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Approved For Release 2004/10/28: CIA-RDP "AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON ASIA ANO THE PACIFIC" Jan 4,1977 Washington. DC 20505 Assistant to the Director Central Intelligence Agency I will continue to write my ASIA MET'0 column on a syndicated Effective Jan. 1.I am Editor & Publisher' of THE ASIA MAIL. Unclassified CIA Finished Intelligence. but would like to continue,receiving notices of I have recently changed.my main journalistic affiliation.. Dear Sir: basis for Copley News Service. ASIA MAIL and an indication of the recent CIA publications I have enclosed a corrected address notation; co-pies of THE which, I would, apnrecia'te. receiving. .Thank you very much. Sincerely, war e i an Editor & Publisher STAT' POTOMAC=ASIA C6P11M"rCVM15W8aISU"1'4 I 0A, W19dtMR,a'OOR43LtOJ10. 02113113 (703) 548-2881 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 :CIA-RDP88-013148000100010076-1 Michael Morrow on U.S. Policy in the Mekong A Look Ai Ja pa s Economic ' is `True Confessions' Of A Foreign Service Wife "AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON ASIA AND THE PACIFIC" Sen. John Sparkman President-elect Jimmy Carter takes office at a time when America's position in Asia and the Pacific is more favorable than at any time prior to World War II. President Truman was sworn in while World War II was still raging: President Eisenhower assumed office amid the burden of the Korean War: Presidents Kennedy and Johnson inherited both the beginning of America's deep ink.oivemer:t ill indochina and a policy to contain China which. with time, became counterproductive: President Nixon took office after the Southeast Asian involvement had become a full- scale war: and President Ford was sworn in as America's policy in Indochina was rapidly failing. Thus, relative to the problems that recent Presidents have faced. President ('arter will be confronted by few pressing issues in Asia and the Pacific. - American forces are not involved in conflict in Asia. Only the 40.000 l S. troops in Korea remain on the Asian mainland. - Except for relations with Vietnam. Cambodia. Laos and North Korea. which are kept distant by choice, relations with Japan and all other nations in the region are good. - U.S. policy toward China has changed from containment to one which recognizes reality. -- The dire predictions of a loss of American prestige throughout Asia as a consequence of the collapse of American-supported regimes in Indochina have not materialized. - The Association of Southeast Asian Nations has made promising steps toward regional cooperation. The factors augur well for President Carter as he begins to plot a course for American policy in Asia. But the slate is not clean. There are potential trouble spots and problems which must be dealt with. Among these are: 1. Of foremost importance is the question of normalizing relations with the People's Republic of China. America's relations with the country that contains one-fourth the pop- ulation of the globe have been at a stalemate since liaison of- fices were established in Peking and Washington three and a half years ago. The Taiwan issue is the only obstacle to nor- malization. I suspect. the U.S. policy of not facing up to this problem has been largely for political reasons relating, first, to President Nixon's Watergate problems and, later, to President Ford's campaign for re-election. Further delay in facing up to the Taiwan issue could make the ultimate deci- sion more difficult and controversial. I believe that a way can be found to protect America's interests in Taiwan. 2. Nearly a quarter century after the end of their war, the basic conflict between North and South Korea remains un- resolved. As the last vestige of American military involve- ment on the Asian mainland, American troops in South Korea maintain units in front-line positions. These United (See CARTER, Page 7) EIGHTY CENTS JANUARY 1977 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATING SERVICES We will estimate the cost of your construction project any place in the world. We have a complete staff of professional estimators that can estimate any type of construction project, any size and any trade. If you are planning to build a: road, bridge, dam, railroad, hotel, office building, housing, hospital, school, pipeline, pump station, chemical plant, refrigeration plant, power station, sewerage plant, electrical plant, oil plant, harbor facilities, new city, building, complex, utility plant or any type of Fonstruction project contact us and we will estimate the materials required, labor and all costs. 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Cable INTESTSER Telex ITT 421504 MAO TSETUNG Poems Four Essays on Philosophy Selected Readings from the Works of Mao Tsetung Selected Works, 4 Volumes Selected Military Writings ---------------------- ORDER FORM -Poems, pa. $1.00 Poems, cl. $2.50 Four Essays on Philosophy, pa. 60' Selected Readings from the Works of Mao Tsetung, cl. $2.25 Selected Readings from the Works of Mao Tsetung, pa. $1.75 Selected Works, 4 volumes, cl. $15.00 - Selected Works, 4 volumes, pa. $10.00 Selected Military writings, pa. $2.75 - Selected Military Writings, red pl. $1.25 I enclose $ - for the above, including sales tax in the states of California, New York and Illinois; in addition, 500 postage and han- dling on orders under $5 Name Address City State Z Please send free catalog of books, maga- iines, etc. Send to: CHINA BOOKS & PERIODICALS, INC. 2929-24th Street, San Francisco CA 94110 125 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 1(X)03 210 W. Madison Street, Chicago IL 60606 CURRENT EVENTS -CHINA- Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Report: People's Republic of China ... 20,000 PRC news releases a year ... Fully translated ... Published avery day ... Contact J. Apistolas National Technical Information Service Springfield, Virginia 22161 (703) 557-4732 Index to FBIS Daily Report: PRC Every article indexed Detailed subject breakdown ... Contact James P. Murray, Ph.D. NewsBank, Inc. 22 West Putnam Avenue Greenwich, Connecticut 06830 (203) 661-2230 Survey of PRC Press ... Comprehensive reporting ... Complete translations ... Contact J. Apistolas National Technical Information Service Springfield, Virginia 22161 (703) 557-4732 DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS ON JAPAN AND KOREA 1969-1974 A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LISTING OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH COMPILED AND EDITED BY FRANK JOSEPH SHULMAN V A- tl91 The latest guide to academic work on Asia compiled and edited by Frank Joseph Shulman. This publication contains nearly 1500 entries for research undertaken at universities throughout the United States and in fifteen other countries. The entries provide detailed bibliographical data including information about the availability of the dissertation typescripts and the loca- tion of published summaries in Dissertation Abstracts International. Send for your complimentary copy. To, Ms. Gloria Worrell, University Microfilms Inter- national 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 Would you kindly send me complimentary copy/copies of Doctoral Dissertations on Japan and Korea by Frank Joseph Shulman. Thank you very much. Name: Address: Letters... Korea Human Rights Dear Editor: I would like to congratulate Mr. Earl Voss for writing such a soothing article-'on "Human Rights" (THE ASIA MAIL. Nov. 1976). I certainly enjoyed reading the article and I have no doubt that there will be many Koreans as well as our American friends who felt the same way as I did about the article. I do hope that Mr. Voss' thoughts on Korea will reflect in the foreign policy of (the) Carter administration. Ei Whan Pai. President Overseas Economic Research Institute Seoul. Korea Cheers Dear Editor: THE ASIA MAIL is really very good - an impressive job! Mrs. John W. Pratt Publicity Director Harvard University Press On China Ties Dear Editor: Thank you for the interesting copy of THE ASIA MAIL. It will fill a great need and I wish you success. I certainly subscribe to the belief that our relations with continental China must be adjusted. I do not believe we are justified in sacrificing the interests of the Formosan Chinese as we seem now so ready to do. Americans seem always so ready to slip back into the old sentimental attachment to China, the patronizing missionary Big Brother approach now transmuted into political terms. Don't let THE ASIA MAIL become a resurrected I.P.R. production. Be sure the hard-liners get a hearing as well as the China-lovers. What are we to do if Chiang Ching-kuo thanks us one day for our past help and then announces that he has invited Moscow to become his protector and guarantor? I wish one of your proposed symposia could review the alternative courses that may be possible. Geroge H. Kerr Honolulu, Hawaii Prophet of Doom Dear Editor: Robert Ichord is a prophet of doom. Unfortunately, he's right! His article "Nuclear Technology Diffusion in Asia" in the December issue of THE ASIA MAIL certainly gave me pause for considerable reflection. It's frightening to think that ten years ago no one in Asia had either nuclear power or nuclear weapons. Now, two Asian giants are capable of blowing everybody up and - from the Ichord article - others will soon follow. Ten years from now, who won't have nuclear weapons in Asia? That's the question that needs answering. What will become of us when the likes of Kim II-sung, Park Chung-hee, Ferdinand Marcos and Lee Kuan-yew are armed with nuclear weapons? President Carter, a nuclear technician, has his work cut out for himself. Arthur Foley Seattle. Washington Pro-Military Bias Dear Editor: Your December banner-headline "Thailand Seeks Stability" shows the obvious pro-military bias of THE ASIA MAIL. Actually. the October 6 coup was the most de- stabilizing event to occur in Southeast Asia since the Tonkin Gulf incident of ten years ago. When Thailand had its democracy. Southeast Asians had a chance at regional cooperation in the aftermath of the In- dochina war. The military coup undermines all possibility of coopera- tion and makes another Indochina war inevitable ... hardly a "stabilizing" development. Stewart Potter Kansas City The Asia Mail January 1971 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Consulting Editors Russell Brines John Burgess Chang Kuo-sin Parris H. Chang Arthur Ciervo Tillman Durdin William Glenn Stanley Karnow Nicholas H. Ludlow Ruth Lor Malloy Arthur C. Miller Edward Neilan Melvin W. Searls Jr. R.H. Shackford Sterling Slappey Earl H. Voss Anne Willis Executive Editor Phillip L. Anderson Associate Editors Donna Gays Jay Henderson Fred Watson Advertising Coordinator Joan M. Stapleton Advertising Assistant Phyllis Hanlon Circulation-Promotion Leonard Himaka Mailing Addresses: Editorial & Adver- tising: The Asia Mail P.O. Box 1044 Alexandria, Va. 22313 Tel: (703) 548-2881 Subscription: The Asia Mail Subscription Dept. P.O. Box 942 Farmingdale, New York 11737 Advertising Representatives West Coast: Charles C. Keely Jr. 304 South LaBrea Ave. Los Angeles, Calif. 90036 Tel: (213) 939-1415 Hawaii: Crossroads Press Inc. Stephen S. Lent, Vice. Pres. P.O. Box 833 Honolulu, Hawaii 96808 Tel: (808) 521-0021 Editorial con- tributions are welcome and should be address- ed to "The Editor." It is preferable to query before sending a com- pleted manuscript or artwork. Every effort will be made to return manuscripts but The Asia Mail is not respon- sible for their loss. THE ASIA MAIL is published monthly by Potomac-Asia Com- munications, Inc., 128 So. Royal St., Alexandria, Virginia 22314. Subscription Rates: 811 per year. Students $9. Foreign $18. Canadian subscriber, add $1 to the U.S. rates. Application to mail at controlled circulation rates is pending at Alex- andria, Virginia. Copyright (U 1876 by Potomac- Asia Communications Inc. All rights reserved. Application for ti- tle registration has been made to U.S. Patent Office. Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to The Asia Mail, P.O. Box 942, Far- mingdale. N.Y. 11737. "AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON ASIA AND THE PACIFIC" THE ASIA MAIL Vol. 1 No. 4 Contents for January 1977 Jimmy Carter's Asia ...........................1 On Japan's Economic Vitality ................... 4 On Tokyo's Steel Imports ....................... 5 Dimensions of Islam: Review ................... 6 U.S. Military in Asia ........................... 7 `True Confessions' of a Foreign Service Wife ....................... 9 Think Asia!: Column ......................... 10 U.S. Policy in the Mekong . . . . . . ............... 12 Ring of Fire III: Review ...................... 14 India's Economic Comeback ................... 15 Yankee Teacher in Japan: Review . . . . . . ........ 17 New Asian Immigrants . . . . . . .................. 18 Style Dims Warrior: Review ................... 18 The Last Word: Faces of Asia ................. 23 Letters ....................................... 2 Bookshelf ...................................19 Classified ................................... 20 Bulletin Board ............................... 22 Sen. John Sparkman Scott Runkle Richard P. Simmons Bernice Williams Foley Stefan H. Leader Bailey Morris Ruth Lor Mallo Michael Morrow Donna Gays Jeremiah Novak Earl R. V NARML-Emi Page 4 Page 10 Page 12 January 1977 The Asia Mail Isao Fujimoto Arielle Emmett Contributors SEN. JOHN SPARKMAN, Chairman of the Senate Com- mittee on Foreign Relations, wrote this month's cover arti- cle on "Jimmy Carter's Asia" at the invitation of THE ASIA MAIL. SCOTT RUNKLE is a consultant to the Embassy of Japan and to the U.S.-Japan Trade Council. RICHARD P. SIMMONS is president of Allegheny Ludum Steel Corporation and Chairman of the Committee on Inter- national Trade of the American Iron and Steel Institute. BERNICE WILLIAMS FOLEY is currently Director of the Martha Kinney Cooper Ohioana Library in Columbus. She lived three years in China where she taught at the Nanking Language College. STEFAN H. LEADER is a senior analyst with the Center for Defense Information in Washington, DC. BAILEY MORRIS writes regularly for The Washington Star. RUTH LOR MALLOY is author of "Travel Guide to the People's Republic of China" published by William Morrow & Co., Inc. MICHAEL MORROW, a free-lance journalist now based in Hong Kong, has lived in Asia for the past ten years. DONNA GAYS is an Associate Editor of THE ASIA MAIL. JEREMIAH NOVAK is a businessman who just returned from an extended stay in India. After six years in Asia, he now lives in State College, Pennsylvania. EARL H. VOSS, former Diplomatic Correspondent of The Washington Star, is a Consulting Editor of THE ASIA MAIL. ISAO FUJIMOTO teaches community development in the Department of Applied Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Davis. He is working on a book "Views From The Other Side," chronicling the Asian experience in America. ARIELLE EMMETT'S first contribution to THE ASIA MAIL was "China Images: Review" which appeared in our November 1976 issue. Her home and writing base is New York City. Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 On Japan's Economic Vitality Scott Runkle Economic experts are in general agreement that inter- national economic recovery will be as critical as it will be dif- ficult. The New York Times' leading economic writer, Leonard Silk, even states that: "the most acute economic dif- ficulties that Mr. Carter is likely to face as President will be global". In this global context, there exists a little-understood paradox as regards Japan. On one hand, U.S. steel and electronic manufacturers are increasingly vociferous in their protests about American purchases of competitive Japanese goods. And in Europe, the outcry against Japanese imports becomes ever-louder. On the other hand, Japan itself is troubled by the fact that its industrial production has slumped for the third month in a row, with consumer spending also down, while its inflation is hovering around 10 per cent. Therein lies a paradox which is worrisome not only to Japan, but also to the United States. Japan, lfke the U.S., is one of the "locomotive" economies; the health of its $58 billion market for imports from dozens of nations affects in substantial measure the rate of world recovery. Conversely, when the Japanese economy is in the doldrums, as it appears to be now, international recovery is slowed. The ever-closer interdependence of the economies of the United States, Japan and Western Europe is one of the critical considerations for the U.S. and Japanese governments. However, the special circumstances of Japan's economy are still little understood in the United States, mak- ing it tempting to use Japan (and particularly its export sur- plus to the U.S.) as a handy "whipping boy". Far more than any other major, industrial nation, Japan was severely mauled by the oil crisis of 1973 and its after- math. Japan is almost wholly dependent on imported oil (80 per cent from the Middle East) for its energy, unlike the United States, which not only has domestic oil, but also large supplies of coal and natural gas. Whereas Japan paid $6 billion for its oil imports in 1973, it now pays a staggering $20 billion for a smaller quantity of oil. The oil crisis triggered a devastating inflation in Japan (at a yearly rate of over 30 per cent at one time) and, when the government had to apply the deflationary brakes, caused a severe recession. 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Only in early 1975 did Japan begin to emerge from its long recession. As the U.S. economy picked up steam, the de- mand for imports of Japanese automobiles, electronic products and steel rose sharply. Japan's world-wide exports increased by 19 per cent through September 1976. with most of this increase reflecting growing demand in the United States and other industrialized nations. U.S. imports from Japan rose 35 per cent over 1975 (when such imports actually dropped 10.4 per cent). Largely on the strength of its buoyant export sector, as well as on the expansion of domestic demand, Japan's real GNP shot up 13.4 per cent in the first quarter of 1976, but grew only 4.5 per cent in the second quarter and, according to Japan's Economic Planning Agen- cy, slumped to 1.3 per cent growth in the third quarter. Because its recovery was slower and shallower than that of the United States, Japans' overall imports rose only 10.5 per cent in the first three quarters of 1976, making for a con- siderable global trade surplus during this period. As the year progressed. however, export growth slowed (as predicted) while imports picked up more rapidly. The most dramatic increase in Japan's imports was from developing nations, and notably those of Asia. Most Asian nations registered a sharp increase in their exports to Japan in 1976, and those of South Korea. Taiwan. Singapore and Malaysia were up by 50 per cent to 100 per cent in the first nine months of 1976. greatly stimulating the economic recovery of these nations. At first glance. Japan's trade position looks enviable. However, Japan imports far more services than it exports and it must therefore export more goods than it imports - an important but inadequately understood factor in its foreign economic relations. This is the reverse of Great Britain, for example. which traditionally has a surplus in "in- visible trade" to offset a trade deficit. This "invisible" factor is so important for Japan that "the Japanese economy could not survive without a surplus of trade balance," as explained by the Embassy's Financial Minister, Mr. Fujio Matsumuro, speaking in late 1976 before the National Foreign Trade Council in New York. In the first nine months of 1976. Japan's invisible trade balance (mostly transportation, insurance. tourism and repatriation of profits) was $4.6 billion in deficit, while its merchandise balance of trade was $6.6 billion in surplus - making a net surplus of $2 billion. Moreover. almost all of Japan's invisible deficit is with the United States and Western European countries. In 1974, for example, its total invisible deficit was $5.8 billion, of which $2.8 billion was with the United States and $1.5 billion with Great Britain. Thanks to its merchandise trade surplus, Japan showed a modest balance of payments surplus of $2.2 billion during the first 10 months of 1976, after three years in which it suffered an aggregate deficit of $19.6 billion. While this short-term reversal is welcome. it constitutes no bonanza for Japan. which will still show a huge four-year (1972 through 1976) deficit of approximately $17 billion in its balance of payments. This, rather than Japan's current (and possibly short-lived) surplus in its merchandise trade balance, is the salient fact of Japan's international economic position. In sum, weighing the invisible deficit against the merchan- dise surplus. Japan is by no means taking advantage of its trading partners. nor is it "getting rich" on its apparent trade surplus. What about Japan's exports to the United States' Japan does not force its products on American consumers, nor are these products produced by "cheap labor", nor are they "dumped" in the U.S. market. Today. Japanese goods are often more expensive than comparable American-made merchandise. and must compete on the basis of quality and reliability. Typical examples of this are Sony color TV sets, which cost $50 to $100 more than most other sets of com- parable size, and Nikon cameras. which are prized for their quality despite high price tags. Likewise. Japanese cars are sought after by American consumers as being high in quality. style and dependability, not necessarily because they are cheap. American consumers have shown great preference for such Japanese products. During the first 10 months of 1976. although sales of foreign cars in the U.S. decreased to 14.9 per cent of the total U.S. market compared with 19.3 per cent last year. Japanese cars were so popular that they represented 60.5 per cent of total import sales as contrasted with 51.3 per cent in 1975. Toyota and Datsun are the best- selling imports, with Honda now overtaking Volkswagen for third place. Likewise in electronics, Japanese tape recorders, stereo sets. pocket computers, color TV sets and CB radios are in heavy demand by American consumers (7.7 million Japanese CB sets alone were imported in the first 9 months of 1976). Steel is another matter, where price is important. but where Japanese mills have no built-in advantage. On the con- trary, overall raw material costs of iron ore, coking coal and energy are actually higher in Japan than in the United States, and wages (including fringe benefits) are comparable. Yet Japanese steel is highly competitive in world markets, primarily because of modern equipment. advanced technology and high productivity. Indeed, production costs of Japan's steel industry soared by 56.3 per cent (mostly in raw material and energy costs) in the period 1970-75, while production costs in the United States were up only 9.3 per cent. Even with this disadvan- tage, Japan's steel prices for heavy plates and sheets (for ex- ample) rose substantially less than comparable U.S. prices. thereby improving the competitive position of Japanese steel in world markets and even in the United States. A striking illustration of Japan's handicap is coking coal. Japan's coking coal comes mostly from West Virginia - the same source for Pittsburgh's steel mills. But whereas this coal travels only a few dozen miles to Pittsburgh. to get to Japan it must go by train to Newport News, Virginia before making the long sea voyage to Japan. Despite such intrinsic disadvantages, Japan's exports of finished steel were 33 million tons in 1975, of which 9.9 million went to Asia. 6.3 million to the United States. 5 million to the Middle East and 4.1 million to Western Europe. The United States bought less than 20 per cent of Japan's steel exports in 1975. con- trasted with 53 per cent in 1968.) In 1975. moreover. in order to produce this steel, Japan bought $1.7 billion of U.S. coking coal and $277 million of U.S. scrap. The competitive position of Japanese products in U.S. and world markets has been obtained despite Japan's almost total lack of raw materials and energy, and despite its great distance from most large industrial markets. Basically, Japan must "live on its wits" and its skills as a processing economy, being alert to marketing new products quickly and taking advantage of new techniques for producing them ef- ficiently. Examples of alert Japanese entrepreneurship are numerous, ranging from the early introduction by Japan of transistorized radios and TV sets to development of relative- ly pollution-free automobiles well before Detroit. Looking toward the future, Japan has already developed a new electric car which has a range of 300 miles without charging batteries and a top speed of 60 miles per hour. Not only do Japanese consumer products meet a real de- mand and need in the United States (and in many other countries) but, in the case of steel, the availability of efficiently-produced and price-competitive Japanese steel is an important deterrent to inflation in an industry which has a long history of inflating prices in the absence of such com- petition. Nonetheless, despite high consumer demand for Japanese products, U.S. steel and electronics manufacturers are ex- pected to press for new protectionist barriers against Japanese products in early 1977. They are expected to point to Japan's trade surplus with the United States as evidence (See JAPAN, Page 17) The'> 'sia'Mail January w7 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 On Tokyo's Steel Exports Richard P. Simmons The U.S. Steel industry is continually being urged to achieve a greater degree of economic efficiency and, indeed, we are committed as an industry to allocate huge sums to this ongo- ing goal. But domestic industry competitiveness is only one side of the economic equation. Another side is foreign trade policy. If the U.S. and international trade policies are such that they condone or ignore practices by which other governments through agreements or understandings can manipulate access to the American market - without our knowledge or without our concurrence as a government -- then these policies need to be overhauled. Otherwise. the domestic steel industry and its workers are operating under a false premise, namely. that increased productivity and ef- ficiency are the answer to foreign competition. Our steel industry which provides the country with its supply of steel mill products. is a major industrial compo- nent of the U.S. economy. Combined steel company employ- ment approximates 700.000 persons. including those in mining. transportation and other non-steel related operations. In 1975. these workers received almost $10 billion in wages and salaries. Manufacturing companies and other users requiring steel as their basic raw material. employ millions of workers of the U.S. economy. Before they can allocate capital for expan- sion. they must have guaranteed access to an assured source of steel for at least a major portion of their requirements. Thus economic growth in the U.S. and growth of industrial job opportunities depend in substantial part on an adequate supply of steel. But just as the United States can no longer take for granted the adequacy of its national energy supply. neither can it assume that the future supply of steel will always be ade- quate for our national requirements. Formidable economic barriers to the necessary expansion of steelmaking capacity are a major concern of the American steel industry. They are also at the heart of the world steel industry's concern. It is clear our domestic economy needs an expansion of steelmaking capacity if our economy is to continue to grow and if we are to remain strong as a nation. The current outlook gives us no assurance that the substan- tial gap between the steel .industry's capital requirements and its potential future sources of funds can be bridged. If profitability and capital availability do not improve, the economic consequences are obvious: scarcities of many steel products: fewer new jobs created: fewer existing jobs main- tained. slower economic growth and increased dependency on uncertain foreign sources. Steel expansion must occur in this country. if the U.S. is to have a supply adequate for future growth conditions. And from the viewpoint of real comparative advantage, it makes sense to expand in the ITS.. since our industry is now one of the two most efficient low-cost producers in the world, with an ample home supply of raw materials. Steel. for the past fifteen years. has been a deficit account in the U.S. balance of trade. Last year imports into the United States exceeded exports by $2.2 billion. For the first nine months of this year, the deficit is already $1.9 billion. Compared to the rest of the world. the American steel in- dustry ranks among a diminishing minority. We operate as a private enterprise industry within a world steel industry directly and indirectly supported by foreign governments. Today an estimated 44' of world raw steel production is un- der direct government ownership. Foreign government ownership and subsidies in steelmak- ing do not necessarily create an efficient steel industry. and are not something we envy. On this score. the American in- dustry's business performance can be compared to that of its leading world competitors. With respect to productivity of capital. although inadequate by any yardstick. the U.S. in- dustry is clearly the world leader in return on assets employed. With respect to the efficiency of labor utilization -- that is man hours per ton produced -- our industry and Japan's - about equal --are the world leaders. But foreign government ownership. subsidies. and social policies do affect the international conditions under which we must compete both at home and abroad. Labor is regard- ed as a fixed cost in many foreign steel industries. In order to maintain employment in their own steel sectors. foreign suppliers come into market on the low side of the cycle with imports at prices not reflecting their full costs of production. and therefore their true comparative advantage. They leave on the high cycles. The cyclical swings for the t1 S. producers are thus amplified, resulting in less efficient production. higher costs. and discouraging future investment. The im- January 1977. Tjie Asia Mail pact on U.S. steel employment is naturally traumatic. We ful- ly understand that,if we want our kind of economy to con- tinue. then competition must prevail not only with other economies. but among ourselves. We do not want to cartelize the steel industry and would refuse to participate in any arrangements designed to fix production rates or prices in our own or world markets.. even if proferred to us. We do not want trade policy assistance from our government but we do not know how to compete with foreign companies who do not have to earn a profit or generate capital for investment. Nor do we intend to ignore the increasingly blatant violation of U.S. and international law in the trade area. We shall continue to press for steel sector discussions in GATT, to alleviate the problems inherent in governmental intervention in steel trade and foreign commercial practices which reflect these interventions. Unless a concerted effort is undertaken by the U.S. and other steel producing nations to respond to the need for a truly effective steel sector negotiation. we can only look forward to continued inter- national trade friction in steel. It would be a sad commentary if lack of cooperation among governments were to yield negative rather than positive results in the steel trade sector. As to the current arrangement between Europe and Japan. unfortunately. the evidence we are presenting here today does not apply just to a one-time agreement through the year 1976. There is clear evidence that steel restraint agreements between Europe and Japan. if allowed, are bound to con- tinue into the future. And the evidence indicates that such agreements will develop between Europe and other countries exporting steel to the EEC. For our government officials who are concerned about trade liberalization, these developments taking place in the world steel market should be cause for consternation. Let me cite some facts. Imports into most of the developing countries are already controlled, largely to protect their domestic steel industries. Japan is a closed market for im- ports: only 200.000 metric tons were imported in 1974. The European Economic Community is rapidly becoming a con- trolled market for imports. The result: only the United States. and a few smaller ex- traneous markets remain free and open to imports. Is this what trade liberalization is all about? Should we stand idly by as a government and permit the constriction of world steel trade to take place, while thereby increasing the deflection of steel into the United States market? Let me read from the In- dustrial Bank of Japan. September. 1976 Quarterly Sum- mary: "Turning to market geography. the creation of an export cartel within the Japanese steel industry means that a cut- back in exports to the expanded EEC market will probably be unavoidable. This phenomenon should be balanced out by major growth in exports both to the United States and those two giants of the Communist world. China and the Soviet union. For an industry like steel. which had to withstand the cold blast of the 1975 recession. the bright prospects for 1976 exports and the economic recovery they will fuel is a warm- ing sign indeed." To condone this parceling of the international marketplace. with the U.S. the one major open world market. is to condone the perpetuation of a double standard for steel trade policy. If our industry is efficient and cost competitive. should it be weakened by bilateral actions large- ly of other nations who seek protection of their home markets and free access to ours'' This is what our case is all about. Let me call your attention to some recent developments which lend support to my contention that we are witnessing only the beginning of trade-deflecting bilateral arrangements. On July 21. 1976 the European Commission came forward with a document entitled. "The Problems of the Steel In- dustry". The document is popularly known as the Simonet Plan. referring to Mr. Simonet who is a member of the EC and whose responsibilities include the Steel Directorate. The Simonet Plan consists essentially of three parts: 1. Analysis and continuous statistical monitoring of the steel markets: 2. Improved coordination of investment trends leading eventually to equilibrium between supply and demand: and 3. Initiation of appropriate procedures in the event of a crisis. on the basis of indicators defined in advance. What concerns us as an industry and should concern the trade officials in the U.S. Government is how under part three the E(' intends to regulate imports of steel duringperiods of self-proclaimed "crisis." As we understand the anti-crisis plan which is to become operational in early 1977, the Commission intends to issue production guidelines and to fix minimum reference prices in a crisis situation. But. for the domestic measures to be effective, the Com- munity plan intends that steel imports will be indexed to production. How does the Simonet plan propose to regulate imports? Permit me to quote from a recent European report sum- marizing Mr. Simoneh's statement before a meeting on November 25 of the ECSC Consultative Committee: "... it is not a question of fixing import quotas, but by negotiation the Commission will merely try to secure a reasonable attitude from the steel exporting countries who should be able to adapt their deliveries to the Common Market to the production cuts adopted by the Community steel industry." During the course of the debate on November 25, a representative of the French iron and steel industry reportedly stated that "the fixing of import quotas should be avoided since this is bound to lead to retaliatory measures which would affect other economic sectors of the Com- munity." A representative of the Luxembourg iron and steel industry "stressed," according to the report. that "the success of the anti-crisis plan will largely depend on the ex- tent to which certain third countries agree to limit their ex- ports. The ideal solution would be for these reductions to correspond to the production cuts made by the European in- dustry." So. here we are confronted with a plan that may become effective in a few weeks in which the European Common Market is emphasizing its intent to encourage restraint arrangements with Japan and other steel exporting countries whenever the European steel market is in a crisis situation. The European objective is clear: Avoid the imposition of formal import quotas because this may lead to GATT com- plications and the threat of retaliation: instead, achieve restraint of trade by use of so-called voluntary bilateral restraints which are simply transparent ploys to avoid ac- cusations that such agreements are clear violations of GATT. It should not come as a surprise to those involved in mul- tilateral trade negotiations that cooperation has not been forthcoming from the EEC or Japan on the issue of steel sec- tor trade negotiations. or on reform of the GATT safeguard procedures. In fact, why should we expect any such coopera- tion when the European Coal and Steel Community develops bilateral solutions to their problems while continuing their policy of increasing exports to the U.S.? Moreover. as long as Europe continues to exert voluntary bilateral pressure on Japan and other exporting nations to restrain steel imports. GATT Article XIX dealing with safeguards will be meaningless. 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AM Audio-Visual Division Harvard University Press 79 Garden Street Cambridge MA 021 38 Name Company: Address Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Special to Asia Mall Readers Braddock Publications, Inc. is now offering the 1977 edition of its ac- claimed FEDERAL-STATE-LOCAL GOVERNMENT DIRECTORY to Asia Mail Readers at the pre-publication price of only $4.25 each-a savings of $70 per copy. (Retail Price is $4.95). This offer expires January 31, 1977. The Directory will contain the new changes in the Carter White House, Executive Departments, the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, In- dependent Agencies, Regulatory Agencies, Congressional Committees and Subcommittees; Governors, State Legislative leaders; quasi-govern- mental organizations; mayors of major cities; telephone sources of the latest government statistical information, and protocol forms of address. Send to: Braddock Publications Inc., 1028 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 905, Washington, D.C: 20036. Please send me copies at $4.25 each, plus $35 each for postage and handling (Total $4.70). All prepaid orders sent postage paid. Name Address City State Zip The Directory is scheduled to be available in March, 1977. Introducing the world's most respected view on games Quite simply, Games & Puzzles Magazine is unique. There is no other publication quite like it anywhere in the world. Started four years ago by a small team of games experts, games inventors and journalists who were games devotees, Games & Puzzles has since grown substantially to become recognised throughout the world as the leading authority on games, games inventions and games playing. The magazine is witty, entertaining, and most of all objective and highly informed: its subscription list reads like a who's who of the games world. So if you're interested in playing, inventing or even making games, it's the one publication in the world you really can't afford to miss. What Games & Puzzles has to offer Games & Puzzles examines the world of games every month with three points in mind: to provide a totally independent, objective viewpoint; to be authoritative; and to provide its readers with a thoroughly readable and entertaining magazine. We write our magazine for people With the increasing interest in wargames and wargaming we have recently added a special section on wargames, incorporating reviews of published games, advice on tactics, articles on the history and nriuins Classical games Our chess section, `Chess for Everyone' is written for the social chessplayer, not the expert. You'll also find regular articles on the other classical games: backgammon, draughts, dominoes, etc. Catering for the crossword enthusiast We are generally acknowledged to have the world's leading crossword compilers among our contributors. You'll find interesting articles written for both the expert and the beginner and, of course, a number of absorbing puzzles to solve in every issue. Oriental games Games originated in the Orient, so it's hardly surprising that some of the world's greatest games are to be found there - Go, Shogi, Mah-Jong. like you: people who simply enjoy playing games. Keeping up with new games We have our own panel of games experts who systematically test and report on new games. Over the last four years we've reviewed over 300 games, rating and reporting on them all for our readers. Keeping up with new books Every month we review new books on games, puzzles, crosswords and any other games subjects which we feel might be of interest to our readers. We look at them all, explain the principles, investigate the tactics and tell you where to find them. Puzzles and competitions No magazine on the world of games could fail to explore the neighbouring world of puzzles and competitions We have pages of them, from the simple to the highly erudite Our monthly forum Our readers' comments, criticisms, notes and queries are freely aired in our monthly forum. Feature articles Our editorial staff and guest contributors can always be relied on to provide articles of interest for you every month on every conceivable aspect of the world of games. Our monthly report on the latest news A general melange of news, reviews and interviews to keep our readers bang up-to-date on the games world. Unusual games. Where to get them If you've read about or seen a game (most likely in Games & Puzzles) and want to know where to find it we'll tell you where to look. Or if it really is difficult to find we'll get it for you, and then mail it to you. 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Games and Puzzles To: Circulation Manager Games & Puzzles i i Tottenham Court Road London WiA 4XF England I enclose a cheque; money order; postal order for # ........for t(3 years commencing .................................. 19 .................... _..... I und s d th t I er tan a may at any time during the initial 3-month period cancel my subscription and I reclaim my money in full. Name ............................................ Address ..._ ................... _......... _... .............. I Signed ......................... _............... Subscription rates ;.hie ,.J. / h.e, ,. Umtcd Kmgd-.,m (.4 %c (.14.40 othe[ e:oon[ncb ((-4C 4'e, 20 L' SA Canada $tzoc t;60o Ile w - - - - a A VOPAsGS s: The Dimensions Of Sufism Mystical Dimensions of Islam By Annemarie Schimmel The University of North Carolina Press 1975, 506 pps. $14.95. Bernice Williams Foley In the author's own estimation, writing about Sufism. which succinctly can be defined: "To find joy in the heart when grief comes," is a difficult, almost impossible task. And yet, Annemarie Schimmel. Professor of lndo-Muslim Culture at Harvard University. has accomplished the impossible, as it were, and has reached her goal in her chapters on this religion's theosophic speculations, its history. psychology and its mystical Persian poetry. I.7aism is the accepted name for Islamic mysticism. Its two iiiajor facets, scholarly theoretical discourses and popular saint worship. bring to the devotees of Sufism the under- standing that they have spiritually reached only what is already within themselves. Historically, the origin and early development of this mysticism of the East were generated out of Muhammad's own mysticism. Several specific theories attest to the above statement. These, explained by the author, will interest scholarly students. For the general reader, the portion of the book devoted to Persian and Turkish mystical poetry has great appeal. These poetic lines may be interpreted either as mystical or erotic, and the dissension between these two schools of thought is deep. Then - in a brief and surprising statement -- the author denigrates both of these theories of interpretation by writing. "Yet both claims are equally wide of the mark." Professor Schimmel believes that, in the typical lyric poetry of these eastern countries. certain Islamic images taken from the Koran and the Prophetic tradition can turn into symbols of a purely aesthetic character. There is scarce- ly a poem of the greatest masters of Persian. Turkish and Urdu poetry that does not reflect the religious background of Islamic culture. One must not look, therefore, for either a purely mystical or for a purely profane interpretation of these poems. Their ambiguity is intended. The poetry of Sufism is a hybrid of the mystical and erotic. The author declares that English translations lose much in opalescence She stresses the importance of poetry in the study of Sufism and she devotes many pages to this study. quoting poetic lines and interpreting their meanings. The Islamic roots of Sufism are deep. "Sufism is to possess nothing and to be possessed by nothing." In its formative period. Sufism meant mainly an interiorization of Islam and the declaration that God is One. The Sufis have always remained within Islam They designated Adam as the first Sufi. endowed with God's spirit. After Adam's fall, he did penitence in India for 300 years until he became a true Sufi. The words of the Koran are the cornerstone of Sufic mysticism. Herein are the beginnings of the Muslim belief in free will and predestination. an unusual combination. Muhammad is the first link in the spiritual chain of Sufism. These mystics equate all earthy governments with evil. They believe in color symbolism, with green being the highest and heavenly color. They have the same spiritual divisions of Heaven which correspond to those named in the Christian Bible, the Terrestial. Telestial and Celestial Kingdoms of God. These are the degrees of Heaven to which the souls proceed after death. The degree is determined by that per- son's purification achieved while still it his mortal body. Fasting and sleeplessness are important parts of Sufism. If this author has omitted any important facet of Sufism during its historical development and that of its literature (chiefly poetry). this reviewer is not aware of it. Professor Schimmel's balanced treatment offers the reader a fine. overall concept of mysterious Sufism. She ex- plores its psychology and its religious orders. Her emphasis on Islamic poetry is justified. The reader is not surprised to learn from the inside jacket that Annemarie Schimmel has had long acquaintance with and personal knowledge of Turkey. Iran and the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. She has published numerous books and translations in German. Arabic and Turkish. To paraphrase two lines in this book which read. "A man asked Abu Hats. Who is a Sufi:" " -- we can say: the reader of this volume will never again ask 'who is a Sufi." because he now knows. The Asia Mail Janaury 1977 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004110/28 CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Problems for President Carter Future of U.S. Military in Asia Stefan H. Leader When President Carter takes office on January 20th he will find U.S. military forces in Asia and the Pacific in a state of flux and uncertainty with numerous policy issues in need of early attention. He will have the opportunity to exercise strong leadership and make several important decisions on the future of these "forward deployed" U.S. military units. and by so-doing. put his personal mark on U.S. Asian policy. There are now about 134,000 U.S. soldiers, sailors. airmen and marines scattered across Asia and the Western Pacific. The bulk of these forces are in Japan 145.000). South Korea (40.000), the Philippines 114.600), Guam (9,600), or aboard the 50 warships of the Navy's Seventh Fleet (18.900). The remainder are scattered among Australia (700). Taiwan (2200), Thailand (1200). Midway and Johnson Islands (about 1.000 total). The largest U.S. military force in Asia is in South Korea. and consists of about 33,000 soldiers, most with the Second Infantry Division, and about 7,100 airmen supporting three squadrons of F-4 Phantom fighter-bombers. The Navy has only a very small force of about 200 officers and men in South Korea. The U.S. also maintains about 600 nuclear weapons in South Korea and U.S. officials have said they might be used in the event of war. U.S. ground troops and nuclear weapons in South Korea were significant political issues in the U.S. even before Jimmy Carter raised questions about them in the course of his campaign. Carter's assertion, that if elected he would withdraw U.S. ground forces and nuclear weapons from South Korea, focused public attention on the matter once again. Revelations about the oppressive policies of the Park government and its use of bribery to foster a favorable climate of opinion in the U.S. Congress have eroded support for the U.S. presence in South Korea and could give Carter Carter (Continued From Page 1) States forces inevitably will be involved in fighting if there is an outbreak of hostilities. The tree-cutting incident which resulted in the death of two American officers and the subse- quent reinforcement of U.S. forces in the area clearly il- lustrates the dangers inherent in the Korean situation. Unfortunately, the continued presence of these troops has been made to appear to he the symbol of the American com- mitment to Koeea. Yet, the commitment to Korea is contain- ed in the mutual security treaty with that country which pledges that. in the event of an armed attack on South Korea, the I U.S. will "act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes." That commitment will re- main regardless of haw many American troops are on the scene. During the recent campaign. President-elect Carter stated that he favored withdrawing U.S. ground forces "over a time span to be determined after consultation with both South Korea and .Japan." This basic approach was endorsed by former Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird who said in a recent interview: "South Korea doesn't need our ground troops. American manpower is not the important thing: South Korea has a two-to-one edge on the ground." The defusing of the Korean situation will be one of the most sen- sitive and vexing problems confronting the new Ad- ministration. 3. Indochina is an area which also deserves early attention by the President. It is time for American policy toward Southeast Asia to look to the future and not the past. The Ford Administration policy of opposing trade or other elations with Vietnam. Cambodia and Laos, of vetoing Viet- nam's application for admission to the United Nations and of refusing to send an Ambassador to Laos has not been effec- tive. This policy has not obtained information about America's missing-in-action and it is out of step with the policies being pursued by the non-Communist nations of Southeast Asia. I am now persuaded that unless there is a change in policies by the Vietnamese and Cambodians we are far more likely to obtain information about our missing-in- action through normal relations than through continuation of the existing policy. strong congressional support for a phased reduction of U.S. ground troops in South Korea. President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger have insisted that no changes be made in U.S. military forces in South Korea on the grounds that any change in the status quo would be destabilizing. They have expressed concern that any withdrawal of U.S. forces might be seen as a sign of weakness and might tempt an attack. The future of U.S. military forces and bases in the Philip- pines is also under a cloud as a result of efforts by the Marcos government to alter the terms under which the U.S. makes use of its three bases in the Philippines, the Subic Bay Naval Base, Clark Air Force Base and Cubi Point Naval Air Station. Negotiations have been under way since April 1976 on the future status of these U.S. bases. The, Philippinos have demanded that the U.S. acknowledge nominal Philippine sovereignty over the bases by flying the Philippine flag and appointing Philippine commanders. In addition the Marcos government has demanded annual rental payments. This could take the form of cash, additional military aid or both. The attitude of President-elect Carter on the Philippine base issue is a source of some uncertainty. It is possible that Carter's interest in the moral dimension of foreign policy - particularly human rights issues - could lead the new Ad- ministration to take a somewhat more critical look at the Marcos government and U.S. ties to it. If this were to occur it could have major ramifications for the U.S. military presence in the Philippines. Another area where the future of U.S. ties is uncertain is Taiwan. U.S. military forces on Taiwan have declined steadi- ly since the U.S. and China signed the Shanghai cqmmunique in 1972. and will probably continue to decline. However, a substantial number of the 2200 military personnel remaining on Taiwan are involved in mainland oriented intelligence ac- tivities and there is some reluctance in the intelligence com- 4. Although relations with Japan are good, they could be better. In the past. American policy has too often taken Japan for granted. There should be closer consultation and cooperation between the countries than in the past and there should be no more shocks. as in the Nixon Administration. 5. In the Philippines, the negotiations for continuation of the U.S. bases are likely to remain in abeyance until the new Administration has time to assess the situation. With goodwill on both sides and an appreciation of the importance of the bases to both countries and to stability in the Pacific. I am confident that satisfactory arrangements can be worked out. 6. The October military coup in Thailand. which threw out a fledgling parliamentary system, could eventually present the United States with a dilemma. The final departure of American military forces from Thailand last July was in the interest of both countries. Any overture by the new Thai government to turn back the clock in this respect should be examined very carefully. In view of the smouldering in- surgency in the northeast. Vietnamese suspicions of the new government, and the existence of the multilateral SEATO treaty which has practical application only to Thailand. the seeds for trouble in Thailand may sprout. I hope that the new Administration will be cautious in this situation. 7. Congressional concern over human rights matters is par- ticularly acute when considering foreign aid provisions for South Korea. the Philippines and Indonesia. Congress has taken an active interest in foreign policy matters relating to Asia in recent years and I expect that it will continue to do so. President-elect Carter is well aware of Congress' determination to play a more active role in the shaping of foreign policy, as demonstrated by his November 23 meeting with the members of the Senate and House Com- mittees which have primary responsibility for foreign policy matters. The spirit of his meeting with members of the Com- mittee on Foreign Relations is a good omen for future cooperation between the President and the Congress. In summary. while the Asian scene surveyed by the newly inaugurated President Carter is likely to be basically benign, potential troubles lie ahead, and there is an agenda for ac- tion. munity to move these activities elsewhere. Assuming a con- tinuing commitment by the new Administration to improved relations with the PRC a solution to this problem will have to be found. The future of the mutual defense treaty with the Nationalist government of Chiang Ching Kuo, presents a somewhat more difficult problem. Recently Senatoo Man- sfield returned from a trip to the People's Republic and urg- ed immediate termination of the U.S. treaty with Taiwan. Mansfield's statement has already generated opposition from other senators. The future of the U.S. treaty with Taiwan will undoubtedly be a difficult issue for the new Administration even if the withdrawal of U.S. troops is not. A final issue of some importance involves the future of the Seventh Fleet in the Western Pacific. For years the Seventh Fleet and its powerful aircraft carriers has been the domi- nant military force in the region. It still is. Navy philosophy has been "keep as much of the fleet deployed as far forward as possible." Recently, however, budgetary restraints and overhaul backlogs have forced the Navy to look at the possibility of reduced forward deployments. From Johnson Reprint's collection of rare and elegant publications... NIPPON VOLUMES I-IV (COMPLETE) PLUS SUPPLEMENT Now, for the first time, a deluxe facsimile edition of NIPPON has been published. The edition is limited to 485 numbered sets for the entire world. First published over 120 years ago, Sie- bold's masterwork drew upon the re- searches of foremost Japanese scholars and provides a mine of information on Japanese history, religion, folklore, art, and numerous other fields. NIPPON laid the foundations for western scholarship on Japan. It was NIPPON's maps and pre- cise geographical data which enabled Com- modore Perry to make his historic expe- dition to Japan in 1853-54. NIPPON is truly magnificent . . . illus- trations include architectural plans, maps, landscapes, portraits, and drawings of cos- tumes, festivals, religious deities, relics, weapons, furniture, and more. $2,750.00, the set Published by Kodansha Ltd., Japan Distributed throughout the world (except Japan) by JOHNSON REPRINT CORPORATION Prices subject to change without notice Johnson Reprint Corporation A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers 111 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003 Please send me your color brochure containing complete information on NIPPON. Name Address City/State/Zip AM77 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Discover Orientations-discover Asia and the Pacific You are a regular reader of The Asia Mail. You have much more than a passing interest in all the fascinating aspects of the region and with things Oriental. You are, in fact, a person who would appreciate Orientations-a unique magazine that looks at Asia and the Pacific through the eyes and minds of experts; a magazine that brings into focus every aspect of that region in a wealth of well-informed editorial and lavish illustration. Orientations-a discovery, in words and pictures, of the lives, history, culture, art, fashions, food and exotica of the oldest-and subtlest civilisations in the '.,.orld. Collecting Western connoisseurs and collectors are looking to the East now-to the rich and varied heritage of peoples whose centuries-old art forms have survived to this day, and are still there for you to find. If only you can first find the right guicance and advice. You can, with Orientations, Orientations provides a full coverage of the art and antiques of Asia and the Pacific, everything from introductory articles for the beginner to specialist articles for the expert. It points out the pitfalls, and highlights the opportunities. And its publishes are continually attempting to locate items of particular interest to its readers. Culture To the visitor, Asia wears a mask -a mask of strange faces, strange customs and strange tongues. Orientations takes you behind the mask. It explores, and leads you to an understanding of, the oldest and subtlest civilisations of man. Whether it is returning to the beginnings, to the roots of a people's traditions and beliefs, o' guiding you into modern times, to see the changes that the years have wrought, Orientations will bring you closer to a knowledge and an appreciation of Asia and the Pacific-that incredibly varied region that houses over one half of the world's population. Or; i;tanons is your personal discovery of Asia and the Pacific, Its ' rtisr'_comes naturally, because it is edited by professional .,!nalists .,ho v:ere born, and who live, in the region-working .,it";rsand photog'aphers of international stanoing. f;c.n the first issue (January 1970), the publisher of O~~.nlsi,oIrs has insisted on a quality of printing and general pis. matron normally reserved for the finest art books. The result is , r~~~uno'ine that is unlike any other magazine in the world, 11 i)y 8:in size, it is 'perfect bou:od', in a strong, laminated c~_.s It-contains some 80 pages-most of them in full colour. Jr Wcj!rnns is a magazine that you will enjoy reading at your Ir au. e, and kccp to read, and refer to, again and again. History The comprehensive history of the lands and peoples of Asia and the Pacific has yet to be written, And it seems unlikely that the writing of it could ever be completed, as long as new discoveries continue to make their alterations and additions. Orientations delves back into the events of the past, and keeps pace with the developments of today. Chronicling the lives of the foreigners who brought their influences to the region .. . assessing the significance of fresh evidence. and challenging the validity of the old . . . month by month, piece by piece, Orientations shapes a more than 2,000-year kaleidoscope of triumph and tragedy. Travel Well-known interior designer William Pahlmann has traveled extensively in the East. He knows the region well, and he obviously likes it. "If you are in a position to travel, go there, he wrote in a recent, widely-syndicated article. "And if you have already been, or can't go, I recommend that you read as much as you can on the subject. From my standpoint, one of the best things you can read is a magazine called Orientations .. . I am hoarding my copies ... and friends who insist on borrowing them have to sign them out, like in a library." Reading about travel in Onentat/ons is an unusually satisfactory substitute for travel itself. Because Orientations goes beneath the glossy-brochure surface of Asia and the Pacific to give you a scent of the breath that gives the region life. Your personal discovery of Asia and the Pacific. For just US$25 a year. To: The Asia Mail, P. 0. Box 1044, Alexandria, VA 22313, USA. (Please mark the envelope 'Orientations'.) Please send me one year (12 ISSULS) of Ortentations to the address belo" El I enclose my remittance of US$25 (CheqUes to be made payable to Orlentations ^ I would like to pay vvi-th my American F xpress Card No Narne of card Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 True Confessions'of a U.S. Foreign Service Wife... Bailey Morris In many ways. Nina Hudson's is a tale of survival, the story of a woman who learned to manage as a dependent. as "com- pany baggage'' in a bureaucratic system that doesn't bend for individuals. There are no real villains in Hudson's story. but to women like her. it is a dark and forbidding chronical of loneliness and ultimate frustration. She speaks of the other side of a life traditionally thought of as glamorous. filled with foreign travel, high-level diplomatic contacts and sparkling functions. .And though it has taken nine years to bring Hudson to the point where she can talk about it. even now. she is a little hesitant. She doesn't want to embarrass anyone. doesn't want to denigrate the life. doesn't want to expose her hus- band and herself. She feels strongly. however. that something needs to be said about the frustration. about the spouses of foreign ser- vice officers driven to illegal work. to divorce and even to medical evacuation. Only recently. she says. .she heard that the State ])apart- ment is studying the divorce rate among foreign service employees and ''mediyacs' medical evacuations) of women with nervous conditions brought on by their lives in foreign countries. 11 has gotten to be quite a problem." she says. so imam people have been medically evacuated from different posts A State Iepartment medical officer said there is no such study- underway although at one time such a study had been considered ..We did have an accumulated list which iden- tified individuals but with the passage of the I'rivacv Act we either had to declare it or destroy it and we destroyed it.'' he explained. A meaningful study would have involved the in- dividuals, he said. However. the Department does have "the number'' of medical evacuations which have occurred over the past five years because of psychiatric problems. alcoholism or drugs. The rate of medivacs seems relatively stable from year to year, the officer said. and involves less than 100 persons annually.) Nina Hudson has been hack in this country for only a few weeks after three years overseas and it is clear that she is a stronger person now than when she left Speaking in a soft southern voice. her finely-sculptured mouth pursing and relaxing as she talks. Hudson tells about making it to the mid-career level of foreign service life but not wilfirrut great cost. The lite has taken her to three foreign countries where she has gone underground. so to speak. in order to work illegally at two of the three posts- . There are lots of people who have gone around) these rules r the work permit and job laws in foreign countries) and solved their individual problems but it's always awkward for them because they hays to face the fact that they're breaking the Lm She explains Once. when offered a job she couldn't hear to turn down. Ifudson tried to give up her diplomatic immunity but was ad- vised that she couldn t not unless she wanted to become a test case _( wing up diplomatic immunity often comes tip in comver- sation oycrscas but vou're always told you can't do it that you 11 have to give up everything. including commissary privileges.'' she savs. I nable to cut through the tangle of rules and regulations at her last post. Hudson made an illegal arrangement which allowed her to work professionally as a textile designer And she feels better for it To understand what finally pushed Hudson into accepting a well-paying job and organizing a women's action group at her last post. it is necessary to go back to the beginning. Leaning forward. pushing a hand through her frosted, brown curls, Hudson speaks of her first years as a foreign ser- vice wife. She. like many- others, was 'thrilled'' by the prospect of the life. When her husband's first assignment turned out to be "a good European post," it seemed even better. At that time, she thought of herself in the traditional roles of wife and mother. 'When we went overseas. I thought that we would have a family ... I thought that I would take on January. 1977 The Asia Mail the roles of chief cook and bottle washer and I was happy to do it.'' she says. But that didn't happen. ''We didn't have a family so it wasn't enough to just sit at home." she explains. Nor was it enough for her to involve herself in the activities which were then required of foreign services spouses. Chuckling. half with amusement and half with distaste. she describes her first dealings with an ambassador's wife - the chatelaine of the mission. 'She the ambassador's wife) had written a book on social usage and she was very rigid ... Every month she had a coffee for embassy wives which you were required to attend." Hudson says. You had to go unless you were sick and called in to say you couldn't he there ... you had to be there a few minutes before the doors were opened and if you were late. the doors were closed and you weren't allowed in," she explains. "I was young then and down at the bottom of the totem pole so I just sort of did these things routinely, without questioning." she says. Still. she remembers being "inwardly horrified" about it all. Specific incidents stand out in her mind. Once, for ex- ample, one of Hudson's friends "was called down in public and severely reprimanded for not having attended a coffee." This sort of thing couldn't happen now, not since 1972 when spouses were declared independent and therefore not required to participate in any foreign service activities. Still, it stands out in Hudon's mind as the incident that spurred her into taking one of the first steps in her quest for personal independence. "Everything ... has been built on top of something else." she says. Hudson remained active - going to school, learning the language and fighting the work permit problem. She also continued her search for odd. jobs, though remaining essen- tially a "homemaker" in a foreign country. "Most foreign service people are very resourceful ... if they are not working. they go out and explore the country. learn the language ... The ones who don't do this are the ones who have real problems." she says. At some point Hudson's not quite sure when - dis- illusionment set in. "The romance of anything new just lasts for so long and then. you want depth." she says. "Suddenly. it's the super- ficiality of the existence that's disturbing." For awhile. she says. the entertaining and parties had been fun. But it didn't remain that way. ISee CONFESSIONS, Page 21) IF YOU 19 RE NOT AFRAID OF BEING RIGHT TOO SOON Five years before the near-bankruptcy of New York, The Washington Monthly, the liberal magazine that questions liberal orthodoxy, began its attack on the swollen bureaucracies with articles called "We're All Working for the Penn Central" and "America the Featherbedded." We then questioned the high salaries and pensions enjoyed by civil servants and warned of the growing power of public employees' unions. The Washington Monthly has been ahead of its time in many other ways. It was the first magazine to reveal the political contributions of the dairy lobby, and in ill article that won two of journalism's most distinguished awards, the first to tell of the Army's spying on civilian politics. It was the first to reveal the Nixon impoundments, the first to report why Congress didn't investigate Watergate before the election, and in so doing, became the first monthly magazine to do original reporting about Watergate. In an article that won yet another award, it told "Why the White House Press Didn't Get the Watergate Story." Our article on the dangers of nuclear hijacking was a year ahead of The New Yorker's. Our case against social security was made two years before Harper's. And two years before Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.'s The Imperial Presidency, we published "The Prince and His Courtiers at the White House, the Kremlin, and the Reichschancellery." Time says The Washington Monthly is "must reading." The New York Times says it's "indispensable." And The Washington Post says it "dues its specialty- government and politics--better than any other magazine around." If you aren't afraid of being right too soon, give it a try. free copy offer I'll give it a try. Please send me a free copy of your latest issue. If I like t, will receive a one-year subscription for only S8 -half the regular price. If I don't like it, I'll simply write "cancel'' across the bill and that will be that. In either case, the complimentary copy is mine to keep, Payment enclosed []Bill roe Name Address City State The Washington Monthly r v v v , vvamnrrigion, U.U, LUUJb ' ' "' I ---------- Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 THINK ASIA! Bargains Down Under Ruth Lor Malloy IT'S A GOOD TIME TO BUY A KANGAROO. The recent 171Z`- decrease in the cost of the Australian dollar means 171'2 lower prices there for North American visitors. For example. the Austrail Pass which used to be $135 for 14 days of first class rail travel in Australia, now is $111 Air fares to Australia even on QL'ANTAS, however. are not affected. KOREAN AIRLINES makes a bid in the cheapest-air-fare- to-Asia department with a $650 round trip fare from Los Angeles to either Seoul. Taipei or Manila. This is still more than the $493 San Francisco to Hong Kong rate of the Asian- American Recreation Club mentioned last month. There are advantages though. You book only 10 days in ad- vance, not Asian-American's 35. You fly on regularly scheduled flights with no chance of cancellation, the airlines' clerk insisted. But you do have to stay 30 days -- not 29 or 35. For flights to Taipei and Seoul, you have a choice also of 60 or 90 days. There are no stop-overs. Flights can be booked through any travel agent or phone (800) 421-8200. There are two flights a week. NEW YORK-KABUL-NEW YORK on a 7 to 120 day excur- sion is another bargain at $735. Passengers fly Pan-Am. Air India. Lufthansa or British Airways to London or Frankfurt and then change to Ariana. Ariana Afghan Airlines is at 535 Fifth Avenue. Suite 1609. New York. N.Y. 10017. 1212) 697-3660. AMERICAN EXPRESS TRAVELERS CHEQUES cannot be cashed in the People's Republic of China, says the Liaison Office here. It's a misinterpretation of American Express' membership in the US-Republic of China Economic Council. says Stephen S. Halsey. a senior vice president of one of the largest travel services in the world. "This Council is similar to many others which are formed to promote trade between the United States and the other country ... We are doing everything we can to overcome the misunderstanding .. .. In Tsimshatsul the business and shopping centre of HONG KONG, there Is also MERLIN the pride of STAY WITH US AND ENJOY THE MERLIN HOSPITALITY No. 2, HANKOW ROAD. KOWLOON, HONG KONG. TELS. 3-667211 3-667221, CABLE. MERLIN, HONG KONG. TELEX: HX84291. P.O. BOX 5372 TSIMSHATSUI POST OFFICE HONG KONG. Utell International American Express Space Bank Hotel Express & Thomas Cook Tophote's A HORTI('t'LTURALIS'l' for Bangladesh. a mechanical engineer for Papua New Guinea - these are the current openings in Asia with International Voluntary Services Do you know anyone') This Peace Corps-type organization which operates in Africa and Latin America as well as Asia. pays a "modest stipend' 1$80 a month, plus expenses for two year terms. "We differ from the Peace Corps in that we are smaller. non-governmental and hire non-Americans as well as Americans." sags Bob Minnich. Recuitment coordinator Old Asia hands might remember WS" work in Laos. and es- pecially in Vietnam in the 60's. directed by Don Luce of ''tiger ('ages" fame IVS works mainly in rural development. using volunteers trained in medicine. education. agriculture. management. etc. In Asia. it also has volunteers in Indonesia The address is 1555 Connecticut :Avenue. NW_ Washington IL(' 20036. (2021 Dt!7-5533. INTRIGUED BY PSY('HIC St'R(;ERY' If you're serious about giving it a try, who not contribute your efforts to science" Pamela de Maigret hopes to take twenty Americans to the Philippines in late spring for treatment by this controversial method of healing. The results will be studied by a group of doctcurs at the t'niversity of Philippines led by Dr. Leo Lazatiri of the I Caltrasa Foundation. she says. The Americans must he checked first by their own American doctors. undergo the quick. painless healing ritual under the ''trance'' of a reputable healer in the Phi tippines "Then they will return to their own doctors periodically for examinations for five year" When It Cones To The ORIENT We Are Specialists - - Personal Attention Individual, Family Plan, Group Tours Japan Korea China Hong Kong Bangkok Singapore WORLDWIDE TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS 687-6444 I I;~ fir nrf: FAR-EASTERN TRAVEL INTERNATIONAL Inc, 501 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK, N. Y. 10017 Report, at pt'ogre's 'nr Li: toast hr'h?rri~;,. the "tad'- '1 he purpose is t ( :rt it heating a, to 'Is t -~e take place Als de Maigt I clam . that rn main c a c~ it doe, She has watched 200 se,=sions imt,l%ing hemorrhoids cancerous tumor remissions, kidnec disease diabetes. cataracts, et( An Amer(' in. Ms de Mnigiet encountered p"ethic healing in Brazil where she was a geologist The heap l all unegiieocably state that healing takes place magnetic-:ill? before b(idc entrv is made.' she saes. ''hut the patient needs the psychological impact of the bloody operation in orde:' to inobolize his own homeostasis or ability to mairitmn the healing 'Body entry' is made with the healers bare hand without instruments. The maximum cost for the patient is $1.200 for travel and accommodations.' says Ms de Maigret_ We are hoping to get a subsidy so it might be less The treatment in the Philip- pines is free but healers will accept donations. Inquiries to Pamela de Maigret. sent c o this column. will be forwarded. CAN.. I' (.ET A ('MINA VISA" If you're desperate to go. }our chances are excellent if you take the Queen Elizabeth 2 world-circling cruise leaving New York on January 15 But it's not too late' Cunard hi:; permission to allow 700 passengers entry dur- ing March for a 3-day tour of Canton and vicinity. it passengers take any segment that includes Hong Kong This means the cheapest passible cost would be the Ilong Kong to New York segment which starts at $3.320 plus $225 for the China trip. 'T'hen there s the travel to Hong Kong Cunard organized a China excursion for 500 passengers in 1975. No passenger who applied was refused permission. it says Write Cunard Line Ltd.. 555 Fifth Avenue. NY('. NY. 10017 or contact your travel agent HI'SINh:SSMEN AND SHOPPERS BE%%ARI:'. If youre headed for Asia soon remember the lunar New Year starts February 18. If you can believe their representatives here, Hong Kong and Taiwan stores will he closed at least the first dac while government offices will be closed through the 21,;t Singapore has a one day holiday. The Chinese liaison Of- fice said government offices 'might' be closed on the 21st as well as the 18th and 19th but no one could give me a definite answer. The holiday is known as the Spring Festival in China While it is not a national holiday in other countries. people of Chinese ancestry will not be working it they can help it Like Christmas here. it is a time for feasting and family reunions. Tourists can enjoy the parade too lion and dragon dances. stilt walkers and -( robats Macau is probably the only place where fire crackers are not illegal. Let me know it you hear any and where besides the ('hinatowris of North America) The new year is the Year of the Snake which it you believe that sort of thing. is supposed to be a good one for losers adulterers diplomats. polito ins and intellectuals I wonder if there's a relationship'' :Among other upcomtnr: to lida%s. India celebrates Republic I)ay on .Ianu,ir,, 2r; wit,: most businesses and all goscrnrnent offices closed In New Delhi ask to sec- the Beating of the Retreat at th" intpi "sir( ,ccretariat both are relics of the British Hai :Australia and New %ealand haa( holiday" the last cceek in January too Burn. h.i t nian Das February 12, Ind Iap.n has Adult'. I )ac what as to els idea' : on .1mmai% 15 and National 1 o , , a n d a t i cn 1 is on r et'tuars I I- St~rre~ and ellires will he closed Hong Kong 1977 t el., Pu a d i t ',I, , J I B r " n,In,I d is wn e PC_ I dl _.: nt,r sl 7' :1r de :t.'J.~}Ki'r ! r t edi.'o JS>33UPOBo,4 'Aa,h UL'dii2rr! 20? I) .i 'ant, on order,'? 21 r p:._, Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 CAN ANYONE GIVE ME a good reason why the National 'Museum in New Delhi is organizing NOW an exhibition in connection with the 2.600th anniversary of the birth of Buddha? At least, that's what India News says. The anniversary is several decades away' THINKING OF ADOPTING an Asian child? Here's what some American adoption agencies and volunteers are saying: - It is best to keep a child in his biological family and the best way to do this is to help the family as a group. Next choice is to place the familyless child in an adoptive home in his own country. If these two cannot be done. then place- ment in an adoptive family in another country is recommended. -- Most of the adoptable children come from South Korea. One agency. Holt, is also working in the Philippines and ex- pects to be ''opening adoptions in Thailand in the foreseeable future." Kathy Sreedhar and Americans for International Aid find homes for Indian children. - The number of infants needing overseas homes is decreasing in Korea because of increasing adoptions by Korean families. The Korean government is currently plan- ning to lower the number of foreign adoptions by 20 per cent a year with all foreign adoptions ceasing in 1980. Some agen- cies are skeptical that this will happen, however. South Korea is sensitive to North Korean criticism that it is "selling" its children. - Eurasian babies, especially girls. are more in demand in Hong Kong, Thailand and the Philippines than children who do not have a caucasian parent. On the black market, some Thai families have paid $10,000 for one Eurasian. A Caucasian-Filipino baby could cost up to $7,000. If anyone has a theory why this is so, do let me know. The mothers are usually bar girls who receive little if any of the money. the babies being sold by their pimps or bar owners. In many cases, the mothers must pay back debts in- curred while they were in no shape to work. Such black market children have no legal rights: they could be abandoned if the step-parents die. There is no follow-up, no way to insure that the children are not abused. - In the past, there have been no legal adoption agencies in Asia. Traditionally, the extended family took care of orphaned relatives. - A legal adoption of an Asian child in the U.S. costs upwards from about a thousand dollars including transpor- tation. It can take a minimum of 6 months. Because we're looking for places that other readers can also patronize, we must have names and addresses. Marks will go for the most interesting reasons: e.g. there's a tiny hotel run by a family in Bali where the old grand- mother sits in the lobby, warmly greeting the guests to her "home." If she likes you, she might ask her grandchildren to lend you their bicycles. She might even send a grandson along as a guide - free. You feel she cares .. . Another example: theres a blue and white houseboat in Kashmir, a favorite because of the mountain setting and the exotic world that comes floating out to you - the vendors each selling fresh flowers, honey, fresh fruit, candy, hot coffee, clothes - a tailor comes too. A little paddle boat is at your disposal. cushioned, canopied, with curtains drawn at your behest. It has a helpful paddleman, taking you from lake to another, stopping if you wish. to watch the wood-carvers. And in the evening, the owner comes to chat by lantern light and , Ps to sell his copperware. Bantering with him is fun. Need more time? We're extending the deadline to the last day of January. Judges will be a panel appointed by the Asia Mail, annonymous because we haven't found volunteers yet. It will be up on the tricks of hotel public relations people (I hope I. Remember. it's 100 words or less, prose or poetry. Asia for us (we never did very well in geography) is Afghanistan east to Hawaii with Australia thrown in as a bonus. The hotels must be accessible to most people. This eliminates hotels in the People's Republic of China, North Korea. Vietnam, Laos and Kampuchea because the average tourist cannot visit there. It does include Samarkand, Bukhara and Tashkent, places in Soviet Asia that are relatively easy to visit. First prize is a two-year subscription to the Asia Mail; se- cond prize a one-year subscription: third prize - there will be six of them - are Asia Mail T-shirts. Please send as many entries as you want. Some people have more than one favorite. Think Asia, Box 706, Adelphi, Md. 20783. Send a self-addressed, stamped envelope if you want your entry returned. We regret we cannot acknowledge receipt. All winning entries become the joint property of the author and THE ASIA MAIL. We'll print some in future issues. - Some agencies will accept single parents. especially for hard-to-place older or handicapped children. - The Foreign Adoption Resources office has published a book listing all agencies working in all countries and a limited do-it-yourself section for those with the inclination. persistence and fortitude to fight the bureaucratic procedures themselves. (Available for $3.00 plus postage from P.O. Box 774, Boulder. Col. 80302.) Some agencies and volunteers who say they can process Asian adoptions are listed. Some are better than others but I am in no position to judge. Americans for International Aid and Adoption 1370 Murdock Road, Marietta. Ga. 30067. Holt Adoption Program, Inc., P.O. Box 2420, Eugene, Oregon. 97402 Livingstone Adoption Program Dillon Family & Youth Services, Inc.. 2547 E. 21st., Tulsa, Ok. 74114 OURS. 3148 Humboldt Avenue South Minneapolis. Minn. 55408 Kathy Sreedhar, 2562 36th St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007 Rosemary Taylor Agency, Friends of Children 14 Brookside Road. Darien. Conn. 06820 Connecticut/New England only. Tressler-Lutheran Service Associates 905 S. Beaver St.. York. Pa. 17403 Central Pennsylvania only Welcome House, P.O. Box 836 Doylestown, Pa. 18901 CONTEST NEWS. What is a hotel? For the purpose of our "Favorite Hotel in Asia and Why" Contest announced last month, a hotel is any structure in which a stranger can customarily sleep overnight for a fee. This eliminates most government bungalows, school dor- mitories, missionary guest houses (unless they are open to the general public) and Sikh temples. It does include the YMCA and Youth hostels. the Okura, the Oberois. resort cot- tages and house boats. If you're an imaginative manager, consider the unconventional convention center. WATER SPORTS FOR WATER SKI-ING.SNORKLING FISHING.BOATING SURF BLAZING AND MANY MORE AQU ACTIVITIES TIRTA BAR SWIM UP TO THIS DELIGHTFUL BAR FOR TEMPTING THIRST QUENCHERS INTERNATIONAL DINING. DANCING AND ENTERTAINMENT NIGHTLY A- P AN INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL OOL PANDAW Attention: Marketing Manager POOLSIDE SNACK BAR FOR APPETISING SNACKS / I'm interested in Conventioning in Paradise. AND COOLING DRINKS I BARUNA PAVILION GARDEN RESTAURANT FEATURING SUPERB SEAFOOD SPECIALITIES Name : Address : 11 Company : Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 PANDAWA STAGE I BAI I uAl SUPPER C I in .....Tel :.............. ......... ......... "NESE SWORDS Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 ~ The Acheson Assumption Wanted. Also interested in armor, Hara Kin Knives, etc. $50 to 10,000 paid. Send photo & tel. no. To: Fred Lohman 3403 N.E. Broad- way, Portland, OR 97232. Bonded & Insured. DEAK & CO. INC. (WASHINGTON) 1800 K. ST. N.W. WASHINGTON (202) 872-1233 ASIA - PACIFIC REGION WHOLESALE BANKNOTE BUY/SELL RATES as of December 17, 1976 BUY SELL Australia - (dollar) 1.02 1.08 China-P.R. -(renminbi) China-Taiwan - (new Taiwan dollar) No Market .0220 .0260 Fiji - (dollar) .90 1.05 HongKong - (dollar) .2080 .2130 India - (rupee) .09 .0980 Indonesia - (rupiah) .0016 .0019 Japan - (yen) .00335 .00375 Korea S. - (won) .0016 .0019 Malaysia - (ringgit) .3920 .3980 New Zealand - (dollar) .80 .95 Philippines - (piso) .tear 1250 Singapore - (dollar) .39 .41 Sri Lanka - (rupee) .04 .07 Thailand - (baht) .045 .0552 U.S.S.R. - (ruble) .2660 .29 Shown are currency units that may be bought for one dollar (ex- cept in the case of the Australian dollar, Fiji dollar, New Zealand dollar and Soviet Russian Ruble, which are quoted in U.S. dollars and cents.) Rates of exchange given without engagement by Deak & Co. iWashington) Inc Rates subject to change without notice. SELLING PRICES FOR OFFICIAL TRANSFERS ABROAD As of December 17, 1976 Australia 1.0675 Malaysia .4080 China-Taiwan 1.91 New Zealand .9350 China - P.R. Not Applicable Pakistan .1050 Fiji 1.10 Philippines .14 HongKong .2150 Singapore .4185 India .1145 Sri Lanka .13 Indonesia Not Applicable Thailand .0510 Japan Korea S. .003426 Not Applicable U.S.S.R. 1.35 DEAK & CO. SERVICES Foreign Drafts Foreign Remittances Foreign Currencies Foreign Collections U.S. Dollar Travelers Checks Travelers Checks Expressed in Foreign Currencies Pre-Packed Currencies Blocked Funds Gold Bars Numismatic Gold Coins Bullion gold Coins Silver Bars Bullion Silver Coins OFFICES WORLD WIDE New York. NY- Miami, Florida Los Angeles. Calif. San Francisco. Calif. Vancouver. Canada Toronto, Canada Honolulu. Hawaii Guam Hong Kong. B.CC. Macao Saipan, Chicago. Ill. Delhi. N.Y. Fleischmann. N.Y. Montreal. Canada Stamford. Conn Zurich. Switzerland Geneva. Switzerland Vienna. Austria Puerto Rico London. England Deak - Perera Group: World's Largest Foreign Exchange Organization U.S. Policy in the Mel Michael Morrow Beyond the flightline, the straight rows of cement block buildings, the cyclone fencing and the guardposts, Udorn did not wait. A dreary, decadent and often violent town, it had grown like a wart on the backside of the war. Now it shriveled, and only five journalists had stayed the extra day to watch stragglers Lutz and Jones earn their asterisk in the history books. And so they did at 10:31 on the morning of December 20, 1975. Pilot Joe Lutz and Radar Operator Rich Jones, neither of whom had ever dropped a bomb in anger, eased their ail- ing Phantom off the Udorn runway. The mottled green im- age disappeared like a blowfly against the dry season sky of Northeastern Thailand. n February 1859, the fleet of French Admiral Rigault de Genouilly seized Saigon: an era began. In April 1975, the troops and tanks of NVN General Tran Van Tra re-took the city; an era ended. Be seeing you. Lutz: sorry you missed out, Jones. It is just no longer necessary, desirable, or even very possible to permanently base American combat air- planes in mainland Southeast Asia. End of story? Not quite. At the 432nd Tactical Fighter Wing's Udorn headquarters. a rusting metal arch was left behind. Attended by a hedge of red "feung fa," the arch bore three words: "And Kill Migs." More than a quarter of a cen- tury, but still only a link or two in the chain of command divided that left-over slogan from an historic injunction of former Secretary of State Dean Acheson. On the eve of communist takeover in China in 1949. Acheson launched a committee to reassess the United States' Asia policy: as he wrote in a memorandum to Philip Jessup. he had just one underlying concern: You will please take it as your assumption that it is a fundamental decision of American policy that the United States does not intend to permit further extension of communist domination on the continent of Asia or in the Southeast Asia area ..." And so the United States has fought. and paid others to fight. Every Secretary of State since then has subscribed to the Acheson assumption. American intelligence knew that from the Yenan period onward, the Chinese communists were receiving little aid from the Soviet Union. Acheson, and many other senior American diplomats, chose nonetheless to envisage a monolithic Communist Block because they saw it assaulting the free market world they believed in. Given his historical place and time, Acheson at least had the excuse of Stalin for his mistake. But the policy that has followed from his assumption in Southeast Asia, and par- ticularly in the Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos. Thailand and Vietnam. has been, bluntly put. a policy of kill- ing communists, or those poeple so aligned or so described. It has been a policy of opposing drift toward or rapproche- ment with "the Left" as a matter of principle. As Professor Hans Morgenthau and others pointed out long ago. it has been a stupid policy; it has been a brutish policy and it has been a failure. However it is still a policy that endures. and now Cyrus Vance. who if not present at the beginning then enough so later on, is Secretary of State. I)o we have any reason to think that the Acheson assump- tion will be put to rest" Not much. I should think, but Thailand and the Mekong Basin generally is the place to look for an answer. If Mr. Vance, his boss Mr. Carter. and whoever else it is who will count in the new administration's formulation of foreign policy. intend a new strategy for Southeast Asia. they should know that this is the terrain that counts. If they intend just another game of dominos. then they owe Mr. Kissinger and the Republican presidents he has served a debt for doing so little to get American policy out of that rut. "Fifty-two months and ten days ago. in a moment of tragedy and trauma, the duties of this office fell upon me. President Lyndon Johnson told the American people wearily on March 31, 1968. His address that night not only marked the end of his own political career, but also the beginning of an end to the Vietnam War. Rhetoric aside. it carried promise. In that March speech Johnson repeated a pledge he had made at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore in April 1965: "that the United States would take part in the great work of developing Southeast Asia, including the Mekong Valley -- for all the people of that region ... (that) North Vietnam could take its place in this common effort just as soon as peace comes.' Well, peace has come. It has not come on'American terms because those terms were historically untenable, but it has come nonetheless, and the President's words have more relevance to our time than they did to his: "Over time, a wider framework of peace and security may become possible. The new cooperation of the nations of the area could be a foundation stone .. . In announcing his Pacific Doctrine in Honolulu in December 1975, President Ford allowed that "Peace in Asia requires a structure of economic cooperation reflecting the aspirations of all the peoples of the region." The only struc- ture he mentioned, however, was the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. "Americans will be hearing much about the ASEAN organization." the President said. "All its members are friends of the United States." The Indochina countries are not friends of the United States - Vietnam in particular. ASEAN so far has all the makings of another anti- communist club with the Mekong River as its most critical frontier. The notion of Mekong cooperation once suggested by President Johnson has become anathema. It is indeed ironic that during the period 1957-75 the United States gave $45.6 million to the UN-sponsored Committee for the Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin, the only functional regional body linking Thailand with its Indochina neighbors, but cut off funding of the Com- mittee shortly after the fighting had stopped in Indochina. Despite signals from Laos and Vietnam that they wanted the Mekong Committee to continue and expand its activites: the $1.3 million American grant for fiscal 1975 was limited by an act of Congress to Thailand's use only. and the Bangkok- based secretariat was told that even Thai-related aid could not be expected in the future. The largely American- controlled United Nations Development Program also cut the Committee's funding. Only the intervention of UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim. who visited Bangkok briefly in February 1976 has assured sufficient budget to hold the Committee's secretariat together until mid-1977. Such information should not come as much surprise. The United States now twice vetoed Vietnam's admission to the United Nations since the war's end. and formal American diplomacy remains in the hands of men whether they are loyal to Mr. Kissinger or Mr. Vance is of little importances whose contempt for the Vietnamese is only thinly veiled. Which calls back to mind the last few days of 1975. As Lieutenants Lutz and Jones were struggling with a fluttery rudder at Udorn air base. and as the anniversary of the Christmas bombing was fast approaching. four American Congressmen journeyed to Hanoi. Coming when it did. the visit was itself significant. Prime Minister Pham Van 1)ong told the Representatives that theirs was -a meeting starting peace and friendship between the two countries '' Whether history proves him right or not we shall wait and see. The words in any case were accom- panied by a gesture. The ashes of three missing American flyers (Navy Commander Jesse Taylor. Air Force Captain Ronald Perry and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel ('rosley Fit- ton) were turned over in a simple ceremony on the tarmac of Gia Long airport. The Vietnamese took the occasion seriously and handled it with a certain magnanimity. even permitting an American military officer accompanying the Congressmen to change into uniform and to drape American flags over the three small wooden boxes which held the ashes. In dignity. the men began their journey home. Ambassador Charles Whitehouse, a former aide to Ellsworth Bunker in Saigon and previous to his Bangkok ap- pointment ambassador to Laos. was noticeably missing from the honor guard that removed the remains now in metal military coffins) from the UN plane that had shuttled the Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 gong Congressional party to and from Hanoi. Only when the cof- fins had been placed on a waiting air force C-130 did the Am- bassador's long black limousine pull up before the small cluster of newsmen and officials. Whitehouse, accompanied by a silver poodle, emerged dressed in a dapper beige lounge suit. "I hope you don't mind a macabre question" he quipped: "how big were the boxes?" Ambassador Whitehouse remains at his post, last seen in November turning over four American helicopters to Thailand's Border Patrol Police. Since the October 6 coup in Bangkok. Thailand's future is now the macabre question. Out to avenge an alleged (and it would appear fabricated) in- sult of Thailand's Crown Prince, Royalists, spearheaded by units of the CIA-inspired BPP, burned alive, beat to death, sexually assaulted and hung leftist men and women students from Bangkok's prestigious Thammasat University. As one writer put it. the event marked the beginning of "Southeast Asia's equivalent to the Civil War in Spain." Despite the denials, it is difficult to believe that the U.S. government did not at the very least have an oblique role in the October 6 coup, and in the carefully orchestrated brown- shirt violence leading up to it during the previous two years. In any case Washington finds Bangkok's new radical rightists more to its liking than its old bourgeois democrats. and it was almost obscene how quickly news was leaked that Americans in civilian clothes had been based at reactivated Takhli air base to support military aircraft dropping in to and from the Indian Ocean base on Diego Garcia. In Thai history October 6 will likely prove the headwaters of a river of no return. It has driven many of Thailand's finest intellectuals into the mountains, or across the Mekong into Laotian exile, and it has locked Thailand's socialists into a life or death struggle with Thai monarchists. The "residual presence" of the American military in Thailand, about which former Defense Secretary Schlesinger was so concerned, has been secured for the time-being, and foreign businessmen may even be able to count on five years of relative stability. But the line has never been drawn like this before, and the ramifications of civil war could well spread far beyond Thailand's borders. A civil war in Thailand must now be taken as inevitable. If the Acheson assumption holds, then the United States will likely be drawn in on the side of the monarchists, and American influence will go to hardening ASEAN into an anti- communist block. In that event, Indochina countries, Viet- nam in particular, will not only be excluded from region- wide plans for economic cooperation, but forced to contend with a gameplan the ultimate result of which would likely be the ongoing bifurcation of their own Mekong Basin com- munity. The domino theory can still be made a self-fulfilling prophecy. The emerging political and economic potential of the Mekong countries has already established that they themselves can fill much of the "vacuum" left by the retreat of American hegemony on the end of the Second Indochina War. The crucial question - and one over which the United States as the most active outside power still holds influence - has become "how." not "whether" these countries will conduct their own relations, and particularly how Bangkok and Hanoi. epicenters of power in the Mekong Basin. can ac- commodate one another. The notion of such an accommodation is not so novel as might first appear. Although it is now all but forgotten history. Ho Chi Minh once lived in a small Thai town not far from the Mekong River. and he once received small arms from the Thai government to fight the French. In 1947, then Thai Prime Minister Pridi Phanomyong, leader of the Thai resistance during World War II and like Ho Chi Minh a recipient of American aid during that period, journeyed to France in an unsuccessful attempt to mediate Indochina's in- dependence. Having failed, in September 1947 he invited the Indochina revolutionaries into a formal association called the Southeast Asian League: somewhat ironically the first attempt at a regional community. The winds of the Cold War had already begun to blow, and Pridi was soon forced into exile by a coup d'etat that restored to power pro-fascist collaborators of Japan's World War II occupation. For a brief period, however, the Viet- namese and Lao independence movements had actually operated from a wooden house on Bangkok's main street. Silom Road. "I hoped that when these people had regained their independence we could work closely with them," Pridi. who is still in exile, told an interviewer in Paris two years ago. Pridi not only helped lead the 1932 putsch that ended ab- solute monarchy in Thailand, but was Thammasat Univer- sity's first rector, helping to explain the leading role the (See MEKONG, Page 21) "AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON ASIA AND THE PACIFIC" A new publication, a new market... A new opportunity for advertisers! Reach 30,000 to 60,000 Asia-interested Americans- executives, opinion leaders, business- men and scholars in Washington, D. C., New York, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. Reach the people who make the decisions-about trade, about policy, about travel. Reach a profile of Asia-interested Americans that has never before been so precisely pinpointed. Join these prestigious firms who have advertised in the historic in- augural (October), second (November), third (December) and fourth (January) issues of THE ASIA MAIL: American Enterprise Institute The Asia Letter Ltd. Asia Week Magazine Benihana of Tokyo Braddock Publications Carnegie Endowment for International Peace China Airlines China Books and Periodicals, Inc. Christian Science Monitor D. Cogar, Inc. Deak and Co., Inc. Diplomat National Bank Far Eastern Travel International Inc. 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BOX 1044 ALEXANDRIA, VA. 22313 WEST COAST REPRESENTATIVE: Charles C. Keely, Jr., 304 South LaBrea Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. 90036 Tel. (213) 939-1415 HAWAII REPRESENTATIVE: Crossroads Press Inc., Stephen S. Lent, P.O. Box 833, Honolulu, Hi. 96808 Tel. (808) 521-0021 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Ring of Fire III P 6 "-. IF YOU WANT... ... INSIGHTS on Asia from leading American scholars and business experts... ... PERSPECTIVES on U.S.-Asian relations from distinguished members of the House and the Senate ... ... INTELLIGENT VIEWS AND REVIEWS of Asia books, cuisine and arts ... TIPS on travel to Asia, merchandise, services and job oppor- tunities in Asia and Asian fields ... YOU WANT TO SUBSCRIBE TO THE ASIA MAIL TO: THE ASIA MAIL, SUBSCRIPTION DEPT. P.O. BOX 942, FARMINGDALE, NY 11737. Yes, I do want the inside story on what Americans are thinking, saying and doing about Asia. Send me THE ASIA MAIL for One Year, $11.00 Two Years, $20.00 Name- Address And enter a subscription to THE ASIA MAIL for One Year, $11.00 Two Years, $20.00 as my gift to: Name Address Bill Me Payment Enclosed (NOTE: Rate for students is $9.00 per year. Rate for foreign addresses is one year at $18.00, two years at $35.00. Canadian subscribers add $1.00 to U.S. rate.) SUB T }j/LBE TO THE Polynesia's Sacred Isle By Edward Dodd Dodd. Mead & Company. 1976, 224 pps.. $10.00 Donna Gays Edward Dodd's third book in "The Ring of Fire" series on the culture of Polynesia is a personal narrative in which he attempts to lure the romanticist, not the historian or anthropologist. There are few statistics. judgements or evaluations in "Polynesia's Sacred Isle." As part of the Society Island group, Raiatea is an insignificant island only 20 miles long and some 10 to 12 miles wide, lying some 3000 miles from the nearest continent. It is a hundred miles northeast of the more popularly-known Tahiti. The name "Raiatea" in the old Polynesian language can best be translated to mean "expansive sky." Dodd first came upon the island in the late 1920's with a group of fellow Yale graduates who were attempting to sail around the world. Although none of them completed the trip, Dodd was so enamored of Raiatea that he returned in the late 1950's with his wife. It was then they met Turo who was to become like a son. Eventually, the two families shared a home. At Fetuna, on the southern end of the island. the Dodds built their dream house to which they have returned nearly every other year for two to four months at a time for the past dozen years. Turo. his wife, and his ever- growing family occupy the house the remainder of the time. Raiatea, according to Dodd, is the birthplace of the Polynesian culture. It has been written elsewhere that. while Raiatea was the spiritual center. Tahiti has been the cultural center. It was, however, to Raiatea that the settlers came from Samoa before settling on the other islands. Dodd attempts to explain Raiatea's significance through chants and recitations that remain from the past. He explores the geological and botanical history of the island and writes of the ''tiare apatahi," a rare flower flourishing some 2,000 feet high atop the sacred mountain of Temehani. This beautiful flower is a botanical wonder that refuses to thrive elsewhere in the world. Dodd speculates on how the trees, fruits and flowers came to be a part of the legends. superstitions. customs, religion and history of the island. We learn that Raiatea is the central-Pacific birthplace of the still-practiced art of fire- walking. It is the origin of the breadfruit. We learn also that the Raiateans are master-builders of the canoe. particularly the great double- canoes which took the islanders to Hawaii, the Cooks and New Zealand. Dodd writes at length of the Ariori Society who would be regarded by most cultures as obscene, evil entertainers in a tightly organiz- ed society free of sexual morals. A greatly respected, or perhaps feared group. they were capable of spreading the gospel of Oro, an an- cient diety, in a highly effective manner. It is perhaps because of this that the people accepted Christianity so readily from the mis- sionaries who arrived in the 1800's. THE CHINA LETTER means business The next time you're flying into Hong Kong, Tokyo or Shanghai, ask the passenger next to you in the first class sec- tion if he reads The China Letter. Chances are he'll say "Yes." The China Letter means business if your business is China. Explaining the political backdrop to the China market is our specialty. Published monthly, $175 per year. You subscribe to a newsletter, you get an information ser- vice. Want to hear more? Write: William Douglas Jr., Senior Representative USA, The China Letter, Box 54149, Los Angeles, CA 90054. Or telephone (213) 889-4546. `i,.,ber nccober 1976 r agmatiscs" andradical in Dear n the s -ca rea~ccf C~ Lice cnaf rman ANE'been Sir: Ve have SHONNN b etweeuse ew~CHI ANC CHIN=. YAp WF.N-YtiAN-_- THE V 1f1TICAL has co e, idea Randa boss n bns leadershiP ,,.0 ?iSE-TLN~ s and P-Pa fore s CNIA w the Chine Se ls~ (), Yiant n" {o r to r The radtc Premier CNANG CHllN- And bac is ah i?3=-pis.~Y~peking a Vice really ofe HLN oed - e predic sed`LO~ at all this e of CoP nch freer _ also a .er, . is have ~~a one Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 India: Silent Revolution (II) This is the second and concluding part of Jeremiah Novak's "India: Silent Revolution," which began in the December issue of THE ASIA MAIL. If you missed the first installment, write for a free copy of the December issue: Ms. Phyllis Hanlon, THE ASIA MAIL, Box 1044, Alexandria, VA 22313. Jeremiah Novak It is this situation which the band of economists faced in 1972 which called forth their greatest efforts. The relevance of Dr. Dhar's 1966 paper was that the analysis of the problem which he had given them still applied in 1973. Dr. VKRV Rao and his colleagues updated Dr. Dhar's analysis and prepared the case for presentation to the Prime Minister. According to men who sat through that first meeting with the Prime Minister in September 1973, the Prime Minister remained relatively quiet but receptive to the arguments and proposals which the small band made. In the discussion I)har and Rao lead the Prime Minister through the intricacies of what was proposed. After hearing the economists out she proposed that the men make their proposal to the cabinet. This was arranged by' her in October 1973. Prior to the meeting the working paper had been circulated to key members of the cabinet - a group that would later be lablelled as the "Economic Com- mittee. " In addition to the economists, the cabinet ministers who attended this meeting were Y. B. Chavan-External Affairs, C. Subramanian-Finance, T. A. Pai-Industry, and D. P. Dhar- Planning. and J. Ram-Agriculture. The meeting was a heated one but the six economists won the argument by simply pointing to the chaos that existed in the economy. They pointed out that the drought occured because the irrigation was not in place. They noted that there was no coordination between the central bank and the finance ministry so that money was being created far faster than increases in production. They noted that private business had not expanded its investment and that the public sector was running at an unexplainable deficit. Although it was not included in the working papers the economists were critical of the fact that. as far as economic policy was concerned. the cabinet did not coordinate its policies. Each ministry did as it chose without any attempt to find out how their policy either meshed with the economic plan or how their actions affected other ministries. Although the cabinet was far from happy with the criticism it received and by no means convinced that the program be- ing offered would work, the cabinet, at the Prime Minister's prompting. agreed to extend discussion of the working paper. However, there was one key result of this meeting. Shortly after the meeting the Prime Minister told all ministers that no decision on economic matters could be taken without first being cleared by the inner cabinet com- mittee comprised of the above minishers. According to V. Ramachandran. P N. Dhar's assistant, this decision to enforce economic disipline on the cabinet marked the first time in history that the cabinet had to clear every decision to see if it conformed to the five year plan. "This decision." he said. "created the institutional mechanism to assure coordination at the top. In the past every cabinet member created policies based on his desires. As a result. Indian planning, which had always been praised for its foresight. was frustrated by poor policy implemen- tation. Now all policies must conform to the plan." Over the next few months. Ramachandran continued. there were repeated cabinet meetings. "We met two or three times a week. There were constant disputes between the cabinet and the economists. Had it not been for P.N. Dhar and the Prime Minister, the working paper would have been shelved. " And C.H. Hanumantha Rao recalled. "Separate meetings had to be held with each minister and his staff. We tried to convince the ministries either to retract old programs or to implement new ones. This went on until the spring of 1974." As a result, each ministry was told to draft its own fanuary' 1977 The Asia Mail proposals, which were reviewed by the cabinet's inner economic committee. and either approved or sent back for revision. As the months passed a new group emerged in the second echelon of the cabinet. and these men eventually played pivotal roles in the development of a new economic policy. Some of the key figures were: Man Mohan Singh of Finance: S. Chakravorty of Planning: P.N. Haksar of Planning and B. Javlin of Industries. Two early symptoms of India's new economic mood were apparent in May 1974. The first was that India had successfully concluded negotiations with the World Bank for a $1.5 billion loan. That the Bank had set conditions on the loan was known at the time. Later it was learned that the Bank had accepted the six economists's working paper as a basis for granting credit. The second symptom was the government's strong action in crushing the national railroad strike in May 1974. by first securing railroad property and then sending in troops. And finally the government's policy was made explicit in July 1974, exactly a year before the emergency, when Mrs. Gandhi spoke at the opening ceremonies of the Institute for Economic and Social Change at Bangalore. This Institute had been founded by Dr. V.K.R.V. Rao. And the Prime Minister's speech is recognized as the turning point in the nation's economic policy. The program which she then enun- ciated. had the full support of her cabinet and was the result of nearly a year's work. Mrs. Gandhi's three major points were that: -Cost of living allowances to labor were to be impounded in order to check the nation's inflationary spiral: -One-third of dividends were to be impounded as well. to control corporate spending until the economy cooled off: -Taxes on windfall gains were to be increased. One point that Mrs. Gandhi failed to mention, but which was vital to the new policy, was that there would exist a new coordination between the Finance Ministry and Reserve Bank of India: and that henceforth. government spending and money creation were to be limited, taking into con sideration actual productivity. Coming as it did just six weeks after the government crush- ed the railroad strike, the Prime Minister's speech had an almost immediate effect. as the Finance Ministry took action to see that the new policies were implemented. The result was that over the following 11 months wholesale prices fell by nearly 13 per cent. as the quantity of money in circulation was controlled. During this same period leading up the declaration of an emergency the government took other actions to stimulate the economy, such as liberalization of imports. regularization of license capacity. and delicensing of some industries. In ad- dition, more funds were allocated for irrigation projects. and incentives were increased to encourage exports and farm procurement programs. These policies were implemented one at a time, and were never announced as being part of the government's new overall economic schema. Indeed, few noted the changes because this period was one of further deterioration on the political front. Near anarchy reigned throughout India. A combination of Gandhists, right-wing Hindu nationalists and communists threatened to topple the government. In February 1975 D.P. Mishra, the Minister for Railways. was assasinated. In April 1975 the opposition forces joined to form a loose coalition. The State Government of Gujerat was overthrown. Eighteen million man hours were lost to strikers. Mrs. Gandhi was 'lied in a lower court and convicted of a minor campaign violation. And it looked as though the gain made against in- flation under the new economic program would be lost as a result of the political upheaval. It was against this background that Mrs. Gandhi declared a state of emergency. This declaration. backed by the arrest of opposition leaders and muzzling of the nation's media. crippled the divisive forces. Stability soon returned to the political and economic fronts. and over the next year the economy took a major turn upward. The nation's GNP grew by 10.6 per cent. Agricultural out- put. aided by a good monsoon, grew by 18 per cent. Exports grew by 10 per cent during a period when world trade, overall. decreased by 6 per cent. And the public sector, under Mrs. Gandhi's dictate that it become more productive, grew by 16 per cent and turned in a handsome profit for the first time. These results were attributed to the government's new economic program. To understand what has occurred since the government began its new economic schema it is worth recapping the ma- jor policy changes over the past two years: Effective control of the money supply was implemented. -Rlost industries were delicensed. --Public enterprises were directed to become more ef- ficient, to increase capacity utilization and to increase profits. --Export incentives were increased. -Imports were liberalized. -A first priority effort was made to increase irrigation projects. -Taxes were lowered on income and assets, including for corporations. --Outlays for the private sector were increased by 68 per cent in the final Fifth Plan document issued in 1976. -Tax incentives for research and development were in- creased. -Foreign capital inflows were encouraged. -Expenditures in power generation were doubled for in- dustrial and farm use. -Twenty million tons of grain stocks were accumulated as a hedge against drought. -The government began to actively solicit foreign loans and grants. -Efficiency was increased in posts, telegraphs and other communications facilites. Nearly all of the above was taken into account in the first point of Mrs. Gandhi's twenty point program which she issued at the time the emergency was declared: "The streamlining of production, procurement and dis- tribution of essential commodities, strict economy in govern- ment and the continuance of steps to increase productivity." As one of the economists responsible for India's economic turn-around put it. "That one paragraph in the 20 point program is our paragraph. It summarizes our program." The working paper provided to the government by the six economists was designed initially only to control the in- flationary situation which had arisen during 1972-3. As the working paper said at the outset, "We would like to make it clear at the outset that we are dealing with the short period problem of inflation and unrest that has overtaken the country today and threatens to bring to a halt the attempt that is being made to combine economic growth with social justice ..." Whatever the economists' design the program they in- itiated in 1974 has more than short run implications. The very concept of combining economic growth with social justice implies that the economic plans of the future must emphasize growth first, followed by social justice. unless the former inflation repeats itself. Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 The first indication that the new econorPer1? ( dw t ReN bPARj(Q thcfa4TWt A?Fg11JActllt9A0gJW010076-1 designed for future as well as present situations came when the final Fifth Year document was presented to the public on Sept. 25, 1976. The plan proved important in four respects: * This plan, which replaces the draft plan issued in 1973, clearly defines agriculture as the leading sector. SPECIAL OFFER * The plan increases private sector outlays by 68 per cent, The second benefit from agricultural development is that while increasing public sector outlays by only 13 per cent. the emphasis on development of power and water supplies * The plan assumes that all the policy steps listed above re- creates a demand for industrial goods and a steadily grow - main in effect. According to one member of the Planning ing market for cement, pumps, electric motors, tractors, fer- Commission, "A further reduction in the regulation of in- tilizers and other farm products. At the same time, the in- dustry can be expected." crease in agricultural production keeps down the price of * The plan unashamedly calls for more foreign aid. and food and other wage goods, thus making industry more ef- makes no attempt to emphasize the theme of self-reliance. ficient. And although Indian government officials take pains to A second change in the plan's emphasis calls for higher emphasize that the new plan's philosophy parallels that of outlays in the private sector. This, too, has two aspects. The the draft outline of 1973, and that there is only a shift in first is, according to the working paper, that the private sec- emphasis. close scrutiny and in-depth talks with Indian tor had suffered a net decline in assets in the period from Planners leave no doubt that a new development strategy has 1966 to 1973 as a the result of hostile regulations and con- been launched. fiscatory taxes. This sector had in the past been one of the The plan's pivotal aspect concerns the provisions for most vibrant parts of the Indian economy. and the architects development of agriculture. As Yoginder K. Alagh of the of India's new economic system felt that it needed a better Planning Ministry put it, "The idea is to vastly expand ex- atmosphere and easier credit to regain its momentum. penditures on irrigation and power." By so doing India gains Further, when it is realized that most private enterprise in two ways. First, better irrigation, through surface water and India is conducted by farmers the plan's emphasis on wells, coupled with the use of high yielding seeds, would give agriculture meshes with the increased outlays to the private India's biotic revolution a chance to occur at the targeted sector. rate of 4 per cent a year ... an exponential rate which is The second aspect of only marginally increasing the public Asia has a new voice in the world. Its called ASIAWEEX! L6LN., The Asian News Weekly that provides Asia's only independent regional reporting -factually and with authority by 3.16 per cent a year. compounded. from 1961 to 1972. According to Alagh, a graduate of the University of Penn- sylvania, "The key to progress is water. Once the water is in place. we can predict the productivity increases based on historical rates of growth in productivity." 8"..-b- 2A. 874 T l 7 i 4`114111 --.-==moo Yes, I am interested in knowing more about , ASIAWEEK. Please send me full subscription details, and a free introductory copy of the current issue. Mail today to: ASIAWEEK, The Asian News Weekly, GPO Box 2333, Hongkong sector reflects the belief of the six economists that the public sector had been operating well below capacity and was not in need of increased outlays until current capacity was utilized efficiently. Thus the decision to restrict outlays in this sector is part of the long run policy to make the public sector pay its own way. The third change in the plan is the continued reduction in regulation and control in industry. As one economist in the planning commission put it. This group of policies helps both the private and the public enterprises because it reduces red tape and decentralizes decision making." Finally, the acknowledgement in the final fifth plan that overseas loans would be acceptable carries with it the recognition that savings in India are not adequate yet. This is a realistic conclusion that eliminates the need for further rhetoric about economic autarchy. The planners are aware that they will have to increase ex- ports to pay off foreign loans and also have to increase capital inflows in the form of new investment. As one critic put it. 'When you accept foreign loans you have to accept foreign capiial.' All four changes in emphasis in the newltiv completed plan give strength to the thesis that the working paper of the six economists has had a permanent effect on the planning process and that the new plan is following the Tobin Mlason Model as used in Korea. Taiwan, the Philippines and Brazil. While the model has been chanced to meet Indian stan- dards, there is little question that the economists responsible for the change arc aware of the influence of the model on their thinking. Moreover. they point out. that their model in- corporates ''many of the best features of the Soviet. Agrarian. and Fabian models while not sacrificing efficien- We are embarked upon a new course that will require five to ten years to bring its best results.' said P.N. Dhar. Dhar. a Kashmiri. smiled at this point and said. ''But it will bring the kind of results that it has brought elsewhere." Too modest to predict the economic miracle these policies have brought in other countries. Dhar prefers to say that ''development comes in pauses and lurches.- Yet many of his colleagues are sure that the new policies will result in growth rates of at least 6' ~ a near from now to the end of the century. Yoginder Alagh, who is responsible for long term prospective planning, said, 'India is on its way." And his boss Dr. Shankar Ghose. the financial wizard who straighten- ed out the finances of West Bengal and is now planning minister. said. 'Y'ou can say that the Indian economy has reached its takeoff at last.'' With the change in policy initiated by the six economists and the concretization of their ideas in policy and in the new five year plan, it has become possible to look at projections of India's future with the confidence that the policies are suited to growth and to balance the needs of social justice with the requirements of growth. It is interesting to note that both the planning commission and an independent study commissioned by the Ford Foun- dation agree on future projections. Both groups of futurologists are looking for growth rates of nearly 5.6 '1 to 7" per annum between now and the year 2001. At these rates the per capita income of Indians would treble by the end of the century and the GNP will increase to nearly 270 billion dollars in the same period. This will give India, by the end of the century, the same GNP as Japan's in 1970. F. A. Mehta of the Ford Foundation. who published an overall view of the Indian economy this year in the Ford Foundation's "Second India Series". believes that the above rate of growth is eminently reasonable for the Indian economy and that even if the population of India grows from its current level of 600 million to one billion by the end of the century per capita income will more than triple. The essential underpinning of the growth projections of both the Ford Foundation and the government planners is the agricultural projection. as agriculture accounts for over half of the total GNP. It is remarkable, therefore. that both forecasts have chosen a 4" rate of agricultural growth as achievable. On the industrial side. again both groups are forecasting in- dustrial growth at the rate of between 7 and 9'( between now and the end of the century. Yoginder Alagh of the Prospective Planning Group of the Planning Commission said. "Despite two of the worst Each issue of ASIAWEEK brings you, in easy-to-read English, the week's main news -- politics, business, finance, arts, new books, people, social affairs. Famous writers contribute Guest Columns, outside experts explain specialised subjects. The coupon will bring you your own introductory copy of the current issue. Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 droughts in history, cereal production iAct .tlacpmpj compound rate between 1961 and 1972. If irrigation continues to expand. we will certainly be able to increase production by 4':, per annum on an average between now and the end of the century." Hr. V.M Rao in his book in the Ford Foundation Series also posts a 4 rate as attainable. but cautions that the record of the Indian government in carrying out programs in the agricultural sector is anything but encouraging. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that the long run itn- plic'ations of irrigation will only be achieved through periods of trial and error. '.Host economists now warn that the governmmnt must manage its surpluses more cites lively to provide food supplies during lean years ''Buffer Stock management is crucial to our performance.' said Ur. (' II. Hanumantha Rao. At a press conference on September 75. ]Jr. S. Chakravorty said that 'Fundamental to the planning process is a surplus in the agricultural sector so that wage goods prices wilt be held down. He stressed that this meant an urgent commit- ment to increase buffer stocks and to increase time irrigated land in order to increase productivity and to immunize India to the vagaries of the monsoon. The awareness of the role of agriculture cannot he un- derestimated in India today. The failures in 1966 and 1972 made its commitment to agriculture As a result. Indian's in- 4 dustrial sector now has a solid base upon which to build_A, industry, the major emphasis now is oil productivity. muder- Entrance to Kai-sei Gak-ko, where William Elliott Griffis nization, and technological change taught in Tokyo. From Edward Warren Clark, "Life and We have a great deal of unused or poorly used capacity which we must. through better and more modern manage- ment use more productively." For foreign investors, there is It new set of instructions which was published in April of this year called "Guidelines for Foreign Investors Although the guidelines are similar to those issued in the past, there is a change in tone in the new booklet. As more than one official in the government says. "We are open to projects that bring in new technology more jobs, and create exports." In part, the new atmosphere is due to an awakening in In- dia than foreign savings can hest be attracted to India if new capital comes in the form of investment. This is particularly true since the government seems more willing than ever to try the IMF rules, which it has not done in the past. The government has seen other countries like Brazil and Iran succeed within the western rules and now we want to he one of the success countries." It is when this whole mood is appreciated that one can see closely the reality of the high projections of the futurologists. It has to be stressed that India today is following a model that in general has been successful in other countries. There is simply no reason to believe that it will not be successful in India. Japan Continued from Page 4) of unfair competition. and to allege that Japan itself deals unfairly with its imports from the United State. In fact. it has been many years since Japan dismantled tine last of its import quotas on foreign manufactured goods. while the United Slates does have such restrictions today notably on specialty steel products and textiles. Moreover. Japan's tariffs are as low or lower than those of the United States or the EE('. Some U.S. and European criticism focuses on alleged Japanese "non tariff harriers", notably including Japanese restrictions until recently) on foreign autos which do not meet Japan's strict standards of emission control. These standards are not imposed to inhibit imparts of foreign cars, of course. but because dense population and serious pollu- tion problems make such standards essential. Nonetheless. out of consideration for foreign car producers. Japan will allow them probably at least two years to reach Japanese standards of emission control. Japanese business and government circles are convinced that any nco-protectionism would not only he wholly un- justified, but would also cause serious harm both to Japan and to the United States land notably to American con- sumers) while retarding or even aborting world economic recovery. Since Japan's recovery seems to have lust Its steam, as witnessed by the three-month slump in industrial production and consumer spending, the immediate challenge is to regain economic momentum as rapidly as possible. 'toward that end. Japan's cabinet decided tin November) on a series of business-stimulating measures. These include projects for spending $3.4 billion in public works. private housing and increased financing for smaller businesses, as well as an incentive program to accelerate investment in new plants and equipment Yankee Teacher In Meiji Japan An American Teacher in Early Meiji Japan By Edward It. Beauchamp The University Press of Hawaii 1976, 154 pps, $4.75 paper. This is the 17th publication in a series. Asian Studies at Hawaii. published by The University Press of Hawaii, and gratifying evidence it is of the growing effectiveness of the East-West Center concept, an early Lyndon B. Johnson promotion dating back to his days as Senate Majority Leader . in the 1950s In this doctoral thesis, now-Professor Beauchamp provides it somewhat misty picture of William Elliot Griffis' brief but important turn as one of the yatoi )employed foreigners) who helped Japan emerge from its long isolation in the Meiji Restoration period Griffis had the unusual opportunity of working as a teacher both in the remote feudal setting of Fukui and in Tokyo, then a brand new national capital in its early development phase. from 1870 to 1874. Meiji had conic to the throne only two years before Griffis' arrival. Griffis performed scientific experiments in the Emperor Meiji's presence and worked with the Meiji statesmen who helped transform Japan from Feudalism into a modern state. Beauchamp's picture is somewhat misty because the materials from which he worked were limited, principally letters from Griffis to his family in Philadelphia. Beauchamp draws sparingly front Griffis' many publications, including his most important work. "The Mikado's Empire." con- sidered to have been the most widely read work on Japan in this country up to World War lt. Beauchamp provides, non- etheless, an interesting introduction to the formidable tasks the Japanese undertook in bringing their isolated culture into full contact with the outside world. The Japanese reserve in accepting American missionaries is a case in point. Some of the early American missionaries' activities in the Orient can make some of today's Americans wince, but Grif- fis' role was apparently less disturbing. For instance he cautioned Japanese Christians in Tokyo and Yokohama against embracing the peculiarities of one particular sect of Christianity. no matter how hard some of the more zealous missionaries pushed. When Christ's apostles spread His word, Griffis wrote in a letter to Japans a Christians, the Christian religion "was greatly influence by the peculiar kinds of mind in the various nations. Ilene Christianity was variously modified, just as the same seed Ill be modified by various soils and climates." Europe ins' versions of Christianity became diverse just as their languages became Adventures in Japan" New York American Tract Society, 1878). diverse. Griffis wrote, and since the Japanese were a homogeneous people. there was no need of introducing the various sectarian dimensions of Christianity. Griffis worked hard to elevate the position of women in ,Japan, but with only modest success. There was still a good deal to be done when Ethel Weed and her small hand of Japanese women went to work on the some problem in MacArthur's occupation. It is interesting that Beauchamp finds Griffis going along, to the extent that he does, with the traditional Japanese myth that the imperial family descended from the heavens, thus laying the basis for the divinity of the emperor. Griffis could not accept all this as true history, but lie did find a cer- tain element of truth in the details of tine stories. Griffis con- cluded that the historical accounts of various ancient rulers' exploits. "though exaggerated in mirage and fable, are in the main. most probably historic." He found many disbelieving ,Japanese, of course, among them one student explaining simply that "it is my duty to believe In them" (the myths.) Griffis wrote in 1915 of the dangers that the institution of the emperor might be captured someday by ambitious men for their own manipulations, to the detriment of the .Japanese people as a whole. That, of course, happened 20 years later, to the present occupant ^flhe throne, who non- etheless survived to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his reign - stripped. however, of his forefathers' claim to divinity, INTERCONTINENTAL MARKETING CORP. Is the leading subscription agent for Engllsh-language (and many foreign- language) publications In Japan. Send for our free list of publications from Asia and subscription prices. INTERCONTINENTAL MARKETING CORP. IPO BOX 5066 TOKYO 100-31 JAPAN (Air Mall) -JJ T-f ia #Xcs ~f 4103 flCrX 16~h 41 Gt0'ht**'74Rf 1-19-3 1d#i1S5 s7o 128 : 11111HEd6 (661) 8 3 7 3 rirS011 (667) 7 3 9 1 attti&ca.Yuri^a1rYR IM!).S*aiAlantar (SO) .rfa[w004^}^ ISO) .9....1 A-.I..*KRJ .-aaMa tH)[N ISA) . waffar.tcts (55) ^-1e^ st%r Y[^ 1551 .-5arfa^R1k (5a) 5555:5*7394 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 NEW ASIAN IMMIGRANTS This is the second and concluding part of Isao Fujimoto's "The New Asian Immigrants," which began in the December issue of THE ASIA MAIL. If you missed the first installment, write for a free copy of the December issue: Ms. Phyllis Hanlon, THE ASIA MAIL, Box 1044, Alexandria, VA 22313. Isao Fujimoto Under these pressures, there will be a need, for a national Asian American networking system for information retrieval, for lobbying, for keeping different community groups informed as to what is happening where. Also need for National level organizations that Asians and communities can turn to for counsel and coordination of efforts will become more critical. For example, the National JACL has encouraged the sponsoring of Vietnamese refugees by in- dividual chapters. But leaving it at this is too parallel to the government's effort to find sponsors for Vietnamese refugees and stopping there. The proposed self-help resources centers elevates the JACL effort beyond such limitations. Sponsoring chapters will be needing advice, if not help in the form of technical assistance, information. workshops or field consulting. As refuge families go through various stages of adjustment and integration into community life, problems and needs will change. Rather than leave the solution to each chapter and draining unnecessary energy in duplicated trials and errors, a pooling of skills in resolving these issues with a field staff will not only provide an ef- ficient use of resources but can contribute also to morale in unifying all these support communities together. One of the better avenues for recognizing the needs of the . Asian American community from a national level is the crea- tion of offices or projects such as the Office of Asian American Affairs, the National Project on Asian and Pacific Island Americans of the US Commission on Civil Rights, the Pacific Asian Coalition, the Asian Studies Programs, not to speak of other possibilities such as a federation of Asian Women or a council of Asian American Churches. For the first time, and when the need becomes most apparent, there is the makings of a nation wide network of similarly concerned efforts that can respond to Asian American communities in their efforts to broaden access, stay in touch with other groups, enable resource sharing and working in concert on problems of mutual concern. The need to implement such a network linking Asian American communities and groups for the purposes men- tioned takes on a sense of urgency. This is influenced by the politics of the Indochinese refugee situation and the com- plexity of circumstance surrounding the Asian experience in America. On the one hand here is the need to focus attention on the maldistribution of services and the limits to which the resources of the ethnic community can be taxed to resolve problems arising among its own people without the assistance of government funding. At the same time, there is the delicate balance of organizing communities to become more effective political entities without unduly arousing the hositility of a public suspectible to the mention of visible scapegoats, especially at a time of economic depression and continued system breakdown. Asians have been cast in this role all too often in the past. There is also the problem of enlightening administrators who hunger for examples of success and find it both political- ly and intellectually convenient to continue to assume that Asian Americans do not have problems and are not about to veer from this myth unless confronted by facts or pressure or both. Among the offices that do respond. as in the case of the Task Force on Refugees, the response can be limited or even counterproductive if based on experiences with Europeans and insensitive to the needs of people from the Eastern Hemisphere. All this adds up to the continued need for Asian American communities to develop parallel institutions while also widening avenues for greater input into exsisting institutions. This means encouraging and supporting organizing at the local level within specific Asian groups while also pushing ahead nationally on a Pan-Asian basis. In such context. a networking system takes on central relavance. What then about the specific role of Asian American communities to new immigrants? On the one hand there is apathy or indifference if not some hostility. According to those working on services to new immigrants, some of this inaction can be attributed to the struggles and battles waged in the past without assistance in a Laissez Faire, competitive market system. Then there's the belief that newcomers are no different in their needs or privileges from what the earlier pioneers experienced and' hence should have to work out problems themselves. On the other hand, there are those who see in a common Asian identity, a kinship predicated by mutual need for survival - that is if one is in need. then all are needed. For those Asian Americans who see the realities of a society where it is just as common, if not easier, for in- dividual Asians to be judged categorically rather than on in- dividual merit, there is good cause to rally to assist other Asians in need. Certainly America is a long way from the open society it would like to claim to be with well informed citizens judging everyone on individual merit. Despite the response of military base personnel and their families towards the In- dochinese refugees, the latent pools of animosity in many veterans who fought against Asians over the past 40 years does not make matters any easier. Examples of the latter are cases of discrimination both overt and covert involving Asian Americans working with former officers now in ad- ministrative positions. If anything, the influx of immigrants means a rekindling and renewal of each Asian American's identity. Though peo- ple may be more scattered and assimilated into different communities, the bond of Asian ethnicity rests more on social nearness than it does on common residence. The fact that Asians are a recognizable minority makes indifference and escape from the issues that much more difficult and un- realistic. Given this reality, what are the roles for Asian and Pacific Island American communities? For one thing, Asian Americans provide a very vital linkage between the ethnic and dominant community. Many service agencies, staffed by Asian Americans. are as much in- formation clearing houses and conduits matching resources to needs, as brokers and go betweens that prevent the im- migrant from being completely isolated from the society he came to be part of. Secondly there is the matter of meshing the needs of the settled Asian Americans with the needs on the new Due to the visibility and numbers of the latter, and the apparent visibility of their problems, aid that comes to the Asian American community tends to favor the immigrants as witness language skills centers. manpower services. and im- migrant services. In contrast, unbelieving authorities work- ing on the assumption that there are no problems among Asian American born here. are slow to respond. Working in concert can expedite matters. Then there is the matter of Pacific rim policies that affect old and new Asian and Pacific Island Americans alike. Tied into this is the reality of understanding ones cultural heritage as a basis of understanding more clearly ones iden- tity in the face of larger issues such as the foreign policy of the United States. Just as the youth in the minority com- munity must look beyond elders in the community for the source of his restraints, so the Asian American must see how his life and affairs of his community are affected by larger global issues. Tied to understanding ethnic and cultural heritage is the stuff of survival. Chances for social improvement are greater, as Kramer has discussed in her book about minority community. when there is a strong family at the core along with a strong cultural heritage. Culture need not instruct one in how to survive but does offer reasons for survial. To sur- vive, the why proceeds the how. When one wants to five. one finds a way. Lastly the Asian and Pacific Island American can add to the vitality of the minority community, making more clear its function as a way station than a trap. All people in a mobile society are like ships at sea. Some carry cargo of different types and some get battered in storms. We all need places to dock. to rest and to repair, a place to check in. Refugees, immigrants, marginal people and the socially mobile all have needs for safe ports in safe territories. The minority community can be such a vital way station, providing critical resources and psychic support, being nur- turing and supportive without suffocating or limiting members in the guise of the security that it provides. Style Problem Dims Warrior The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts By Maxine Hong Kingston Alfred A. Knopf. Inc., 1976. 209 pps.. $7.95 Arielle Emmett Maxine Hong Kingston, a Chinese-American who has never seen her homeland. attempts an exorcism in her first work. "The Woman Warrior." She is determined to rid herself of the demons that riddle her Chinese and American past, to sort out the dreams and nightmares of her life in a Chinatown laundry, and to ask. once and for all. "what is Chinese tradition. and what is the movies T: ese are by no means modest goals. Kingston plows into uiem headlong. wielding her pen in anl act of frenetic confes- sion like the sword of the legendary woman warrior. Fa Mu- lan, whom she longs to emulate. But redress of grievances - and there are many. indeed - is simply not enough. Kingston is writing a memoir, and in doing so she fails to give the reader a coherent framework upon which to fully under- stand the complexities of her life. The problem is clearly one of style. not substance. The author begins her story, in fact. with a brilliant idea her mother's account of a forbidden chapter in the family's past. the history of a disgraced aunt. "You must not tell anyone ... what I am about to tell you. In China your father had a sister who killed herself. She jumped into the family well. We say that your father has all brothers because it is as if she had never been born." Kingston's aunt commits suicide because she bears the child of an anonymous man, not her husband's, incurring the wrath of the starving, ghost-mongering villagers who curse and ransack the family house even prior to the baby's birth. The aunt is thereafter stripped of her name and identity forced to roam the underworld "always hungry." begging food from other ghosts because her own family refuses to feed - and recognize --- her. Kingston somehow identifies with this "No Name kk oman." who is at once a rebel, a vic- tim, and an outcast. and in writing the memoir she seeks. in a way. to properly avenge the woman's death Her tool of vengeance however, is a fantasy. Kingston at an early age is infected by her mother's incessant "talk- stories'. about the fabulous dynasty-wrecker. Mu Lan. a swordswoman trained by the immortals for 15 years in the tactics and mind-tricks of monkeys. tigers. and dragons. This warrior woman. the author adds. is the only female with enough power to supplant her own father in battle. and "get even" with anyone who means her family harm. Significantly. Kingston envisions herself as this woman warrior. bearing the names and grievances of her on family carved in blood upon her back. The grievances are too numerous to be counted. Kingston's family in China, she reports. is gradually and pathetically whittled away by the Communists. Ifer mother, Brave Orchid. a "scientific'' and headstrong woman trained in Canton in medicine. midwifery. and exorcism. is forced to give up her lucrative and honored practice and revert again to a "slave-wife" in the family's Chinese laundries in New York and California: both of which are lost. Her father grows thin and loses hope of returning to his homeland: yet another aunt, Moon Orchid, goes read after being rejected face-to- face by an affluent. Americanized husband who left her in China thirty years earlier. Maxine herself, a sullen, resentful child, flunks kindergarten and paints all her pictures in black for the first three years of school. Fueled by her mother's fears. she grows up hiding from all the barbarian "ghosts" around her - "Grocery Ghosts," "Social Worker Ghosts." the "Noisy. Red-Mouthed Ghosts ' who taunt the family in their laundry. She is tormented by memories of her grand- father equating girls with "maggots": of her mother force- feeding the family with "blood puddings awobble" and bowls of monkey brains and skunk. And her childhood answer to being tortured is to torture others - which she does, very effectively, in the school lavatory after hours. We can't argue with Kingston's vision, however dark. The weakness of the memoir is not its truth. but the way in which she records it. Taken individually. many episodes are indeed powerfully and succinctly written. Kingston particularly ex- cels at catching the nuances of an intimate moment: "I helped my parents carry their tools. and they walked ahead (See WARRIOR, Page 22) The Asia Mail January 1977 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Bookshelf... DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS ON JAPAN AND KOREA, 1969-1974 A Classified Bibliographical Listing of International Research; compiled and edited by Frank Joseph Shulman; University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106; 1976, free. Nearly 5000 entries for research undertaken at U.S. and foreign un- iversities are contained in this valuable and comprehen- sive bibliography of East Asia. Entries provide informa- tion about the availability and location of published thesis summaries. The volume is the first supplement to Dr. Shulman's, Japan and Korea: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations in Western Languages, 1877- 1969. The supplement is available free of charge from the publisher. See page 2 for coupon advertisement. CHINA'S SCIENTIFIC POLICIES Implications for International Cooperation; by Charles P. Ridley; American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036, and Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stan- ford University, Stanford, CA, 1976, 92 pps.. $3 paper. The prospects for future exchange of scientific information between the U.S. and the P.R.C. will offer little for the American scientist involved in new research in his field, according to this new AEI-Hoover policy study. Internal political factors and power struggles within China have resulted in the disruption and shifts away from work in basic medical research, biochemisty and organic chemistry. The Chinese, however, are interested in cooperation tied to utilitarian and applied research in agriculture and medicine which have a direct effect on national development. THE MAKING OF A PEASANT DOCTOR By Yang Hsiao: Foreign Language Press, distributed in the U.S. by China Book & Periodicals, 2929 24th St., San Francisco. CA 94110; 1976, 199 pps.. $1.50 paper. "Barefoot doctors," a product of the Cultural Revolution, work the fields as well as prevent and cure illnesses for China's peasants. Hung-yu, as one of those educated by Mao Tse-tung Thought is determined to serve his fellow villagers while fighting the class enemy in this short pic- turesque novel. SUN YAT-SEN Frustrated Patriot: by C. Martin Wilbur: Columbia University Press. 562 West 113th St., New York. NY 10025; 1976, 413 pps., $16.50. Dr. Sun's 30-year fund- raising efforts among overseas Chinese and foreign in- vestors and his unsuccessful attempts to acquire support from the major foreign powers are the central topics of this new book describing the former Chinese leader's frustrated political life. Strongly devoted to the political reform of his country. he drafted imaginative plans for China's economic development. Impossible to achieve in his own day, they were to become interwoven into plans for international cooperation for the aid of un- derdeveloped nations. YENCHING UNIVERSITY AND SINO-WESTERN RELATIONS, 1916-1952 By Philip West; Harvard University Press, Cambridge. MA 1976, 330 pps., $16. Founded by Western missionaries in 1916, Yenching University was an impressive example of Western-Sino cooperation. The ties between Easterners and Westerners at Yenching in the early half of this century were both educational and religious. It was a rising national consciousness, student radicalization and, ultimately, war that stamped out that religious bond by the late 1940s. RUSSIAN STUDIES OF CHINA Progress and Problems of Soviet Sinology: by E. Stuart Kirby; Rowman and Littlefield, 81 Adams Dr., Totawa. NJ. 07512: 1976, 209 pps., $20 Soviet concerns in all fields of China studies, including hisotrical, cultural, polticial and economic, are surveyed. While the book is not all- comprehensive, it does provide the reader with an in- troduction to the formalized studies which have been on- going for nearly three centuries. Mr. Kirby focuses on present-day ideology and information. WOMEN IN THE WORLD A Comparative Study. Lynne B. Iglitzin and Ruth Ross. editors: Clio Books, 1976, 429 pps. The emancipation of Chinese women, changes in China's marriage law, and the effect of industrialization on Hong Kong's women are just three areas covered in this collection of essays expressing women's views and rights. The book, which recognizes that women are developing their own strengths and con- sciousness of the need for change, was an outgrowth of a January 1977 The Asia Mail 1974 symposium, "Social and Political Change: The Role of Women." sponsored by the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions and the University of California. THE LONG AND SHORT OF CHINESE COOKING James Rollband, Crossing Press, Trumansburg. NY 14886. 1976, 223 pps., $9.95 hardcover, $5.95 paper. A com- plete and comprehensive guide for the novice cook in- cludes information on methods, equipment, ingredients, and menus. Mr. Rollband has simplified the sometimes difficult procedures of the Chinese restaurant into easy- to-follow home methods. ASIA'S NEW GIANT How the Japanese Economy Works; edited by Hugh Patrick and Henry Rosovsky; The Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20036; 1976, 943 pps., $19.95 cloth, $10.95 paper. How the Japanese have managed their economy over the past two decades and an assessment of present and future economic prospects are examined by a group of leading U.S. social analysts paired with some younger Japanese scholars. This highly recommended book provides a basis for understanding how Japan emerged from devastation following World War II to become the world's third largest industrialized nation in less than a quarter of a century. INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION IN JAPAN By Richard E. Caves and Masu Uekusa; Brookings In- stitution; 1976, 168 pps., $9.95 cloth, $3.50 paper. The authors set about to disprove the accepted theory that Japan's industrial society differs from those of the West in structure and practices. Caves and Uekusa explain the similarities and differences between the industrial organizations of the U.S. and Japan and conclude that the influence of Japan's institutions on the economy differ lit- tle from Western industrial economies. From A MEDITATOR'S DIARY by Jane Hamilton. Merritt, Harper and Row Publishers. HOW JAPAN'S ECONOMY GREW SO FAST The Sources of Postwar Expansion; Edward F. I)enison and William K. Chung: Brookings Institution: 1976, 265 pps.. $10.95 cloth, .$4.95 paper. The sources and magnitude of Japan's growing economy are compared to those of the West. According to the authors, Japan's high growth rate resulted from five major areas: Increase in labor, increase in capital, reallocation of labor from agriculture and self-employment, improved technology in production, and economies of scale. Denison and Chung see little decline in the high growth rate for the rest of the 20th century. JAPAN'S MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES By M.Y. Yoshino; Harvard University Press, 79 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138; 1976, 191 pps.. $12 50. The rapid growth of Japan's economy, its accomplishments, implications on the rest of the world and the impact on her own culture and society, are significantly examined by Professor Yoshino. Because Japan is seeking mul- tinational development, present cultural practices within the business community must be reexamined and new managerial practices must be adopted. The author proposes that this may weaken Japan's stability and strength. JAPAN: THE PARADOX OF PROGRESS Edited by Lewis Austin; Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station. New Haven. CT 06520; 1976, 338 pps.. $20.00. Japan, center of a paradoxical struggle between tradition and modernity, faces a changing future that holds a cer- tain amount of danger for this nation so dependent on outside sources. Eleven essays examine different facets of Japanese culture and the problems of a society wherein rapid growth generates conflict between traditional values and advanced technology. Such problems as how Japan, the world's third largest economic power yet dependent almost entirely on imports of raw materials, would exist in a world of scarcity and how Japan's non- violent international policy can survive in a time of nuclear proliferation. THE NEW ECONOMICS OF GROWTH A Strategy for India and the Developing World; by John W. Mellor; Cornell University Press: 1976, 335 pps., $11.50. Development strategy is determined by economic factors. Mr. Mellor has determined that increased employment and greater participation of the poor rather than a redistribution of existing output will result in greater economic growth. For both rural and urban development, the author chooses a plan for technological change in agricultural production. India is the blueprint for the underdeveloped world. PLAIN TALES FROM THE RAJ Images of British India in the twentieth century; edited by Charles Allen; St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010; 1975, 240 pps., $12.95. Experiences vary- ing from the carefree Edwardian childhood to the loss of confidence in Anglo-India, the war, partition, departure and final regrets comprise this transcription of the reminiscences of some 70 ordinary British men and women who went to India over the past 50 years. Mos- quito nets and snake charmers come alive in these stories which were once part of a radio series by the same name. THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE INDIAN POPULATION A reconstruction for the states and territories, 1881-1961; Sudhansu Bhusan Mukherjee: East West Center. East West Population Institute. 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, III 96822: 1976, 280 pps., $5.00 paper. A book primarily intended for demographers, economists, and planners involved in India's population studies, it is also widely accepted by others as a substantial study of the subject as it pertains to the present and future. India, uni- que as a developing country having an ongoing series of population reports for more than a century, has made lit- tle information available to scholars in the past. The East- West book provides numerous tables and diagrams perti- nent to the study. A MEDITATOR'S DIARY A Western Woman's Unique Experiences in Thailand Temples: by Jane Hamilton-Merritt; Harper & Row Publishers. 10 East 53rd St , New York, NY 10022: 1976, 157 pps.. $6.95. The author's struggles, fears and often- hallucinatory experiences during meditation draw the reader closer to the real world of Buddhist meditation. This personal account of a Western woman's experiences living in Buddhist monasteries in Thailand relates not only the changes in her, but offers a practical introduction to home meditation and tranquility PHILIPPINES: THE SILENCED DEMOCRACY By Raul S. Manglapus: Orbis Books, Mary Knoll, NY 10545; 1976. 205 pps., $7.95. Written by the Philippine's most notable political exile, this book reveals how the needs and desires of Ferdinand Marcos are served by the military and economic leaders in the U.S. He uses the book as an appeal for a return look at America's role in the Philippine's past especially from the time of Teddy Roosevelt and his "Manifest Destiny." The second half of the book is devoted to that period in history as written by Manglapus in 1974 in his musical comedy, "Manifest Destiny" BALI PROFILE People, Events. Circumstances, 1001-1976; by Willard A. Hanna: American Universities Field Staff, 4 West Wheelock St.. Hanover, NH 03755: 1976. 140 pps.. $9.95 paper. A dearth of information is available on the culture of Bali, but little has been written about her historical relationships with Westerners. Willard Hanna has put into chronological order the development of this rapidly grow- ing Pacific Island and the influence Western visitors and rulers, particularly the Danes and the Dutch, have had on colonialism, revolution and modernization. Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 minimum.) Send classified orders and Box Ieplles to Ili( Hsi, Mail, P.O. Box 1044 Alexandi a, Viigini THE ASIA MAIL 3 FFOR2 NEW YEAR CLASSIFIED BARGAIN Start the New Year off on a positive money-saving note by advertising yourself, your services and your needs in THE ASIA MAIL's three-for-two classified special offer. Three months for the price of two. Just write your ad in the coupon below, multiply the number of words times 50 cents and multiply that figure by two. (But actually you get three insertions that will reach at least 30,000 readers and as many as 60,000. New subscribers being added each month!) If you have an Asia-related sales message, THE ASIA MAIL is the medium for you! rommmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmms L IFIED INSERTION ORDER . C ASS . THE ASIA MAIL P.O. BOX 1044 ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22313 ; Please enter my ad in three issues of THE ASIA MAIL starting with the issue. For words in two issues, I enclose IN $ (The third issue is free!) Or charge my ^ f BankAmericard number . (.50 Classified T CHINESE ANTIQUES and objets d'art for sale or trade. Details, TAM Box 12P. POSITIONS AVAILABLE J EDITOR with many years magazine experience, would like to relocate to Hong Kong if situation is right. Single, no hang-ups. Reply to TAM Box 12S. PROFESSOR, early 50s, tired of academic life seeks challenging new career preferably in South or Southeast Asia. Now living San Francisco area but will pay own relocation expenses. TAM Box 12T. PROFESSIONAL ACTOR, with ex- perience in Kabuki and Noh techni- que available for teaching, direc- ting. performing. Reply TAM Box 12R. 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CHANGE YOUR NAME - improve your image - increase your profits! Expert, confidential ser- vices for large/small businesses. CONSULTREX, Drawer 3000. Dayton, WA 99328. ARE YOU GREAT WITH IDEAS - but awkward with words? Have a pro to help, in strictest confidence. I'll rewrite or edit your speech, thesis, letter, article or book if you give me the raw material. Top professional rates but quality assured. Write SCRIBE 8109 Ainsworth Ave., Springfield, Va. 22150. THE JAPAN LETTER tells who's doing what to whom in Tokyo business circles. Weekly "Focus" feature recommends hotels, restaurants, health spas in Tokyo. Fortnightly newsletter, subscriptions $55 per year. THE JAPAN LETTER, Box 54149, Los Angeles, CA 90054. HAWAII BUSINESS coverage is com- plete in Pacific Business News, published weekly by Crossroads Press, Inc. For subscription details write P.O. Box 833, Honolulu, Hawaii 96808. REAL ESTATE OAHU HAWAII BEACH COTTAGE. Sleeps four. Tennis, Pool. $260 per week. Condominium. P.O. Box 129 - ma, Pleasantville, NY 10570, USA. HONG KONG APARTMENT, available January-February-March, ideal for visiting couple or bachelor. $550 monthly. TAM Box 12Y. THREE BEDROOM HOUSE in Shinjuku section of Tokyo, available for calendar 1977. Close to subway, bus transportation, $1,100 monthly with two-month deposit required. Details and photo write TAM Box 12X. RESTAURANT. Western-style, for long-term lease in Taipei. Owner going on extended vacation for health reasons. Excellent prospects if you know Taiwan and the food business. Principals only. TAM Box 12A. WANTED: Information on rental condominium to sleep five in any major ski area, east or west. Reply TAM Box 12B. ASIA. Catalogues of scarce books issued. Write Hall, 30 Staines Road, Twickenham, 'IW2 5AH England. PEKING REVIEW, Far Eastern Economic Review bound volumes from 1960s. Fine condition. Includes period of Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. For sale as set or individually. TAM Box 120. INSIDER'S GUIDE to Hong Kong, cuts through chaff, tells you what you really need to know about business and pleasure in British Crown Colony. While they last - $5. Box 3477 Sheugwan, Hong Kong BCC. THE CHINA MARKET is coming to life again. For basic facts and trends, outlook for future, you need: "The Future of the China Market, Prospects for Sino-American Trade " Published 1974, American Enterprise Institute. Mail orders write directly to AEI, 1150 Seventeenth St. NW. Wash., D.C. 20036. ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST Rare Out-of- Print catalogue from Asian Rare Books Inc., 507 Fifth Avenue (307) New York, NY 10017. AIRCRAFT LEARJET 25C, custom outfitted, range up to 2,000 miles. Excellent condition. Special navigational features. Owner reducing fleet. Principals only please. Write TAM Box 12C. SABRELINER 40, Dual FD 108's, ex- cellent engine and interior. Like new. No reasonable offer refused. TAM Box 12D. , AUTOMOBILES THE ONE you've been waiting for! 1954 Jaguar XK-120. Runs like a dream. Cleveland, Ohio location, $9,000. TAM Box 12E., or phone (216) 696-2211. RARE MAPS I J RARE MAPS of the 16th-19th cen- turies. Our handsome, profusely il- lustrated catalog 7, $2.00. The Windsor Collection, 111 Canter- bury Drive, Wilmington. Delaware 19803. JOIN OUR RANKS, help us reduce the population by at least 50%. Free Brochure: Negative Popula- tion Growth, Inc., 103 Park Avenue, Room 414, New York, NY 10017. MATH WITHOUT TEARS GHOSTWRITING. Library Research. Access to all the facilities of the Nation's capital. Also: Send $1.00 for our large catalog of prewritten research. Writers Unlimited, Box I Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 In lively non-technical language Mr Hartkopf gives a basic understanding of many of the everyday appli- cations of mathematics. 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SUPERMAN SEEKS SUPERWOMAN for adventuresome experience. Must be outdoors type. TAM Box 121 ATLANTA DIVORCEE longtime resi- dent of Yokohama, would like to meet refined gentleman in 50s who has some interest in Japanese art, culture and, ideally, language. Will exchange photos. TAM Box 12J. THREE KOREAN GALS, with tastes ranging from kind to kinky, want to meet Los Angeles businessmen in 35-40 age range. Object: Under- standing American culture. Will exchange photos. Chang Sisters, TAM Box 12K. INTELLIGENT Marina del Rey, California bachelor, 52, would like to meet serious, intellectual Japanese or Chinese lady for com- panionship. TAM Box 12L. SENSITIVE CHICAGO WIDOWER, mid-forties, Jewish, seeks single, cultured lady to share art, theatre, dining, music, Only secure, un- Steel selfish should respond. TAM Box 12N. YOUNG INTROVERT seeks national correspondence with other Asian- Americans. Share thoughts and ex- periences. Confidential. Reply TAM Box 12U. JAPANESE EXCHANGE STUDENT looking for home with American family in Washington D.C. area. Speaks English, clean, respectful. References. Reply TAM Box 12V. COMPANIONABLE Baltimore Old Asia Hand, late 40s, humorous, outdoor loving, seeks meeting with woman of similar interests in 30s, 40s. TAM Box 12M. SINGLE BOOKLOVERS gets cultured, single, widowed or divorced per- sons acquainted. Nationwide. Write Box AE Swarthmore, PA 19081. WANTED IMMEDIATELY 50 Million People Who Want To Be More Humane To Humans - has resulted in our receiving over 10,- 000 letters to date from women who are searching for sincere, genuine friendships and com- panionship. If you are 25 years of age or older and would like to meet at least 10 individuals within 250 miles of your location (US), then send $2.00 and a self addressed, stamped envelope to: PEOPLE BENEATH THE SKIN, ATTN: Direc- tory, P.O. Box 544, Folsom, PA 19033. SEND REPLIES TO: TAM BOX The Asia Mail Box 1044 Alexandria, Virginia 22313 any discussion in the GATT on bilateral restraints resulting from the flood of steel exports from Japan to other countries. In 1976. ,Japan's steel exports will total $10 billion about one-sixth of the dollar value of all Japanese exports with more than $2 billion routed to the open U.S. market. Rather than face questions in GATT posed by these restraint agreements concerning fair and non-discriminatory rules for the conduct of world trade in steel Japan may prefer to con- tinue quiet bilateral arrangements with Europe when they become necessary. But where will that leave the United States? I would aver - out in the cold when it comes to fair and equitable rules for international trade in steel. A postscript to Simmon's statement is this excerpt from the testimony of C. William Verity. Chairman. Armco Steel Corporation, before the Section 301 Committee of the Office of Special Trade Representative for Trade Negotiations in Washington D.C. Dec. 9.: "Lets say the Japanese can sell steel in our market if they are $30 below our price - even though this price may be well below their total cost. They can get away with this because they are not dependent on profits for their survival. As a key industry and instrument of national policy. they know that the Government will see to it that the steel companies get the money necessary to carry out national economic and social objectives. Therefore, they can afford to export at prices we couldn't touch. The Japanese believe that such financial support to the steel industry is better than putting out $12,000 a year in unemployment benefits to an un- employed steel worker. "Why not do the same thing in America? ... First, American steel companies cannot sell for long at a loss because we neither have nor want government sub- sidies. "... Secondly, steel trade with Japan is a one-way street. Although they have no official restraints on steel imports now. I am convinced that they would never allow substantial tonnages to enter their market in competition with domestic steel. The Government would keep it out through "Ad- ministrative Guidance" or other means. In contrast. the U.S. market is virtually wide open - in both good and bad times. " pproved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 `Confessions' (Contined from Page 9) "I realized that people would come to our house and it was just because of John's job . . . People would sit there and never ask me what I was doing. what my interests were . . . I mean whole evenings would go by and not one person would ask me ... I was just the cook," she says. One day, Hudson was horrified to discover "a pattern developing in my life." It was a pattern of "learning languages and leaving a country and not having anything to show for it." It frightened her. "It was a nice experience but I wanted something to build on." With these seeds of growing discontent. Hudson moved to her husband's third post - An Asian country with one of the largest U.S. missions abroad. It was there that things began to snap into place. When they first arrived, she says, "I was so wrought up ... I said to my husband, 'I keep doing these things and it never leads to anything.' " Along with the "frustration and boredom" Hudson brought to Asia. she felt determined not to learn another language but to pursue her design work, instead. Early in the first year at her third post. Hudson reached yet another turning point. "When we got married in 1964." she explains, "my mother gave me 'The Feminine Mystique' and a book by Ashley Montague called "The Natural Superiority of the Female' ... At that time, I said. 'Mother, I don't want to be superior' ... and I wouldn't read the books." But, by the time she got to Asia, "I was getting frustrated ... I didn't really know what was wrong and I didn't know what my feelings were about why I couldn't get the work per- mit. I just knew I was irritated and something seemed unjust about the whole thing." she recalls. ''I started probing to find out who was in a similar situa- tion ... and I found lots of them." she says. Through it all. Hudson says, her husband was "very sup- portive." even when she was at a low point and the going was rough. The ''pressure" she felt not to embarrass him only added to her problems. "When I'm not very happy ... I can tell you it affects us all .. I know it creates a morale problem for my husband and I can't help but believe it does for the State Department, generally," Hudson says. Other husbands were also supportive, according to Hud- son. who says the spouse's action group started quite small but kept growing. Most of the spouses - in one case, a man - joined the group after a personal experience left them frustrated and hostile, Hudson says. By this time. Hudson was working illegally in a job that, while not in her field, had been easy to get. "I taught English in a school that had been hiring diplomat's wives for years ... No one had ever gotten a work permit ... Everyone advises you when you get the job just to keep your mouth shut ... As long as the embassy doesn't know about it, it's okay." she says. Hudson continued to plug away at design work until she finally received her reward - a small job doing some art work for a magazine. From her magazine designs came an offer from a huge textile firm to do work on a royalty basis. Hudson took it, fully realizing she had broken through a barrier. "I realized that there was a certain amount of luck involv- ed and I wished that everybody could have the luck," she says. This time, when Hudson came back to the States, she had something to build on - designs that are still bringing in royalties and which have led to offers from big apparel firms here. She thinks she now has what she has been looking for - "the personal satisfaction of doing something that someone else wants, of feeling fulfilled ... of standing on my own." Still, Hudson feels scarred by the experience and the "needless" difficulty she encountered getting where she is. She is certain if the State Department took even a slight in- terest in the problems of spouses - showed a willingness to discuss them and correct the ones that can be solved - everyone would benefit. And that is why she agreed to tell her story. Reprinted with permission from The Washington Star. Mekong (Continued from Page 13) young intellectuals of that university have played in bringing change to what is still a semi-feudal country. October 6, which followed a wave of assassinations of left-wing figures, has once again swung the pendulum against such rationalizers. Pichai Rathanakun, Foreign Minister before the coup, and the first Thai Foreign Minister ever to visit Hanoi, is now in exile. Anand Panyarachun, Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs and architect of what was called a new Thai foreign policy of 'equidistance" has been removed from his position. Among those arrested after the coup was Pansak Vinyaratn, editor and publisher of a Thai news weekly, who in 1974 became the first Thai journalist in recent times to openly travel to Vietnam and to report about his experience. Pansak was released on a large bond only after his arrest attracted widespread international attention. Khaisaeng Suksai, an elected Socialist Member of Parliament who less than two years ago led a Parliamentary delegation to Viet- nam, fled into exile in Laos even before October 6 after his party's Secretary General was gunned down in Bangkok. Since the coup. he is said to have joined the resistance and to be one of the leaders of a government in exile now forming. Even before October 6, American attempts to counter a rapprochement between Bangkok and Hanoi so upset one Thai Foreign Ministry spokesman (who has since lost his job) that he remarked: "When a big power does it. you call it detente: when we do it. you call it defeatism ... We have liv- ed with the Vietnamese more than 400 years. We know perfectly well their mentality. Why can't you (Americans) allow us to live in peace for five years. Then we can show you that we can be a neutral country, or at least play a part in neutralizing the region for the benefit of every superpower." In May 1975 a Bangkok English-language magazine. Business in Thailand, ran an article describing the Viet- namese as "an aggressive, acquisitive, bellicose and xenophobic race imbued with delusions of superiority and a Messianic sense of manifest destiny. It can be safely conclud- ed that the Vietnamese have not lost the will, the appetite. nor the determination for conquest ..." The article was in- spired - like a similar one in Bangkok's major English- language daily. the Bangkok Post - by an American army study ("External Support to the Thai insurgency: the 35th PL 95th NVA Combined Command") which quietly - and anonymously - surfaced during the final throes of fighting in Cambodia and Vietnam. The study. which was also cir- culated among Thai officials, purported a Vietnamese master plan to bring the Western bank of the Mekong, and indeed the entire lower Mekong watershed, under Hanoi's political and economic suzerainty. Certainly Vietnam emerges from the second Indochina War with unprecedented prestige and strength. Thailand. on the other hand. finds itself wedded to the United States in a downgraded anti-communist alliance, and domestically rack- ed with social upheaval the dimensions of which remain un- certain. Still, there is little or nothing to support the allega- tion that Vietnam has territorial or political designs on Thailand, that the Thai Communist Party would cooperate with such designs should they exist. or that the Thai Com- munist Party or any other political group could coopt Thailand's present revolutionary tendencies toward such an end. Given the political, military and economic realities which pertain, the Mekong River as a new Southeast Asian Maginot Line is folly, regardless of whether one stands on the West Bank or the East bank: to so conceive it is only to serve "bellicose and xenophobic" prophecies like the Acheson assumption. The Vietnamese appear to have grasped this far better than the Americans. On the war's end, while the United States was busy with the Mayaguez incident and other maneuvers which intentionally or otherwise frustrated Thai efforts at ostpolitik, Vietnam sent two high-level delegations (one led by the deputy foreign minister) to Bangkok, the first dispatched anywhere in the world once the fighting had stopped. Unfortunately, failure in Indochina appears to have taught theUnited States more about the erosion of its own political institutions under the weight of superpower than about the myopic and negative way it has played the superpower role. In fiscal year 1975 alone American military assistance to Thailand ($42.5 million) was roughly equivalent to the total 1957-75 American assistance to the Mekong Committee ($45.6 million). In 1976, American military assistance budget for Thailand was nearly doubled (to $81.75 million), while as mentioned earlier, that of the Mekong Committee's was cut entirely. An argument can be made for destructiveness for its own sake, but international relations of that type have no place in the repertoire of a leading global power if we are all to es- cape the apocalyptic tendencies of our century. The point remains that if there are to be constructive relations in the Mekong Basin the valencies of the Basin must be promoted. The limitations of American power acknowledged, the United States is in a position to assist with the task. January 1977 "' The Asia 'Mail 21 Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Bulletin Board THE NORTHEAST "Masterworks in Wood: China and Japan", the winter exhibition at the Asia House Gallery, 112 East 64th St New York. will be shown January 13 to March 27. Seventy-one works of sculpture and decorative art from 26 museums and private collections in America and England will show the great mastery which was exercised in this medium from the fifth century B C.. in China to the nineteenth century in Japan. Gallery hours are daily. 10 a.m to 5 p.m.: Sundays, l to 5 p.m Thursdays until 8:30 p.m A ten-film retrospective of the work of Tatsuya Nakadai, Japanese film actor. continues through January 14 at the Japan House His films include ' When a Woman Ascends the Stairs" and "Yojimbo" Admission is $2 for members and $3 for non-members For further information, contact the Japan Society. 333 East 47th St.. New York. NY 10017. The Yoki Yamada Retrospective, a series of eleven films, will begin January 19 at the Japan House. Director Yamada will be present for opening festivities For further infor- mation, contact the Japan Society Chartering for International Shipment, a three-day course based on the Evening School of the World Trade Center, will be held in New York on January 26-28. 1977 The working- course will offer students information on charter problems negotiations. and necessary preparations to chartering from the viewpoint of the shipowner the broker and the charterer For further information about the program, which is limited to 30 persons. call Eunice Coleman, Program Manager at 1212) 466-3170. Yoga Study Tour, an accredited program sponsored by Queens College ('I, NY. will emphazise the study of Yoga philosophy during a three-week tour of India The tour, led by Professor Ananad Mohan. will leave New York on January 14. 1977 For further infor- mation Destination World Ltd . at 12125 371-0600 "Chinese Folk Art" includes over 50 examples of basketry. clothing. pewter. leather goods. and jewelry dating from the early 15th to the early 20th century. The exhibit may be ".Japanese Early Blue and White Export Ware" is on exhibit at the 1tetropu?tan slme.un of Art. New York, through June 1977 lncloded are about 50 pieces 14 the tope nt 17th ( en turv porcelain shipped to Holland and remaining Europe bt the Dut -ti East India Company Brushwork of Ch'ing Masters. 30 paintings and examples of c.'lligraphr b, tho s vi' artist acute during the t'hing dynasty 116441911,. may be viewed at the (-hung l'heng Art Gallery. St Johns t niversity. Jamaica. NY until January 9 1977 "Hashimoto Kites", in exhibition, will be at the Gilbert tiler Gallo, 1921 Prair st St Philadelphia. Mondays until Saturdays. 10 a in lc 5 p at . through January 15 WASHINGTON AND THE SOUTHEAST Gallery Amerasia formerly Gallery Asial, a cultural center of fine arts. holds continoous exhibits at the Amerasta (enter 2142 F St NW. Washington. D(' from 10 a in to .5 p in Monday thru Friday. and from 2 to 5 p in . Saturday and Sunday For information regarding classes. showings or 'vents, call 1202) 331-0129 Timothy Chang show a Chinese watercolor exhibition. continues thru January 12 Helene Mr('arthv. Oriental watercolors. and Peggy Zee. silks, reens. will exhibit their works January 15 to February 6 Jain Minature Paintings: ,t New Interpretation, an illustrated lecture by Or Stella Kramrisch Curator of Indian and Himalayan Art at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Professor of South Asian Art at the Institute of Fine Arts.. New York t'niversity. will be held Tuesday January 11. 1977 at 830 p.m in the gallery auditorium of the Smithsonian Institutions Freer Gallery of Art 12th St and Jefferson Dr. SE Washington l)( The National Bonsai Collection, fifty-three bonsai including plants from the imperial Japanese Household and Japanese private collections are presented by the Japanese people through the Nippon Bonsai Association in honor on the Bicentennial. They may he seen at the National Arboretum 24th and H St NW. Washington DC daily from 10 to 230. Not all... diplomats, hitch-hikers, ministers, secretaries, figureheads, jewel thieves, journalists, bureaucrats, traders, ex- patriates, scholars, shoguns, brokers, socialists, concubines, cadres, bankers, satraps, barefoot doctors, vagabonds, swagmen and CPA's wear THE ASIA MAIL T-shirt. ...but they should. Exclusive first edition of THE ASIA MAIL T-shirt will be available in three enthralling colors: South Pacific Blue, The East Is Red, and The Green Revolution, with THE ASIA MAIL in black letters. Small, medium, large, extra large. And washable. A mere six bucks. THE ASIA MAIL P.O. Box 1044 Alexandria, Virginia 22313 I've always been a discriminating trendsetter. Send me THE ASIA MAIL T-shirt post haste. I enclose $6.00 for each order. (502 each for shipping. Order of five or more gets a free shirt.) Small Medium Large Extra Large Color(s) Name Address City State Zip The 161h Annual 'its 7a,g of Joe ioulhrast Regional I orn, iroie of the Association for Asian Stodie, w ' ' : . , t Id a Its I curls t Of i e s , 1 : : , I i ays, irN 2(F2z 1977 i'anei swns a, Sod ;led Jot ride, a in and p m a run r, 21 ioil i it Saturda, it X. Januar, 22 "International 'shipping ein.nciai and tax Aspe,t a two-day meet.ng for ,kippers ,hart' ors- carry', and la, and urcm tai exe, uU,es wJl be held it the International House in New S trlear, 1:,:1ui,, 2" rood 2f "Introduction to international Taxation,-" a seminar fns attorneys. ( P.AS and corporate execuh,es in man, 'iii t,ona! i'ees will meet Januan 24 ar:d 25 in NewrBrleam The program is designed pp 'ifira!ls tor'ho:se entering the taxation field who have had little or no prior exposure to t "Fundamentals of Foreign Exchange," a seminar designed to answer questions of floating exchange rates so-m' energy prices yolatiie prices of gold tax uncertainties and other problems is scheduled 6,r larnaiv. 26 and 27 in New Orleans 'Foreign Inxesunem in C.S Real Estate" is a seminar for owners broker, real estate protI ft, managers- c-orpon[e real estate managers. real estate law'sers, accountants and other professionals concerned over the question of 1 S real estate marketers seeking foreign investors It will be held January 27 and 26 in New Orleans These programs are Bing xporsored b, The World bade institute at the Rurld grade Center in New fork to Cooperation with Inernational House R orld Trade t enternn New Orleans Further information rnav be obtained from the program manager in New 'sork at 2121 461,3165 Registration max he made by calling the registrar at 212, 466-4044 or by writing Registrar World Trade Inst:hrte. One World Trade tenter. 55W New York. Vi' 10(143 THE MIDWEST "Visions of ( ourtlx India". 80 Indian miniatures dating tram 1650 to 1850 from the Punjah Hills states have been sele(ted be Rilliam G archer from his own collection to be shown at the St Louis Art .Museum Des-em ber 10 to January 16 "The Future of Taiwan-. one in it series of sen' oars sponsored he The World Affairs oun'd of Northern (ahforma. will be presented on Januar; 10 at the Stir r id'Affairs Coun cil 406 Softer St . San Francisco (' A ' ph 982-25411 Another emmar ( rots Benefits and ,Avenues to Normalized Relations- will be presented on January 24 The eries which is limited to 2530 persons will formulate it program of recommendations an the question of normalizing relations with the Peoples Republic of t 'hina "The Last Empire: Pfrtoriai Photographs of India." an exhihit organized be the Asia House Hillery. may be seen until Januur, 16 at rite I nn ersit 'l oseom I niversity of Calitornia. Berkeley. ('4 Chinese Jades from Southern California Collections. 60 examples of Chinese jade dating hack from Neolithic times to the 20th century are on exhibit at the I.os ;ngeles County Museum of Art through I'ehruarc 6. 1977 The International Institute of Protein Food Teehnologc will present two short courses on "Textured Vegetable Proteins and Extrusion Technology April 4 to April 29 and May 2 to 'slay 25 1977 The fee for each course is $970. which includes tuition, room and board For further information- contact Director of Training. I PVT P O Box 630. Santa Monica CA 90404 "The Art of Tosnkuni", paintings h, Japanc ukiyo-e artist will be on exhibit December 7 until January y at the Spalding (louse Hrosofulu aeademr of Arts "Ancient Funerary Art", an exhibit of tomb furnishings and funerv objects from china. Japan. Southeast Asia. and the Near East continues through February 20 at the Spalding House. Honolulu Academy of Arts Ukivo-e Art from the Permanent Collection may be clewed at the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria. British Columbia December 14 to February 27. Warrior (Continued from Page 18) of me so straight. each carrying a basket or a hoe not to over- burden me, their tears falling privately ..." Too often, however, she forgets the vital dictum that "less is more," playing with words to the point of absurdity and inflating an image until it practically pops: "Her forehead and knees against the earth, her body con- vulsed and then released her onto her back." (Question - are "her body" and "her" separated in this situation? Can one release the other onto "her back"?) "The round moon cakes and round doorways, the round tables of graduated size that fit one roundness inside another, round windows and rice bowls ... The villagers were speeding up the circle of events ... This roundness had to be made coin-sized so that she would see its circumference ... People who refused fatalism because they could invent small resources insisted on culpability .. . Whatever that means. When Kingston grows erudite she writes kitsch - it's as simple as that. Her habit is to manipulate a reader's impression by carefully interjecting a generality, abstraction. or value judgement into a specific gesture. "My aunt combed individuality into her bob, her body and her complexity seemd to disappear." "Brothers and sisters had to efface their sexual color," and positively the worst - "Concrete pours out of my mouth to cover the forests with freeways and sidewalks." By far Kingston's biggest mistake is that she devotes so much time to the story of her nameless aunt and the aveng- ing warrior, only to drop them in the remaining narrative like hot potatoes. And though we can infer that the mere reporting of these two spirits is, as the author states, suf- ficient "vengeance - not the beheading, not the gutting, but the words," we are still left with the hollow feeling that both Mu Lan and No Name Woman were sacrificed for the com- pany of lesser ghosts. Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 R. Lurie. Check the bottom of the page (upside down) for the answers. Twelve-for-twelve means you are a genuine Asian Affairs Expert. If you get 10 or 11 cor- rect, you're still qualified to be an Ambassador Without Portfolio. Nine correct means you have to start out as Third Secretary at our Embassy in Kathmandu. Nepal. Eight correct means you're eligi- The Last fiord: Faces of Asia `I'll Never Forget Old `What's-His-Name?' " If you're as great an authority on Asian affairs as you think you are, you ought to be able to score 100 per cent on this test of providing the names that go with these well-known faces. All have been prominent at one time or another on the Asian political scene. To make the drill a little more difficult we've given you the faces as they strike the imagination of artist Ranan 5 ......................... 10 ......................... ble to be hired as a stringer in our Tokyo bureau. If you can identify seven of the faces and can also speak and write Burmese, you have a chance at the USIA Direc- tor's job in Madrid. Anything less than seven, kid, and you lose your membership in the Association of Asian Studies. 3 ................ ..... 7 ......................... 8 ......................... 12 ......................... ?e3a0N g1iON JO Juns-II w!NI S ?weula!A JO ~uoQ uuA wegd aalwaid ?1' ?elpoqule3 jo uugdweS nalq}I ?uedep 1o ejuuuj Ian)eN ia1siuiK mud .iawjo3 ?g ?sawd ?soe,l Jo aalwaid .iawaol `ewnogd euennOS aaulad ?y -dlllgd aql jo soaaeN ?:q pueulpiaj luapisaad ?9 ?ejue-l !IS JO aIleueiepueg aatsluip awlad ?1 ?eipogwe3 Io ION uo'] 1uaplsaad aaw.noA ?Zl ?eulgd to 2uid-oelsH 2uaZ Jalwaad ~flndaU iawaoA ?J uej-e140 uaA luaplsaid euig0 1s11euolllN '0I ?uewlalA g1aoN to dui0 uaSnJN OA ?uaD ?6 January 1977 The Asia Mail ?eipogwej jo KnouegiS wopoaoN aaulad ?g Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 :11VISV 30 SIOVd,, 01 S11:4MSNV Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1 Benihana. For the fun of it. Giving people a good time is serious busi- ness at Benihana. Which is why our chefs never smile until you're satisfied. From your front row seat at the famed hibachi table, you thrill to drama, suspense, in- credible sleight-of-hand as your personal chef turns prime steak, succulent shrimp and tender chicken into theatre. There's comedy as the mushrooms fly. High humor as those bean sprouts dance. One bite and you're in heaven. What other restaurant gives you a show you can enjoy almost as much as the meal it- self? Visit Benihana soon, for lunch or dinner. For the fun of it. BE111KAnA of TOKYO New York, Chicago, Lincolnshire, (1l., San Francisco, Las Vegas, Encino, Manna del Rey Beverly Hills, Phoenix, Ariz., Seattle, Harrisburg, Pa., Bala Cynwyd, Pa , Ft. Lauderdale, Miami, Portland, Ore, Boston, Bethesda, Md., Houston, Dallas, Atlanta, Farmington, Conn., Short Hills, N. J., New Orleans, Honolulu, Toronto, Tokyo We honor the American Express, Diners Club and Carte Blanche credit cards Approved For Release 2004/10/28 : CIA-RDP88-01314R000100010076-1