Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
February 23, 2010
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
May 8, 1985
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5.pdf371 KB
STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 ROUTING ANO TRANSMITTAL SUP oaa 2 G AEG i~~?g TOt 1. ((Name, ofi9ee symbol, room number, buildinS, I1Ee /Post) / ~- ~j nitiais ~ / [i Date >~ 7"~") a on File Note and Return I For Clearance Per Comrersstion R uestad For Correction Pnparo Re irculste For Your Information See Me ant Inwsti ? Sf nature ination Justi 00 NOT use this form as a RECORD bf approvals, concurrences, disposals, clearances, and similar actions FROM: (Name. orS. symbol, /IEenry/Post) ~-, ..~ (]I ~4J ~ s0~1-lox OPTIONAL~yFORM 41 (Rw. 7 76) s1' GPO 1983 0 - 381-529 (301) frM (R 4~CFIt)~101-11.206 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 ~~~ ?~ ~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 ~ ~ ~ ~.~ / n tJ~~ ~V~r ~ ~~'~. 3Q~ 1 NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL wA/fMINaTON, O.G. lOfO~ May 8, 1985 CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUI~1 FOR Executive Secretary Central intelligence Agency Central America and the Human Cost of Communism ^ 25X1 SUBJECT: Attached is an outline of the history of the human cost of communism and how the pattern of these costs has been repeating itself in Nicaragua. We request that you coordinate with the Department of State in filling in the latest !acts and fiqur?s (including, where appropriate, low and high estimates), conforming to the headings (Sections IIA and IICI in the attached outline as they refer to: 11 the hwllan costs cossnunissl has i 1 existin !Marxist-Len n s a? -att~~the human costs as ey have gun to ap ay thawsa es in Nicaraqua.~~ .~ A draft should be ready for submission by COB, Friday, June T1. (U) i ~NM~~ Robert M. immitt Exseutive Secretary ON-FILE NSC RELEASE INSTRUCTIONS APPLY cca Mr. Nicholas Platt Executive Secretary Department of State CONFIDENTIAL ec ass~fy one OADR ~r,c ~~~ fIDf~VTIAL ~i~ ~~~ S~ ~~~.~~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 , Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 ThP Huron Coat of Caaaunism: The Central Amer can z error sborical AErrspectivs I . Hunan Suffer Caused Camnu~nisn -Statistics . a e? Aefugeea -- including forced exile C. P~liticai Prisoners and Slave Ieboses's D. Internal Aslocation Zfie i of Lf fe tfider Oamnur-isin . Bas c s 1. Destruction of the Conauner EoonaaYs Central Planning. Ooll,ectivization, Food ltattioninq, Faiaine, etc? 2. Destruction of Msdiael Care t8ors+eity of Msdiaal 8upplirl 3. Destructirn of Housing Msricet a. Deterioration of existing housing b. No now oanstivction toa~ara Mith population gr+~+thl ~. Spirit:sal and Psychic Needs a. lieligian b. Culture c. Historical and national heritage C. Social and family life Saec -- Friendship (trust) Huns~~ nights 1. I+b Consent of the Gcn~erned: Rulers Asstane Power by Ocnspiracy and F+oz~oe 2. Nb Due Process: "iirvolutiaaa:y" J1:atiee an Class Seuis 3. No Freedom of Speech. etc. ~. Destruction and Subve~csiron of Aeligian 5. No Freedatt of Association; Destruction of all Islands of Autonomy -- [fiians, Family, Etl~nie GYaa~s, Chsa~ches, Y~aternal Organizations, Private Business, ebc. 6. No Freedom to Travel, Hnigrate Internal Security System 1. Fornation of a Party Organization 2. Official Ideology: Sets Standard for Conformity and Deviatianism 3. Secret Police 4. Block Oanmittees: Systen of Infoxments S. Official Terrorism and Harassment 6. Control over Eaonony: Credit, Psvduction and Distribatfon 7. Control over l~ducatianal Systan 8. Monopoly of Znforinntion and Ideaa: The Propsgarxla 7lpparatus Literacy Campaicgt: Part of that Apparatus 9 , 10. The Military: Party and not National Away= Militarization of Society a. Instr~mtent of ooP..rci~on b. Vehicle of political indoctrinat3,on 11. Reliance on Soviet and Soviet Ptoocy St~Qort - Military and S~urity Police 12, Control v~?r Individual Life: Housir:q. Jab, Peavicxi, Ixitazttnl Passports, Salary, 011 and Gas Quota III. of Car~usism and Terrorism: Vehicle to Aehieae Legitiascy and to ty/ iZ V~r'ivi " IV. '!!1e Case of Niear t 1lfe of a Oass~ist ib t t ? Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Frank talk about dangers . Forces bound by a common thread t is often unpleasant to resur- rect what many think are the unpleasant ghosts of the past. Unfortunately, that is what we do when we talk frankly about the forces of "international commu- nism" at work in our hemisphere. It has long been politically the safe thing to do to ridicule any men- tion of this alleged phenomenon. Professors and pundits have assured us for years that "international com- munism" as such no longer really exists -which is why it is ridiculed as a "phantom," the object of irratio- nal phobias of extremists, know- nothings, orpeople living in the past. It has been explained to us that we can no longer clinically and accu- rately use this loaded expression because of the Sino-Soviet split, the Yugoslav-Soviet split, the Albanian- Soviet split, and other manifesta- tions of polycentrism. Perhaps, indeed, communism is' no longer a monolithic force sub- suming all Marxist-Leninist states under the Soviet banner. Neverthe- less, how can one label the presence today in Nicaragua of Cubans, Bul- garians, Libyans, Czechs, North Koreans,, East Germans, Vietnam- John Lenczowski is director, Euro- pean and Soviet affairs, at the National Security Council. ~~ (~ J u ~~, P / `~ ,~ S ese, Soviets, and Communist ele- ments of the Palestine Liberation Organization? If this is not some facsimile of international communism, then we are at a loss as to how to explain the common thread that binds these forces together. If we must pay our dues to the gods of polycentrism, then perhaps we might refine our terminology by calling this phenom- enon "Soviet international commu- nism;' since neither Maoist, Titoist, or Albanian brands of communism are at work here. Since we so rarely discuss the facts about international commu-. nism as such, there are a few which should be remembered in the con- text of our current debate on Nica- ragua: ? The people do not want communism. Never in history has a majority of a free electorate demo- cratically chosen a Communist form of government. (There is only one exception: the minuscule state of San Marino. In the case of Chile, Mr. Allende, although a Marxist, did not run for office as'a Communist with a Communist Party in tow, or with an avowedly Communist political pro- gram. Neither did he win a majority of the vote.) ? Communists have always come to power through violent takeovers. These takeovers have always involved seizure of power by a well- organized and externally assisted minority over an unorganized and unwitting majority. Such takeovers , .consistently entail the use of a "pop- ular front" of Communist and non- communist elements; the establishment of a Communist Party see LENCZOWSKI, page 2D Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 i~1:~.~ tt,4V ~~ -7111 From page 1 D which uses an ideological party line to enforce internal conformity and identify and eliminate deviationisis; the use of camouflage to disguise the party's true intentions and full politi- cal program; the use of propaganda and disinformation to manipulate the international media; the use of violent and ruthless methods to eliminate all organized opposition, including ethnic minorities, organ- ized religion, non-government- controlled media and the "class enemy;" and finally, the use of grad- ualism in the process of eliminating opposition and implementing inter- nal security - so that the people do not realize what is happening to them until it is too late. ? No Communist regime that has consolidated its power has ever been overthrown and replaced by a non- communist order. (The only excep- tion is Grenada). Every other form of government offers people the chance to retain a system of trial and error. It is easy to overthrow a Shah or a Somoza after trial has been granted and error perceived. But once communism is firmly in place, the possibility of trial and error is no more. A vote against aid to the Freedom Fighters is a vote to consign Nicara- gua to an indefinite period of no free- dom of choice. ? The human cost of communism wildly exceeds most Americans' expectations. The numbers of people murdered by Communist regimes (outside of war deaths) are approximately: low estimate, 60 million; high estimate (more accurate in light of recent scholarship), 150 million. The greatest tide of refugees in world history flows from Commu- nist states to non-Communist ones: today it comes from Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Indochina, East Europe, and Nicaragua. (During the entire Vietnam War there was nary, a refugee fleeing from Indochina. It was not until communism tri- umphed that life became so unbear- able that people who could withstand decades of war fled to the seas). Communism invented the concen- tration camp. Millions have been imprisoned, executed, or worked and starved to death in these camps. Communist regimes will not permit enterprising Western reporters any- where near these camps, so you don't hear about them on the evening news. Communist regimes recognize no, restraint on their absolute power.; f..lsehoods as the standards of right and wrong and the standards by which deviationism is measured; from this stems the systematic denial of all individual human rights. The quality of life always deterio- rates under communism: the milita- rization of society; the destruction of the consumer economy; the rationing of food; the deterioration of existing housing and insufficient new construction to meet population growth; the destruction of medical care through lack of medicine and medical supplies (despite all the pro- paganda about free universal medi- cal care in the U.S.S.R., for example, a 900-bed hospital in Moscow gets an allocation of 250 hypodermic nee- dles peryear-a supply insufficient for one day in a Western hospital - with instructions on how to straighten them, clean them and de- rust them); the destruction of reli- gion (in Russia in 1914 there were 77,000 Orthodox churches, whereas today in the entire U.S.S.R. there are only some 7,000); the destruction and political control of education and culture; the rewriting of history, and the destruction of monuments to the national heritage; and the assault on family life and parental jurisdiction over children. ? Soviet-style communism invari- ably means the export of terrorism, violence, and revolution to other countries. Soviet proxy states par- ticipate in an efficient division of labor in this sphere: Cubans as troops, Bulgarians and Vietnamese as arms suppliers, East Germans as secret police trainers and military advisers, etc. Since it is Soviet and not Albanian proxies who are present on our con- tinent today, it is not an accident that the Communist Sandinista regime is an active collaborator in this divi- sion of labor. ? The Sandinistas are Commu- nists. As Defense Minister Ortega said: "Marxism-Leninism is the sci- entific doctrine that guides our rev- olution ... without Sandinismo we cannot be Marxist-Leninist and San- dinismo without Marxism-Leninism cannot be revolutionary." The identical pattern of Commu- nist takeover methods, internal poli- ci `, and external behavior is can be no doubt, given the vast evi- dence we have accumulated, that Nicaragua is becoming another Cuba. ? Communist regimes, including the Nicaragua regime, spend vast resources on disinformation - to deceive the international media and foreign political decision-makers. A principal goal is to disseminate false information about the nature of their own system: the principal dis- informationtheme ofall Communist regimes is to convince others that they are not really Communist. This is done in many ways by the Sandinistas but most prominently by the "guided tour." Countless American visitors are taken on this guided tour and see nice things and talk to "average citizens" who tell them what the regime wants them to hear. Nobody wants to believe that he has been or can be fooled. But if Con- gress is to believe the testimony of constituents and reporters who base their information on the "guided tour;' Congress may as well believe everything they are told on the iden- tical guided tours in Moscow, Havana, East Germany, North Korea or any other totalitarian state. Congress must decide whether it will resist international communism on our continent or let it prosper. Isolationists in the Congress may base their opposition to the adminis- tration on the principle that other countries should be allowed self- determination. Unfortunately, in Nicaragua today there can be no self-determination, because of the reality of "foreign- force determination." The foreign force is the Soviet Union and its proxies, otherwise known as the forces of international communism. Will the Nicaraguan people be given enough assistance so that they will be able to determine their future on the basis of a balance of foreign forces, or will Congress permit an imbalance, an imbalance against democracy, an imbalance against any system of trial and error? ! If Congress chooses to deny the Nicaraguan friends of democracy a chance for self-determination, it will be voting in favor of the first victory of the Soviet strategic offensive on our own continent. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23 :CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23: CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 T Central Intelligence Agencv 23 Aus~ust 1985 MFMORANDTJM FOR: David E. Randolph _ Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin America and Caribbean, S/LPD Department of State SURJE'CT: Central America and the Human Cost of Communism REFERENCE: NSC ES Memo of 8 May 1985, same subject 1. Reference memorandum sought our input on "The Human Costs of Communism: The Central American Experience in Historical Perspective." ?_. F'e have provided you suc?~ information we have on Central America, and especially the Nicaraguan aspect. Regarding the broader question of the human costs in all Marxist-Leninist states, we h ave combed our intelligence files and I enclose conies of these reports that my have some relevance. This particular topic has not been the object of substantial tarsretted intelligence research. There may be some material available in the open literature, and an external contract with an academic specialist might well be a substantially more fruitflul avenue to pursue if additional information is required. ~. I regret we could not be mcre helpful in this, and if there are some specific intelligence questions for which we can provide support, please let me know. Executive Assistant to the DDI Attachments: CIA Reports R~'GRADR AS CONFIDENTIAL ratlr~? ~FPARATEn FROM TCS A.'?'TACT?ti?E^iT. _ CL 8Y SANER Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23: CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23: CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5 SUBJECT: Central America and the Human Cost of Communism Distribution: Original - Addressee (w/att) 1 - ExSec (w/o att) 1 - DDI Action File (w/o att) 1 - DDI Registry (ca/o att) (23AUG85) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/02/23: CIA-RDP87M00539R001602450006-5