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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89GO0643R001000100041-0 Y -, B)ECT FILE COPY STAT STAT ROUTING AND TRANSMITTAL SUP TO: (Name. office symbol, room number, - ilding, Agency/Post) 1. C/IPD/DA Initials Date 2. 3. 4. L File Note and Return 1 For Clearance Per Conversation Requested For Correction Prepare Rep irculate For Your Infor:nation See Me ment Investigate Signature ination Justify 00 NOT use this form as a RECORD of approvals, concurrences, disposals, clearances, and similar actions FROM: (Name, org. symbol. Agency/Post) )P'TIONAL FORM 41 (Rev. 7-76) 141 CF1g101-11.206 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 ,DDA SUBJECT FILE COPY,, MORRIS G. MOSES Professional Esgiaur 275 HANS[N AVENUE March 16,1987 Mr. William F. Donnelly,Chairman Information Review Committee Central Intelligence Agency Washington,D.C. 20505 Dear Mr. Donnelly: On September 23,1986,it was my pleasure to receive two sanitized items from the Committee and the DDS&T relative to activities of the Technical Operations Division,WWII Office of Censorship,NARA RG 216. I currently find myself confronted with an anomaly in classified material,and would like to solicit the Committee's kind help in the dilemma.In 1984,parts of NARA RG 22?(WWII Office of Scientific Research & Development) were declassified and re- leased to me.Subsequent study of this material(some 100 or so paEps) discloses material denied to me under earlier RG 216 requests.My personal appraisal is that there has been a compromise of material from RG 216.Material in question discusses steganography(patseand 'duffs"I.R. scanners("Wurlitzer Organ" operation) X-ray inspection ("Argus")and other operations of T.O.D. in detail. Because of ethical considerations and the fact that the volume of material in question would pose an unusually heavy review burden on a page-by-page basis by Agency personnel ,may I respectfully request the privilege of an informal personal inter- view with the Committee to discuss the matter? My hope is that the interview could be productive in securing further legitimate,re- sponsible scholarly access to RG 216/TOD materials,short of in-toto release,but more voluminous than single document review requiring inordinate Agency manpower. Please advise of any conditions prerequisite to such an interview.My studies encompass a. definitive accoiuic of the social, economic,and technical roles that. optics and photography played in WW II espionage. May I thank the Review Committee for its past recepti-w-- ness and cooperation,and ask that you accept the enclosures with all good wishes and my compliments. 1, GT1i/lb cc :-;:alter =forzheimer ynthia Fo ,ivARA V ry sincer'ly, j'ioses Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 DECU?SSIFIED o~ 5~~1'bD~ Jf Date i-10 -g~ July 4s 1945 Refer to Seat. 19.1 EX. - Div.19;1131 Mr. C. J. Staud Bastmm Kodak Caaepaw Zo"k park works Rochester, W1erv Irk Dear Mr. Stands As arranged by te]egrsm yesterdq , I on planning to be in Rocheata r on Wednesd y, July 18, arriv- ixlg at 4=40 a.=. $ spending the one day there. I ? mw trying to get tickets. If there is aW ohasagee I shall ]et you km . Tor your advance infarsation, I as attaching a f th e copy of a ----rand= from Dro, fit. S. Breon o Off ice of Censorship together with a report on CC to 1[r. 0. A. Richter Sincerely Toms:. Warren C. Lothrop Technical kids to Division 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 PHOTO GRAPHIA ~( 6 ]AU VOLUME 3, No. 6 Lassam Paris Train Station becomes Musee D'Orsay Isenburg A Camera Changes Hands Moses Photo Patents and Everyman's CIA Cross A South African Collection - The Whysall Story Liebhold Why was photography invented? Was it cultural demand or progression of science? See the SPSE Pioneers Conference Review. Gallery - News and Notes Happy New Year NOV.- DEC. 1986 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 8 ? PHOTOGRAPHICAIJOUFNAL PHOTOGRAPHICA, PATENTS, by Morris G. Moses Editor's Note: Morris G. Moses of Albany, NY is an engineering graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute whose career has been principally in the chemical and nuclear process industries. Photographic history is Mr. Moses' hobby. His patent research and detective work" have uncovered obscure historical data on cameras and photo processing which would still be dormant, were it not for his keen judgment and determined effort. Mr. Moses spoke at PhotoHistory VI sponsored by The Photographic Historical Society in Rochester. His paper and some of the patent-related illustrations are published here. JN I must begin by taking to very gentle task those who decry their difficulties in researching the historical and technical details of photographica. To slightly paraphrase the good book, behold a wonderful thing has been put before you - yet a majority of you choose not to follow it. I will attempt to review patents as practical working sources of information, with the emphasis on the nuances and mechanics of the retrieval of information from them. Early Background The issuance of patents in the U.S. goes back to Colonial times which in turn inherited the practice from English patent law. The English were not the first to stimulate economy and commerce with patent protection and the very earliest world-wide patents were those granted in Venice, Italy in the first half of the fifteenth century. The first English patent was issued in 1641 to Samuel Winslow for a method of extracting salt. On February 16, 1790, Congress put the first patent bill up and this was signed by George Washington on April 10 of that year. The first U.S. patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Philadelphia on July 31, 1790 for the manufacture of potash. Numbering of U.S. patents began on July 13, 1836 with 9,557 un- numbered patents having been issued prior to that date. The first classification scheme of 1838 had 22 classes, and the classes that would relate most closely to photographica under that earliest scheme were class 2 - "Arts Polite" Class 4 - "Chemical Manufactures", and Class 14 - "Optical Instruments". The work of Daguerre and what soon followed would lead to the establishment of Class 95 which appeared in the index of 1872. The 1872 revision of the Patent Classification System was the largest single change in the patent reclassification efforts of the nineteenth century. A Sampling of-Photographic Patents Over the Years It is an irony that those who sought to exploit their inventiveness through patent licensing in earliest days-Daguerre, Langenheim, Talbot and others-profited very little. Enforcement was difficult and attempts at restriction were regarded as hostile to others. Picking out some sample patents over the years from 1842 to 1872, we find "Daguerreotype Impressions-Mode of Fixing", Benjamin Stevens and Lemuel Morse, March 28, 1842; "Daguerreotype Pictures, Coloring" John Plumbe, October 22, 1842; "Daguerreotype Apparatus" William H. Lewis and H.J. Lewis, November 11, 1851; "Daguerreotype Pictures" Charles J. Anthony, January 1, 1851; "Daguerreotype Cases" J.F. Mascher, March 8, 1853 (Patent #9611); "Apparatus for Moving Stereoscopic Pictures" Albert Southworth and Josiah Hawes, # 13,106, June 19, 1855; "Collodion for Photographic Pictures" July 15, 1856 and "Bituminous Ground for Photographic Pictures", October 21, 1856 - both of these by Victor M. Griswold; "Enlarging Photographs" #23,316, by D. Shive, Philadelphia, March 22, 1859; "Stereoscopic Picture Improvements #35635 William Southworth, June 17, 1862; "Photographic Rest for Support" #55,443 Oliver Sarony, June 5, 1866; "Phototometer" #55,797, S.G. Elliott, June 19, 1866 (a very early extinction-type exposure meter); "Printing Frame" #99, 462, Peter Murphy, February 1, 1870; "Photographic Lens" #126,979, R. Morrison, May 21, 1872 (an early lens design). The Daguerreotype era had run its course and the Collodion period was beginning to near its eclipse. The Dawn of Gelatin and Flexible Films The deceiving simplicity of the Eastman and Goodwin film patents of the 1880's belie the legal battles surrounding them and the tremendous fortunes that were to be made based on them. One of the Eastman patents, #306, 594, "Photographic Film" showed only three layers designated simply as "A, B, and C". The drawing for Goodwin's patent #610,861 was a shaded square! In this same period, as the 1880's drew to an end, were some of Frank Brownell's work on camera design: #575,208, January 12, 1897, #579,126 on March 23, 1897, and #579,949 on April 6, 1897. Brownell had begun his distinguished career which can be traced pretty well through his patents. In 1900, we find some of the evidence of Henry Reichenbach's work on "Camera Backs" in patent #661,894 issued on November 13 of that year. Closer study of the patent literature in this 'period will show some of Eastman's and Reichenbach's collaborations on early film coating technologies. The First Three Decades of the 20th Century Eastman's first Kodak camera with cylindrical lens-shutter took form in the patent #388,850, patented September 4, 1888. The cameras had Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 PHOTOGRAPHICA/JOURNAL 9 AND EVERYMAN'S C.I.A. SO6,594. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM. Ou gas .e' , P.r ehcat'r. N. Y, assignor to the Eavtaaa Dry Plate Company, same plats Filsd Y r. 7.188. (No model) Cloim.-1. As a new article of manufacture, a seo3itiee pb' t- graphic film consisting of a coating of insoluble semitized gelatine, a pi- per or equivalent support, and an interposed coating of soluble oel+ ::. 2. Ina photographic film, the combination of the support A.:`.:?? insoluble sensitive gelatin-argentic-emubioo film C. and t'se so:ub:?? interposed gelatine layer U. sabotantially as described. 3. In a film for photographic purposes, the combination of a b irk- ing sheet or support of paper or like material, a film of set:;itized gel- Una adapted to withstand the solvent action of water, and so istcrm,?- diate film of soluble gelatine. 4. The herein-described sensitive flexible photographic film. slating of the support A. baring a layer of injolublo seniti.xd Bela:iu??. C. attached thereto by means of an interposod soluble Selmiu.? t.r One of the Eastman roll film patents. G. EASTMAN. :d Yi4A. . 6 10, 8 6 1 . PHOTOGRAPHIC :ELLICLE AND Pi tICESS OF ). PRODUCING SAME HANNIBAL GOODWIN, Newark, N. .1. F,'.-71 Ni, 2, 1687. Serial No. 236.750. (No mmuleL) Claim.-1. An improvement it, the art of tual,in_ t.t flexible. photographic-film pellicles. the -tune cunsi-ring in di-l. The deceiving simplicity of the Eastman and Goodwin film patents of the 1880's belie the legal battles surrounding them znd. the-fortunes which were made based on these patents. J 3::.U-se..t I. Brownell, Turner, and the Eastman The milestone Kodak Camera patent of 1888. begun to come out of production earlier in June 1888. With the price of $10 for 100 photographs and the volume of advertising placed in over a dozen magazines of that era, amateur photography was put on the map forever. The subtleties of technical and economic warfare in these formative years of flexible film can be traced out in the patent literature, and the fortunes of and Blair companies are forever inscribed in the patent literature for any diligent researcher. In the early part of the century, the sleeping giant of photography woke up all over the world, and a cursory inspection of the patent literature has produced the following patents listed at random: "Camera" #843,140, William Folmer, February 5, 1907; "Focusing Screen" #856,618, Frank A. Brownell, June 11, 19C)7; "Photographic Camera" #855,004, Lodewyk Hoist and Louis Borum, May 28, 1907; "Folding Camera" #903,533, Frederick A. Anthony, November 10, 1908; "Vest Pocket Camera" Magnus Niell, #904,005, November 17, 1908 (This is the. inventor of the well-known EXPO watch camera, itself the subject of patent #769,319, dated September 6, 1904); "Camera" Bartram Walker, #910,750, January 26, 1909; "Chronometric Camera Shutter' #916,346, March 23, 1909; 'Photographic Camera Shutter" Fred Schmid #975,464, November 15, 1910; "Magazine Developing Camera" #1003533, Charles Spery, September 19, 1911; "Shutter Operating Mechanism" Reinhold Heidecke, October 7, 1913, #1075101; "Motion Picture Camera" #1151566, Herman Casler, August 31, 1915; "Autographic Camera" #1240910, Roy Wilmot, September 25, 1917; "Film Magazine" #1215534, Albert S. Howell, February 13, 1917; "Silent One of the Goodwin roll film patents. Camera Shutter" #1298755, Albert Matter & Fred Conley, April 1, 1919; "Stylus Attachment for Camera" #1473798, Charles Speidel, November 13, 1923; "Enlarging Camera" #1573314, Emanuel Goldbert, Dresden, Germany, February 16, 1926; "Film Photographic Camera" #1733234, Umberto Nistri, Rome, Italy, October 29, 1929; "Exposure Guide for Cmaera Shutters" # 1795797, William A. Riddell, Eastman Kodak Company, March 10, 1931; "Printing Apparatus for Photographic Purposes" #1796258, Oskar Barnack, Leitz-Wetzlar, March 10, 1931; "Distance Meter" #1930432, Oskar Barnack; "Photographic Camera" #2032061, Heinz Kuppenbender, Dresden, February 25, 1936 (one of the many patents useful in tracing out the history and technology of the CONTA)); "Photographic Camera" #2104094, Hubert Nerwin, Dresden, February 4, 1938 (One of the patents issued on the TENAX to a name many will recognize). The above is but a brief sampling of patents issued in the early 20th century when the photographic industry was undergoing a revolution in terms of apparatus for the amateur, as well as professional. The point in the recital is that you will have recognized names or certain developments through patents. Now let us take a look at the mechanics and practical methodologies of retrieval of research information from the patent literature. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 IV - r II v 1 %j %j nrr "i%_m %jun1,4AL How to Find the Winning Numbers There are several tools in the patent research game. One, the basic of these, is the classification table which breaks down the "art," as it is called, into subclassifications. The current class number for photog- raphy is class 354 and this is further broken down currently into over 400 subclasses. just about every optical and mechanical configuration is covered and an example will show how the system is applied. The patent office periodically puts out lists, called subclass lists, on which appear the patent number of those arts corresponding to the subclasses in the 354 tables. Taking subclass 205 as an example, we go to the 3541205 listings and find that the first patent number shown is #472,257. This patent turns out to be one for a "Photographic Camera" issued to Benjamin Edwards of London. It issued in the U.S. on April 5, 1892 and had previously issued as British patent #11,416 on July 16, 1889. Already we have quite a bit of background on one of the first patents for an early focal plane roller-blind shutter. The remaining patent numbers under the 205 group will give the researcher in focal plane shutters a good beginning into the history and technology of this particular art. It will not be a perfect coverage, however, since it must be borne in mind that patent classification systems have evolved over a century and have always been subject to human interpretation. You will also note that although you have entered the classification under 354, older patents will show up as having been classified under the very early classes of 2, 4, or 18 or in the intermediate class of 95 which appeared from 1872 to the late 1960's. Other vital tools in the researcher's armory will be the Annual Indices and the weekly gazettes. The Annual Index, published from 1842 in various formats, permits the researcher to enter the patent literature chronologically by subject, inventor's name, and in many cases, by assignee. There are many subtleties in subject searching and you will soon discover that "Optical device or part thereof" can hide the details of a lens design if you are not persistent in your searches. From time to time, the Patent Office has issued what they call "definitions" in which they try to explain variations in the terminologies they employ for differing arts and subclasses. Another device in the patent literature is the file wrapper, or patent office official file history. This document, often several hundred pages in length, gives the running account of all paper work that ensued from the moment the inventor first filed his application for the patent until the time it was granted. This document will include what are called all office actions, denials and grants of claims (the legal heart of the patent) and very often, addresses which are of vital importance in reconstructing the history and often finding the inventor or his heirs personally. The assignment indexes, another tool, often permit the researcher to start with nothing but a company to whom the inventor might have sold his rights and work back to the patent where only the company's name and a time span are known, and where the indexes might have missed such facts. In short, there are many strategies in research- the major ones being the annual indexes, the subclassification lists, the file histories, and the assignment "libers" (or books). Where to Find the Winning Numbers U..M.t. "LOSS Ta?aS.. t . . &9.. w. Guw,K. Ln.ltc ~i.c I_~c. s.G. ~_c.L?_b... w Lb.ry Odw J2 GEORGU CS:a,a h Liar. MOLE- I+fingvW+u Caa] P+u"r LA v - Mm Rap.., H.Ydd.b Llm,. Lana.-. 5,. . Ln.cvP - P.b `SE,TS Rco-C:.: ..;4e:??L'_~i :=1;J ?. `ff:. contract= ?."' a1f scientific man power. A year 1101 01Y III d mdlcnoox camera. Lett to right: Outside metal shell, milled-edge winding knob (top side with engraved transport p 1 - distance - indication notches not shown), reeled film, back; and. plastic (bakelite) molded inner body, proposed a run o of earlier, on June'27, 1940, the 450 to 500 units,, in January National Defense Research shaped time=delay explosives ', towards roducin 1944, and supplementary con- Council (NDefense d been set detonators,..- water-soluble cameras in: Summer 1943 was the ing at a nominal 1/50 second tract read ona prod 'ron_ up as a liaison between in- microfilm for emergency based partly on se r- a small lrutautaneous speed, and.aLso tinting diti oal 'pr on dustry and government. One destruction by swallowing, format's ability to nfrared. nig500 sliding brass plate provided September charged with development of infrared. night viewing render ' high-resolution con- two stops, one at f.5.0. and one' 1944 OSS correspondence and more exotic hardware of war equipment. One of the early tinuous tone "images..;";The: at f. 11. No- viewfinder was in-' receipts over the period of was Division 19, established in contracts that passed thru' doubts were, present, despite ' cluded in the design on the" Januar y 19frag the-end of April 1943 to fill the needs of Division 19 for production of successes in 16mm microfilm- philosophy that bringing the 1945 are fragmen nted, and OSS, Division 19, whose matchbox cameras ,(initially g ,equipment of the late totals documented by archival 1930s. The team. chosen ate camera to the face was too coon records only account for 846 euphemistic title was under a. camouflage project) spicuous, and also that a waist- eMiscellaneous Weaponsas vim OSS Contract 1677 Kodak. consisted-; of" Joseph level reflex finder would pose .cameras produced under con- spawned projus s' for pencil- Stoiber, Joe Boon, andnry tract. On the'basis of those Kodak's initial "skepticism"' `Hood. StolbeBoon ll'nd He t}ie 1 parallax problems: The '`' d'arkioom loading scheme was' records foimd_by the author, team, was born in Jae h t l A'Fy 13, 1947. J, STO;BER :_^.e:-. IT: cl, 1 T11ed TN, G. 1917 .,t;relupmenc Depart ment: In 1939, he was pro- moted to development' - 'engineer, and by 1945 had become a supervisory design engineer.. The matchbox pro- totype, 'fabricated by-Adam Archinal of New-York city for" the OSS-in mid 1943 became , the basis for refined production designs subsequently made by Kodak and Stoiber's group. S. Patent #2420628 issued on May 13, 1941 for s e OSS/Kodak Matchb ox g wir decided on earlier by OSS as an Bavaria, Germany in d attended the bra h 897 and additional precaution to pre continued on .,nr,a -to ha -- a:uule there. Stoiber ar- rived'in:the U.S. in 1926 and went to work for Kodak in' November 1927 as ? a_,r._R"._ ~.' The cameras` utilized variants of a Kodak microfilm -lens designated, as a-"formula ? ; 89W Tessar-type." The focal 'length was approximately 25mm, and the original speed rating was f.3.5. The'two ma- jor versions of the camera dif- fered primarily' in the manner of film configuration. The earlier "Model I" took the film ..wound. in coils only; whereas the later "Model 2" took film wound on reels as well as coils. The top disc of the winding knob was.. enorov ,4 .,r:.1, {,, scan: iaa lCe,? LS reb, 6, 1945 3eterl.? caner: .oaeph Stolber %A+(15 1415 ' S=M-T on 3L. -a In, .Dal lc. .ae.v +t aornrra ? aavn a., Mrv lnara.r 4.?Ita,tfl rlov Mlr.. aM .N ?M all \Iv ..?ILn.,., 9 t iwl,. tau .r...r.\y n,t'n.d anal tour a0pilu ten a tea In aclJ .1 ,.tn. +uaauaMrlaW alas loran eaf?? `a.ealn.a M. y..n :o.n0 to tn. p;l1l, ,char or ?d.fmu, aM >m ? p.., I \ dept M da a.....l v Invrnllo o any u .rl.l lnreraatlm elW vile r.a to .la. to yuell,e ar el?els.? u^e'=lt l:r.rd 0.1,11, of tn..u]l.ct u r~a9e .,,. ln. a::nel pale !ct to ae.a 0. , e.r, 3~IminL ? e ole)rv Or ?tt?. Cc_1?len,r at?nu, It m f of (Tu ?seeaa er .rl ttm pa hal6, 'l eta lore ll lc moo c: 3 . to), a. aC.K.e lair le' 1960 (raptle l0.. e700 a. or OcaeMr (hl1 d, 1911 lc' 1.1.'33t. .nd Jae le a '"dm , 33 S:a. 611; , 19a2 (reel lc Lao 0011. 33 O. i,C. 12: t0 uSLOn taa, 21. ]9a, 19.1 SWt.-]30, ]IO 0., C. 2]], ati, Sa try .11., appllea talon anlcn ce tins am altnlf leant part of to. ,uyvcl a0tur t1e tb0?r? ICe n,ItIcs Filf eatlen fall, .1 Nln tM app.. leothen Cara not auM u. Jrr a aeop. rte;, e:d?r. ]f a.??? etn.r r_ld 0? pr,?;S71 to 1. nut ? ?04 ,rG?r. It ?M tM can ?.npct mtbr ntlen of eaM fatrnt O:fle? Lar VI't.len. ,f Drier to In, h?wnc? .t.t . rear OM.r ant,, ILni rltant pan or tM seal ?01 r M. \.rn r.,,al rd t my Mnen 'eth .lv ins: PtL .Mil rreeaur Inhn Oucn pram eft for atcr.c> e?G?r a"?td :7. pen?ltl ea f. r' el ?sp ;,?x~tplaying 600 Serbert zrrdesl their origins and, in deference n~rig mill in Wetzlar on the mid-1950s. In 1948; Zapp gn~ the to Minox ginal conception, to Walter Zapp s totally sincere . Bahnhofstrasse (Railroad Sta- entered the U.S. briefly in one having only 4 elements, the Walter Zapp returned to his personality ,,: tion Street Berztns; the ho of~indin :an American element being "recessed,: role_as an independent inven- g- away from the Film `and "filmy Y .tor;in late=1950. In 1961, he manufacturing "connection ft :. Plane:. The ,film was-still ,: took up, residence, in Saint . also` b f"th` ' u u ort e met With , ~~ a curved"configure- Callen, Switzerland. Born in quick failure and Za i dgt tonurin. exposure, but Lavia, -filing the " original released completely;.. during Minox patent as a German transport, eliminating any dirt 'citizen, , and living in carryover and scratching?prob -Switzerland has certainly l Th l ems. e, 4-e ement design, qualified Zapp as a world class lens design of the-Minox left much' named the COMPLAN (COM- camera designer. Arthur room forirnprovements. pensating PLANe) became a Seibert . went on. in 1951 to In his search for a better lens; hallmark in successive models found the firm EMO-OPTIK he discovered Arthur Seibert, of the Minox. : ' (EMO m Electronic, Mechanic, who had been' employed by Seibert and Zapp; neither of Optic) in Wetzlar. The firm is Leitz since 1920. Leitz was not whom were ever. 'salaried world renowned to this day for interested in any. part of the employees of Minox CmbH. roducin the finest ma i- Minox at that time,; and the P g gn idea of?Seibert's "moorili t G'esseen, were to break .their _ fiers, microscope-telescope. formal association as contras- : combinations, and specialized ing"as ,a lens designer was un- tors to that "firm in 1950. 'instruments. comfortable for both Zapp and Earlier, Zapp had worked with, Next: 'Part' Five-The Seibert.: Finally,, in 1949, Dr. Ing. Joseph'Sti~per, author 1950s-1970s era, and going for Seibert agreed to !a full-time - of the definitive work' oir.. `the Cold. contract - with Zapp for the. . camera design "Die' Photo- The author would like to desigri of the postwar Minox graphische Kamera"-and an. thank Rolf Kasemeier, Werner lens. authority onapecial and sub- Michaeli, Liane Seibert and The first of .Iwo postwar. t i for u e matcameras.D. the! Seibert Family, and Minox.,lens designs was a a Stuper was. one: of, the, early Thomas. Sharpies for their. 5-element lens (appropriately, production managers of Minox many kindnesses in connection named: a "Pentax") and the CmbH Giessen and. was with Part Fourofthisseries:? rear element of which was call- _ actuallycontacted.thefilm and pressed it into. a curved path. during exposure: While the concept was valid forcompen- sating for many distortions and aberrations, the design was im- practical insofar as trapping dirt and producing scratching. Cross-section of Minox model 2. circa 1948. Heavy arrow points to part #27. the of the negative.. In the hopes of film-lens (and fifth element). This lens element contacted the film during exposure reducing the problem, cork but the design Treated all sorts of dust pick-up and scratching problems. and chamois swabs were even PP turned to Germany.'-: .Zapp had also realized, even during the war, that the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Minox-Small Wonder tor 5U Years by Morris G. Moses that year for production of has never been authenticated, rights to the Berlin offices of 5000 Minoxes. Based on the and the only piece of work Agfa-Kamerawerk. Through. Part Three-The World War II - author's study of fragmented done under the $10,000 allot- ? the influence of Rusche, who Years records from the CVVA (Cen- 'ment appears to be the Castelli. could see some commercial (Previous parts of this story tral State Archives of Riga), the enlarging column lock patent potential in the post-war ex.' (Previous with the conception of production fell far short of the p2,339,615 filed on May 21, ploitation of the camera, Zapp or 5000 and was closer to the 1942. was given'a job in 1943 work- d a Minox in the co by conception the (Readers with ing in the AEG-Berlin research Zapp; the first Estonian pro- "Russian ? Minxes" and other `-In. the summer of 1941. Ger- laboratories under Drs. Bruche totype; and the developments Minox cameras are urged to the man VEF troops was taken occupied over b Riga and- and ?Ramsauer, who were e that led to Zapp's association .;contact Mr. Richard Conrad,; by the world exp its on the early l with the VEF in Riga, Latvia P:0.. Box 156, Mason, MI.: Gesell esellnschaft efne ("AEG"), an ricit inats- development of the electron. in 1936-1940.) 48854 Mr Conrad is doin an ? mrcroscope? e ea qua ez in n. their intensified night-time MinOxes and heim serial r n, vbaeringtof and would had cross-licensing agreements bombings of Berlin. Although be pleased to exchange with General Electric Com- the work on electron information.) pry among others, and also microscopes was a challenge to While the Russians were de had representatives in over 40 Zapp's many skills, the dream facto owners of VEF during countries on all five continents. of a Minox reborn after World AEG also had a financial in-' War II was' ainin more parts of \VW II, the manufac- g g turing rights and title to Minox January 21VEF, from 1942, WWI. Otto On strength in the fertile imagina- in the U.S. at that time were Rusche, a director of AEG; tion of a determined Walter another complex matter. Zapp, was authorized by a Zapp. and Jurgen had made their "Vntlmarhr 1x wnr of ,r: Next-Part Four-The Post United States.-: : had commenced, and export to The' 'American base `on,1. England and Switzerland had which Minox, Inca was >., started in 1938. With escala- established began with the in- tion of the war in 1940, Janis corporation in 1935 of the firm Vitols lost contact and legal AD.-Auriema, founded by control of his source of mcr- Adolph Auriema, an exporter chandise. On April 1, 1941, of radio, electronic, and -0- Dr. Alfreds Bilmanis, Latvian tion?picture equipment. Short- Envoy Extrar4inary, Minister iy' after Janis Vitols had arrived Plenipotentiary, and exiled in the U.S. in 1939, he ap- Counsel General of Latvia in proached Auriema for finan- the U.S., sold all rights to U.S. cial support in marketing the Patents numbers 2,161,941; Minox in America. On June 3, 2,169,548; and 2,218,966 to 1V1 Minoi had begun at VEF in late 1937, and Janis. Vitols had already made his contacts in London for the establishment of Minox, Ltd. there in 1938. While trade .between Latvia and Europe had existed since the 1800s, the new 20th century marketing vistas in the minds of 'VEF management were in the Although Pearl Harbor was still over. a year away for America, the Russians had entered Riga on June 17, 1940. This would be the first of two Russian-occupations of Riga. With the Russian takeover of VEF, the production of Minox cameras became a second priority to manufacture of more ordnance, radio, and radar. Historical photographic remnants of the spasmodic Russian occupations of Riga are embodied in the so-called "Russian Minoxes." Variants of these included effacing or omitting the word "Riga" under "VEF" and also the American advertising for the Government) as a 331h % sales Minox-had already begun in" commission for underwriting the photographic consumer publicity and advertising for magazines in early 1940. the Minox in the U.S. Of fur- and John J. Mahoney, a lawyer, incorporated as Minox, Inc. with offices at 116 Broad Street (Auriema's ad- dress) N.Y.C. Janis Vitols held 18 of the 20 outstanding shares; &uriema and Mahoney held one share each. The business address changed to 92 Liberty Street, N.Y.C. in late 1940, in- directly as a result of Vitols' meeting with members of the Latvian-American Relief Committee who had vacant of- fice space there. Heavy Minox, Inc. Janis Vitols' firm in the U.S. It was a legal vic- tory, but one which did little to assure any continued. American Supplies of Minox cameras. Earlier, on February 11, 1941, an even more vi- sionary agreement had been drawn up between Vitols and Bilmanis, the latter acting for- the free government of Latvia in exile. The terms of this earlier. agreement gave Vitols Latvian assets of $44,912.60. From this was deducted $10,392.66 (due the Latvian ther interest were allowances of "$3.00/camera guarantee fee" for 996 cameras (a form of warranty set-aside); -$4.00/ camera for "rebuilding" of 150 cameras (some apparently ar- rived in need of final assembly or rebuilding) and an allowance of $823.40 for "faul- ty mechanisms" (presumably, repair work and. replacement': parts). -The most historically'* significant aspect of this agree- ment was the inclusion of a $10,000 allowance from the. Free Latvian Government "for work involving continued pro- duction of the Minox camera in: the United States."'It was the. engraving of "Made in USSR" intention of Free Latvia to where the normal "Made in assure continued supplies of the Latvia" wouldyhave been. Ac- Minox in the U.S. and accept cording to The State Plan for a 5% royalty on sales of such Development of the USSR Na- cameras. Regretfully, a Minox tional Economy for 1941, the engraved "Made in U.S.A." Russians had actually set a goal t, ternational electrical trust, in late 1943, the Allies began exhaustive research study on ,:'U d rt d 11-A: AEC business between Riga, 11- "' ...1.." .V LLIVx Switzerland, and Berlin. It was named in previous parts, the later in the war and through author would like to Rusche that the Swiss hfinox acknowledge the help of Osca- operation, VEF-Etablisse-, Fricke; Ti)ri Mulligan, Na- ment, was set up to handle floral Archives; Professor Akira Inomata, Minox distribution in , State , Univer- postwar . sity of New York; Switzerland. During Rusche'$ Quadri, VEF-Establissement; tenure as German interim con- Dora Weinstein and Barry nection to VEF-Riga, he Balthrop, both with the U.S. managed to meet Walter Zapp Patent Office Scientific who was traveling between Library. _ ? Riga, Munich and Berlin in the hopes of selling the camera Variants of "Russian MINOXes"-left to right "Riga" effaced and "Made in USSR" engrav- ed in sunken background; no "Riga" and "made in USSR" engraved on flat background; on extreme right. regular Riga MINOX. rr -.. r.nT . 1W, q? ~. N.... r .... wa w*... M.. d.N..anode n., i_un.. 1...I IN Uar liw. u N apW d ...4446 4 .r.. Abn.Y..M.uw.W UNr.+4 I. Ya. I.aM. IW W *r.M.. _ ..M l.r all IM ..W t. .r W.. un.. w I. N a.r?W aM I 4 *4 * I4M. II W. g 4aI. u M r .4.. 4.II h '*g N 4, ..I..N .4 hOua I.rr? . v aN Is.a pa.r 4..(041 ?I'?. w.[Y. 'I W 1. N .,.? (04 -, r..MM? u .. M..14???M d...Ia.w. M ur a a.myM .A.a r a.W.[al ..srM... w alY r+4 N ruwr, All 4r...w1?a?u r? .rN.~.. + W MY.O% W ..w Na.....?.. 1. MrUrs hb GfA1 wMr. ?+..'i~'? ..... I Advertisement for MINOX in England. November 1939. Photographic Journal (Lon- don). 25 English pounds were 5125.00 American at the beginning of WWII. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 embodied * in the con- tract.....The men, Walter Zapp and Richard Jurgens, confirm here in writing that the camera is the invention of Walter Zapp, and the joint property of Walter Zapp and Richard Jurgen." The formal contract occupied three pages and became the basis for the familiar 8 x 11mm format Riga Minox and 49 patents in 20 countries. The first patent was Finland's #7481, December 21, 1936. A second Finnish patent #7486 was issued simultaneous- ly with British Patent #495,149 on December 22, 1936. Zapp moved from Nomme, Estonia to Riga and VEF in late November 1936, and the Minox tooling began at VEF under Edvards Berzins in ear- ly 1937. It was an effort involv- ing nearly 70 people among whom were the optical team including Indus from Estonia, Francis Fersts, Blatnek and Mueller, two Austrian refu- gees. A. man named Petters became the. liason between Zapp and Teodors Vitols, and a designer, Oskars Crinbergs, was assigned for Zapp's use. Roberts Erdmanis, a mechan- ical engineer and member of the faculty of the Latvian University, helped develop much of the automated tool- ing, very advanced at that time for technology anywhere in the world. Peters Butulis, a techni- cian, worked on designs for. " autofocusing mechanisms of early models of 20 x 30cm enlargers. Space precludes a complete listing here of all Minox personnel, their educa- tional backgrounds, and their language skills, but to the author's amazement, over 42 names given to,him by Walter Zapp and Alberts Jekste were confirmed in immigration, em- bassy, and intelligence records at the U.S. National Archives. Jekste was an administrative executive under VEF's Vice- Director Juris Liepins and radio-electronics . division department head, Edvards Feldmanis. Alberts Jekste was also an early pre-WW II pioneer in development of xenon short-arc high-intensity lighting sources for motion pic- tures. It was partially thru Jekste's intercessions with Dr. Alfred Bilmanis, Latvia's Foreign Minister, th&t seed monies were found for the Minox project. The early Estonian Minox logo as originally conceived by Zapp was disputed by Zeiss- Ikon shortly after its registra- tion. As a result, Zapp's logo was modified by VEF's graphics designer, Adolfs Ir- bitis (brother of Karlis, the air- craft designer) from "Minox" to "VEF-Minox-Riga." Born ion December 6, 1910 in Riga, Adolfs Irbitis had been in charge of the VEF photo-lab, and contributed suggestions towards the styling of the VEF Minox. His industrial designs "The early Estonian Minox logo as originally conceived by Zapp was disputed by Zeiss-Ikon, after which Zapp's logo was modified.' also figured heavily in many early Minox publications, and VEF radio cabinetry. Facilities for casting were in short supply in 1937, and the unusual deep-drawn camera body-shells, made of stainless steel, presented many die- making problems and frustra- tions in finish-cleaning. Sub- assemblies for shutter and body mechanisms required hand- soldering of brass and steel in some places. It was not until February 1938 that serious production began to yield over 100 cameras per month. Zapp was also asked to consider a 16mm format in 1939, a pro- ject in which Orestes Berlings (later, a designer for the Omicron, prototype for the Japanese Atoron Minox-copy) participated, but the scale-up would have magnified weak- nesses in the existing triplet lens design, and also inhibited sales and. processing revenues from the unique 9.5mm wide Minox double-spool film packaging. According to Walter Zapp, the first Minox sold outside of Riga was purchased by a French diplomat who later remarked on "its usefullness for office purposes." This might . have been a euphemism for es- pionage usage, an application which Zapp has always denied as being the primary design goal for the camera. Whether or not it was intended for spy- ing, it is one of very, very few rigid-bodied cameras which. focus down to 8 inches without use of supplementary lenses leaving much to conjecture. Time had now come around to mid-1939, thoughts of set- ting up for export to England and the U.S. were underway, and no one at VEF was yet aware of the three successive foreign occupations of Riga that would begin in 1940. Next: Part Three-The World War II Years. N.B. In addition to those previously named in Part One, the author would like -to acknowledge the contributions of Orestes Berlings;': Richard Conrad; Professor David Crowe; Alfreds Gerbers; Karlis -- Irbitis; P.' Korsaks, Latvian SSR; Heldor ' Sepman;. Miewaldis Sipins; A. Spur- manis and J.V. Svanks, Association- of Latvian Engineers; and Nick Upenieks. ? The main building of the VEF (Valsts Elektrotechniska Fabrika or State Electrotechnical Factory) in 1939. Note antenna on top with letters "VEF." Minox production shops. were on parts of second and third floors and some lower. rear floor areas. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 "flox Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 -3mai i vv onaer Dr. Teodors Vitols (1888-1948).Director of VEF. His emigration to the United States was sponsored in 1946 by. his nephew. Janis Vitols. Barely in the states for two years Vitols died in New York City on January 15. 1948. by Morris G. Moses copyright 1986 all rights reserved Part Two-Operations at the Valsts Electrotechniska Fab- rika (VEF) 1937-1939 Editor's Note: A portion of the planned book on Minox by Mr. Moses is appearing in Shutterbug in an eight-part series. This is the second installment. (Part One described the ear- ly life of Walter Zapp and his conception of the first Minox in Estonia in the mid-1930s. Fail- ing in his attempts to secure a manufacturing set-up there, his fortunes led him to VEF in Riga, Latvia in 1936.) Walter Zapp and his financial partner, Richard Jurgens, were received at the VEF on September 7, 1936 by Teodors Vitols, the General Director. Vitols, born in 18. in Taurkaln, Latvia,.. 35 . miles southeast of Riga, had com- menced studies at'the" St... Petersburg (now Leningrad),..'. Polytechnic Institute in 1907, but"w as dismissed soon after enrollment upon discovery that he had participated in the 1905 Revolution. He .was later. employed " by ' Siemens- Schuckert in St: Petersburg in 1909 and returned to Latvia in 1920. Graduated from the, -University of Latvia in 1929,',.,' he joined VEF in 1932. VEF had been established in that year as an independent:: state enterprise, . having developed out of the Pasta and Telegrapa' Galvenas-the Lat- vian State Postal ? Telegraph ,.and Telephone complex. t Employment at VEF rg fr 400 to nearly 3500,: in' !1939, e. with corresponding sales from 2 to. 15 million. Lats;.(at 1 .Lat a 19 .cents, roughly $400,000 to $3,000,000). Among the varied departments were the plywood and aircraft divisions with such prize- winning world-recognized air- craft designers as Karlis Irbitis, father of the VEF J-11 and J-12 monoplanes. Coincidentally, Janis Vitols, nephew of- Teodors, was VEF's London sales agent for these planes in 1936. VEF radios from the radio-electronics divisions were sold all over Europe, some models having features copied ' from such well-known Ameri can firms as National Radio in Malden, Massachusetts and Hallicrafters in Chicago. What Zapp and Jurgens first presented to Teodors Vitols : was the Estonian Ur-Minox, a 6.5 x 9mm prototype,- silver- ' - plated brass and-steel working model, capable of enlarge- ments up to 13 x 18mm. Vitols' initial reaction was both apathetic and skeptical, and his first question was whether or not the enlargements had been "doctored" or retouched. When Zapp replied that only dust spots and scratches had been removed, Vitols then ask- ed Zapp to take test photos in ' Vitols' presence. These were sent out for processing and when the negatives and enlarg- ed prints came back, Vitols ex- claimed his delight at the results. The initial contract between VEF and the Zapp- Jurgens partnership was drawn up on October 6, 1936 and the opening paragraph is quoted: "This contract has to do with a miniature photo camera and respective accessory apparatus discovered, invented, and built by Mr. Walter Zapp. The camera is called "Minox" and hereby the camera is designated as the central object and its technical description is ror u Years SHUTTERBUG, OCTOBER 1986 A VEF-Riga Minox outfit. From left to right Developing tank with thermometer. tripod/cable release clamp, instruction book, enlarger, extinction-type exposure meter, film tin containing cassettes, and the Minox camera itself. Note size of exposure meter as compared to camera. Close-up of VEF?Riga Minox exposure meter. Note delineation of lighting condition 'by graphics just above shutter speed band in lower photo and overall resemblance of meter to the more familiar "Leudi.- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 in Photo Technology Part 1: Developments up to 1940 ..urerie s Roll Holder (Courtesy Brian Coe-Kodak Harrow) n d CP by Morris G. Moses Rochester manufacturer who designed the Eastman-Walker U nc of the earliest ac- rollholder of 1884, had been counts of technical corresponding with Warnerke. photography in Russia The 1888 Kodak had a is about the work done in 1840 100-exposure capacity another by A.F. Crekov. This was an interesting coincidence with attempt to eliminate the mir- \Varnerke's concept. rorlike quality of a daguer- reotype and obtain a inure A Three-Color Camera lasting image by chemically An early three-color color plating a thin gold layer over camera designed by E. Kozlov- the image. Crckov's work was skii appeared in 1889 and is reported by the French somewhat reminiscent of the physicist Arago to the French 1938 American design by Academy of Sciences in Paris in Devin-. Three filtered images late 1840. Crekov was one of .- were obtained with one ex- the first Russian workers to posure and then registered to construct a daguerreotype produce the final full-color im- apparatus. mage. The Kozlovskii ap- Another Russian daguer- paratus was exhibited in Kiev reotypist was S.L. Levitskii in 1901. Early work by 1. who exhibited his work at the Yanovskii in 1894 on Paris Exhibitions of 1843 and chronophotograpy was a 1851, winning a gold medal at the latter.. Levitskii Is further credited with a focusing bellows camera in 1847 and the earliest use of the arc light in Russia, in 1879. One of the I% earliest Russian stereo cameras, high-speed and time-sequenced photography.. . Many f today's catadioptric lens designs have come down from the early work of A.A. Popovitskii in 1902. A patent constructed by D.P. Ezuchev- , granted him in 1904 describes skill in 1878, brought this \. a unique lens design with mir; qt'r' deli Paris bronze eimodal In the, roe objective and bellows, one 1878 of the earliest patents in r 14 14 Rollfihn Origin Some claim that the legacy of the rollfilm is due in large part to the work of Leon Warnerke (Varnerke), a Rus- sian who lived in England in 1875. 1Varnerke's rollholder used a special paper rollcoated with collodion emulsion. This was a -strippable'! film, made up in a 100-exposure length and wound between two rollers. The roll was marked ahead of time with numbers and lines for positioning in the focal plane. The lines and numbers spherical mirror lens design that laid the groundwork for later designs by Maksutov. A crude photo-electric shut- ter design was patented by 1. Polyakov in 1899, but design work never progressed beyond a prototype at the Moscow Technical College in 1908.' Aerial photography was used by the Russian army in World War I, and multi-objective aerial survey cameras were the subjects of design patents filed by V.F. Potte and R. Tile in 1910. Burinskii's Work One of the more unusual sian workers argue to this day ;areas of pre-revolutionary Rus L h ?,s,tslii s catadioptuc objectives and camera: 1) camera and mirror (8) com- criminology techniques andj forensic photography was adopted by many Western countries. Burinskii was the founder of the St. Petersburg State Forensic Photographic Laboratory in 1889. In IS98he was awarded the 11.V.. Lomonosov prize for work done on deciphering 13th Cen.. tury documents found during. an 1843 excavation, of the Kremlin.. Using the techniques of repeated exposures and negative superimposition to in- crease contrast, he was able to bring up the writing on the original 13th Century': material. This material, amar. ingly enough, was rawhide) A' copy of a Burinskii work, Forensic Examination of Documents (1903), is in the F.B.I. Library in Washington, The turn of the century brought the appearance of the Iris sensitized plate factory in Libau and the Victory and All Russian Factories in Moscow. Production rates for sensitized goods and cameras in the ear- ly 1900s were .still low sine mass photography as we know it in the West had not yet ar- rived for the Russian man ak the street. S The revolution of October, 1917 opened up many developments in Soviet photography. Among the key evens was the establishment of the Higher Institute of Photography in 1918, later reorganized as the Leningrad Institute of Kinematographic Engineering. In the same year, the S.I. Vavilov State O tic:. Institute was founded jr Leningrad. The Institute (CO1) om ed great deal to its founder, D.S Rozhdestvenskii, and has beer. a key institution in the rise c:: the Soviet photographic in Anlarly Russian subminiature camera (Russian patent 110550.1919) e woe that George Eastman's sian photography was t rollholder was inspired main- done by Evgenii Fedorovich -1y by Warnerke's work and Burinskii, who was born Feb. that William H. Walker, the ? 6, 1849. His early work in Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 '.'stitute of-Precision Mechanics" ,'.'and-Optics was to come late `in 1930. With the advent ofthe -,; COI; much research began id:. practical camera design-arid "production. _ l;f te.Plate `Camera: . %was ihe;Efte plate camera; alike 'the -German 9ca=and Gs rto plate.,.`caineras -These- :'were: 9 ?by_ 12cm.. designs : that, .'+ boiroweil:`heavilyifrom, the' Dresden'- influence rand kieri== iially led -to=another,series of.r olding; plate cameras "called otolcors..Other related'desi grLSn. iridtided-'by--they?9cma uris; =a'nd-6.5 by. 9cm most; famous-of;t}ie, :1930s -vintage Soviet=cameras' Y.were`the:.Feds;Znamed after,.: Felix Daeizhinsky; fast chief of ?;`Soviet secret police: The'Fed is. egarded_b' many as:a;Leica ; opy'I( history . is told :very Relegantty:by.Oscai-:Fricke>in . the?April, 1979 issue=ofHistorv .40f Photography. . Suffice t:to: :say; that withthe arrival of the. ?: Fed; 35mm photography. had been 'put into the- handsiof.-' =thousands of Soviets_and Soviet? coruumerphotogrupliymoved ; notch 161 Jo ' Western ac. i ivit%and,consuinptionlevels- T. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89GO0643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89GO0643ROO1000100041-0 U U u"L Lu,P it ii U-/11 C; V'CU Ul,1JU U l1lCU U isZ~ on Russ a Shhce 1940. by Morris G. Moses A very interesting item of Russian photographic conncc- W hen the bombs full tion in WW 11 was the gesture over Pearl Harbor in made by our Office of Strategic December 1941, the Services (the predecessor of the Japanese had already sent back CIA) to the Russian N. K.V.D. dozens of rolls of film taken by (their forerunner of the KGB). their agents in San Francisco The' glad'tidings-'came in the and Honolulu. In Europe, form of a letter from General Hitler had invaded Poland and john. Deane, U.S. Army, to was marching on Europe. -Golanel P. Fitin of the Russian In June 1940, Russia, oc- N.K.V.D. It was an offer to cupied the.Baltic and left to- -.ship-the KGB a portable 15mm day's collectors souvenirs in the microfilm outfit weighing 3'/s form of several dozen very _pounds, with our com- unusual Minox cameras. Nor- pliments. It must be recalled rnallv, these cameras that were that after the German invasion a product of the VEF State -of Russia on June 21, 1941, the Electrotechnical Factory in- U.S. and Russia became much Riga, Latvia, would have been friendlier than they were. at the engraved to that effect. start of WW II. However, VEF records for Ju- At the close of.WW II, many ly thru September 1940 show - of- Germany's finest optical 107 of the cameras had the works were-"up-for grabs" by word "RICA" effaced and the whomever got -there first. A words "Made in U.S.S.R." in- scribed on the back cover. - Under the U.S. Lend-Lease programs, which began in late 1941, the Russians were also recipients of tremendous amounts of foreign aid. Among the entries in U.S. Lend-Lease '-administration records for 1943 under "Photographic Supplie3" were the following :mouth- watering goodies, film, 35mm negative, 2,811,545 feet billed at $59,007; 752,750 pounds of photographic paper costing the U.S._just over $550,000; motion picture sound record ing apparatus $112,443 scienti ficcameras $35,527, camera parts at-$149.476; X-ray film costing $200,000. team of U.S. experts under the direction of Edward Kaprelian of the Signal Corps were able to reach many Zeiss personnel in Jena in May 1945, before these people might have been "liberated" by the Russians. It should be interesting to look back and speculate whether the Instamatic camera would be with us today had Kaprelian's teams arrived late. PART IL One of those brought back to The Russians had sent back the U.S. under "Project photos from the far side of the moon in the late 1950s, and the' Paperclip" by the Signal Corps; early 1960s brought the in- was Hubert Nerwin, father of troduction of the Russian MO- the Zeiss Tenax and the Kodak MENT - the USSR's answer to Instamatic cassette systems. Polaroid. Styled in the tradi- Russia World War II years of tion of the Polaroid 95 and 110, ussia saw the beginnings of the MOMENT had an f.6.3 newer generations of the ---- prewar- designed FED camera lens in a 1/10 to 1/200 shutter and a wide range of MOSKVA- and was finished in black folding cameras, 60 by 90mm leather-like material. The ar- (roughly 2'/t by 3'/f inch) for- rangements for the attempted mat, reminiscent of Voight- license for manufacturing from lander Bessas and Zeiss Ikon- Polaroid are still partly shroud- tas. The FED designs spawn- ed in secrecy and obscurity, ed others, including the although the MOMENT can ZORKI and the ZENIT, The be adapted to use Polaroid roll -- earlier ZORKIS were primari- films. Instant film and diffu- ly rangefinder 35s leading into sion - transfer technology in the the auto exposure models of the USSR is confined mainly to 1960s. The ZENITs were pen- other than mass, consumer, taprism SLRs, withZENITs of amateur markets. the 1960s incorporating semi- The KIEV-VEGA range of pearance is somewhat a reminder of the NARCISS 16mm subminiature design in- troduced by the U.S.S.R. back in 1958. For those who wish to "im- port" their own current design Russian cameras on a one or two-lot basics, there has been VNESHPOSLYTORG. This is an agency offering to export single lots of contemporary, Russian cameras, binoculars, as the o std '~" o p the dollar llar and English facilities Consumer the photofinishing pound. today of 1982 was 5 Marksistskaya po The a , M's address still leave much to be desired uI. on quality,-and the same-day 109147 Moscow' w' U U.S.S.S.S. .R.. y You would be wise to check with the American Embassy and Trade Consulates before sending any remittances.. because the trading climate varies quite widely with the politics of the day. Also, as of 1982, the familiar Kodak film in the friendly yellow box could be found in Russian "Beriozkas" (hard- currency stores) conveniently located in metropolitan Moscow near the Novcdevichy 'Monastery and the famous Mezhdynarodnaya ? Hotel. Kodak film has commanded a hefty premium over stateside prices (the Russians know a and one-hour service we Americans take'for granted is a luxury there available only to a limited number of very privileged citizens. ' o and motor drives. Perhaps the that first appeared in the most unusual variations of the mid-1960s had their origins in ZENITs were the Photo- the Minolta-16 designs that 1970s. These were gunstock, ' ly 1950s. On page 6 of the A "Russian" Minos. pots absmue of word "RIGA" under the MILOX logo on top. and "Made in U.S.S.R." near bottom. sions nor long-tocai iengtn Camera Trade News is an ax- telephoto lenses and ostensibly, tide telling the frustrations of sold for close-up nature Chiyoda Kogaku Seiko K.K. photographs. Up to 1980 over (Minolta) when they discov- 150 designs had appeared in , ered the similarities in the Rus- Russian camera manufactur- sian KIEV-BERAS and their. ing. A major number of these own Minolta-16s and were have been delineated in the unable to prosecute because of booklet titled "One Hundred lack of patent recognition on TenRussian Cameras"written the part of the U.S.S.R. by 'Solomon Maizenberg, . a However, the - Japanese, in Russian emigre, whose many turn, are a bit silent bout the excellent books on Russian origins of the Pentax 11(I SLR camera repair are in the collec- system of 1978 whose ap- tions of the Library of Congress. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89GO0643ROO1000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89GO0643R001000100041-0 AvYaat 20, 1945 B star .to Seotioaa 393. - D?v.39jbe. BVBJECTt Office of Csnscmvhip Bad Book sad. the 39astaar Chartj Dsfeaae Committee Reeving at September 5 Dr. B. L. Clarke xr. 3. s, latoea, Jr. Dar. R. D. 'va. a Dr. X. H?H ?.y Dr, A. Be Lest Dr. L. C. panurg Harris L chadx 11 1. Colvesl Sham has requested the return of all copies at the Bed. Book ,slob have bseaa loaned to beotica 39.1. It is aq that copies were diatrsbntod to roenbeera of the Des=* Cceaiittee, MUM a;d .1 aapcciate your r6tvrmlN to this offi,oa MW *Off of the Red nook that yes say have. If ym do not have a cop7r, please wits >? to that affect. Dime all tech:dcal work In the. Orifice of Cai.arship Is to be aloaed vat by SaptM>w 15, von34 yqu be good em wgb to sand the.. books to no not later than Septiaber 1. -2. sues the Mloe of Ce i g mishap is ZD3ag cent of bmirrss tawny Co.Lnnel Shaw fools that copies of the re ised Red Book and of the lta atear C =t should not be d1stributed to Se ti n 39.1 DosrEractoara. '99.b" to have one volma of each available in this off Los tar boas, hassvss. If 7o'n wish to borrow this 00e. Dopy, Please 2mt me kaov. - 3. The neetiri of the Defense Co mi ttee scheduled Ser ltednesdq, Septa.,brr S, in Dr. sash's office vdll be held in aaooardaace with prwvions arraMe- ssrtta. Because of the Office of, Cta~sorshipof. abo3.1mbedv this will be the final meeting of that gro . At this n+et3rg, it is hoped. that there will be a diswusoa of 3or car? prop, as vWcb-should be -W a rtakea by mW ariuaiYatic !treated to replace uBBD and that each aa^bee of the Cereaaittes -will be prepw to psaaeah his s SS stiom. Ins aati*ii sties of this diaemsaioat, Was Oa1b Bettis vdll be glad to eireslate to the mob ass of the grc =7 ideas tbs3 yow arq vdah to Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0 Property at the New York Postal Station Description K sr1 orelco .Diff Apparatus, Model #410, with modifications.. 4 horns and automatic time switch device. valves Pressure cut-off switch,square D make .. Motor, elec. 1/4 H.P. G.E. 1 Boiler, 3/4 H.P., Hoffmann,steam A b 1. Special table equipped with 6 valves, 16's . 3/4" brass pipe & 1pc 18 mesh copper screen 9 W 4'? X 4'.(Built by A. D. Little, Inc.) 1 1 61 Oberdorfer 1/4" bronze gear pump Stainless steel racks 5" X 10"X14" Stainless steel tanks 15" X 214 X 12" Propert1 at the San Juan Postal Station f a T Device, Electronic, complete in Par-metal case 1 ? Stainless.steel circulators & valves Eastern-Centifugal pumps, Model D-6 rL nI strument, optical, _consisting .of. filters, '~ - & candle-light.: (From Bell- Telephone Labs.) Property at the San Francisco Postal Station Description f! JTDevice...Electronic s ?. complete. in Par-metal case... ? K )l Device,* Electronic, 'complete in * Par-metal . case Property at TOD Laboratory A 0 I-Device., . electric scorch - striping G 103Reflector detector (I7 L Hand screed maker with ruling 'pens 7/4/45 QUE=titY chmntity. DECLASSIFIED 4~_____ NN2 7 ao 9 9 SG / NABS. Date /01 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/07: CIA-RDP89G00643R001000100041-0