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December 22, 2016
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July 15, 1985
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Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Directorate of Intelligence Terrorism Review 1S July 1983 ~EC!'C~- GI TR 85-01 ~ 1 S July i 985 copy 5 31 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Terrorism Review) 25X1 1 Focus: El Salvador: Insurgents Turn to Terrorism 3 Highlights ~I/ALA Dl/OCI 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 15 South Africa: More Aggressive Counterterrorist Policy) 25X1 ~l?~I 25X1 D~/ocr This review is published every other week by the Directorate oJ'Intelligence. Appropriate articles produced by other elements oJ'the CIA as well as 6y other agencies of the US Intelligence Community will be considered Jor publication. Comments and queries are welcome and may be directed to the Executive Editor Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Terrorism Review The unprecedented shooting of several US civilians, off-duty Marines, and others in a San Salvador restaurant by the "Mardoqueo Cruz unit" on 19 June indicates that the insurgents are turning increasingly to terrorism because of their lack of success on the battlefield. Some rebel leaders may regret the need to fall back on such measures, but others reportedly believe their prospects can be improved by undermining confidence in the government and trying to provoke the authorities to overreact. This, they hope, will rekindle lower-class support for the far left. Almost constant Army operations during the past 18 months have disrupted rebel supply efforts, reduced morale, and induced large numbers to desert. The insurgents have responded with attacks on economic targets, generally avoiding heavy contact with the Army and relying instead on ambushes and mines to inflict casualties on government forces. The guerrillas also have increasingly used terrorism as a low-risk means to strike back. Since January they have: ? Kidnaped 18 mayors, killing two; 14 others are still captive. ? Assassinated at least six members of the armed forces. ? Killed some 25 civil defense personnel and civilians in a single town. Shifting Focus Rebel communiques issued after the attack on the Marines indicate the guerrillas intend to continue targeting Americans, government officials, and Salvadoran military personnel. They also plan attacks on upper- and middle-class targets in an effort to turn the insurgency into a class war. The insurgents may hope that actions against white-collar civilians, who heretofore have been relatively untouched by the war, will prompt managers and entrepreneurs to leave the country, with a resultant loss of capital investment and jobs. most guerrilla factions believe they should resume a combination of aggressive political agitation and terrorism, as conducted in the late 1970s, to create a more dynamic challenge to the government. The guerrillas probably hope to spark indiscriminate repression by the military and the right wing. Some senior military officers reportedly are already disgruntled over Duarte's handling of terrorism and are demanding tough antiterrorist legislation; they imply that, unless effective steps are taken, extralegal Secret G/ TR 85-014 IS July 1985 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret measures will be revived. Other oflicers recognize that government overreaction is a major objective of rebel terrorism and probably will continue to urge restraint. Extreme rightists, however, may attempt to blame Duarte for failing to stop terrorist attacks and revive efforts to remove him from office. The Guerrillas' Problems The insurgents hope that the murder of Americans will have a negative effect on US involvement in El Salvador, but this tactic also constitutes an admission that their guerrilla strategy is faltering. They had ample opportunities in the past to use terrorism but apparently were restrained by concern over unfavorable domestic and international reactions. Now that support for their cause has waned and the tactical situation has turned against them, the insurgents may increasingly view terrorism as one of their last options. Moreover, the insurgent leadership's initial reluctance to praise the attack in San Salvador and the lame attempts by the small faction responsible for the incident to blame the civilian deaths on the government's security forces suggest poor coordination that may worsen strains in the guerrilla alliance. Some rebel leaders, particularly political figures and less radical guerrilla commanders, may lament that the insurgents have turned to the same tactics they have accused the government of using. Nevertheless, even if mainstream leaders can strictly control their factions' terrorist attacks, those guerrilla elements that defy control may intensify the insurgency's drift toward indiscriminate terrorism in the wake of the "success" of 19 June. 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Highlights Key Indicators US advisers in Tegucigalpa in September 1981. Possible Increase in Anti-US Terrorism Three groups-elements of the Marxist-dominated Unitarian Federation of Honduran Workers, the Popular Revolutionary Forces/Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ) group, and the People's Revolutionary Union/Popular Liberation Movement (URP/MPL) "Cinchonero" terrorists-have reportedly joined forces to attack US officials. The planned attacks reportedly are intended to demonstrate opposition to the US policy and military presence in Central America, retaliate for US initiatives against Nicaragua, and force Washington back into direct bilateral negotiations with Managua. Although there is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the alleged plan will be implemented, both the FPR/LZ and the URP/MPL have previously targeted US personnel. The FPR LZ, for example, wounded two Significant Developments A bomb was defused by Army experts outside the offices of a military supplier in Although no group has yet claimed responsibility for this latest attempt, the targets in Brussels in April. initials "FRAP" were scrawled on a nearby wall. The Revolutionary Front for Proletarian Action (FRAP) claimed credit for two bombings of NATO-related 3 Secret G/ TR 85-014 1S July /98S 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Two .45-caliber shell casings were recovered at the scene. Attempted Assassination of Armed Forces Controller General A man with a pistol attempted to kill the Controller General of the Armed Forces while his car was stopped at a red light near his home in Neuilly. As the general's car drove away in a zigzag maneuver, the assailant fired two shots, but missed. both victims were figures associated with arms procurement. The terrorist group Action Directe claimed responsibility for the attack, which was similar in many respects to the 26 January 1985 murder of General Audran also claimed by the group. Both Audran and the Controller General lived in the same Paris suburb, both attacks were carried out with the same type of weapon, and caused property damage but no injuries. Separatists Announce Moratorium on Violence Following Bombing Spree At a clandestine press conference in Marseille on 1 July, the outlawed Corsican National Liberation Front (FLNC) announced a temporary suspension of terrorist activities. The statement followed a "blue night" of violence in which 39 explosions expressed optimism that the suspension will lead to negotiations. The FLNC has carried out hundreds of bombings annually for several years. The latest series of explosions was apparently meant to demonstrate that the moratorium was not proposed from a position of weakness. FLNC members West Germany Sorting Out Claims After Frankfurt Airport Bombing West German authorities are continuing their investigation of the 19 June bombing of the international terminal at Frankfurt's Rhein Main Airport that left four persons dead and injured 60. Complicating their efforts have been more than 20 claims of responsibility received thus far from groups with causes across the political spectrum. One claim was made in the name of the Red Army Faction, but neither the claim nor the act is typical of that group's operations. Other claims have come from the Arab Revolutionary Organization, an unknown group that claimed credit for bombing the British Embassy in Beirut last year, and from a new group, the "Peace Conquerors," which also took credit for a bomb that destroyed the Brussels offices of the West German chemical firm Bayer on 22 June. None of the claims made so far appear credible; the blast may have been an accidental detonation of smuggled explosives. Two RAF Suspects Arrested in Safehouse West German police raided an RAF safehouse in Offenbach, outside of Frankfurt, on 3 July, and arrested Ingrid Barabass and Mariele Schmegner. They also seized five handguns, 250 rounds of ammunition, and forged or stolen Austrian and Italian documents. Two of the guns have been linked to those stolen in the 1970s and used in the 1977 shootings of Hans-Martin Schleyer's bodyguards and in two other murders. Police are still seeking Eva-Sybille Haule-Frimpong, another RAF terrorist thought to have stayed at the house. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret activities Not much is known about Schmegner, but Barabass is a longtime RAF member thought to have been involved in the Jurgen Ponto murder in 1977. Although she had been charged in that case, she was extradited from France, convicted of the lesser charge of membership in a terrorist organization, and imprisoned for four years. Haule-Frimpong, a member of the RAF hardcore, is suspected of surveilling the US Consulate General in Frankfurt in January and of participating in the theft of a shipment of 800 kilograms of plastic explosives. These arrests probably will hamper RAF operations in the Frankfurt area. Previous arrests of RAF members at this level have done little more than temporarily curtail the group's with small-arms fire. Competing Claims for Attacks on Airline Offices In Madrid, a bomb exploded on 1 July at the British Airways ticket office, killing one person and injuring 27 others. The blast gutted the premises and also wrecked a TWA office located directly above. Minutes later, a grenade was lobbed into the nearby ofFices of Royal Jordanian Airlines, and the front of the building was raked terrorists who hijacked the TWA flight out of Athens on 14 June. The attack on the British Airways ofFce was first claimed by a previously unknown-presumably Shia-group, the "Organization of the Oppressed." A spokesman said the group set ofI'the British Airways-TWA bomb as a response to President Reagan's threat to retaliate for the hijacking of a TWA jet to Beirut on 14 June. Both bombings occurred one week after two Shias were sentenced by a Spanish court to 23 years in prison. Their release was one of the demands of the credit for the bombing of British Airways and TWA. We believe that Black September and ROSM are covernames currently being used by the Abu Nidal On 3 July claims of responsibility for the attacks on the US, British, and Jordanian airline offices were issued in the names of the Black September Organization (BSO) and the Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims (ROSM). BSO claimed to have carried out the attack on the Jordanian offices, while ROSM took Group in its attacks against Jordanian and British interests, respectively. entering Turkey from Syria to pay fees for protection. Terrorist Infiltrates Police Police arrested 18 members of the Partizan Path organization in May, including one who worked at police headquarters in Ankara. He reportedly had provided the group with two-way radios of the type used by police. Police also learned that Partizan Path financed its operations by forcing members of other leftist groups Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret More Strains in Cease-Fire In late June, a leader of the M-19 guerrilla group stated for the second time in recent months that the cease-fire agreement with the government has broken down because of Army "violations." past year. The US Embassy notes that the internal security situation is deteriorating following several clashes between security forces and guerrilla groups last week, which resulted in the highest weekly death toll over the guerrillas may become more frequent, however. However, the M-19 charge may be a ploy designed to pressure President Betancur into making political concessions and reining in the Army. Because neither side has much to gain from formally terminating the cease-fire at this time, it probably will remain in effect at least on paper. Clashes between the Army and the 7X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret approached, Terrorist Fund-Raising Strategy: Buy Bonds According to press accounts, Japanese police have learned that the leftwing group Chukaku-ha (Nucleus Faction) has secretly issued bonds to finance its activities, which have included rocket attacks on Narita Airport. The group reportedly accumulated some $2 million between January and April this year by issuing six- year bonds paying 5-percent annual interest. Only the group's sympathizers and their family ,members, who may number 5,000 to 10,000 persons, were called for against Narita Airport expansion work this year. This is not the first time Chukaku-ha has floated a bond issue; it did so several years ago to finance office construction for its overt political arm. However, in the wake of several serious firebombing attacks by the group in the last 12 months, police fear these funds may be used to finance the "decisive battle" the group has Mozambique RENAMO Announces New Hostage Negotiation Procedure In an attempt to gain international recognition and to create difficulties between Portugal and the Mozambican Government, the National Resistance Movement announced that the eight to 10 Portuguese hostages it holds will be released only after a meeting with Portuguese oflicials. Uniike some other African insurgencies, RENAMO does not often take hostages; its common tactic of ambushing civilian and public transportation vehicles usually results in the killing of the occupants, rather than their capture. In cases where hostages have been taken, they have sometimes been found dead shortly thereafter. The Mozambican group may be following the example of its Angolan counterpart, the Union for the Total Independence of Angola, which recently restated its policy of direct negotiation with home governments. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret The Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front The murder of six US citizens in downtown San Salvador on 19 June is a dramatic example of the escalation of urban terrorism in El Salvador in recent months. Although it was apparently not responsible for this particular massacre, the Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front (CERF) probably is the most violent and notorious of the country's urban terrorist groups. Since its inception approximately two years ago, this militant, anti-US organization, operating exclusively in El Salvador's capital city, has engaged in numerous acts of politically motivated violence ranging from intimidation to assassination. Unlike most of the other Salvadoran guerrilla groups, the CERF has chosen an urban environment as its primary area of operations, and the group's various terrorist activities have demonstrated its ability to operate effectively in this milieu. In addition, the group has boasted that it receives no foreign support and obtains its weapons and supplies from a variety of criminal activities, including robbery. Among CERF's more notable "successes"-and the reasons for continuing US concern-are: ? The assassination on 25 May 1983 of US military ? The killing of at least two US Embassy foreign national employees since April 1984. ? The murder on 7 March 1985 of Salvadoran military spokesman Lt. Col. Ricardo Cienfuegos. Unlike the mainline Salvadoran insurgent groups, the CERF does not lend itself to easy definition or categorization. The apparently limited number of members in the CERF hardcore, its informal command structure, its independent cellular structure, and difficulties encountered with ambiguous or conflicting information combine to create a picture that is often blurred and incomplete. the CERF is totally separate from the Farabundo Marti Popular Liberation Forces (FMLN/FPL), there is still a great deal of ambiguity about the CERF's relationship with its FPL parent. Origins The CERF emerged as an entity separate from its parent organization, the FMLN/FPL Z in early 1983. The FPL leadership at that time was torn by acrimonious disputes over what the role and direction leader Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Acosta, a lower level commander in the Farabundo Marti Popular Liberation Forces (FMLN/FPL) She was killed by a va oran security officials in October 1976 during a raid on an FPL Z The Popular Liberation Forces (FPL) is one of the five leftist guerrilla organizations belonging to the FMLN. The FPL was established in 1970 from groups that had broken away from the Communist Party of El Salvador. The group is composed of about 3,000 combatants whose activities have included assassinations, kidnapings, and bank robberies, in addition to conventional military confrontations with the Salvadoran armed forces.~~ Secret G! TR 85-014 /5 July 1985 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 2tiu~ 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret of the group should bc. The commander in chief of the FPL, Salvador Cayetano Carpio, believed the FPL could win the Salvadoran revolution on its own, and did not need to be a part of the larger coalition, the FMLN. He espoused a strategy of avoiding working alliances with other guerrilla groups and remained adamantly opposed to any dialogue with the government. In opposition to Carpio was a less extreme FPL wing under the leadership of Melinda Anaya Montes (Comandante Ana Maria), which favored greater insurgent unity within the FMLN and eventual negotiations with the government. This internecine squabbling finally led to the assassination of Anaya in Managua on 6 April 1983 by pro-Carpio FPL members. One week later, the Nicaraguan Ministry of Interior announced that Carpio had committed suicide in "despair" after hearing that Anaya had been murdered by his own followers. A more likely scenario has it that Carpio, fearing Anaya's growing popularity within the FPL, ordered her assassination and then was murdered in retaliation by With Carpio's death, his faction began to lose ground. On 10 December 1983, with the Anaya faction in ascendancy, the FPL issued a communique that publicly accused Carpio of complicity in her assassination and denounced the pro-Carpio splinter groups. By early January 1984, the hardline Carpio followers had reorganized themselves into the Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front, progressively distancing The recent capture of FPL Metropolitan Front guerrilla leader Napoleon Romero Garcia has helped to remove some of this ambiguity. Both the CERF and the FPL Metropolitan Front operated in the city of San Salvador and both claimed to represent the FPL. CERF members received assistance from the FPL before the split. 5X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 L ~JC "I 25X1 ~ox"i 25X1 themselves from the main body of the FPL. Present Relationship With the FMLN/FPL Since the 1984 break, the CERF's exact relationship in its with the FPL has been difficult to determine. organizational structure, the CERF not unexpectedly appears to emphasize its role as a combatant force. The CERF membership clearly sees itself in a military context as a "People's Army"-a theme common to many Latin American terrorist/insurgent groups-and operates as a terrorist group only in the 7X1 25X1 25X1 5X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 city of San Salvador. Most members of the group seem to consider themselves independent of the mainline FPL but most likely share its revolutionary ideology. The CERF may consider itself the true representative of the original FPL ideology as represented by Carpio-hard line, reluctant to negotiate, and distrustful of guerrilla group unity. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Ties to the National University The CERF appears to have a close relationship with leftist elements at the National University of El Salvador (LINES), which had been closed until recently. LINES is a shell of its former self as the continued insurgency has made it difficult to hold classes. Many students are now studying abroad, and most of those who have stayed no longer appear interested in "revolution." But with all its problems, the Salvadoran Armed Forces do not conduct armed forays onto the LINES campus because of traditional Latin American respect for the inviolate status of universities. Many LINES professors are noted for their leftist sympathies, their support of subversive activity, and their provision of safehaven to members of the various insurgent groups. The CERF appears to be using the traditionally inviolate status of the university to create a base of operations and influence. While the full extent of CERF contacts with LINES is unknown, at least one urban commando unit operates from the university. Moreover, in late January 1985, a Salvadoran National Police detective was murdered on the LINES campus by CERF members of this commando unit, and, on 6 May 1985 the CERF distributed leaflets on the LINES campus listing 1 1 professors of the law faculty as "traitors" and calling fora "popular trial." security services. Future Prospects The CERF, along with other Salvadoran guerrilla groups, recently has suffered several setbacks. Since late 1984, a number of key guerrilla leaders- including Jose Vladimir Santamaria Rivera "Kalin" of the CERF directorate, Nidia Diaz of the Central American Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRTC), and FPL Commander Romero-have defected or been captured by the increasingly effective Salvadoran Although in many cases, these groups formally operate independently of each other, the informal connections between them usually mean that problems encountered by one group tend to affect the others. In light of these setbacks, the various guerrilla groups, including the CERF itself, are very likely suffering from morale as well as operational problems. the CERF's troubles may be compounded by guerrilla units from the more established FMLN insurgent groups, which have been sent into urban areas, including San Salvador, to strike at easier targets and thereby force the Salvadoran Army to divert troops to the cities and away from the beleaguered guerrilla forces in the countryside. An increase in urban violence perpetrated by other insurgent groups could threaten the CERF's apparent dominance in San Salvador. The CERF may attempt to bolster its position by engaging in more high-profile terrorist activities- such as kidnapings, political assassinations, and random bombings-which could include targeting of US interests and personnel. 7X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret as the assassination of Albert Schaufelberger in 1983 and the killing of several Salvadoran employees of the US Embassy last year demonstrate. The CERF is much more likely, however, to try to intimidate the government by targeting high-profile Salvadoran officials such as military officers, local magistrates, and civic leaders-benefiting from the greater domestic media attention such attacks tend to generate. In fact, many highly visible recent domestic targets appear to have been selected for such assassinations. On 18 May Dr. Jose Adolfo Araujo, a military judge responsible for cases of terrorism and subversion, was shot to death as he dropped his children off at school in downtown San Salvador. The CERF claimed responsibility for this murder and also threatened officials of the San Salvador municipal government with the same fate if they did not meet various striking workers' demands. On 29 May a Salvadoran Air Force pilot was gunned down approximately 1 kilometer from the UNES campus, probably at the hands of the CERF or the FPL. Air Force Commander Juan Rafael Bustillo has ordered that intensified efforts be directed against these two groups. The CERF apparently views as favorable the publicity resulting from its acts of terrorism. The group has long believed that its assassinations of perceived "enemies of the people" invariably result in increased popular support for its revolutionary goals. But the recent attacks seem to be alienating most of the people of San Salvador. In continuing such attacks, the CERF risks turning a population already losing sympathy to insurgent violence more actively against it. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret South Africa: More Aggressive Counterterrorist Policy In the first six months of 1985, South Africa has conducted four attacks against African National Congress (ANC) targets in Botswana and Zambia, an upsurge that signals increased South African determination to maintain what Pretoria views as its regional security requirements. The spur for these operations was a dramatic increase in terrorist activity by the ANC and other groups that began in April after asix-month period of relative inactivity. One of the recent South African operations-the 14 June cross-border raid into Botswana to kill ANC operatives-demonstrated Pretoria's decision to publicly acknowledge responsibility for its counterterrorist activity for the first time, clearing the way for similar operations in the future. The ANC had been struggling operationally since its military forces were expelled from Mozambique as a result of the signing of the Nkomati accord in March 1984.' Forced to establish new bases of operation and new infiltration routes into South Africa, the group turned to other countries in the region, especially Botswana. South Africa moved quickly to counter these adjustments, coupling diplomatic pressure with the unspoken threat of military reprisals. This year, the threat of reprisals became reality-even while South Africa continued to publicly espouse a peaceful solution to conflict in the region. High-level US diplomats report the South Africans see no contradiction in a "thump/talk" policy. The military response has included the following: ? 13 February. Two known ANC members were injured when their residence was blown up in Gaborone, Botswana, by South African commandos. The US Embassy reported that more such attacks could be expected. The bombing had followed the 29 January statement by Pik Botha that South Africa reserved the right to conduct hot pursuit into Botswana to curtail ANC infiltrations into South Africa. ? 14 May. A man living in Gaborone was killed when his car blew up. His father was active in the ANC, and his new wife had longstanding ties to the group. ? 14 June. South African Defense Force commandos conducted across-border raid into Botswana, killing at least 14 persons and injuring five others in several residences. US Embassy reporting indicated that seven non-South Africans, including a child, were among the dead and wounded. South Africa claimed responsibility for the raid, stating that such attacks were intended to disrupt a planned ANC terrorist campaign. ? 30 June. South Africa bombed the ANC political headquarters in Lusaka, causing considerable property damage but no casualties. This was a smaller operation than earlier attacks, perhaps because of the logistic difficulties involved in operating so far from home. This bombing followed a spate of ANC attacks commemorating the 1976 Soweto riots as well as Zambia's hosting of the ANC congress. South African Government attacks have not slowed ANC activity. Indeed, a significant increase in ANC operations began in late April and continues. The recently concluded ANC congress in Zambia saw a heated debate between younger, more radical members who favor attacks on whites, and moderates, who feel such tactics would be counterproductive. In press conferences following the congress, ANC leader Secret GI TR 85-014 IS July 1985 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Tambo sidestepped the issue by stating only that more civilian casualties were inevitable. We expect that the number of incidents probably will increase, with a likely rise in civilian casualties as well. the threat of South African military reprisals does impress those countries inclined to support the ANC, however. Botswana and Swaziland have cracked down hard on the ANC in order to satisfy South African security concerns. Zimbabwe has limited and disguised its support to a different South African opposition group. After the most recent attack, Zambia may feel compelled to reduce support to the ANC. In late June, the South African police publicly voiced concern about ANC activity out of Lesotho, which suggests they may be planning across-border strike there soon. Lesotho has repeatedly denied the charges. The Record of South African Cross-Border Attacks on the ANC 17 October 1983. Three ANC officials and two Mozambicans injured by SADF commandos during raid on known ANC facility in Maputo, Mozambique. Justified by the South Africans as a "preemptive strike" against an ANC planning office. 23 May 1983. SADF jets bomb and strafe targets in Maputo in retaliation for ANC bombing in Pretoria that killed 19 and injured more than 200. South Africans claim to have killed numerous ANC members. 9 December 1982. South African commandos strike ANC houses in Maseru, Lesotho. Thirty ANC members and a dozen local civilians killed. 30 January 1981. Three ANC houses in Matola, Mozambique, attacked by SADF troops. A Portuguese technician and one SADF soldier were killed, along with 10 members of the ANC. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Q Next 2 Page(s) In Document Denied Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret publication are not included. Chronology of Terrorism-1985 Below are described noteworthy foreign and international terrorist events and counterterrorism developments that have occurred or come to light since our last issue. Events and developments that have already been described elsewhere in this 24 May Mozambique: Relief worker killed by RENAMO in ambush. He was delivering food and medicine in a Red Cross vehicle in Gaza Province. 29 May-6 June June S June 9 June Greece: Unidentified arsonists in Athens destroy five cars owned by US personnel. The attacks probably stemmed from anti-American feelings stirred up during the 2 June national elections. Namibia: SWAPO attack kills four civilians in Ovambo, according to press accounts. In a separate incident, a mortar attack launched by the South-West Africa People's Organization wounded a nun, also in Ovambo. Greece: PLO financial administrator shot in his Athens apartment by unknown assailant believed to be a professional assassin. This was the second attempt on the official's life in two years. A previously unknown Palestinian group calling itself the Corrective Movement claimed responsibility. West Bank: Firebomb thrown into Israeli bus in Nablus. The bomb was thrown through an open window but failed to explode. 10 June West Bank: Handgrenade thrown at refugee o./ficial in Qalandiya camp. It failed to explode. Galilee area. The PSF pledged to continue operations against Israel. Israel: Palestinian group in Lebanon claims responsibility for rocket attack. The Popular Struggle Front (PSF) has claimed credit for a rocket attack against the Portugal: FP-25 claims restaurant bombing in Oporto. A spokesman for the group said the early morning explosion was in retaliation for the restaurant owner's collaboration with police. The blast caused $12,000 in damages but no casualties. area. Gaza Strip: Car carrying local residents hit by gunge. Israeli security forces report that unidentified gunmen have been firing at Israeli soldiers and cars in the 21 Secret GI TR 85-ot4 IS July 1985 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Israel: Reservist on leave found dead in the Negev. No group has yet claimed responsibility. ~~ 25X1 12 June Argentina: Bomb planted in Buenos Aires courthouse seriously injures two policemen attempting to dismantle it. There has been no claim of responsibility. 13 June Israel: Bomb explodes on empty bus at Haifa Central Bus Station. The General Command of the Palestinian Revolution Forces claimed responsibility. solidarity with the Red Army Faction. West Germany: Arson attack at Kilbourne Kaserne motor pool damages US Army jeep. A letter sent to a local newspaper claimed the attack had been carried out in 18 June Spain: Civil Guard corporal shot in Santurce. The Basque separatist group ETA claimed credit for the killing.~~ 25X1 West Bank: Two civilians injured in bus stop bombings. Two bombs exploded during the morning rush hour in Jerusalem's Ramot neighborhood and the French Hill quarter. A man and a woman were slightly injured in the first explosion. Aviv neighborhood. Israel: Police defuse two bombs in Tel Aviv. The devices were found between cooking gas cylinders in buildings across the street from each other in a south Tel moved to Damascus for an indefinite period. Lebanon: Norway withdraws diplomats from Beirut. The move was said to reflect concern about the deteriorating security situation in Beirut and was not related to the TWA hostage situation under way at that time. The two-person embassy staff in a rickshaw through a crowded street. India: Congress Party o.~cial killed in Meerut by unidentified gunmen. Neta Hakimudden, the president of the Meerut Congress (I) Party, was shot as he rode Lebanon: Kidnaped Middle East Airlines vice president freed. Sami Rababi was kidnaped on 5 February 1985 in West Beirut and held prisoner in the Bekaa Valley by unknown terrorists. He was rescued by pro-Syrian militia members who happened upon the scene as his kidnapers were transferring him from one location 25X1 Spain: Fourteen suspected members of ETA arrested in Madrid. Arms and ammunition were also confiscated during the arrests. ~~ 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret India: Three bombs injure 10 persons in Ahmedabad. No one has claimed responsibility, but the attacks probably were related to tensions between castes in this area 24 June Spain: ETA claims assassination of fisherman in Lequeitio. The group accused the victim, Ignacio Montes, of involvement in drug trafficking. West Bank: Seven-year-old Israeli boy seriously injured in bomb explosion. He had stepped on a homemade explosive hidden among rocks at a bus stop in East Jerusalem. The bomb was similar to two others that exploded in nearby Ramot and French Hill the previous week. 25 June Spain: Argentine rightwing terrorist suspect arrested. Buenos Aires probably will charge Raul Guglielminetti and two accomplices with participating in the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance and soon request their extradition. Colombia: Four FARC guerrillas kill three peasants in Santander Province. The laborers were murdered in front of their families. Pakistan: Two bombs explode in Peshawar. Three unidentified persons were killed and two others were injured when a bomb went off in their car; a second bomb exploded in an Afghan refugee camp, destroying a fuel truck. There have been no claims of responsibility. 25, 29 June Mozambique: RENAMO kills 66 in two ambushes against large civilian convoys protected by government troops. Both attacks occurred near the town of Pateque in Gaza Province. In the second attack, the guerrillas seized 21 captives; a Chinese agricultural expert escaped, but the others remain unaccounted for. Late June Nepal: More bombs found. One device was defused after it was discovered on a bus traveling between the towns of Rajbiraj and Biratnagar. Another bomb was found near a railroad station in Khajuri. son of a town mayor was killed in an ambush. Philippines: Seventeen killed in three separate attacks by New People's Army (NPA~ A policeman, two militiamen, and two women were reportedly shot by an NPA "death squad" in Pagadian Province. In Zamboanga del Sur Province, 11 villagers were killed for failing to pay extortion, and in Tuguegarao Province the French authorities. France: GAL members suspected in killing of Spanish Basque in Bayonne. The victim, Santos Blanco Gonzalez, had recently requested refugee status from 23 Secret Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Spain: Armed attack kills postman in Amurrio. The Basque separatist group ETA, which had killed the victim's brother in 1981, is suspected of responsibility Israel: Bomb discovered in Ashgelon. Police safely removed and detonated a bomb that had been found between gas cylinders in a three-story apartment building. Sri Lanka: Unknown Tamil separatists kill popular J~`aa educator. The headmaster of St. John's College was shot while riding his motorcycle to his residence. He had previously received death threats for attempting to organize 27 June Portugal: Eight FP-25 members arrested at difrerent locations throughout country. None of those arrested, however, were among those sought since last year Indonesia: Islamic.fundamentalist charged in bombings. A Muslim university student has been charged with supplying the explosives used in a series of bombings in East Java over the last six months, including those that damaged the -?- ----???-? ?..~ ...vwsvr a.va.na ua~J !/[IVrvR ue r, rua ous m rsern[enem. 1 ne bus, carrying workers to jobs in the city, was set on fire, but no injuries were reported. Colombia: Package bomb explodes at Bogota Security Service headquarters, injuring two police explosives experts. The bomb was addressed to the chief of the security services, who had become suspicious and called in the technicians. responsibility, but Italian police suspect Sikh or Shia involvement. Italy: Bomb explodes at Leonardo da Vinci Airport outside Rome. The blast wounded 15 airport employees. The Kashmir Liberation Organization claimed Greece: Firebomb destroys three cars owned by US military officers in Athens. There were no injuries. Two groups, the Revolutionary People's Struggle and the previously unknown Anti-Imperialist Anti-American Struggle, claimed those who sentence Colombians to harsh jail terms. Colombia: Possible new group surfaces. The "Death to Judges and Magistrates" group sent a threatening letter to a Medellin judge, proposing to take revenge on Secret 24 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Early July Afghanistan: Rockets hit Soviet Embassy in Kabul. According to press accounts citing Western diplomats, unidentified guerrillas also hit other unspecified targets in the city. In addition, the regime is said to be so short of soldiers that guard units assigned to protect foreign embassies are being reduced to provide combat replacements. the 1970s. Mexico: Minor party presidential candidate kidnaped by leJ'tists. Arnold Martinez Verdugo of the United Socialist Party was abducted in Mexico City by five armed members of the Poor People's Party, a leftist guerrilla group active in church would pay no ransom but would help in their agricultural projects.C~25X1 on Basilan Island. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) demanded a ransom of $50 000 but released the two when the local Catholic bishop said the Philippines: Muslim rebels kidnap, then release Spanish priest and Filipino nun Nicaragua: Rebels.free kidnaped West German. Ms. Regine Schmemann, a volunteer ecologist for the Nicaraguan forestry service, had been captured in June by members of Misura, an anti-Sandinista rebel group. The rebels claimed to have found weapons and military documents in her vehicle. 25X1 Peru: Security operation in Lima nets 13 members oJTupacAmaru. The raid was part of a series of citywide presidential security sweeps that police will conduct nightly until the inauguration of President-elect Alan Garcia on 28 July. About 4,000 suspects were arrested in the initial operation. 25X1 Ecuador: Homemade bomb explodes in Quito near Presidential Palace. Literature from the leftist terrorist group Alfaro Vive, Carajo! was found in the area.~25X1 Northern Ireland: Bomb injures three police olj'icers, three civilians at security checkpoint near Irish border. No claims have been made, but the checkpoint has been attacked several times previously by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. latter claim, at least, is not deemed credible. Australia: Bomb causes light damage to Union Carbide plant near Sydney. The militant environmental group "Peace Conquerors" claimed credit for the attack in retribution for the Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal, India, last November and promised further attacks. This new group has claimed a bombing in Belgium and the 19 June bombing of Frankfurt airport that killed four persons, although the 10 July India: Sikh assassins narrowly miss district police chief in Chandigarh. A truck driven by Sikhs rammed the police chief's car, but he escaped injury. The truckdriver was arrested. 25 Secret Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret 11 July Sri Lanka: Assassination attempt against President Jayewardene,/oiled. Police discovered a van containing a timebomb made of 120 kilograms of gelignite and arrested two Tamil youths who said the device was intended to be set off near the President's office. They are reportedly members of the Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students, one of six separatist groups currently attending peace talks in Bhutan with representatives of the Sri Lankan Government. New Zealand: Two explosions sink Greenpeace vessel in Auckland, killing one crewmember. No one has claimed responsibility for the act. The Rainbow Warrior was scheduled to lead a protest flotilla to the French Polynesian island of Mururoa in opposition to a nuclear test there the following month. Secret 26 25X1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6 Secret Secret Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/11 :CIA-RDP87T00685R000100170005-6