effects are discussed, especially the polarization of
particles in the scattering plane, because this effect is related to
parity non-conservation. Neutrino scattering by nuclei as well as the
effects of new electromagnetic properties in nuclear physics are dis-
cussed. Section 6 deals with the.problem of the possible modifications of
the initial assumptions on weak interaction, by adding the derivative of
the neutral currents to the ordinary derivative of the charge currente.
The conditions under which the additional term does not lead to a decay
-_Card 2/3
The Effect of Weak Interaction Upon the S/056/60/039/004/039/048
Electromagnetic Properties of Particles B006/.BO56
and cannot be observed experimentally, are s,~udied, as well as the effects
which are due to the scattering of electronsYby protons. The authors thank
A. M. Brodskiy, G. M. Gandeltman, B.L. Ioffq, L. B. OkunIq and
K. A. Ter-Vartirosyan or discussions. Ya. A. STorodinskiy, A.I.Akhiyezer
IL. N. Rozentsveyg, and I. M. Shmushkevich are mentioned. There are
6 figures and 21 referencest 10 Soviet, 2 Italian, and 9 PS.
SUBMITTEDt March 23, 1960
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W& kg~
86930
S10561601039100510491051
Boo6/BO77
bqoo
AUTHOR: Zell
TITLE: The Dipole Moment of Inatable Elementary Particles
PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentalinoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1960,
Jol, 39, No- 501), PP- 1483 1485
TEXT: The conclusion following from the theory of combined inversion of
L'ZiPLandauLthat.Ahe elementary part i cl es possess no dipole moment cannot be
applied to instable particleal this is shown in the present "Letter to
the Editor". If a particle with spin and dipole moment is considered
while the time axis is reversed it is obvious that there is no T-invari-
ant relation, and considering the effect of the reversion of the time
axis to an instable particle (that emits particlea and spontaneously
transmutes into.an other.partiole) one can see at once that this proof
of the nonexistence of dipole moments can not be applied to such par-
ticles. In order to examine the relationship between the instability of
particles and the dipole moment the author considers the two reactions
of a neutral spin-1/2-particle. Ao;=�B+ + C_ and A0j:tDo + Eo. The first
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86930
The Dipole Moment of Instable Elementary S/056/60/039/005/049/051
Particles B006/BO77
reaction is assumed to be a virtual and the second a real decay. Using
the results of a previous work (Ref-3) it can be shown that the viola-
tion of parity (assumed to be necessary for this reaction) together
with the conservation of the T-invariance in the instable particle
Hamiltonian leads to the appearance of a dipole moment that is to an
apparent-violation of the T-invariance. This result agrees with that of
von Behrends (Ref.4) who investigated the decays A - n + y an6L A - p +
He also ended up with a solution having terms that apparently contra-
diet the T-invarianae disregarded the T-invariance of the applied
Hamiltonian. There are 4 references; 2 Soviet and 2 US.
SUBMITTED: September~7,-1960
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AI,
88457
S10561601039100610491063
B006/BO63
AUTHOR: Ze 1 dovi ch,_ -Ya 1__B
TITLE: The Form Factor of P3 and Ke3 Decays
PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoretiche8koy fiziki# 1960,
Vol- 39, No. 6(12), pp. 1766-1769
TEXT: The decay of a K-meson into a pion and two leptons may be ascribed
to the weak four-fermion interaction with AS = 1. In this case, the decay
proceeds via an intermediate state of a baryon-antibaryon pair. The
momenta of the K-meson and the pion (p K, p.) are small compared to the
baryon.masses %. Hence, the velocities of the K- and n-mesons are assumed
to be the characteristic quantities. In the rest eyetem of the K-meson,
the pion can reach a Velocity Of 0-870. The author discusses a hypothesis
according to which the four-velooity of K- and n-mesons (U
' ud enters
K
symmetrically into the expression for the matrix element of the interaction
between K- and n-mesons and the lepion current. As usualp the matrix
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The Form Factor of and K Decays S1056 607039100610491063
'~k 3 e3, I)-
B006/BO63
element of the process is formulated by Ri - IV T ra(1+t5)Tj). Thu
a pe
velocities u K and u n are symmetrically introduced into this relation. The
expression for the vector current, which corresponds to this hypothesis,
reads as follows: Va = (P(-u en) IUKa + Una] . The form factor 9 depends
on the invariant, i.e., the product u K U ' UK. = PK./mK U7ta ~ Pna/mn.
The conclusions to be drawn from the fact that the divergence of the vector
current vanishes are studied forthese formulations. It is shown that
div V = 0 holds only in the approximation of the isotopic invariance
(that is to say, if the same massis assumed for charged and neutral pions).
The assumption of div V 0 and different masses of n+ and no (as done by
Weinberg et al. - Ref. 2 and Marshak et al. - Ref- 3) leads to certain
difficulties, 9.g., an incorrect expression for the n e3 vector current.,
Finally, the results obtained by G. M. Gandellman and the conclusions
to be drawn from the above-described hypothesis for the reaction
K+ P+ p + - + e + +V-4no + e+ + V
p
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88457
The Form Factor of K and K.3 Decays S10561601039100610491063
AL3 B006/BO63
in the Feynman perturbation theory are discussed. B. LO Ioffe, L. B.
Okunt, 1. Y&. Pomeranchuk, and G. M. Gandellman are thanked for discussions.
There are 8 references: 5-Sovietf 2 US, and I Italian.
SUBMITTED:. July 20, 19.60
Carli -3/3
82752
S/053/60/071/004/002/004
B004/B056
AUTHORS: Zeltdovicho Ya. B., Gi~xtjhtoyn# So 8 a
TITLE: Nuolehr Reactions in Cold Hydrogen. I. The Mesonic
Catalysis
17
PERIODICAL: Uspekhi fizioheskikh nauk, 1960, Vol. 71, No. 4,
Pp. 581 - 630
TEXT: The authors proceed from the catalysis of nuclear reactions in
hydrogen by g-mesons, which was discovered in 1957 in Berkeley by
L. W. Alvarez et,al. (Ref, 4). This phenomenon had been predicted also
by A. Do Sakharov (Ref. 2) and Ya. B. Zeltdovich (Ref- 3). A systematic
survey Is given.of the theoretical papers dealing with muon catalysis,
and the possibility of a nuclear synthesis in cold hydrogen by means of
"piezonuclear reactions" under high pressure is dealt with. The follow-
ing reaction equations are mentioned: p + p d + e+ + ~ (2.2 Mev) (I);
+ P (4 Mev)
B
+ d He + 7 (5.4 'Aev) (II); d + d lie + n (3-3 Mev) (III);
3 Ile + 7 (24 Mev)
4
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82752
Nualear Reactions in Cold Hydrogen. 3/053/6o/o7i/004/002/004
I, The Mesonic~Catalysie B004/BF,56
d + t - lie + n (17.6 Mev) (IV); p + t He + (20 Mev) (V)~ and
4 4
t +.t - He + 2n (10 Mev)'(VI). The quantum-mechanical tunnel effect is
4
discussed, and it is stated that with the interatomic distances existing
in ordinary-molecules) no nuclear reaction' occureg but that such a.reac-
tion becomes possible if the electron is replaced by a V -meson. Part 2
describes the experiments carried out in Berkeley (Ref . 4) and in Liver-
pool (Raf- 5). Part 3 deals with the catalysis of nuclear reactions in
hydrogen by means of g-mesons$ viz.: 1) The formation of the pg mesic
atom; 2) The formation of pplL mesio molecules; 3) The transition of the
g-meson from a proton to a deuteron; 4) The formation of pdg- and
ddp-mesic molecules, and 5) nuclear reaction in mesic molecules. In
part 4 the mesic molecular processes in hydrogen a-re dealt with on the
basifj of Ref. 17. The adiabatic approximation for ordinary molecular
processes is diacuaoed, a preoine dofination of the adiabatic approxima-
tion for hydrogen mesio molecules is derived Fig. 69 appendix 1) a
calculation of the levels of mesic molecules Rable Ily Vigo. 7,81, and
of the binding energies (Table III) is given; transition of the p-moson
from a light to a heavy isotope (Tables IV, V)g the scattering of mesic
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82752
Nuclear Reactions in Cold Hydrogen. 5/053/60/071/004/002/004
1. The Mesonic Catalysis B004/BO56
atomson nuclei (Table VI),,the formation of miesic molecules (Table VII)v
and the transitions among the levels of mesio molecules are discussed.
Furthermore, the calculated probability for the various mesic molecular
processes are compared with experimental data, and in this way agree-
ment? at least as regards the order of magnitude, is found. Part 5 deals
with the nuclear reactions in mesic molecules. The following reaction
constants are eriumerated: CIII - 2.10-16 CM3/sea; CIV - 2.10-14 CM3/sea
and'C,, 1a25-10-22 OM3/sec, and,for the pr9bability of the nuclear
reaction, the equation w,.- CJ'a( 0)12 (C - reaction constant, G(O) = value
of the wave function at a nuclear distance R - 0) (Tables VIII, IX) is
written down. The nuclear reaction 11--'.the pdg and ptp mesic molecule is
then discussed. In part 6 it is stated that no continuous nuclear reac-
tion occurs. Part 7 mentions further experimental research work in the
field of the p-catalysis as being desirable. In appendix II, a calcula-
tion of mesic molecules with the same nuclei, and in appendix III a
calculation of the spin states of mesic molecules is given. The authors
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82752
Nuclear Reactions in Cold Hydrogen. S/053 60ZO71100410021004
I. The Mesonic Catalysis B A56
mention papers by Panovskiy (Ref. 24) and A. B. Migdal (Ref- 44).
There are 9 figures, 9 tables, and 44 references: 17 Soviet, 16 US,
6 British, 2 German, 2 Italian, 2 Japanesep and 1 Swiss.
AUTHORS:
TITLE:
PERIODICAL:
S/0,53/60/072 /002/002/005
B006/BO67
Bazl, A~ I.~ Golldarskty,, V, I., and Zelldovich. Ya.B,
Some Isotop;~s of Light Nuclei
UEipekhl f1z1chq9k1ikh nauk, '1960, Vol, 72, No, 2,
pp. 2144 - 234
TEXT: At present about 300 isotopes of light nuclei (Z!:'L36) are
-;f -which abundant experimental material has already been
,311ected. The present paper gives a survey of these data, After a
sh~)rt Int::oduction the neutron-deficient isotopes (Z> N) are dealt
-1-h in chapter 2. Their properties can be predicted by the fact
wl t -
which follows from charge invariance - that the properties of two
iso-top-ically conjugate nuclei (nucleus AZ 1Ni la the isctopically
1
conjugate nucleus of nucleus' A,Z N if Z_N zin d 11 - Z
2 1 2 1 2
;.-xar-.tly coincide up to the Coulomb corrections and the corrections
fn~r the neutron-proton mass difference. Since these corrections are
relatively easy to consider, the main properties of the isotopes can
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Some Isotopes of Light Nuclei S/053/60/072/002/00?/005
B006/BO67
dete.-mined with Z> N from the known properties of the isotopon
with X> Z. Fig. I givos a scheme of the difference of the binding
energy of the Z-th neutrons in the nuoltvas (A A-:Z) and the bindtng
energy of the Z-16-h prolvon in the nucle~.zs (A;.Z~.. In a simt-lar scheme
Fig. 3 illustrates the region of 'he stable nuclei. The mcst promising
method of producing neutron-deficient isotopes of light nuclei are the
react-ions (pxn) and (He3,.tn)., as well as reactions induced by multiply
chargt.~d ion bombardmont. New physical phenomena are assumed to be
obael-vable in noutrGri-4,41"'ifint nuclol, proton and two-proton radio-
act-ivity; these phenomena are dealt with in part 3 of tho 1),,Iper in
which among others the region -where such phenomena may ocour, Is
bri.efly outlinod, and th -a ..n roperties of two-prcton radioactivity
are described. The reaction NO -,014 f2 i~~ discussed more thoroughly.
17(18?) S-921(22?) 25(24?) 29'(28?5, 33(34?) j48. r ~
Mg 7 ~ , S , A! Ca , T ,42
44(43?) 46(47?) 53(54?) 63(62?) 67(66?)
Fe , Ni , Zn ; G,59(58?), Se j Kr
are also counted among the 2p-active nucle 4~ In part 4 'he nuclei
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Some Isotopes of Light Yuclei
S/053/60/072/002/002/005
B006/BO67
with high neutron excess are dealt with, In this case 'above all problems
of neutron binding energy in the nucleus are discussed (Fig. 6 shows
En as a function of Z for a large number of N-values). Also experimental
results are presented and discussed. The possibilities of an experimen-
tal determination of the bineutron (reaction (n2,a) e.g.
N14.i n2--s B'J 2+a +13.2 Mov, n2j, 2n decay onIpassage ofn 2 throu h tter
and meaourement of the neutron directional correlation, Fig-75 amr1e,
diacussed. Furthermore experiments for determining 0 and HO are dis-
cussed. In part 5 considerations are made on the stability limits
and a five-page table containing a survey of various propertleB
tN,A,(MQA), E p , En9~E PO T1/2P ) of isotopes with-neutron excess as
well as of neutron- deficient electrons for the region 2- Z!!~=40 is
given which is highly valuable for practical work in this field.
P. E. Nemirovskiy and A. T. Varfql~ ~re mentioned. There are
8 figures, 1 table, and 25 references: 14 Soviet, 10 US, and
I Canadian.
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ZELIDOVICHA-Ye.- B.-, -Dro
"Thaory of the detonation and formation of abnormal shook waves for which the
Chapman-Janguet conditions are not effective,"
"Emission of light by i9hook waves and their Btructur*00
To be submitted for the Scientific Research, National Center of-International
Colloquium on Detonation Waves- Gif-sur-Yvette (Seine-et-Oise), France, 28Aag-
2 Sep 1961.
Institute of Chemical Physics, Aoademj;.of Sciences USSR.
3091
S/1;5/61/002/003/001/009
_9 0 r4 1yo J 6 IF) E030/E111
AUTHORs Zelldovi - V-S.
TITLE Chain reactions in burning flames an approximate
theory of flame velocity
PERIODICAL: Kinetika i katali.z, v.2, no*3W ig6i, 305-318,
TEXT: This article was presented at the All-Union Conference
on Combustiom January 10, 1961.
The test theories hitherto have led to exact differential
equations which can be solved, in general, only by numerical
integration for each case. Here, a series of approximate theories
are developed for each type of flames arid these are used to give
physical insight into the process and to provide interpolation
formulae for regions intermediate between those for which exact
formulae exist. All are based on the relations from heat theory,
2
T b - T - RT b Q
where Tb is the temperature of burning and Q the activat'lon
energy, and the Michelson relation for the distribution of
temperature by diffusion in the reaction zonei
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Chain reactions in burning flames S/195/61/002/003/001/009
E030/Elll
T = To + I(Tb - T0)- exu/D (1)
where* x is spatial coordinate, To initial temperature;
u, burning velocity, D thermal diffusion coefficient. The
reaction velocities are introduced from the kinetics of the
processes, and by using the Frank-Kamenetskiy integration method
Ref-7t D.A, Frank-Kamenetskiy,,Diffusion and Heat Transfer in
Chemical Kinetics) Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1947) one obtains the quantity
of substance in the reaction zone, and the burning velocity,
The four considered cases are as follows- 1) Unbranched chain
reaction, in which the forming of active'centres does not continue
in the products of burning (it stops in the reaction zone). In
this case the formula for burning velocity given by the expression
U -Q/RTb
V Dke a2 (8)
is identical with that of Spalding (Ref 5: Spalding, Phil. Trans.
Roy. Soc. v,249, 957, 1956) apart from ;~~2- which must,therefore
be introduced as a multiplier in all the subsequent approximations-
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Chain reactions in burning flames E030/Elll
2) Unbranched chain reaction with excess of substance forming
active centres,,in which case the forming of active centres
continues in the products of burning. Let A be the initial
substance, B the active centres, and X any reacting molecule;
then
A + X 2B + X (9)
The transformation of A i nto end-product C is given by the
reaction:
A + B C + B
and depends on B. For a flame velocity dependent on activation
energy according to Arrhenius,
4 2 _(Ql + Q2)/RTb 2 2
u = D A Xk k e 2cx CX (18)
0 1 21 112
agreeinx again with Spalding, but for q2- , and giving velocity
independent of pressure.. However, for excess of B, u varies as
pe-(QI+Q2)/4RTb
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Chain reIactions in burning flames,- S/1190M 1/002/003/001/009
E030/Elll
3) Branched chain, no sharp edge to reaction. Also in this case
the velocity u is independent of pressure; it depends only on
the kinetics of development of the chains, and not on the kinetics
of the reaction of transformation of the initial substance in the
final one by activity of the centreso In connection with the
experiments.of S.Ya. Pshezhetskiy and his team (Ref.11i
V.L. Cheredinchenko, I.N. Pospelova, S.Ya. Pshezhetskiy, Zh. fiz.
khimil, v.32, 2674, 1958) the influence of the initial
concentration of active centres was considered. Normally the
concentration of active centres may be small. If this is called
B. and the flame velocity u1, then if further active centres
are introduced - by ionizationj say - up to quantity Bm actually
in the reaction zone, one obtains a flame velocity u', and the
expre SS4 on (u 2 Bo
- I - (41)
U1 ) + ~7m
As the quantity of active centres introduced is known, the
important quantity Bm may be measured, i.e. the concentration of
centres at which under rea1 conditions (BO = 0) the reaction in
Card V 5
Chain reactions in burning flames
30,917
s/195/61/002/003/001/009
E03O/EllI
the flame arises.
4) Highly branched reaction, in whick.-recombination of centres is
principally responsible for evolution of heat. For strong
recombination (under high pressure and,low burning temperature),
U varies as (rX)- where r is the recombination constant.
For weak recombination, 2
u = h A0 Dr X (73)
where h is a dimensionless number6
Ackhowledgments are expressed to G.I. Barenblatt and
V I. Kondratlyev for their interest in-the work.
There are 4 figures and 11 references: 9 Soviet-bloc and 2 non-
Soviet-bloc. The English language reference reads as follows:
Ref.5. Spaldingg Phil, Trans. Roy. Soc., v.249, 9057, 1956.
ASSOCIATION: Institut khimicheakoy fiziki AN SSSR
(Institute of Chemical Physics, AS USSR)
SUBMITTED: February 4, 1961
Card 5/5
ZELIDOVICH Ia,B9
Symmetric compooite model of otrongly interacting elementary
particleo,,- Zhur, ekop. i teor, fiz, 40 no.1.319-323 Ja 161.
(MIRA 3.4:6)
(Particles (Nuclear phyeics))
AUTHOR:
TI TLE:
S/056/61/040/002/037/047
B,112/B214
ZelldoviCh, Ya. B.
Theory of formion masses
PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i tooreticheakoy fiziki, v-40,
no. 2j 1961, 637-640
TEXT: The particle mass can be determined from the interaction of the
particle with dissimilar or-similar particles. The resulting mass of the
par~t,icle may in general also come out to be infinite. In order to obtain
a finite massq it is necessary to subject the interaction formulation
to important limitations. A theory of the fermion mass is discussed in
the present paper, It is based on Dirac's equation for a particle of
nonvanishing rest mass. The four--dimensiunal state vector (wave function)
breaks up into two two-dimensional spin vectors ~T
For a vanishing rest mass of the particle, Dirac's equation is reduced
to two independent equations for (p, and ~ whi--h describe the motion of
Card 1/2
Theory of fermion masses S/056/61/040/002/037/047
B112/B214
a system of particles with oppositely directed spin orientations
("right particles" with spin+1/2 and "left particles" with spin
-1/2). In the general cased the maes-appears as a factor in the Lagrango
operator and.characterizeB the relationship between the "right" and "left"
particles~ Particles of finite mass may be considered to be superpositions
of ~Ileftll and "right" partioles~ The case of an interaction is considered
which canbe schematically characterized by the symbols
Q + It is found that the mass of
I
a given particle with the wave functioney, 7, appears in the resillt of
four-fermion interaction only when the particle enters the interaction
in a two-fold way by means of T and This result is in 'contradic-
tion with a principle of In'. Gell-Mann and R. P. Feynman, due to the fact
that the particle possesses a polarization different from V/0.
L. D. Landau, B~ L. Ioffe, L.-B.~ Okun', and I. Ya. Pomeranchuk are thanked
for discussions. There are 2 figures and 7 references: 1 Soviet-bloc and
3 non-Soviet-bioc..
SUBMITTED: September 3, 1960 (initially)
(Vovember 11, 1960 (after revIsion)
Card 2/2
ZELIDOVICH, YaIB.
Un3table particle in the Lee model. Zhur. eksp. i teor. fiz.
40 no.4-1155-1159 AP '61. (MIRA 14:7)
(Nuclear models) (Quantum theory)
ORIBCV, V.N.; ZELTOVICH, Ya.B.; PERELOMOV, A.M.
Maximum charge for a given mass in the bound state. Zhur. eksp.
i teor. fiz. 40 noM1190-1198 Ap 161. (KERA 14:7)
(Nuclear reactions) (Particles (Nuclear physics))
Al"
28763
S/056 61/041/003/016/020
B125 102
o ~0' /Sw)
AUTHORS: Zelldovioh, Ya. B., Smorodinskiy, Ya. A.
TITLE; The upper limit of neutrino, graviton, and baryon density in
the universe
PERIODICAL: Zhurnal eksperimentalinoy,i tooretichookoy fiziki# v- 41,
no, 3(9)~ 1961t 907-911
TEXT: To estimate the maximum energy density of neutrinos, gravitons and
baryons in the universe the gravitational effect of these particles on the
expanding universe has been investigated by the authors
According to
B. M. Pontekorvo and Ya. A. Smorodinskiy (ZhETF, 41, 239, 1961) it is very
difficult to determine the cosmic neutrino density. Direct tests have
shown that the mass-energy density in the form of neutrinos may be 104 to
jo5 times higher than the rest-mass-energy density in an ordinary form.
The authors, and also F. Raines, have already shown that these estimates
depend on hypothe 'ses concerning the neutrino spectrum. Another method
for calculating the maximum energy density is based on determining the
gravitational effect and fits-all unknown, weakly interacting fields, also
Card 1/4
2876,
10 01056J611041100310161020
'The upper limit of neutrino ... B125/BI02
for the density of high-frequenoy oscillations of the gravitational field
(gravitone According to G. M. Oandellman and V Pinayev (ZhETPe a?
1072P 1959~'j the bromeatrahlung of gravitons is 1 times smaller than
the radiation of V-; pairs. For the suggested estimate, the density Q of'
all kinde of matter-energy determines the past of the universe. The
critical density Qk Of the matter-energy) which has been introduced by the
authors, characterizes the transition from an open to a closed model of the
universet at Q Qk f however, this expansion will change over into contraction. The
times T counted from the instant of maximum density of the universum until
now LTG 40 f ollows
V [(k + V) arctg k 11, k (2q
+
q Q/2Qk' T is.calculated for resting matter and a pressure p 01 r' is
calculated according to L. D'. Landau for negligible rest mass, i.e., for
particles moving at vel,oDity of light and P 613 denotes the energy
Card 2/4,
The upper limit of neutrino
28763
s1r)56161 /041/003/oi 6/020
B125/B102
density). For T 10 10 years, one obtains -T> 0-4 and) therefrom, qt*5 and
-28 30
Q< 2-10 g/om . An independent investigation yields q el%O for distant
galaotics systems. Equal results are obtained in a third estimate of the
maximum density by studying the star densityin the galaxies. It is
possible that the density of neutrinos, gravitons, eto., in the universe is
higher than the mean nucleon density observed (10-29 g/cm3) but more than
10 to 20 times. The similarity of 1 Or29 g/om3 for ordinary matter
suggested a comparatively young age of the universe.- At equal order of
magnitude of neutrino mass and nucleon mass densities, 'he value for the
density will be smaller than _ 10-29 glow3p and correspond to - jo-5
nucleons per cm3. The number of nucleons may be much larger than the
given value since the gravitational mass defect A M of a star after the
gravitational colldpee may be of the same order of ma,3nitude as 'he sum
of the rest masses of thenucleons contained in "he star. At present,
there is no correct theory on gravitational callapsos. L. D. Landau and
Ye. M. Lifshits have esbimated the critical mass to be 76% of the solar
mass. When a gravitational collapse of.s. star occurav the energy might
be emitted in the form of neutrinos and antineutrinos. The mean nucleon
Card 3/4
S1056 /61/041 /00,3/016/020
The upper limit of neutrino ... B-1 2 /3102,
5
density in collapsed stars will be no more than 10 to 20 times higher
than known,densities of ordinary nucleccns. All these eii'.imates are only
correct for not too early collapses. There are 15 rafereivies: 9 Soviet
and 6 non-Soviet. The four most recent reforeniiia -.o Eiigli8h-language
publications read as follows: F. Reines, C. L. Ccwar,, JX,q F. B.
Harrison, A. D. Me. Cuire, H. W. Kruee, Phya. 117~ 159, 1960;
H. Y. Chin, P. Morrison. Phys. Rev. Lett., M. Gell-Mann.
-~, 53, '1750,
Phya. Revo Lett. 6,,709 1961. F. Hoyle. Pro~~. Ylhya. 1, 1961.
SUBMITTED: April 14, 1961
Card 4/4
WN
T-M -
ZELIDOVICH, Ya.B.
Correlation of electron and positron polarization in relativiB4,.-ic
pairs. Zhur.ekspA toor.M. 41 n'o.3s9l2-913 3 161. (1,MU 14:10)
(Electrons) (PositromB)
267111
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0 7/ 9 6 -317 B102/B138
S
AUTHOR: Zelldovich, Ya. B.
TITLE: Equation of state at ultra-high densities and its
relativistic limitations
PERIODICAL: -Zhurnal eksperimentallnoy i teoreticheakoy fiziki, v. 41,
no- 501), 19619 1609-1615
TEXT: The author develops a relativistically invariant theory to describe
the state of heavy stare after gravitational collapse. The theory of neu*
tron condensation (L. D. Landau, Ze. Sow. Phys., Ij 2851 1932) and the
approximation of rigid nucleon repulsion lead to results which are in
contradiction to the theory of relativity. From special relativity the
inequality 3p'-6 results, where p is the pressure and a the energy
density which includes the part icle I s rest mass. - (3p < E f or free non-
interacting particles, 3P - F_ for an electromiLgnetic field). In the
theory proposed here 3p > E- is possible and p - et is the limit. As an
example, a classical vector field with mass, interacting with classical.
point charges at rest, is considered. For
Card 1/5
26711
S 056/61/041/005/026/038
Equation of state at. ultra-high... 'B102/B138
2AL St i S Ld's, (2,1)
L TB -3%- 8n
OAA 0-rh 0, Flt aAk ax, - aAj / axh.
-- --------
(with o I and the metric A 2 A2+A2 A iAo 0 iyt, m p4, thq mass of the
k 4 4
field quantum) the field e ation*
U14 aAl
A, + 4. (2.4)
ail,
is foundl its solution is Y-ge74'/r, ;t-0. The interaction energy of two
charges is given by gr rl(r 2) = 92 epr12 /'121~ energy and pressure.by
2 2/ 2
nE Mn + 2ng n Ii (3-5)
p =.-aE,/3(1/n) = 2ng 2n2/,,2 (3.6).
From this it can be seen that for large densities, n, p -F-. For a meson
mass m much less than the baryon mass M the coupling constant is in the range
Card 2/5
C_
7,921TV
Pi.
26?32
S/05 61/041/005/026/038
Equation, of stat'e.at ultra-high... B102YB138
AO (m/M) 2 < g2 1. The -paper was discussed in April 1961
Card 4/5,
IMAM
26711
5/056/61/041/0()5/026/038
Equation of state at ultra-high... B102/B138
in Nor-Amberd at a physics school organized by the Inatitut fiziki
AN Armyanskoy SSR (Institute of Physics AS Armyanskaya SSR). The author
thanks G. S. Saakyan for discussions. There are 10 references: 7 Soviet
and 3 non-Soviet. The two references to English-language publications
read as follows; A. G. W. Cameron. Astroph. J., jjO, 884, 1959;
E. E. S,alpeter. Ann. of Phys. 11, 393, 1960.
SUBMITTED,. May 312 1961
Card 5/5
25335
S/020/61/138/006/011/019
a 4, 3 9,6-6 21 3104/B214
AUTHORS: Zelldov
-Ld- ~i ~Ya. B., Academician, Kormer. S. B., Sinitsyn,
_T1. V.-ga-nd-Yu-s-hko, K. B.
TITLE: An investigation of the optical properties of transparent
substances at superhigh pressures
PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Doklady, v. 158, no. 6, 1961
1336
1333
TEXT: The propagation of strong shook waves in tranaparont inedia permitu_~_
to study the properties of substances at pressures of some thouaande or
millions of atmospheres (Zelldovich et al., DAN 122, no, 1, 48(1958)~
At pressures not too high if the compressed substance remains transparent
throughout its thickness the refractive index may be determined geometri-
cally. The authors first studied water, plexiglass, and glass. A diagram
of the experimental set-up with which -the reflection of light by the
shock wave can be determined, is shown in Fig. 1. The reflected rays
II - V wqre recoided by a fast photochronograph. Water was found to re-
main trausparent under pressures of 89 144 thousand atmospheres. Glass
become8 opaque at a pressure of 200,000 atmospheres. The exact values
'Card 1
103
25335
S10201611138100610111019
An investigation of the optical... B104/B214
for water are collected in Table 1. In the discussion of the results
the authors used the data of V. Raman and K. S. Venktaraman (Proc. Roy.
Soc., 171, 137 (1939))and gave the following relation for the temperature
and density dependence of the refractive indext n = 1-334 + 0~334(~-I)
- 1.90-10-5T~ (1), T being in OC. Fig. 3 shows graphically a comparison
of the values of n calculated by (1) with those determined by geometrical
methods. The dotted line in this diagram corresponds to the Lorentz -
Lorenz formula. The deviations of the results obtained photometrically
can be partly explained by the Increase in viscoBity of water at high
pressure. L. V. AlItshuler (Ref. 6) had detected a decrease of the
intensity of the reflected light at pressures above 115,000 atm. and
shown it to be related to the phase transformation at this pressure. This
effect could not be detected by the present authors. They are of the
opinion that water remains transparent up to 300,000 atm, A. G. Oleynik,
V. 14. Mineyev, and R. M. Zaydellare mentioned. The authors thank V. P.
Arzhanov, 0. V. Krishkevich for carrying out the experiments and A. G.
Ivanov, R. M. Zaydell, A. G. Oleynik,and V. N. Mineyev for valuable
discussions. There are 3 figures, 1 table4 and 10 referqnces: 5 Soviet-
Card 2/P S
25849
5/026/61/139/004/009/025
B104/B209
Zelldovich, Ya. B., Academician
TITLE: Moleoular symmetry, melting of a crystal, 114', 1
structure of liquids
PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Doklady, v. 139, no~ 4'?1f1961, 841-843
TEXT: The author studied the effect of molecular symmetry pon the melting
process of crystals and on the orderly structure of liquid, Tt is pointod
out that the higher the symmetry of a molecule the better 0j 11 this triole-
cule fit into a crystal lattice. 114oreover, the symmetry f the molecules
exerts a noticeable influence on the melting point of a crystal, ,-ihich i's
due to the thermal agitation since the latter depends on this symnetry. In
particular, the author studied the three isomers of C6H 4Cl (orThoo meta,
and para-chlorobenzene). Among these, Para-chlorobenzene ?as tne highest
symmetryg and therefore also the highest melting point (+52,500. The
symmetries in meta-chlorobenzene (-24-40C) and in ortho-chlorobenzene
(-17.50C) are lower. This situation is considered to be characteristic of
many organic compounds. However, there are also exceptions to this rule
Card 113
ol'ecular symmetry, malting of ...
M
S 2 61/139/004/009/025
B 0 ~20
Z 4 9
that are due to the effect of lattice energy. Thus, for instance, the
a- and the P-derivatives of naphthalene have the same symmetry but different
melting points. The theoretical treatment is based on the assumption that
the molecules in th6 crystal are arranged and aligned regularly, The
entropy of tile crystal at absolute zero is assumed to vanish, The inter-
molecular spacings in liquids are of the same order of magnitude as those
in crystals, but there is no mutual alignment uf the molecules in the former
case. For this reason, molecular interacLion in a liquid greatly affects
the translatory motion, the rotary motion, however. only slightl.,_ This
fact is accomplished by the elementary concept of the molecules vibrating
in a crystal, revolving in a liquid, and performing a rotary aa well as a
Brownian movement in a gas. It is stated that the entropy of a crystal
does not depend on the symmetry of its molecules. The relation
Sliqu (T) = s0(T) - R in n is given for the entropy of a liquid; n denotes
the so-called symmetry number of the molecules. T he melting temperature is
given by &T = RT 2 &in n/Q., where Q is thle heat of fusion. A difference
melt f f
of 300C in the melting temperatures of para-chlorobenzene and meta- and
Card 2/3
2 58 14 9
S7020/61/1 39/004/009/025
Molecular syrrmetryp melting, of ... -61002010
ortho-ohlorobenzene (the melting points of' the two last ara ausumed to be
equal) is obtained by means of the above fro-,mula. 1-11 eXDerlimenLEI, a
difference of 730C was determined, Morec,,.rer, the experiments proved triat
T T
r., it " F, -ortho " - 70C. The author poir~*~i ci~t t1hat thb
in liquids does not permit a free rotation of thQ molecalos. The molecules
rather perform rotational vibrations with rare Jumps from orte alignment to
the other. A very weak effect of symmetry is possible in t,;,,o cases:
1)4hen the crystal is not completely retijilar. This is the case when physi-
cally alightly different groups determining the crystal symmetr-yr are suii~ti-
tuted (e.g. hydrogen by deuterium). The entropy In thia catie does riot van-
ish at absolute zero but depends*on the syiametry of the molecules, 2) When
the liquid retains -a certain orderliness of aliLnment at U6 melting point.
The author thanks A. V. Shubnikov and A. I. K-itaygorodskiy for their
rem arks. There is 1 figure.
SUBLI'ITTED: April 26, 1961
Card 3/5
A 1 ~_2~
WE
S/020/6-1/140/006/009/030
B104/B102
AUTHORSS Zelldovich Ya. B. Academician, Barenblatt., G; I., and
TITLE: quasi-periodic precipitations during mutual diffusion of two
substances (Lisegang rings)
PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Doklady, v. 140, no. 6, 1961, 1281
1284
TEXTs During mutual diffusion of two reacting substances insoluble pre-
cipitates fall out in so-called Lisegang rings. The most probable forma-
tion of Lisegang rings is described as follorst During diffusion the
soluti6n is supersaturated as long as the product ab of the concentrations
a and b of the substances A and B does not reach a critical value k
(metastable limit). As ab exceeds k at a given point, one of the reaction
comp:>nents is precipitated completely. Due to diffusion, a new portion of
this component enters the impoverished region and the precipitation mecha-
nism appears again. If the region of precipitations does not propagate
too fast, the following precipitation is somewhat distant from the pre-.,
Card 1/0
3/02 611140100610091030
Quasi-periodic precipitations during ... B104YB102
vious one. In the present paper, an approximation of the formation.of
Lisegang rings during diffusion of subs tances in a cylindrical tube is
given. The authors derive a and b as functions of the reduced parameter.
x/X ng where xis the coordinate of the axis of the tube, and x n is
the coordinate of the n-th precipitation. For sufficiently high n the
distributions, of a and b within the ranges oo and 141