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December 16, 2016
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June 19, 1979
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A14 Arms Pact Faces SpJfJqJIfreR In the Fall and an Uncertain Fate By CHARLES MOHR sweistame enmesh. WASHINGTON, June 18? The strate- gic arms treaty concluded today with the Soviet Union now faces long deliberation, with an uncertain future, in the United States Senate. An official copy of the treaty will not be formally referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations until later in the month, and a full dress debate on the Sen- ate floor will not begin until fall. But looking ahead, Senator Jesse Helms, a conservative Republican from North Carolina. said: "Today we embark on what well may be the most significant national debate of our time." Several tactical pians were evolving among thoSe who strongly oppoao the treaty and three who find it politically unacceptable In its present form. Conservative Republicne members are expected to coalesce behind a "package" of treaty amendments that Senator Jake Gam of Utah plans to offer, In what would amount too substitute version of the ac- cord that the Soviet Union would be likely to reject. Baker May Offer Aerial.. Senator Howard II. Bak. Sr.. the Re- public. Senate coder and a party mod- erate who will announce later this year his candidacy for the Presidency, is ex- pected to advance a package of leas sweeping treaty amendm.ts. Some Democratic members, including advreates of an arms limitation agree- ment, are expected to demand at least cosmetic. changes in the treaty and its re- lated documents. Senator William V. Roth, Republican of Delaware, announced that he intended to Otter an rannderstanding" to the treaty that would c!arify the right of Washing- ton to provide arms and technology to its allies. Mr. Roth, a conservative who is mcommi Vied on the treaty, said that some European allies were worried that the treaty mark bertha transfer of such technology. Ted Stevens, the Alaska Republican who iso declared opponent of the treaty, called it "a never-never land" and pre- dictn1 that the Administration might field enough votes to block a filibuster against it but not enough for approval. Mon Cranston, the assistant Demo- cratic leader of the Senate, who supports the treaty, offer a different assessment of the rote lineup at this stage. He said be reckoned on 58 votes in favor, 30 opposed and 12 "totally undecided." Senator Creston said, anno.ring his sraorsement "I believe the treaty en- hances nor smurity." Uramotety, the Senate must vote on a 'resat:Atm of ratification" that would cypress consent to President Carter's act of re tification. That resolution must be adopted by a vote of two-thirds of those present and voting, or at least 67 affirma- tive votes Unit 100 Senators are present. Votes on suggested amendments, Earlier Accords Helped to Mold The Arms Pact By PRANAY B. GUPTE The treaty that was signed in Vienna yasterday by President Carter and Leo- nid I. Brezhnev flowed from two earlier seconds on strategic-arms limitations be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union, the first signed in Moscow in 1972 and the other in Vladivostok in 1574. Both are based on the premise that re- straints on deployment of straregic weap- ons by both sides would make war be- tween them less likely. The roots of the current treaty may be raced to January 1964, when the United States proposed at a committee on disar- mament in Geneva that the question of rtrategie weapons be dissociated from onmprehensive disarmament plans. That proposal came in the wake of the 1963 ban in atmospheric testing of nuclear weap- ons. By 1568 it was widely acknowledged tat Soviet strategic forces would soon reach rough equivalence to ilmse of the United States. After postponement of elks because of the Soviet invasion of sechrolovakia in August 1988, the Soviet mien announced on the day of President 'Orion's first inauguration, Jan. 20, 1969, hat it would be willing to discuss no- near-anns control. On Nov. 17 of that rear, negotiations began in Helsinki, Fin, cod, and on May 26, 1972, at 11 P.M., president Nixon and Mr. Brezhney signed the first arms agreement. Complexities of Techedcal Data The negotiations involved immense nomplexities con.rning technical data; here was disagreement between the two sides, for example, over a definition of strategic weapons. The treaty established a ceiling of 200 .a.chers for each side's defensive, or nntiballistic, missile systems, and stipu- mod that neither side would try to build ximprehensive antimissile systems. The treaty also included an interim an. iced on offensive systems that froze num- 'ors of land-based and submarine-based .ntercontinental missiles. But because It placed no restraints on he development of technology, and be- muse its effect on future strategic bat- mcewas unclear, there was considerable :nticism of the treaty in the United Rates. Negotiations foes second treaty began o November 1972, but progress was slow. Two years later, in the Soviet Far East- orn city of Vladivostok, President Ford nal Mr. Br.hney agreed on guidelines bra second accord. Spnifically, the Radivostok agreement set equal corned. al limits on strategic weapons for bath rides, with the overall limit to be 2,400 nu- :tear vehicles. Once again, however, disagr.ment :merged over which types of weapons vere to be Meluded in this ceiling. Mean. chile the original treaty expired in Onto. me 1977, though both sides agreed . tinkle by it pending agreement not new me It took almost another five years titer Vladivostok before the two sides -eached agreement, on May 9 this year, in a second treaty limiting keg-range nissiles and bombers. This treaty was he one signed yesterday in Vienna. toss TEAR: THE FRESH AIR FUND neservations and other modifications in the treaty are decided by a simple ma- Increasingly, Republicans and some Democrats are predicting that the treaty cannot achieve Sernate consent without some amendment, or that it may fall out- right. But even the most skillful and prac- ticed nose-counters cannot say with cer- tainty how the Senate will vote. One reason for this is that 20 Senators entered the legislative body this yearns freshmen, essentially unversed in the subject and mostly uncommitted. These first-term members are seen as one key to the outcome. But they me only one of several keys. Among the other questions is uncertainty about who or what .11 prove influential or decisive in the outcome. White House sourel believe that Senator Sam Nunn, Democrat of Georgia, will .ercise con- siderable influence over other Southern Democrats. Mr. Nusm, a respected mem- ber of the Armed Services Committee, seems less dissatisfied with the treaty it- self than with United States defense spending and readiness. In a television interview yesterday, one of the Senate's most influential members, Remy M. Jackson, Democrat of Wash- ington, said he would move that the treaty be returned to President Carter with instructions that it be renegotiated. There is little difference between that plan and plane to amend the treaty on the floor, since subst.tive amendments can only be demanded by the Senate as a condition of approval and would require some nmegotiation. Numberous Objections to Peet The objections to the treaty signed in Vienna today by Mr. Carter and Leonid I. Breroney are numerous. One of the most important is that the treaty would, by essentially freezing present levels of weapons launchers, per mit the Soviet Union to retain all 368 of its "heavy" missiles, called SS-18 in the West and RS-20 by the R.sians. These are being rehquipped with 10 independ- ently targeted nuclear warheads. The United States has no "heavy" mi. sites, and for the immediate future would have Minutem. III light missiles armed with three warheads. Another major objection is that the treaty does not count the Soviet TU-22M Somber, known in the West as Backfire, as an intercontinental heavy weapon. The Soviet Union has agreed to restrict production of the plane to 30 a year. But some Senators want the bombers counted as part of the 1,320 weapons with inde- pendently targeted warheads permitted tom. country. Verification h an Issue The loon of American listening posts in Iran, and other factors, prompts some Senators to deny that the treaty is ad- equately verifiable and immtme to possi- ble Soviet cheating. A tactical Issue was given enhanced Importance today when Senator Helms and Senator Garn, appearing at a news conference, dem.ded that the Senate floor debate be televised to give treaty opponents a forum roughly equivalent to President Carter's ready access to televi- sion. Senator Robert C. Byrd, the Demo- cratic leader, is likely to resist this idea. Associates suspect he sees it eta way for Se0000r Baker"stat Ice Prestdmt television while debating SALT." Advo- cates of the step said they would try to forma vote on the issue if necessary. Senator Helms also called on Mr. Car- ter. to instruct military, Central Intelli- gence Agency and Defense Intelligence Agency witness. "to be completely truthful .d forthcoming with their views" on the treaty, even if those views conflict with those of the President. Mr. Helms said military men should testify candidly even at the risk of harm- ing their .reers or of being reb..1. Key Defendant Is Given 12 Years In Long West German Spy Trial DUESSELDORF, West Germany, Semis (Reuters) ? Lothar Lurie, chief defendant in West Germany's longest epy trial, today recel.d a 12-year sentemce for spying for East Germany. His wife, Renate, was sentenced to six m rt. e saRoth erLferm nt er employeef the Ministry. They were found guilty of passing more than 1,000 secret documents to the Com- munists. Another married couple, Frank and Christine Gerstner, who "controlled" the Lutzes, received seven-year sneers.. Soviet Lifts Its Secrecy On Arms Designations Wear. The New To. Ilmer WASHINGTON, Arne 18? Breaking with tradition, the new strategic arms treaty includes the Soviet Union's own designations for its new generation of missile systems. For years, American negotiators have used their own terms for Soviet missiles and bombere in arms controls talks because Moscow was unwilling to divulge its designations. For example, the Department of Defense called Mos- cow's three one intercontinental mis- siles the SS-17, SS-18 .d SS-19, while a new Soviet bomber was code-earned the Backfire, or it was identified, as by the authoritative Jane's All the World's Aircraft as the "TU-28." However, the new treaty contains Moscow's own designations for these weapons. The Backfire, a product of the Tupolev design bureau, is called the TU-22M by the Russians, presented as a modification of the regular TU-22, Imovm in the West as the Blinder. The SS-18, M.caw's controversial "heavy missile," is known as the RS' 20; the SS-17 is designated as the RS-18 and the SS-19 is called the RS-18. In addition, the treaty reveals that the newest Soviet submarine-launched missile, known in the West as the 55- N-18, is designated the RSM-50 by the Russians. According to Administration offi- cials, "RS" stands for "raketaaya sistema," or "racket system," and "RSM" means "raketnaya sistema, morskaya," or "naval rocket system." THE NEW YORK TIMES, TUESDAY, JUNE 19, 1979 es, watam a. sm. Adm. Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr., former Chief of Naval Operations, at news con- fe;rence yesterday in Washington. Using models of Soviet and American no. Idles, he warned against Soviet superiority. the strategic balance- Carter-Brezhnev Farewell: Spontaneous and Poignant Continued From Page Al according teen American official P.- ticipating in the summit meetings, Mr. Brerimey's speech was so slurred it was not understandable, and he ap- peared to doze or lapse into uncon- sciousness at times during the three hours of meetings. At no point in the three days of sum- mit discussions, an American partici- pant said, was Mr. Brezhney capable of lively give-and-take with the American President. He read only from prepared position papers and then not always with full clarity, the official said. Yet, despite WS lethanIty, the dale/gen= as- companying Mr. Brezhnev ? daily Konstantin U. Chernenko, who has emerged as Mr. Brezhnev's chief of staff and personal aide ? clearly de- ferred to him as the man in charge. It was with the background of these strains that the Soviet Leader today en- tered the Redretenseal, a white-P.- clod ballroom with seven chandeliers just before the President, 01 1,02 P.M. Rearayiel Carter was in the front row of the audience, as were the Austri. leaders, Chancellor Bruno Kreisky and President Rudolf Kirchschlager. Mr. Brezhnev, following Soviet cus- tom, begno clapping in answer to the applause of those present, and Mr. Car- ter followed suit. Then both sat at a green baize table built 119 years ago for the State Council of the Austro-Hungar- ian Empire, and aides brought the fin- ished texts ? bound in red for Mr. Brerimev and blue for Mr. Carter? to igh 'f he Soviet leader took 20 seconds to write the first of his four signatures. He ppeared to be making one labored stroke of the pen at a time. Mr. Carter finished and waited with folded hands to ch=ders o folders withwi? Mr. BrsezIon. ev ar? to And so when he stood to exchange the signed copies of the treaty, Mr. Carter took Mr. Brezhnev's right hand and clasped it with his left, and to the rising 'PIPP.uslrhleut;Teanid'es"L'er% 1041. reted that he was to speak. His words slow and slurred, he said that "in sign, Mg this treaty, we are helping to defend the most sacred right of every individ- ual? the right to live." He finkhed Speaking and sat to hear came. - today, as we set very careful limits on our power," Mr. Carter said, llyze draw boundaries around our fears of one no- other." But as the Russian translation wax broadcast into the echoing hall, Mr. Brerimev s expression clouded, he fumbled with his left ear and seemed to try to gee from his chair to talk to Mr. Chernenko, who quickly summoned Mr. Breronev's personal interpreter, Viktor M. Sukhodrev, apparently to whisper the translation so that he could hear it better. He closed his eyes . if In pain. Thirty-two of the most poorerftd offi- cials of the United States and the Soviet Union, Including three of the 13 full members of the Soviet Communist Par- ty's ruling Politburo, stood behind the two mm, seated in silence Oaths table as the tr.slation continued. When it was over, they stood, shook hands again and joined in the applause. Mr. Brezhnev shook hands with every member of the American delegation, while Mr. Carter greeted the Rresians present, then went on to pump the hands of his own colleagues. Aftte518eiMOBillkf1Ra1Perct Signed In Vienna by Carter and Brezhnev Conthased From Page Al the future, perhaps on an annual basis, American officials said. Although the treaty had been negoti- ated beforehand and the two leaders made little visible progress on other essu., they pronotmced their "mutual satisfaction" with the three days of talks. Personally they got along well and the treaty, they said, helps promote, "the deepening of detente." Other participants said that, after two troubled years since Mr. Carter took of- fice, the low-key, realistic candor of the talks had helped put Soviet-American relations back on a more even keel though the sessions did not resolve differ- ences over how to deal with regional con- flicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East or with conventional force reductions in Central Europe. But, in a joint communique, Presid.ent Carter won Mr. Brrehnev's public assur- ance that the Soviet Union, like the United States, was "not striving and will not strive for military superiority" ? a statement that could help win votes lathe battle for Senate approval of the treaty. US. Pledge on Trade Reported The communique also disclosed that the two sides had completed "major ele- ments" of . agreement to ban radiologi- cal weapons and had agreed on the need to work toward "the elimination of obsta- cles" to expanded trade relaions. This ap- peared to be an indication that President Carter was Preparing to seek more fa- vored trading status for Moscow in ex- change for a liberalization of emigration from the Soviet Union. And in a separate statement, the two Iraid.ers committed themselves to work toward a third arms accord, in which they would seek "signific.t and substan- tial reductions" of their offensive ar- senals and new qualitative curbs on new weapons. Although the Am.icans had hoped to win Soviet approval for a spe- cific lowering of ceilings, the Russians were not ready to commit themselves. The health of Mr. Brezhnev, who stum- bled on a couple of occasions .d closed his eyes in apparent fatigue during Presi- dent Carter's brief statement this morn- ing, seemed to have curtailed the scope and duration of the talks. He was less ebullient and active than he had been on previous encounters with American presidents, though American negotiators said that at times he was animated dur- ing the talks here. One Private Meeting Is Held He and Mr. Carter held only one ex- tended private meeting, for 90 minutes this morning at the American Embassy. Later, Jody Powell, the American spokesman, said, without giving details that they had dealt with a number of issues, including human rights. The signing ceremony involved four sets of documentS: a 22-page treaty that nma mail the end et MC ? protocol that prohibits teettingWr . . lm lad se missiles before 1982: 43 pagm of agr.d statements and common .derstandings that interpret the treaty, and a them- page joint statement of prrnmplm guiding the next round of arms negotiations Two other documents exch.ged today gave the present inventory of strategic arsenals. They showed that the Soviet Union gave the total number of its long- range missile launchers and bombers as 2,504, meaning that it will have to destroy 254 by Jan. 1,1551, to comply with the new maximum of 2,250, while the United States gave its force as 2,283 missiles and bombers, and must destroy 33 moth- balled B-52 bombers to comply with treaty terms. The treaty itself provides several sub- ?pinnate limits within the overall ceiling 01 2.250. including the following: RA combined total of 1,320 launchers for ballistic mLssiles with multiple war- heads and heavy bombers equipped with cruise missiles or ballistic missiles. 6100 more than 1,200 launchers for ballistic missiles. 4No more than 820 landhased launch- ers for ballistic missiles with multiple warheads; the Soviet Union has a sepa- rate limit of 308 on the number of la.ch- ers for its heavy SS-18 missiles. After the documents had been signed, Mr. Brezhnev spoke briefly, in a low. thick .d occasionally slurred voice, call- ing the treaty "a major step forward" in Improving Soviet-American relations and praising Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance, Foreign Muuster Andrei A. Gromyko, Secretary of Defen. Harold Brovm and Defense Minister Dmitri F. Ustinov for their contribution. After they had concluded, the two men rose, shook hands with the members of their two and the other delegation .d made their final embrace, to resounding applause. After a brief farewell to the Soviet leader, Mr. Carter headed directly to the airport. The communique provided evidence that the two had agreed gen.ally on im- proving the atmosphere of Soviet-Ameri- can relations without being able to settle specific points of dispute. The text en- dorsed the following points: 6Impetus to other arms control meas- ures, but it offered no evidence of pmgress on a comprehensive nude.- test ban, a prohibition on antlsatellite weapons or on conventional force reduc- tions in Europe. REfforts to spread detente "to all areas to the globe" and the principles of "re- sponsibility and restrahn" in regional tensions, but it revealed disagreement over the main areas of dispute in the Mid- dle East, Africa and Asia. elMore regular summit meetings, with no specific schedule. Progress Made in Two Areas Progress was achieved in two areas: on a treaty to ban radiological weapons and on American willingness to resume talks on limiting military involvement in the Indian Ocean. The United States sus- pended the Indian Ocean talks a year ago in protest over Soviet involvement in Ethiopia. The one change negotiated here lathe arms-treaty package concerned the Soviet assurances on the Backfire. Some people in Washington consider it a strate- gic, long-range bomber, fit for inclusion in the treaty, but the Russians insist ills intermediate-r.gepl.e, The United States had planned to re- solve the dispute by an exch.ge of doc. ments, including general assurances from Mr. Bre:Limey reinforced by more specific statements by Mr. Carter. This procedure was followed In the session on Saturday afternoon, Mr. Powell said, but the roneric..s were not satisfied. When they raised the matter again yesterday, he said, "a lively discuss., ensued," ending with Mr. Brezhnev's oral assur- ance that, . an American statement put it, "the Soviet Backfire production rate would not exceed 100 year." Pact Gives Soviet Data On Am. roeFist ram spasm The newrork nom WASHINGTON, June 18 ? The Soviet Union, as part of the new arms treaty, has made pubhc, teethe first time, figures on its strategic arsenal. n er the treaty, Wasbiagoon mad Moscow agree to provide each other at regular intervals with Information about the composition of their strategic tomes. Attached to the treaty are state- ments that give the strength of the Soviet Union and the United States loll categories of weapons as of Nov. 1, 1978, inclu.ding the follnring: Interr.ontinental ballistic missile launchers: Soviet ? 1,398; U.S. ? 1,054. Intercontinental ballistic missiles with multiple warheads: Soviet? Oil Submarine-launched ballistic missile launchers: Soviet ?9110; 01.0? 656, Submarinnla.ched ballistic mi. sites with multiple warheads: Soviet ? 144; U.S. ?496. Heavy bombers: Soviet ?198; U.S. ?573. Hofburg, Site of Treaty Signing, Is a Place Bursting With History By WOLFGANG SAXON Looldng on as President Carter and Leonid I. Brezhney signed the strategichrms treaty at the 010f. burg in Vienna yerierdey were the silent witnessrt of history dating back to Charlemagne, representing the glories and woes of the -conti- nent that could become the center of nucl.r desolation if the super- powers of East and West fail to curb their arsenals and keep the peace. The Hofburg itself, a town within a town rather than a single struc- ture, had its beginning as a fortress lathe 13th century. It soon became the .at of the Hapsburgs and re- mained their favored residenno until their empire collapsed In 1918. The complex grew over the cen- turies along with the power of the Hapsburgs, who added toil to suit their taste and coffers. The last of its buildings was completed just be- fore World War I. Continuity was assured when the Austrian Repub- lic made 11 1010 the residence of its chief of state and a national treas- ure house. A 15th-Century Chapel Visitors stream to the Hofburg's 15th-century Gothic chapel, on Sun- days to bear the Vienna Boys' Choir. Or they might go to the Spa. ish Riding School, a great white quadr.gle, to watch the Link- saner stallions go through their Architemoral styles ranging from Gothic to Renaissance to Baroque to Rococo blend into a majestic whole that overkolcs eleg.t in- tarter courtyards and theireques- trian statrery. Altogether, the Hof- burg has more then 2,000 moms and halls, many of them containing ir- replaceable an ond imperial rega- lia, including tu sword of Charle- magne .d the Bible on which he swore his coronation oath. It also hous. Austria's Nation. Library and remarkable collections of drawings, furniture, porcelain and jewelry. In a crypt, 28 emper- ors and empresses and more than a 100 archdukes lie buried. The Hapsburgs came from Al- sace and Svritzerl.d, where they held lands in the likh century. A princely electoral college named Count Rudolf IV as King of the Ger- mans 10 1273, when he also became Holy ROMan Emperor. Ba. for the Cresades But as King Rudolf I, he first had to fight it out with a resentful King Ottocar II of Bohemia, who refused fa honor the election result. It was Ottocar who fortified Vienna, a flourishing trading hub as well as a base for the Crusaders and the Teu- tonic Knights. He built a four. walled structure bristling with towers west 01 51. Stephen's Cathe- dral, even then the historical and cultural center of Vienna. After defeating Ottecer, Rudolf acquired lands hi Austria, took the title Duke of Austria .d made the fortress his own. The building on its site today is known as the Schweiz- erhof , or Swiss. Court, having housed the Empress Maria There- sa's Swiss guards. The Hapsburgs reigned as Holy Roman Emperors almost uninter- ruptedly from 1438 to 1806. But from the itith century on, imperial and Austrian affairs became vittually Identical. a trend sealed by the Reformation, which pitted Prote. tent German princes against the Roman Catholic Emperor and led to the Thirty Years War in 1618. The Holy Rom. Empim. its grip having slipped from much of Cen- tral Europe, died in the Napoleonic era in 1800. The Hapsburgs became sitnply Emperors of Austria, later Austria-Hungary. They were still a power to reckon with until World War heft only lljy Hakim as a to- flectisoofsbeirfdknoermiglot. The Hofburg In Vienna. A water framtain Is In foreground. Approved For Release 2005/01/12 : CIA-RDP88-01315R000400370021-8