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December 16, 2016
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September 20, 2004
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February 12, 1979
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Approved For Re m"Q04MW1Z33INCIg40RU 12 February 1979 By Julianne Labreche he scene was long ago and far away, Li in Zurich back in 1957, when Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, described by one col- league as ".the godfather of Canadian psychiatry," rose to present his star- -American Central Intelligence Agency tling and severe new treatment for to learn how to control the human mind. schizophrenia. Some members of his distinguished audience at the Second International Congress for Psychiatry, which included the grand old man of the profession, Dr. Carl Jung, seemed sur- prised by Cameron's harsh "de-pattern- ing" techniques, but he was not rattled. Cameron frankly described his method as "a sharp tool." The real razor's edge of Cameron's research only became public last week with the release of a chilling new book, by American author John Marks, The Search for the "Manchurian Candi- date." It links Cameron, who was direc- tor of McGill University's Allan Memo- rial Institute from its founding in 1943 until his abrupt departure in 1964, with a 20-year, $25-million effort by:_: the Between 1953 and 1973 the agency undertook a full-scale attempt to dis- cover and develop techniques of mind control and brainwashing, fearing that the Soviets and Chinese had already perfected the methodology. The project was hidden behind a suc- cession. of code names-first BLUEBIRD, then ARTICHOKE and later MK-DELTA- and then a "study group" called the So- ciety for the Investigation of Human Ecology was established as a scientific front through which the CIA could sub- sidize research by recognized authori- ties who had no idea of the ulterior pur- poses of their new sponsor. The society was involved with 50 or 60 different uni- versities in 21 countries. The little- known but fearsome drug LSD was em- ployed in mind-influencing experiments involving, in some cases, unsuspecting prisoners, prostitutes and other "unde- sirables" on the fringes of U.S. society. At McGill, the only Canadian univer- sity to become involved, the aggressive and. pioneering Dr. Cameron conducted his experiments. The human ecology so- ciety, as Marks reveals in his book, sponsored the program at Allan Memo- rial from 1957 to 1964, advancing rela- tively modest amounts of $4,000 and up- ward a year-never more than $20,000. The centre's growing fame- drew de- pressed and schizophrenic patients from all over the world, but of the 53 known to have undergone the treatment many were Canadians. Maclean's has talked to two of these. Val Orlikow, wife of federal NDP MP David Orlikow, de- scribes her experiences as "the coldest, most impersonal treatment that any- body could give to anybody." (See box.) t STAT Approved For Release 2004/10/13 : CIA-RDP88-0135OR000200420007-1 I- in a stable b"hir.d his laboratory where ! The orpy,Br Fa~pp Rd #iJ@r2Q~0 /10/13: C[b~taR@A88`+Qsl' OIr 02i0~b45dA0O7-h political y prominent family but who deprived completely of all sensory stim- insists on remaining anonymous, tells uli, with nothinc; to see or hear or smell of a desperate attempt to flee from fur- or feel. One unfortunate woman te- ther strenuous treatments. rnained in the box for 35 days, allowed Whether Cameron's patients were out only fur nic?als and toilet breaks. guinea pigs for the CIA or were simply One Canadian woman is identified in subjected to their own doctor's deter- Marks's book only as "Lauren mined and adventuresome experiments which is not her real name-"a refined, aimed at producing a quick cure for giamorous horse woman" who looks like mental illness can never be known for h;iizabeth Taylor and was, in fact, sure, because Dr.Cameron was killed in screen-tested for the Taylor role in the a mountaineering accident in 1967. But 1934 movie X,atitmaf VCIvet. After con- Cameron's sometimes bizarre and unor- firming the screen test, she told Mac- thodox methods would understandably lean ;s about Dr. Cameron's treatments. appeal to the CIA as offering a possible. She still remembers having been put. to technique for brainwashing and then sleep for six weeks, then waking and re-programming enemy agents. The wanting to escape. Making a desperate "de-patterning of undesirable behav- clash outdoors in her dressing gown, she , for in Cameron's usually severely dis- slid not get far before she was dragged turbed patients routinely started with i,ack and heavily sedated again. "1 sure "sleep therapy," in which they were gut the chi] Is when I think about it," she heavily drugged and knocked out for as recalls. "My own personal recollections long as 65 days, though being disturbed are so c runs, so horrible.." Dr. Came- two or three times daily by heavy elec- ron's theory was that if a state of "com- troshock treatments. Cameron hoped plete amnesia" were produced in a pa- they would wipe out the patient's mem- tient-the mental slate wiped clean- ory of unpleasant experiences and un- ed fantasies. He would then try the subject would eventually vioh}l only controlled h tor.. But tier ren n it took her re-pattern the troubled brain by us- Lau ing what he called "psychic driving"-a 19 yneaars G G to says recall that ail of whill her e e life after her procedure about as upsetting as it 19 r sounds. The patients, once again heavily illness, she could remember the had sedated, were tucked away in a "sleep things too. She says she reverted to her room" where taped messages were re- old self only after ending first mar riag prated again Later she remarried, this time and again into their ears to the son of a former Tory cabinet from speakers under their pillows. minister. Cameron also became a great believer The fact that Dr. Cameron was the in subjecting patients to repeated LSD "trips," as they are now familiarly lirst professor of psychiatry ever ap known-but the impact of such night- pointed at g edit, already one of the marish experiences can scarcely be outstanding medical schools on the con- imagined at a time when the drug was tinent, puts in perspective the state the barely known to the public. He also gave science had achieved by the mid-war his patients curare, famed as the South 'from . Swamped by demands for help American arrow poison but now also from a society under greater and known as an anesthetic. He built a box greater pressures, the few early the chiatrists were forced to realize that the + long and painstaking methods of treat- ment through psy; choanalysis, as devel- oped by Sigmund Freud and Jung in Eu- rope, had become inadequate. Every- where the search was on for new and swifter methods of restoring mental balance. Ewen Cameron was one of the pioneers in his field. Just v by be left '.1cCill in 1' h?l, no now will sax but ru leagues seem agree(] I;is ~ii'loti Turn '. as "ahru,,t... And, in a move rare in the tie!rd of medi- cine, Cameron's su cessor, on Robert Cleghorn, ratted for a critical i nvestiga- tion of Cameron's treatments and found them to be no more effective than other, less tortuous methods. Whether the CIA felt it gut its money's worth from the studies it financed in brainwashing at McGill is another unknown. But cer- tainly the agency has been trying hard to wipe its own slate clean in recent ,ears. Approved For Release 2004/10/13 : CIA-RDP88-01350R000200420007-1 Approved For Release 2004/10/13 : CIA-RDP88-01350R000g00420007-1 `This stuff is killing me' UV of since Margaret Trudeau's candid confessions about her psychiatric treatment in 1974 has one woman's mental suffering attracted such widespread atten- tion. The stress of the publicity shows on the face of Val Orlikow, wife of federal NDP NIP David Orlikow, as she struggles through tears to talk. Even though purposely decid- ing about a ;year ago to co-operate with American author John Marks in exposing an empty room, heavily drugged and lis- tening only to repeated tape-recorded con- versations between herself and Cameron. Finally, over the doctor's protests, she had the treatment stopped after she had fallen into such black depression that she told Cameron: "This stuff is killing me. I can't go on.', In retrospect, Val Orlikow is outraged and frustrated for having never been told LSD was a controversial drug. "I never ben- efited from any of the treatment I got at the Allan Memorial Institute," she maintains. Throughout many years of recovery, her husband has supported and even encour- McGill University's CIA-backed research, Val Orlikow: like a caged squirrel she never anticipated the media blitz last week detailing her controversial psychiatric aged her to speak out publicly: "T "s ill frayed as a' freak by every radio station illness," David Orlikow insists. Even today,'' across the country;",-she says, For them, however, Val Orlikow still suffers from what it's a quick storybut for me it's my life. she. believes to be the. aftereffects of the Even ttiough VatOrlikow all but went treatment at McGill-=an inability to concen. I peared, she agreed: to talk with Maclean's of crowds that began at the hospital.- , because she hopes she and other patients In coming months, 'she" intends to the late `Or:`.`.Ewen'Cameron. will be justly also suffered his.severe.treatments and to= 1, compensated. i Her frightening memories encourage them to exert pressure on the go back 1180'j?6`616 Twhen the Winnipeg CIA'for financial compensation;' as the?Orli' woman, suffering from neurosis and post- kows have already' done. One 'CIA a': partum depression, checked into McGill's spokesman in Washington explains: "We Allan Memorial Institute. Within two weeks are in touch with the attorneys for Mrs. Orli she unknowingly began to receive heavy kow and her case is under consideration. doses of the then still novel drug LSD, which We understand there may be a number of continued for two months-14 treatments Canadians who feel that they were sub- in all. She recalls terrifying nightmares of jected to experiments which were financed feeling like a caged squirrel running around by this agency." Not that a cheque-would, in endless circles and feeling herself shrink solve all Val Orlikow's.losses. As she lam like Alice in Wonderland while agonizing ents, "No one can give you back years of how she would get down off her bed. She your life and the time you lost with your also was given Cameron's "psychic daughter and husband." App d 'FbPReteaW 2O l1lrO/QQ3s:iiClA-RDP88-01350$WO*PO J4 O61 r