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December 22, 2016
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January 8, 2010
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December 23, 1984
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Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-01070R000301530003-5 RADIO N REPORTS, INC. 4701 WILLARD AVENUE, CHEVY CHASE, MARYLAND 20815 (301) 656-4068 FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS STAFF PROGRAM 60 Minutes STATION W D V M- T V CBS Network DATE December 23, 1984 7:00 P.M. CITY Washington, D.C. SUBJECT MK-ULTRA/Min.d Control Experiments ED BRADLEY: MK-ULTRA is not the name of a new James Bond movie. It is, or was the code word for a secret CIA project which took place between 1953 and 1964 in which unsuspecting people were used in mind-control experiments that left them emotionally crippled for life. MK-ULTRA consisted of more than 130 research programs which took place in prisons, hospitals and universities all over the United States. Tonight we'll look at subproject number 68, an experiment conducted in Canada. The CIA does not deny that the experiments took place. In fact, we'll show you an internal agency memo which admits their involvement. The rationale for all of this? Well, the memo doesn't say. But it's apparent that learning how to make people do things they normally wouldn't do by controlling their minds is valuable if you're in the espionage business. Dr. Ewen Cameron, an American, now dead, headed the Allen Memorial Institute at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada, where the experiments took place. Dr. Cameron never told his patients they were being used as guinea pigs. ZAL ORLICO: I can't get over the rage that I feel that he would have done this to me and to other people [unintel- ligible]. BRADLEY: In 1957 Zal Orlico (?) was suffering from depression. It was recommended that she see Dr. Cameron, who was one of the leading psychiatrists in Canada. Her treatment from Dr. Cameron? Massive doses of lysergic acid diethalamide, a new experimental mind-altering drug called LSD. It destroyed her Materialsuppiie Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-01070R000301530003-5 'd or exhibited. Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 ORLICO: They took away the remaining years of my life. They really wrang them out and left me with a piece of rag to live. And that's not good enough. That's just not good enough. And it's not good enough for me and it's not good enough for anybody else. And as long as I can open my mouth, as long as I can fight, I'm going to fight. BRADLEY: Mrs. Orlico decided to fight when she read a newspaper report about the CIA funding of the mind-control experiments and suspected that she was one of the victims. Her husband, David Orlico, a Member of Canada's Parlia- ment, was able to help her find eight other people who had been used as guinea pigs by Dr. Cameron when he was receiving funds through a front organization from the CIA. After obtaining their medical records, which confirmed their involvement, they joined in a suit against the U.S. Government, each asking for a million dollars. Each of the plaintiffs came here to the Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal expecting therapy. Instead, what they got was a nightmare of experiments. There were electroshock treat- ments, many times greater than the norm. They were subjected to sleep therapy, long periods, often up to 60 days, during which they were drugged so much that the better part of each day was spent sleeping. During these periods, they were subjected to what's called psychic driving, the constant repetition of tape-recorded messages, often up to a half-million times. They were also injected with drugs: curare, which brought on temporary paralysis; and LSD, which led to terrifying hallucinations. ORLICO: He injected the lysergic acid into the vein, then he patted me on the shoulder and said, "Now, there, Lassie, we'll see you later." And he went out and closed the door. Well, it was only a very few minutes before I began to feel very peculiar and things began to become very distorted. And I didn't seem to have any control over anything, and I started to feel very frightened, and the fright became a terror, and I sort of began throwing myself from one side of the room to the other. I didn't know what to do to stop this feeling. It felt like my bones were melting. I just didn't know who I was anymore. BRADLEY: Robert Logey (?) was 18 years old when he came to the Allen Memorial Institute with severe leg pains that had Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-01070R000301530003-5 been diagnosed as psychosomatic, or caused by emotional problems. He got the full battery of treatment: sleep therapy, electro- shock, many times the norm, psychic driving, and LSD. All of that has left permanent mental scars. And what haunts Logey the most is the psychic driving, those messages drilled into his brain when he was virtually paralyzed with drugs. ROBERT LOGEY: I have a lot of questions about it now, and why can't I know what was on the tapes? And it just haunts me and haunts me. You know, what were they trying to make me believe, or whatever? BRADLEY: Dr. Mary Morrow (?) was a physician who came to Dr. Cameron to ask for a fellowship in psychiatry. She had gone through a period of depression. And Dr. Cameron told her she looked tired and nervous, and he would not consider her for a fellowship unless she underwent sleep therapy. She thought that meant a period of rest with sedatives administered periodically. So she consented. What she got was electroshock depatterning. DR. MARY MORROW: He used 67 times the average dose of electric current by pushing the button of the electroshock machine six times in succession rather than one. And besides that, instead of getting it two or three times a week once, one press of a button, like most physicians do, he gave it in daily successions. BRADLEY: The result? Dr. Morrow lost her identity. DR. MORROW: I was suspended in space in a deep black hole. I had no idea that I was a human being. I was without knowledge of my appendages. I had no sense of solidity. I was .floating. I had no -- I was completely disoriented. I thought I was an organism. BRADLEY: Dr. Morrow's mother saw what was happening to her daughter and demanded that she be released from the Allen Institute. When she regained what she calls her human identity, Dr. Morrow realized that her treatment had nothing to do with healing. In fact, she had suffered permanent brain damage. DR. MORROW: [Unintelligible], absolutely gone. [Confusion of voices] DR. MORROW: In a nutshell, my life today is in a [unintelligible] shadow. I'm left with a permanent difficulty which is called [unintelligible] -- that is, [unintelligible]. I could talk to you and -- you know, somewhere [unintelligible]. If I meet you tomorrow in a changed environment, I don't know you're Mr. Bradley. If I meet you in [unintelligible], in a Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-01070R000301530003-5 Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 local supermarket or on the water, I won't know you from Adam. BRADLEY: Dr. Elliot Emanuel (?) was a junior associate under Dr. Cameron. Although he was not part of the brainwashing experiments, he defends Dr. Cameron and raises questions about his patients. DR. ELLIOT EMANUEL: There you have to bear in mind that these were mentally ill patients. I insist on that. They weren't there because they -- for any other reason, to my knowledge. They were mentally ill patients, and their perception or their recall 30 years later of the events may not be perfect. BRADLEY: Memories may not be perfect after 30 years, but there is no doubt about the experiments conducted by Dr. Cameron and funded by the CIA. This internal agency memo from the CIA's General Counsel refers to the substantial funds flowing from this agency to McGill in support of the project, and it goes on to say that the use of drugs, and particularly intensive electroshock, suggests that long-term aftereffects may have been involved. Are you not at all disturbed about what he did in using human beings? DR. EMANUEL: In the context of the time, medical treatments, innovative medical treatments inevitably have the aspect of being experiments. There's nothing so terrible about that. BRADLEY: But there's a question of misuse. And there are people who are claiming that they were misused. DR. EMANUEL: I think it's going to be very hard for those patients to prove that their present condition was due to experimentation beyond what would be acceptable treatment at the time. BRADLEY: Dr. Harvey Weinstein, a psychiatrist and professor at Stanford University, spent years researching what happened to Cameron's patients at the hospital during the time of the CIA-funded experiments. Why? His father had entered Dr. Cameron's care with a mild neurotic condition, and came out several years later with physical brain damage and a complete change of personality. DR. HARVEY WEINSTEIN: What Dr. Cameron seemed to do was to take these and to use them not only on people who were severely ill -- and he did do that -- but to use it on people who were mildly ill, people with neurotic conditions, people for whom these kinds of treatments simply were not indicated at all. Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 And when someone says to me that what was being done there was the standard of the time, I balk, because it was not the standard of the time. No one anywhere was putting them together in this kind of package. BRADLEY: But they were sick, many of these people. DR. WEINSTEIN: The fact that some people were neurotic -- that is, did not have conditions that were a major disturbance -- does not mean that they weren't people who were rational and capable of thinking and remembering, until this work was done. BRADLEY: From 1957 to 1960, Richard Helms and his associate Sidney Gottlieb were responsible for the CIA's MK- ULTRA. In 1973, just before he left as head of the agency, Helms and Gottlieb, in clear violation of government regulations, set out to destroy all of the records of MK-ULTRA. But they over- looked a few financial documents which showed that the CIA, through a front organization, had spent at least $60,000 on the brainwashing experiments. And because of the destroyed records, no one can say how much more was spent. Both men declined our request for an interview. A Senate subcommittee investigation into the CIA brainwashing experiments led to a recommendation that the CIA find and compensate the victims, a recommendation that was accepted by then-CIA Director Stansfield Turner. But to this date, none of the victims in this case have received compen- sation, or even an explanation of what happened. Joseph Rauh is the lawyer for the Canadian plaintiffs. JOSEPH RAUH: You know, it's wonderful thing that th.e CIA says. They say, "Well, we only put up part of the money." But can you imagine saying, "I only gave half the money for shooting somebody"? Well, you know how long it would take to make that defense ridiculous. That is exactly the defense that the CIA has. BRADLEY: Rauh says his evidence tying the CIA to the brainwashing experiments will help his clients only in a court of law. And he says the agency has effectively stalled their day in court. RAUH: They'd never put up anything or give you any material voluntarily. You've got to go to the judge, and then they've always got rights to appeal. They're masters at stone- walling. BRADLEY: Canadian officials have stated publicly that Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 the United States Government has expressed its regret over the CIA's actions in this matter. However, none of those Canadian officials would talk with us on camera about this case. And what's more, they have turned down all requests, even from Members of Parliament, to make public the records of that apology, records that would help the nine Canadians plaintiffs in their suit against the CIA. These officials say that inter- national practice and customs precludes the disclosure of information that was given in confidence. The plaintiffs in this suit against the CIA were permanently damanged by the brainwashing experiments. Most of them were even unable to talk with us. You have meat the most fortunate among the nine. After decades of trying, Dr. Morrow, at the age of 60, was finally able to gain her psychiatric credentials. She works at a small hospital in Ontario. BRADLEY: How has what happened to you under Dr. Cameron affected your'life? BRADLEY: Why? DR. MORROW: Absolutely. [Unintelligible]. I'm 61 (?) and I've been 24 years on this case. My life is misery [unintel- ligible]. BRADLEY: When Robert Logey finally had an opportunity to examine his medical records, he learned that after the electroshocks, LSD and psychic driving, doctors decided his leg pain was not psychosomatic at all. A few shots of cortisone ended the pain in his leg. LOGEY: Physically, there's places you can go and have counseling and support groups, and whatnot. But when you're mentally raped, there's nothing. And I don't trust any psychia- trist who might be able to help me. I couldn't trust one enough to get the help that I need in dealing with this. BRADLEY: Mrs. Orlico suffers from flashbacks, from depression, fear of crowds and fear of heights. Finally knowing what really ruined her health is her only consolation. Until you found out about the experiments, until you found out that you were brainwashed, what did you think of all of that that happened? ORLICO: I thought I had failed. I thought I had failed Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 4 Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5 and I am guilty of being like this because I filed at something I shouldn't have failed at, and David and Leslie have to put up with me, and I am guilty. Well, when I read about it in the paper, the one thing that lessened considerably was the guilt. I didn't feel so guilty anymore. I felt it wasn't all my fault. Thank God, it's not all my fault. Because, you know, it's a terrible thing for people to have to put up with someone who has sometimes a quarter of a life, sometimes a.half life. Maybe once in a while you get almost to the peak of a full life, but you don't stay there very long. Approved For Release 2010/01/08: CIA-RDP88-0107OR000301530003-5