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Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Nv I%vrvl~n Uls~,went of the Sea Country Study Bo~i~/ia GCR lOS 75-9 Mop 1975 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Unauthorizod Dis:losuro Suh~oct to Criminal Sanctlom Clrrrrllt.a M~ 019N1 E??rnpl (rewr Q?~?rel 0?~Im?t4leegen 3rAedel? of E.O, 11677. ???mpnGw tni?pe/~r 4 Ssl7), end (7~ Avrorweriroll~ d?t~eNl l?d Mf de4 Impe??ibl? Is 1?I?rrr?In? ? Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26oN~fif~386T00608R000600110006-9 Nu l~urcrl~,n Ul.-~,~~crn 'i'hn Law of tltn Sna Cow~try Studiot3 aro prepared 1:o support the NSC Interagency Tank I'orcn on the Law oil the Sna. Thn countries to bn includod in t-he creriea am selected on L?hn banicr of priorities nuggetited by the Chairman of tho Tank I'o rcn . L?:ach study has two parts. Part I itr. an antialysis of the primary geographic, economic, and political. factor:f that might influn_nce the cour~try'ts law of the nea policy, ttrn public and private expressions of that policy, and a brief biography of the key personalities inwlved. Part II provides basic data and information bearing on law of tht+ nea mattcrn. Thin study was prepared by the Office of Geographic and Cartographic iterearc}i. aiographic t+upport was provided by the Central aefemnce Service. The study wan coordinated within the Directorate of Intelligence and with the D~part- ment of St.3te. Commcntt: and c~uestionn may be directed to the IBS Country Studiet: Working Group, Code 143, L?'xtent;ion ZZ57. C+C3C: F I fst"7it 2 R Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RD~86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 ~~IAR8~T00608R000600110006-9 CONTENTS Part I - Law of the Sea Analysis Summary .. .... .... .. ............................. 1 Factors Influencing LOS~Policy ........................... 2 Law of the Sea Policy .... ......... .............. 3 Key Policy Makers LOS Negotiators and Advisers .......... 8 Qiographic Sketches ...................................... 12 Part II - Qackground Information aasic Data ... ... .. ...... ... 16 Membership in~Organizations Related~to~LOS~Interests ..~ ~ 17 Action on Significant UN Resolutions ..................... 18 ANNEX UN LOS draft articles submitted by aolivia Maps: Regional map Theoretical Division of the World Seabed COC4 F' I UF.`2vT I A L Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 CONFIDENTIAL Nu I~n-v~l~u I)fvscrrr BOLIVIA Part I -- Law of the Sea Analysis A. SUP1MARY (U) Bolivia's chief concern, as a developing landlocked country, is to obtain free and non-discriminatory access to the sea and seabed. Bolivia's belief that tie ocean and its riches are the "connnon heritage of mankind" is apparent in most of its statements on the deep seabed and in its concept of a "regional economic zone." Although Bolivia has no marine fishing industry or fleet, it hopes to 'obtain rights to participate in the area beyond the territorial sea on a preferential basis. Recent efforts have been directed toward obtaining agreement on the formation of a 200-mile-wide* "reyional economic zone" with all neighboring states -- coastal and landlocked -- participating equally. Noping to gain maximum benefits from the international area, Bolivia would like to see the creation of a strong international authority that would be able to grant licenses or con tracts to states and private enterprises for the exploratican and exploitation of seabed mineral rosources in the international area. Bolivia does Trot support the concept of coastal state consent for scientific research conducted in the area of national jl,rrisdici;on beyond the territorial sea; instead, it favors prior notification by the researcher to the coastal and neighboring landlocked states. The issues Bolivia has addressed in LOS negotiations revolve around one central theme -- the rights of landlo1,rced states, Bolivia supports a 12-mile territorial sea and a 200-mile economic zone. Although Bolivia has not taken a formal p?~sition on the straits issue, it can reasonably be expected to s;~pport free transit in international straits. ? 1)i::t.~rnrrs an~i arras G'rrou~7haut tlri . :tuck/ arc? ,ira rautir.~l ttSlc~:: unless s~c>cit~rcl athnnrf .c?. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 CONFIDENTIAL B. FACTORS INFLUL"NCING LOS POLICY (U) Special GeograUhic Features Bolivia, South America's fifth largest country, has several geographical drawbacks. It is landlocked -- by Peru and Chile on the west, B~~azil on the north and east, and Paraguay and Argentina on tt',~ south -- and has few ro~~d ui? rail ties with its neighbors and no direct inland wat~rw~~y links with either the Pacific or the Atlantic. This inaccessibility rnAkes Bolivia one c:i' Latin America's poorest nations despite its 4yeaith of mineral deposits. Since becomi;~g independent in 1825 it has been a buffer among states, possibly excepting Paraguay, which are stronger both economically and militarily. Fiaving lost its Pacific seacoast to Chile in the War of the pacific (1879-1880 , Bolivia depends on its neighbors' continued good will or at least legal conformance for limited access to ~rhe sea. Most of Bolivia's foreign trade is carried on through Pacific coast seaports in both Chile and Peru. Bilateral agreeu?%nts with Chile allow Bolivia the use of Arica and Antofagast:~ but Bolivia has long disliked the to rnls which, in some cases, gr~~,nt rights it cannot exercise, (aolivia continues to press for its own sovereign port -- preferably Arica, which handles approximately 70~, of all foreign trade and is near La Paz, the corlunercial and industrial center. Poli~ical anri Economic Factors The Bolivian military pla.~s a dominant role in government and is the only unified force capable of providing the order necessary for economic Qrogr~ss. Since Bolivia views access to the sea as prerequisite to economic development, its key foreign-policy ob,jectiv^ is to regain an outlet to the Pacific. Relations with Chile have been strained since the Treaty of 1944 which ceded Bolivia's Pacific territory to Chile and consigned Bolivia to landlocked status. In 19x;2 Bolivia broke relations in a dispuLG over Chile's use of Lauca River waters and demanded total sea access as fair compensation. The Act ~f Charana, which restored ties in early 1975, referred only in general to Bolivia's landlocked statUS Gut Bolivia was gratified that Ctlile, during negotiations, admitted that Bolivia's lack of sea access was a problem. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 CONFIDENTIAL Bolivia iias long received U.S. economic .yid but at the same time resented U.S, pcwer. The United States has been its chief dor~r of foreign assistance and ~chis aid, in the 1950's, was the greatest per capita to any Latin American country. Bolivian officials stress the U.S, "obligation" to give their nation massive economic aid and support its efforts to regain a Pacific seacoast. With an estimated per capita GNP of only $230, Bolivia is one. of Latin America's least ~~a~reloped countries. Over half the labor force works the land. but most Bolivian acreage is not being fa n>ed and foodstuffs as well as consumer goods and capital equipment must be imported. Qolivia is the Western Hemisphere's leading tin producer and its other minerals include significant potential for petroleum and natural gas output. because mineral products make up almost 95;6 of all exports -- with tin the cornerstone of the economy and the major source of foreign exchange -- Bolivia is extremely sensitive to world fluctuations in mineral prices. C. LAW OF THE SEA POLICY Landlocked Status (U) Bolivia's overriding objective in LOS negotiations is free access to the sea, which it considers its most urgent national problem. Its relentless pressure on this issue Iras both economic and psychological roots deriving from its landlocked status since the 1 oss of its Paci fi c territory to Chi 1 e i ~~ 1884. Bolivian LOS de"legates stress that the right to free access should be not merely a courtesy or an arbitrary concession from coastal states but guaranteed by international law. They often point out that free transit to and from the sea v~ould not jeopardize transit-state sovereignty. Bolivia early viewed LOS negotiations irr terms of its awn interests and joined forces with other l+~ndiocked and geocirapl~- ~cal',y disadvantaged states. It his become a relatively vocal, though not belligerent, spokesman for that group with regard to free access to the sea and seabed, rights of free transit, revenue sharing, an international deep seabed authority, and an international dispute settlement forum (see Annex 1). In ~4ay 1974, Bolivia and other developing landlocked countries issued the Kampala Declaration (see Annex 2) affirming that free and unrestricted access to the sea should be one of the basic rights recognized by international law and calling on transit CONFIDENTiAI Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 CONFIDENTIAL states to respect and facilitate the exercise of this right by geographically disadvantaged countries. Bolivia deplores the fact that, under existing laws, landlocked countries are at the mercy of transit states if the latter choose no~l: to comply with bi~ateral ayreements granting free access to the sea. Bolivia's sea outlet goal will continue to be a key factor in dealing with other nations until some equitable solution is reached. Bolivia has sought and received recognition of its unique problems from Venezuela, Plexico and other Latin Rmerican countries. Territorial Seas. and Straits (C) Originally opposed to extension of the territorial sea beyond 3 miles, Bolivia now favors a 12-mile territorial sea and cosponsored draft articles to that effect at Caracas in July 1974 (see Annex 3). It conditions its support, however, on the rights inherent in a territorial sea not being exercised by the coastal state in such a way as to cut geographically disadvantaged states off from the sea. Bolivia also claims that its acceptance of an extended territorial sea means ceding, without reparation, its rights to an area traditionally considered high seas. Bolivia thus insists that the rights of landlocked states in the territorial sea and in areas beyond it should equal those accorded other states. The straits issue has not been formally addressed. Wowever, Bolivia might well favor the mariti~e powers' pc~sition on unimpeded passage throuyh international straits in ret~lrn for support of the landlocked states' desires for equal and non- discriminatory access to the sea. Coastal State Jurisdiction Beyond the Territorial Sea (C) Bolivia's main objective for the area beyond the territorial sea is to see the landlocked states' rights ar,d u~~ique problems recognized. Over the years its position on the economic zone has changed along with its own needs and interests and, recently, with the likelihood that a 200-mile econor-,ic zone under coastal- state control would be adopted. To benefit from as wide an international area as possible, Bolivia at first backed a narrow zone extending only to 40 miles or to the 200-meter isobath. At the UN Seabed Committee in mid-1973 Bolivia said landlocked developing states' support CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 :CIA-RDP86T00608R000600110006-9 CONFIDENTIAL for any exclusive zone would hinge on their being allou;2d to explore and exploit the zone's resources on ea,ua1 terms with coastal states (see Annex 4). At Caracas in 1974 Bolivia claimed, like Peru, that their natural riches that have been carried to the sea for millions of years should be returned. So great are the needs of ~. tpxt. i lea art r3 ~ lnt.}tSnp i,X; l~tec! ~!.?n. 7 tzi 11 inri { 1~7t%i vQt . ): t iri. j^o t.ttnSs1,~~ ]c~t3, ;: #str, ?i l:'iGr~ t4#rt~a t.c>. ant iZW~21 ~', h}Q'ii~tt. ft. ~l, 1. 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