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April 22, 1986
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Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 ROUTING AND TRANSMITTAL SLIP oaa 28 Apr 86 '~ ((Name, ofllce symbol, room number, Initials Dab ~ building. Aarncv/Peed i. ER , ,L~ APR : DCI ~~ a 9 z ^~aY , A a ER -FILE UPON RETURN (B-700-IR) ?n Fik Note and Return rovsl For Clearance Per Comrersation R nested For Correction Propane Rep insulate For Your Information See Me n~~ Investigate Slgnaturo Coordinatbn Justl DO NOT uss this form as a RECORD of approvals, concurrences, disposals, clearances, and similar actions FROM: (Name, org. symbol, Agency/Post) Room No.-Bldg. 5041-102 - x} U. S. G.P.O. 1977-241-530/3090 OPTIONAL FORM 41 (Rev. 7 76) Pnecribed py OEA FPMIR (41 CF10 101-11.206 1986 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30: CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 United States Advis`~ry ~` ~mmission on Public Diplomacy Washington, D. C. 20547 April 22, 1986 The Honorable William J. Casey Director Central Intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505 The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy recently submitted its 1986 report to the President and the Congress. A copy is enclosed. Our report addresses a broad range of public diplomacy programs including the Voice of America, the WORLDNET television network, U.S. Government educational exchange programs, USIA management, the Radio Marti program, the National Endowment for Democracy, the impact of U.S. embassy security policies on public diplomacy, and the role of public diplomacy in support of U.S. anti-terrorism policies and future U.S.-Soviet summits. The Commission is a bipartisan, independent group of citizen volunteers whose legislative mandate is to represent the public interest in assessing the public diplomacy of the United States. I hope you will find the report of interest, and I would welcome your views on its findings and recommendations. Sincerely, Edwin J. Feulner, Jr. Chairman GNU -~ Approved For Release 2011/06/30: CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 /~ ~~ Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 What Is Public Diplomacy? i f the meeting between Presi- dent Reagan and General Scc- retarv Gorbachev in Genera was the most important dip- lomatic event of the past year, it was also the focus of one of the most comprehensive pu~- lic diplomacy efforts ever under- taken by the U.S. Information Agency. USIA's role before, during, and after the Genera Summit denum- strates what public diplomacy has come to mean in the 1980x. F,very major elrmcnt of USIA was in- eolyai. ^ President Reagan's radio :ui- dress to thr Soviet people from a Voice of America studio and all major speeches by senior U.S. frn'- cign policy officials wrrc broadclst in 42 languages to VOA's world- wide weekly audience of 119 mil- lion listeners. ^ Public Affairs Officers at 214 embassies and consulates around nc~ world briefed thousands of journalists and other opinion lcad- ers on U.S. policies and Summit objectives. ^ Official texts, transcripts, speeches, feanlre articles, and pol- icy hackgrounders were n'ansmir- rcd clecn-onically by USIA's Wirc- less File to all USIA posts. ^ "I'he U.S.-Soyicr exchanges agreement negotiated h_y USIA vui signed at Genera will expand ac- ademic, cultural and scientific ex- changes, including Fulbrighr scholars and teachers; permit triycl of prrtorming arts groups and sports exchanges; and allow USIA to mount thematic exhibits and continue disn-ibution of Aszrcr?icR I!la[stz?c~ttc~ magazine. ^ USIA's Office of Research pre- pared public opinion analyses, flash Oplmon SUI"~'eyS, aSSeSSnlenrti Ot Soyict propaganda, background studies, media reaction reports, briefings, and participated in an NSC pre-Summit simulation ex- CCCISC. ^ The Foreign Press Center in Washington arranged pre-Summit interviews with President Reagan, numerous press briefings with sen- ior U.S. officials, and a press tour on SI~I for foreign journalists and television correspondents. ^ President Rrlgan's interview with European TV journalists and post-Summit report to Congress, transmitted via USIA's WORLI)- NET satellite television network, were part of the more than 18 hours of satellite television broadcasts devoted to the Summit. ^ USIA's American Participant speakers program brought many U.S. officials and private experts ro foreign audiences through n-ayel and international telephone con- tercnce calls. ^ In Genera, a ream of 27 USIA officers provided press support and distributed 62 separate White House transcripts, tact sheets, and of~ici:>J texts totalling 102,000 pages to the 3,000 journalists awcring the Summit. U.S. public diplomacy efforts were an important clement in the success at Genera. Through USIA's media and the personal comic of its communications professionals, millions received, direct and un- tiltered, the U.S. agenda for the Summit and its rationale for drll- ing with issues of regional and bi- lateral concern, human rights, and arms control. The Conu?ission commends thr President, the Scc- retarv of State, and the Director of USIA for using wisely and well the valuable instruments of public diplomacy available to them. Public diplomacy supplcnunrs and reinforces traditional diplo- macy by explaining U.S. policies to foreign publics, by providing them with information about American society and culture, by enabling many to experience the diyersiri~ of our culture personally, and by assessing foreign public opinion for American Ambassa- dors and foreign policy dccision- makers in the United States. Advanced communications technology, growing audiences, and recognition by most world leaders of the value of obtaining public support for their statements and actions has given public di- plonruynew imporruxe. USIA in this decade has made an exn-aor- dinary capital invesnncnr in nc~ fu- ture and has become a toll partner in the conduct of our country's tor- eign relations. Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 In acan-d:u~cr ~~~ith the ~rquirements of Srction 8, Rrorganiration Plan No. 2 01 1977 and Public I,aw~ 96-60, the United States Ad~~isor~~ Conunission on Public 1)iplomac~~ submits hcrc~~~ith its annual rrhort on the U.S. Int~n-nririon Agcnr~~, and the acti~?itics of the U.S. Go~~- rrnnxnt concerning huhlic dihlomar~~. Rrst~ccrtulle submitted, F.d~~ in J. t~culncr, Jr., Chairman President, The Heritagr Foundation Virginia (R) c. rohcrt (hob) ~~allach "I~om (~. Iund mangy' rclsons to he cn- coura~~e~i. ~1"hr United Stars is making a significant, long- u~ rrdue ins rstmrnt in its intcr- natlon;ll Into)"tttatlon ;lnd CdnCa- tion;tl rsrhange progr;tats. ~1'hr l'. S. Information Agrns~~ has rntbarkrd on a course marked h~ innu~~ation, nr~~~ ~~igor, ;uui pro- ~?r;un rspansion. USIA is setting the parr in intonation;tl satrllitr trlr,~ision. State-ot~-the-art cont- nunticitions trshnologirs arc ;alh, Assistant Src- rrr:u-v' of Srtn? ti>r East Asian and I'acitic Affairs Paul ~1'oltt~vv'itr, As- sisranr Sccrctu"~' ofStitr t~~r Anur- irul Republics Atl~airs Elliorr ;~hranls, Ambassador Max l~:un- prlnlan, ;~mhassador Ed\\;u-d Rovv'nv', Ambassador' Miler Mans- tirld, Ambassador Arthur b'~'. 1 lununrl, Ambassador Hrlcnc \'on llanun-C;urrtlrr, Ambassador l~rucr Ih. Chapman, Ambassador Rohm Klark\\ ill, Consul C;cncral Burton l,cv~in, Adv"isorv~ Board tin- Radio I~roadcasring ro Cuba Chairman ]orgy Mas, National 1=.ndovv~mrnr t~>r l)cmocracv' (NI?:1)) Board Chairman John Rich:u-dson, NE1) l'rrsidcnt Carl C~rlshnl:ul, Admiral Rohhv R. In- I11:111, ]:lp:tllrsl? }'orl'1fT,I1 i'~llmsrcr Shintoro Ahr, 1)irrctor of Ex- hibits fir nc~'1'sukuha (J:lean) In- tcrnationa) l~,xposition Irrri 'I'ak- rda, Chinrsr ~'icr Prcmirr Ji Prngtci, Chinrsr ~"ire ,~tinistrr of Culture Lu Ghixian, Rrijing ~Ini- v"rrsits Prrsidrnr Ding Shisun. Fu- dan l1niscrsit\' Prrsidrnt \ir Xidr, l~:ast-~1'cst Crntrr l)irrcror ~'itror l.i, .uu1 East-~~'rst Crntrr Board of C~osrrnors Chairman Grorgr (~haplin. l'hr Commission rrstitied in badger hr:uings on L'SIA held hs the IIousr l~orrign Affairs Suh- tonunirtrr on Inrcrnarional Op- rrations and rhr Sc?natc Forci:rn Relations Committee. In l~cccm- hcr, the Commission issued a spe- cial report, "Terrorism and Secu- riCV?: The Challenge fur Public 1)iplonruv'," to the Presidrnt, Mrmhcrs ofCungress, and kcv~ ot- finals in the t;~~~ s ~~~~?~ Budget (1967-1986)* oo Total ftudgcdActual Dollars ?'. Operating Expenses/Actual llollars 700 Olxrating F,zpcnses/Constant Dollars 600 'Lt recent vrars, i?S[A's total ap- propriation included timds for 500 y0A modernization, VOA's Radio Marti program, and nc~ - Natiunal Endowment for De- nuxrac~~, which did not exist in nc~ 1960s and the 1970x. aoo aoo aoo loo 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 he Commission sup- ports President Rea- gan's FY 1987 budget request for USIA of $959.2 million. The rc- quest is an increase of $104.5 million from the Agency's FY 1986 appropriation of $854.7 trillion. ~ Disnrtvcd by the erosion of budget and staff resources Ior pub- lic diplomacy during the past two decades, this Commission has am- sistcntly adyocatcd Chat USIA be given the toads and people it needs to perform its essential mission well. We appreciate that President Rea- gan, USIA Director Charles 1.. Wick, and a bipartisan consensus Coach Peter Barry of Southern Oregon State College, a participant in USIA's Spurts Arnerica program, conducts a basketball morksherp for members of the Somali uatio~~al team. in the Congress together in recent years have brought USIA a long way toward this goal. USIA's growth is fully justified. Com- pared with the expenditures of other foreign affairs and defense agen- cies, it is a small but wise invest- ment in our national security. The term "Gramm-Rudnuui- Hollings" has entered the Ameri- can political vocabulary, however, and USIA is not exempt Ii-om its impact USIA will take its share of reductions, but the Commission does not wish to see the gains of recent wars undone. Granu?- Rudman-Hollings should not mean trimming on modernization, cut- ting valuablctraditional programs, or postponing new initiatives where technical opportunities and pro- gram needs warrant. It should mean that USIA be- come more conscious, in flu cur- rent budget climate, of the need to spend its resources wisely and well. It should mean that all Agency grant recipients-traditional "core groups" and others alike-bc sub- ject to the savne caretol scrutiny, periodic review, and program standards. And within USIA, it should mean that both new and established programs be looked at closely to determine their effec- tivenessand relevance to the public diplomac~~ needs of the 1980x. As we point out throughout this report, USIA must do a better job of program evaluation, of estab- lishing priorities, and of long-range planning. 'l'SIA's Fl" 1986 appropriation of `S85~F.7 million rcHccts Grimm-Rudman-llollings Aa reductions of $37.6 million and a pending sup- plrntcnral of $]7.3 million tr- cign governments and the tclcvi- sion industry_ could he lost pcr- 111a11e'lltly. Whether to commit to daily tcl- evision broadcasting in language services worldwide is a major stra- tegic decision for the United States. It involves significant budget and USIA's WORLI~NET antenna in Rome is one of 19 operating in Europe. staff conuninnents tar beyond cur- rent levels; judgments on altcrna- tive technological futures; and tough choices among competing progr~uns, including possible trade- offs with VOA modernization and the exchange programs. USIA has been quietly edging into daily tcl- evision broadcasting without the rigorous analysis and long-range planning such a decision needs. In the Commission's view, it does not vet have the requisite OMB and Congressional support The Com- mission encourages USIA to un- dertake the audience surveys, care- ful long-range planning, and considered assessment of appro- priate programs and program pol- icies that expulsion of regional daily broadcast services will require. The National Sealriri~ Council should also examine WORLDNET with a view toward clarifi~ing its mis- sion, long-term needs, and appro- priate instinltional role through the preparation of a National Security Decision Directive. Other Programs The Television and Film Service provides a wide range ofother pro- grams. 1'he TV Satellite File, a weekh~ halt=hour magazine-t~-pe program of news and features, is used by 140 foreign broadcasters in 110 countries. "Science World," a bi- weekly "hV magazine on develop- ments in U.S. scientific research is distributed to 94 countries. USIA also produced documentaries for worldwide distribution on the "First Ladies' Conference on Drug Ahusc" and "Artificial Intelli- gence," as well as extensive cov- erage of visits to Washington of foreign heads of state. All of these programs, including TV Satellite File, arc distributed on broadcast- quality videocassettes for use by foreign television stations and "TV news syndicators. USIA's Video Library program, beg~ul as an experiment in ten posts two years ago, has now been of- fered to all Agency posts. A catalog 20 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 o~~apprrnint.ttrl~~ l,(lO0 titlrs prr- ntits posts to tailor srlccrions to counu~~ intrrrsts .utd acconuno- d.ttr thr ~~ro~~~ing intporrutcr ot~ honu? ~idro ~~ir~~~ing. Somr posts report incrrasrd lihrar~~ ns.i~~c ,tn~i hook louts as an unrxprctrd hrn- r~it ofthr V'idro I.ihr,u-,~ progr:un. Prig ate sector cooperation con- tinues to enhance CS1;\'s trlr~i sign and i~ilnt acyuisitiotts pro- ~?rant. 1;~~ the beginning ol~ 1956, CSI;A had aryuirrd the rights to nun-r than ?25 hours of tilnt ;uxi trlr~~ision products for usr o~~rr- sras at no cost to the Agrnr~~. 'l~hr progr.utts inrludr the 60-parr "Portrait of ,\ntrrica" series, the Philip ~Alorris cullrction ofculnn-;tl and sports progr;utts, ;uul ,-\S('Al' tributes to Ira Grrsh~~ in and t io~~ - .ud 1)irtz. ~I~hr trlr~~ision co-production pro~~ram, one of the Agrnc~~'s nu>st r~~rcUv~l', pfov~Idr's ;lsslsCallcC to torrign'l'\' producers in the United States. B~ arranging their ~ idea coy wage of puss hrictings, hard- to-t;rt intrr~ ir~~ s ~~ ith kc~' L'.S. ot- ticials, and nu?etings ~~~ith orhrr pruntinrnt Amrric;uts, the 'I'rlr- ~~ision Srr~~icc generates ~~ood ~~~ill, prime tine' ro~~cragr, and pro- ~~rants on torrign telr~~ision srt- tions that nt;t~~ hr rrlurrurt to usr A~~rnc~~-pro~lucr~l programs. CSI;A is still exploring ho~~~ hest to usr the ~~rrsatilc ;uu1 po~~~crtul trlr~~ision ntrdium. It is important to rxperintrnt, to hr tolerant ot~ ~rrasional f~;tilurc, and to continue to ~~~ork to~~~:u-d the rstthlishmrnt of~ ;t ~rorld,~~idr s~'strnt of direct trlr~~ision links to Antcric;ut enr hassirs ;uui CSIA posts. USIA has made considrrahle progress, ;utd ,~~r conunrnd the Agcnc~?'s telc- V'ISlon pfotr'sslonals tol" ChGI" ac hire rnx?nts. RIAS Television RI,~S (Radio in thr Antrrirut Scr- ror) has hrrn thr prinru-~~ C.S. ;ux1 b\'rst Gcrntan media link ~~ ith East Germ;ut~~ for the past 3O ~?ears. 1)i- rrctrd and partl~~ linxied h~~ CSIA ;utd oprrarcd h~~ a AV'rst Grrman staff, RIAS hroadctsts nc,~~s, cant ntent;ll"V' Olt 1nTr'1'naClonal cA'rnts, and intormation on dr~rlopntrnts ~~~ithin Fast Gran;lm~. ltS[A and \1'cst Grrman otti- cials arc no~~~ proposing to su}~- plentent RIAS radio ~~ ith RIAS telr~~ision. Current },laps call tin- a one-time L'.S. capital imrstmcnt of S 12 million for a nc~~~ building and technical cquipntcnt with rc- curring annual expenditures of about $5 million for transmission costs. AV'cst Gerntam~ ~~~ould com- mit to paging approsimatch~ S2O million annualle for salaries and orhrr operating expenses. RIAS-'1'\' ~~ould transmit tram Nest l~rrlin. Its signal ~,'ould cu-rt~ about 25 milts and reach an esti- marcd 5 million people, including 2 million in West Berlin and 3 mil- lion in East Berlin anti surround- ing population centers of East Gcrmam~. I,v-grr West German Nepalese patrons >>icu> >ndeotapes at USIA's library in Kathmavidu. audicnccs can hr rrtchrd if~thc sig- nal is n-;utsmittrd on cahlr s~ sums. RIAS-'1'V"s progr;uns ;uui aiito- rial politics ~~ ould he similar to those of RIAS radio. 1'hr Commission rinds the jus- titication for RIAS-'1'V' a>m~inc- in~.;. Ir ~~~rcign ex- positions is a trade-off resulting fi-om expectations that other coun- n~ics will participate in expositions in thr United States. U.S. deci- SlonS ;ll"l' Oltcn IlladC aC The ~~hITC House or Secretary of Strte Icvcl without full assessment ofthcir or- ganizational and resource require- nll'nts. The Commission believes that USIA should tilltill its conu?it- mcnt to provide a United States presence at Vanaxlyer Expo '86 and Brisbane Expo '88. Beti>rc the U.S. commits to additional events sanctioned ba the Bureau of In- ternational Expositions, however, USIA should chair an interagency study of the politicll, commercial and public diplomacy value of US. participation in international ex- positions, their cost-ettccriyeness, and appropriate levels of L`.S. Goyernnunt and private sector participation in them. USIA should reassess its own capability as pres- ently organized to provide high qualire U.S. pavilions and cx- hihits. 30 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 1~~ztio~~zll Ev~~rn~~~ent Fov~De~~oc~~~;~ hr National Endownlcnt for 1)cmocrac\~ \vas cs- tahlishcd as a Congrrs- sionally-tinuicd private, nonprofit corporation in November 1983 ro rn- couragc the dcvrlop- Illl'I1T of drlllocr;ltlc \'allll's ;lnd IIl- srinltions throughout the \\?orld. 'I'hc Endowment supports busi- ness organizations, free trade unions, and a variety of other in- digenous democratic groups in countries as divrrsr as Chile, Nic;u-agua, Poland, Afghanistan, nc~ I'hilippinrs, and South Ati-irl. Its board of Dirrrtors is hip;u-ti- sall. USIA provides titnds appropri- ated for rhr F:ndovv~mcnt through ;ul annual grant. In rsrlblishing this funding arrangrmcnt, Congrrs- sional torrign attains leaders also suggcstrd the Commission could "conn-ihutr usrtilll\ to the over- sight of the Endoyvmcnr and its relationship with USIA."" 'I?hc Commission has nlrr srvrral times with rhr I'rrsidrnt of the Endow- nlrnt and mrmhrrs of its board of Directors. During its tirsr two y'ru-s, nc~ Endovvmcnr and its grantres en- countered criticism and inevirlbly nruic sane nlistlkrs. Rut overall there have Bern some notable suc- crssrs, ,lnd rhr F;ndovvmcnt is sup- por~ing a nunlhrr of progr;uns \vith considrrahlc long-term potrnrial. Ezamplcs include: ^ "l.ihro I.ihrr," a Costa Rican- hasrd Crnn-al American hook pro- granl, which is publishing low?-cost editions supportive of dcnx)rrarir ideals and sponsoring contcrrnces on dcnx)craric and human rights thrnlcs; ^ "I'!~e Chiyiese Intellccttrnl, a Chinese language duarterly \vith a circulation among Chinese snI- dents in the Wrst and inside China itself, which is promoting denx)- cratic v?alucs and providing sup- port to young reformist groups in China; ^ The AFI.-CIO's Frcc "I'radc Union Institute (FTUI), w~hirh, among other programs, is helping to strengthen democratic trade unions and prevent turthrr Com- munist pencn-ation of labor unions in the Philippines; ^ "I~hc Nrvv York-based Com- mittee in Support of Solidarir\', which is promoting the translation and puhlicltion of documents on Polish w~orkcrs and human rights issues; ^ 'I~hc U.S. Chamber of Com- mcrcc's Center for International Private Enterprise (CITE), \vhich is providing Peru's Institute fin- I.ihcm' and Denu>a-acv with tends for a program of advocacy on hr- half of small businesses (the "in- tornrll sector"); ^ 'I~hr Republican I'arty-attili- atrd National Rcpuhlicui Insti- tute for International Affairs, which supported nonpartisan voter rdu- ration programs in Grenada prior to its 1984 elections; and ^ 1'hc Dcnx)rratic Part-aftili- atrd National Drnu)rratic Insti- nttr for International Affairs, which assisted the Social Democratic and Labour P;u?tv (SDI,P) of Northern h-cl;uui in creating an institute for parts-building and education dc- vclopntcnt activities. Since the Endovv-Inent vv'as es- rlblishai, Congress has taken scr- cral steps to strcn~rthcn its oper- ating procedures and public contidcncc in its activities. Rv' law, no nun-c than 25 percent of rhr Endovvnunr's funds nrly now' be granted to ane single organization. Prior consultation is reduirrd with the l~eparnnrnt of State on all En- do\vnunt-funded programs ovcr- srls. No Endo\vmcnt funds nrly be used for domestic partisan pol- itics, the activities of the Repub- lican and Democratic National Conunirrecs, or ;ul\' cuxiidares for public otticr. All intornlarion re- lating to the E.ndo\vnunt's organ- ization, prorrdures, and activities is puhlirly available, and it must comply with the Ercaiom of In- tornrlrion Act Finally-, USIA may audit the Fndow?mcnt's tinancial rr;ulsacrions. "l~hc Commission vvclcomes these changes. 1~hc role ofthc Endo\vnlrnt is evolving, and \ve \vill continue to revie\v its progress with great interest. "I~he Endowment is tilling ;~ need. Rrrausr it is a privarr, bipartisan hody~, it has the tlexihilira to un- dertake nruly programs that U.S. Govrrnnlent agencies would trod difticult ro carry our as rt~ccrivcly. America's advel-saries work h;lyd and spend a great deal to challenge drnu)craric values throughout the \\?orld. '1?hc F:ndowmcnt \\?as rrc- ated to meet that challenge and ro provide a long-ovcrdur American in\'csnncnt in building dcnu)rratic institutions and processes. It will take tinlr and stc;uly, persistent cf- toI-r. The (;ennmission rndoeses the Endow?mrnt's goals and believes it should hr given a rhanrc ro dc- vclop a rccrn-d. '(~.nll~n~u~ hcr~cccn Kcl,. Uantc li. I~a.crll anal Rcl, Rcnj.~min .~ Gilm.ui_ (:nngrrcciannl Rr trot!, tic,ccmhcr I'", I~)R3, hh. 11 111.33-3 31 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Educafional and Guttural Programs Facch~zn~es ~n~Iv~tev~~tio~~zl Visitovs ^ The Commission urges USIA, the Department of State, and the relevant private sector organi- zations to move quickly to develop specific pro- grams for U.S.-Soviet exchanges pursuant to the General Exchanges accord, other exchange initi- atives undertaken at the Geneva Summit, and the agreement by President Reagan and General Sec- retaryGorbachev to review these programs at their next meeting. ^ The Commission welcomes the Central Amer- ican Program on Undergraduate Studies (CAM- PUS), but finds Congressional limitation to a one- time pilot group of 154 students falls far short of the Kissinger Commission's recommendation. The Commission recommends the program be ex- panded. ^ The Commission supports funding for enrich- ment programs to provide the 340,000 foreign students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities with a broader understanding of the United States. ^ The Commission recommends that USIA's Of- fice of Research undertake evaluations of U.S. Government-funded exchange and international visitor programs. xchange of persons and cultural presentation programs can be among the most cttccti~-e instru- ments of public diplo- ^ricv. Thca can provide foreign audiences with a knowledge of our culture that puts our policies in perspective. Al- though their impact on short-term objectives is often difticult to dis- cern, the Commission remains convinced that educational and cultural exchanges can create un- derstanding and long-term rela- tionships that arc very much in the interests of the United States. As President Reagan said in his tcle- vised New Year's message to the Soyict Union, "If pa>plc in both countries can visit, snuiy, and work together, we will strengthen the bonds of understanding and build a true foundation for lasting peace." The Commission does not ques- tion the fundamental value of ed- ucational and culniral exchange programs, but it does believe they can be greatly strengthened through rigorous evaluation. Their benefits arc not self-evident as some ~yould suggest USIA's FY 1986 budget for these programs is 5169.3 mil- lion, approximately 25 percent of the Agency's enacted operating budget. With resources of this magnitude, in the budget climate nosv~ facing USIA, evaluations leading to the establishment of program priorities arc a necessity. The C;cnnmission is aware that for management planning pur- poses USIA's Bureau of F,duca- tional and Cultural Affairs am- ducts internal grant reviews and pcriodicalla contracts for asscss- ments of some of its programs. We arc unaware, however, that USIA's Office of Research has had anv sig- nificant role in evaluating the Bu- reau's programs, or the activities of the private sector organizations that carr~~ nrmprchensivc effort to raise a $25 million en- dowmcnt fund. The Commission U.S. Fulbright Professor John Hafner conducts a seminar in American literature at the University of Indonesia's new American Studies Center in Jakarta. urges the Ccntcr to make increased support be the private sector and other govenu~unts a high priority-. We also encourage USIA's Pub- lic Affairs Officers in the region to make greater use of this valuable resource. Areas to consider include participation in seminars b~- Inter- national Visitors and Amparts, greater post use of East-West Car ter publications, and greater post input into the planning and exe- cution of Ccntcr cecnts and re- search studies. USIA also should consider detailing an officer to the Ccntcr. Finally, we recommend that the Ccntcr sponsor resrlrch and pro- grams in all aspects of narcotics h-afticking, including the impact of substance abuse, societal a>nse- qucnccs for producer and am- sumcr counn-ies, and the legal is- sues involved. 40 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Management Security and Public Dip ^ The Commission recommends that legislation on diplomatic security fully take into account USIA's public diplomacy mission, the need for relatively free public access to USIA's libraries and infor- mation centers, and the desirability that USIA give visible evidence of the free and open society it represents. ^ The Commission recommends that legislation require the Department of State to consult with USIA on security policies and programs, funding levels, and security standards. USIA should have authority and separately identified funds to furnish logistical security support to its overseas instal- lationsand to perform its own security inspections. ^ The Commission believes USIA should move quickly to adopt all reasonable security measures without jeopardizing its mission. Security deci- sions affecting USIA should be made on a flexible, case-by-case basis in full recognition of differences in local threat levels. These decisions should be based on Country Team assessments and lead to the least possible isolation of USIA from its audi- ences. ^ The Commission recommends that physical se- curity policies apply equally to U.S. and foreign national employees at their place of work. uhlic diplomac~~ is racing a ne\\' and tund;unrnrll dilemma. Hovv~ does USIA remain accessible to its audirntcs and, at the same time, protect the srcurit~~ of its per- Sonnel and tatlhtleti~ 'Terrorist threats and acts of v?io- Irncr against American diplomats make it imperarivc that vv?r do more as a nation to protect U.S. per- sonnel and installations ov~crsras. "I~hr prohlrm is urgent, and the Commission vvrlcomrs the protcC- tiv'r measures, enhanced profes- sional standards, and plans to an-- rrtt security drficicnCics at U.S. embassies rrconunendrd hv? the Inman Panel on ov?rrsrls seturity~ and amtrmplated in legislation rc- yurstrd br Prrsidrnt Rclg;tn. I~:flcCti\'c public diplonru\?, ho\\e\er, rc~iuirrs that USIA's li- hraries, Cultural Centers, and press oftires be accessible to those thcv? art inrendrd to srrvr. "To "harden" USIA's buildings, insist on 100- tixtt setbacks fin- Agenc\ facilities in urban arras, or rryuirc That thrv' be nlo\ Cd to rCmote emb;ltis\' tom- pounds vv'ould greatly diminish rhrir cttcctiv'rncss. I~hc Commission sn~on~~ly? hc- lirv~cs that the threat of terrorism should not hr allovv'aI to deter the United States ti~om Conducting public diplomac~?. l,atc last v?e;u-, in an rtfi~rt to bring nrcdrd public attention to this import;mt issue, vv'r prrp;u-rd a spcrial report ron- rlining a number of dctailyd rrr- onu?rndations. The Commission did not durs- tion the I)cp:u-nncnt oTSrltc's pri- marv~ rrsponsibilite in t~n-nutlating diplomatic srcurity~ policies. But vv?c recommended that the I~c- p;u-tnunt takcinto account USIA's srp;u-atc public diplomacv~ mission and its 1)ircctor's responsihility- tin- rarr~~ing it out 'I~hc Commission is plrasrd that Srcreru-v? of State Gcorgr Shultz. recognized this vv~hcn he varotc to USIA I)ircctor Charles Wick on OCtoher 16, 1985, "that dittcring ~ sccurit~~ ~ standards should he applied to ~ VOA ~ relae stations and libraries." It is im- portant that this broad policy- br retlrCtrd in the legislation novv~ he- titrc the Congress. 'The Commission recommends that legislation on diplonritiC se- curity? take into account USIA's public diplonr.ir~~ mission and the Recd t~tr rclativ'clr ti?re public ac- cess to L'SIA's libraries and inhn~- mation centers. The legislation should rcCluirc the I)cpartmrnr of Starr to consult tulle vv~ith USIA on serurity? politics and programs, funding Ir\'rls, ;md srcurit~~ stui- d;u-ds. USIA should hav~r author- in~ and srp;u-ately idrntiticd funds to tiu-nish logistical sccurin~ sup- port to its o\~crsrls installations and to prrt~~rm its ovv~n srcurity~ in- spections. Security' decisions atlctting USIA should hr made on a flc~ihlr, casc- h~'-rase basis in tilll recognition of diffcrrntcs in local threat Irv~rls. ~Thesr decisions should he based on Counn-v~ Tram assrssnunts and Irui to the bast possible isolation oT USIA ti-om its audicntcs. 1?his approach raiuirrs more than broad poliCv? statements at the top. It re- ' l~.s.:A~ivi~~~r~~ Gnnmissinn ~~n I'uhlic I>iF~lu m.~c~, "~rcrr~n-i+m .u xi ticru rite: l'hc (~.hal Icngc I~u I'uhlic I)ild~nna.c," I)crcmhcr. 1915- G~hic~ .u-c a~.~il.~hlc lium the Cnnunis ,~~~~,_ Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 Approved For Release 2011/06/30 :CIA-RDP88G01116R000500500016-5 quires consultations bcrn~ccn USIA and the llcpartment of State that are timely and thorough. To date they hayc been neither. The Commission also questions State Department policies that a?c- ate dit}crent stvuiards for U.S. vuI foreign national employees at USIA's libraries and information centers. Waivers of 100-toot set- back standards for USIA's build- ings should not be contingent on the rcquircnunt that U.S. cm- plo~~ecs be located separately from their foreign national colleagues. Physical security policies must be applied equally to all USIA em- ployees at their place of work. COMMENTS BY U.S. AMBASSADORS ON SECURITY AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY "I?hr Commission has rrcci~~ed thoughtful conuiunts from a number of American Ambassadors on the need to take the mission of public diplomac~~ into :account in darling with securin~ concerns in duir country. Typical arc the fr~llon?ing: Ambassador John D. Scanlan in Yugoslavia ""l ?brr?e is un doubt irr utv zrtntd, pnrtinrlar'h' siua? 1 bore bccrt dirrcth' lTrl'011'ed Irr USiS ~Zrclgrnzus zlra?isrtt rrrurb of rtn' career irr the Foreirtu Ser~'ice?, tbnt srrcuxcfirl USLS ~rnt7rnrus require rrasnrt- nblc public nccrss. I7n?refirrc, i n~~larrd rurn? Couuuissiou's cl~hrt to rusrn?c that srrih access b~~ audirucc:c n'bich USIS Hurst addrr:cc rt'ill be' retniued. It is uuh~ through srrih rn'ailabilitl' that USIS cart Ctrl/ill its zuaudntc. rl t the saruc tituc?, I lirlh~ ligrcc that a~pru[n?i- ntr senn?ih~ un?ruurcc are rigrrircd and tln? KSO, PAO nod 1 brrnc rtnuulted art the uuzst e//i?ctit'e tt'rzt~ to irrrplcrrrerrt tbeur." Ambassador John Gunther Dean in India "77n? henz7 a/?tbc? urntter is that b~urbnss~' uf~iecrc nod USIS n/fi- ir?rc do tnaz quite di/~i?rczrt tbiu~s irr fbrei~rr eurath?ies. l~'bnt USLS dues ~publii diplourail', /ilzrnr7~ o/rct?ntiozts, hostiarrt cttltrrrnl nzrd iute?/leitrm/ prortrnzus), requires drzih~ nzrd enst~ acct:cs to US7S pl'erlllSCJ by busy e01f11t71' 11ntZ071r115. "Ynm? z:ya?Ilcut m7icle iu the l)etubcr .~ ~~'ashington Post is a crlrtrut nod percrrnsir'c suruurm7~ n/'thcsr basic puizrts -nod the ut'ernll uumrirtq is errbauad Ins rurn~ eloquent title: `I)uu't Lrt Se- im?it~~ Hidr Our /,igbt.' "/ rrru cspriinlh' cozuerued nbnut this `light' iu Izrdin, rt'bcre it i.~ rez7~ bright iude?ed. 77n? /nrrr USIS liln?nries nr?c nrunzrq the best rnrd roost t//ictirc Aurericnzr libraries irr the' mould. T%e USIS ccu- tr?rs bust n'bat tune be the brrsirst sd~edrrlr? of USIS prrlrtrauuuirrr7 iu the n'urld. "/?be p/n~~iirrl plautc a/?thcse brrildiugs ore the tnngi- blr surn?ie? of this lutht. 7?ber brizrq the Aruericnrr utessn?e to this untiou u/~ ~i0 urilliou people. h.'ufhrcizrr7 orr these brrildizr~c the cnure? secnritr procrdrn?rs uuurdnted /in~ ezubass~~ bnildirrgc tl'bere the tlpe nf'nctiritl~, ru /bare said, is rluitc diffi?reut ~ mould trrrrke It urnrlr izupussible /br USIS to du itc job. As stntcd In the /nst sritiou o/?tbe n~roz7: 'It is iutpnssible to cnuduet public dipln- ntnil' hour bcblud hotted dnoz:~.'" Ambassador Millicent H. Fenwick at the U.S. Mission to the UN in Rome "7lle' 1'ee7111r711C11/Irtt1071~ ~trt tbf ~,07r11t11551011'.c T[~Rlrt~ li'btell ~tr'ttek urr rzs partiirrlnrlr I'nhurblc and re?Icrrzut n'ere tbe:ce: the aced Carr /7?ec? ruress /ur the public; for requirrnu?zrt that the State lhpaz-t- urc?ut consult math U,ti/S nu sccuritl'; separntc frrud~, ilenr?ll~ au- tburice?d for clperrditrn?e bl' US7S nod nr7recutetrt math Stntc nc to JCeln'It1' a77'r771tternf7rl.C; /lCy1bl11t1; R111I eglral Seel[7'tt1' R7Ta7117f- uu?uts~/in?/inrirtrr and U.S. tt'orkc?zs." Ambassador Mike Mansfield in Japan "I zt~nuld lil,?c dz odd un' full suppor7 to lv~zrr utajnr? rccorunrertdn- tiorts. Lc~ttislntiort shotslrl r?ccnttrtiac the sepnratc rrtntttlnte nf'USIA to cuudtrct public diplorund' nrtd the USIA 1)irectnr'c res~iousibil- it~~ to ful/zll this ruaudnte. Irztplernerttatiort n/?lettislatiun should be b~' inter-ngeuc~' n