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December 22, 2016
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June 16, 2010
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September 29, 1981
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Free PI'ess lriterllaxl0Ila1 401 FIFTH AVE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016 (212) 532-8300 TELEX 237254 NEWS UR September 29, 1981 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Washington, DC 20520 Central Intelligence Agency Press ice Since March, Free Press International has been publishing a weekly news service, a sample of which is enclosed for your interest. Already several publications, both overseas and in the United States, are paying subscribers. Our correspondents and editors, some of whom are associated with the New York daily, The News World, do their best to present a fresh alternative on national and international issues to competing news services. We will welcome input from you and your staff on ways the FPI News Service could provide more accurate and insightful news coverage for a reading public that is so dependent on responsible government and media decision makers. As you may know, Free Press International also publishes a bi-weekly strategic newsletter, the International Report, a copy of which is enclosed. RM:ft encls. Robert Morton General Manager STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 FREE PRESS INITERINAT701YA[. NEWS SERVICE One man's war for access to UFO secrets Meet the man who probably knows more about Unidentified Flying Objects than any other private citizen in the world. His name is Colman S. VonKeviczky and he owns a gigantic collection of some 9,000 slides and photos of UFOs as well as reams of formerly classified U.S. government documents on the sub- ject. By Hal McKenzie. Salvador chief pleads for `moral support' President Jose Napoleon Duarte of El Salvador made a recent trip to Washing- ton where he spoke to President Reagan and other top policymakers. In a speech before the National Press Club, he accused the mass media of sen- sationalizing the violence in his nation and pleaded for "moral support." Robert Morton reports from Washington. How South Koreans view the future A recent survey by a major newspaper in Seoul sheds light on South Koreans' attitudes and views of the future. Most Koreans feel much better about the United States, but are pessimistic about chances of reunifying their nation in the next decade. The wide-ranging poll also revealed that two-thirds of Kore- ans feel that it is improper for an engaged couple to kiss before marriage. Tim Elder reports from Seoul. Moscow, lbkyo clash over northern islands When the Soviet Union seized four seemingly insignificant islands off Hok- kaido at the end of World War II, it provided Japan with one of the rare issues on which most Japanese can agree. Increasingly, the Kremlin's refusal to turn over the islands presents a barrier to improved relations between lbkyo and Moscow. By David Hulme in lbkyo. Seoul seeking improved ties with Peking South Korea and China have compelling reasons to improve relations, but major obstacles still stand in the way. For Seoul, improved ties with Peking could help ease tension on the Korean peninsula. For Peking, the lure is South Korea's dynamic young economy and enhanced opportunities for trade. David Hulme reports from Seoul. A modern adaptation of age-old laws The swing toward Orthodox observance that marks the administration of Prime Minister Menachem Begin has focused the spotlight on a little-known institute that combines religion and science. Evans Johnson reports from Jeru- salem. Split on arms issue threatens Germany As West Germany braces fora demonstration against nuclear arms by pacifists and environmentalists, other Germans demonstrate at the polls their concern at the direction the ruling Social Democrats are taking. Jeremy Gaylard reports from Bonn. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 UFO expert wages one-man war for access to secret govt files By Hal McKenzie FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK - Colman S. Von- Keviczky probably knows more about UFOs than any private citizen in the nation or even the world. His collection of some 7,000 black and white photos of UFOs plus 2,000 color slides, reams of for- merly classified U.S. government documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, stacks of UFO magazines and literature from around the world, and govern- ment documents from other coun- tries where he has personal contacts in high places, makes his UFO archives, neatly crammed into his Queens apartment, one of the most extensive anywhere. Nevertheless, he is fond of say- ing without false modesty, "Don't ask me, my opinion means nothing. Look at what the Pentagon says." And he will point to document after document that proves the U.S. mili- tary, as well as the armed forces of the Soviet Union and other coun- tries, possess a great deal more hard evidence concerning UFOs than he or any other individual could hope to gather. This information includes reports of sightings of UFOs by military personnel around the globe and of incidents where mili- tary aircraft or anti-aircraft batter- ies fired on UFOs. Much of this was just recently made known by documents released under the Freedom of Information Act. But VonKeviczky believes the government has even more star- tling physical evidence of UFOs that is still top secret- including as many as eight crashed flying sau- cers and the bodies of 30 humanoids captured or taken from the wreckage. He arrived at that number from published reports obtained alleg- edly from servicemen involved in the super-secret activity of examin- ing the crashed "saucers" or transporting the alien corpses. Many of these reports are the result of research done by Leonard H. Stringfield, who once evaluated UFO sightings for the U.S. Air Force. By 1966, VonKeviczky had devel- oped enough documentation that he decided to make a radical proposal to the United Nations, where he was employed in the U.N. Secretariat's Office of Public Information. "I filed a memorandum with Sec- retary General U Thant, and in the memorandum explained to him that, No. 1, the UFO problem is an international problem; No. 2, it is not a scientific problem, it is an international security problem." VonKeviczky's memorandum proposed the establishment of a U.N. authority to coordinate the study of UFOs and to attempt to make contact with them. "On Feb. 9,1966 1 had a personal conversation with Secretary Gen- eral U Thant and I presented him a document that the U.S. and Soviet Union are shooting at the UFOs," he said. For his trouble, VonKeviczky was rebuffed and considered a secu- rity risk by the federal government. Therefore he founded the Intercon- tinental UFO Research and Ana- lytic Network (ICUFON) to realize his goal through other means. Finding `common ground' VonKeviczky's concern is summed up in a recent address he gave to a meeting of the Planetary Professional Citizens Committee (PPCC) headed by Jerome Eden. He said the crucial necessity for establishing worldwide cooper- ation on UFOs is "to find the com- mon ground that would preclude a fatal Third World War, which could easily escalate into a disastrous con- frontation with the UFO forces. Is it not far better to seek a common ground for a means of international cooperation on the UFO problem, than to dig a common grave for all mankind?" VonKeviczky hopes that, through educating people about UFOs, enough public pressure can be brought to bear to force the "mighty powers" - the United States and the Soviet Union - to carry out this project. Reagan ignores memo In addition to the memorandums sent to U.N. Secretary Generals U Thant and Kurt Waldheim, Von- Keviczky recently sent an even more extensive work, chock-full of all his latest evidence and doc- umentation, to President Reagan but without receiving any response. The reason for this policy of secrecy is "very clearly expressed," he said, in a declassified CIA memo- randum dated 1952. The memo says "a national policy should be estab- lished as to what should be told the public regarding the phenomena, in order to minimize risk of panic." The memo goes on to say that a "world-wide reporting system has been instituted and major Air Force bases have been ordered to make interceptions of unidentified flying objects" Tb "intercept" a flying object in military jargon means to shoot it down if it refuses to land or be escorted out of friendly air space, VonKeviczky says. Typical of a hard-nosed military man and painstaking researcher into documented facts and evidence of UFOs, he is scornful of the ten- dency among some UFO enthusi- asts to claim telepathic communication with spiritual UFO entities. "We have to educate in a correct and honest way and not to put them into the fog of parapsychology, ghosts and spirits. UFOs, as you can see from the documentation, are solid objects. We don't deal with ghost kind of objects which are invisible." VonKeviczky grows more ani- mated when he talks about the dan- gerous situation the world is in from the secrecy and suppression of the truth imposed by the rival powers in the Cold War. "We must force the mighty pow- ers to stop the space war and to stop the Third World War. When the U.S. and Soviet Union, the two military and space exploring super powers, escalate their unfriendly relations to a war, the space people will be involved and make a final action - and we don't know what the aftermath of this action will be." The truth suppressed However, neither the Pentagon, the CIA, nor any other government agency here or abroad is revealing what they know. Tb VonKeviczky and other UFO researchers, this is an outrageous denial of citizens' right to know the facts concerning Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 the most important event in human history - contact with extraterres- trial civilizations. Furthermore, VonKeviczky is convinced that the number of hos- tile actions by earth forces against UFOs, following the common cold- war military policy of opening fire on any suspicious object, risks pro- voking a "space war." If the nations of the world would join together to study and make con- tact with UFOs, not only would this danger be averted, but the Soviet bloc and Western nations could find "common ground" to avoid mutual annihilation in a Third World War, VonKeviczky believes. With these considerations in mind, it is not surprising that Von- Keviczky works with a driving intensity to spread his message and his knowledge to the world, espe- cially to the United Nations and the U.S. government. But so far he has met with nothing but rebuffs from either body. Hungarian-born VonKeviczky dates his interest in UFOs from 1952 when he immigrated to the United States. That was also the year of the great UFO flap in Washington, D.C., in which glowing UFOs were sighted over the nation's capital and surrounding states both visually and by radar, and Air Force jets were scrambled to intercept them. The flap generated sensational headlines and pressures from the public for an explanation from the government. "Regarding this UFO invasion- like flap over Washington, D.C., and the neighboring states, there were a few pictures published," Von- Keviczky said in his heavily accented English. "As a profes- sional movie man and photogra- pher, deeply involved and experienced in the technology, I saw that photos which were published in the newspaper were genuine photo- graphs, but the government, mainly the Pentagon, misinformed the peo- ple that they are hoaxes." "Parallel with that I got inter- ested in various UFO organizations," VonKeviczky con- tinued. He collected documentation for groups in foreign countries, especially in Germany where he had good connections, and became the New York representative of Germany's Deutsch UFO'IFO- Studiengesellschaft (DUIST), founded in 1956 by Karl Veit. Hanging on the wall of Von- Keviczky's study is a picture of him with German rocket scientist Her- mann Oberth, DUIST's honorary chairman. Army background helped VonKeviczky's background of 17 years in the Hungarian army, where he achieved the rank of major and the position of chief of the Audio- Visual Military Education Depart- ment of the Royal Hungarian General Staff and Ministry of Defense (1938-1945), served him in good stead as a UFO researcher spe- cializing in the military aspects of the problem. Employing his expertise in pho- tographic techniques and knowledge of military strategy, tac- tics and technology, "I began to evaluate and analyze the UFOs' operations and activity." Von- Keviczky said. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Salvador chief accuses media of sensationalizing violence By Robert Morton FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL WASHINGTON - Media accounts have sensationalized the violence in El Salvador and have misled the public as to its causes, President Jose Napoleon Duarte charged during his recent visit here. In Washington for a 10-day unof- ficial visit, the El Salvador leader pledged in a speech at the National Press Club to bring democracy to his nation, which he said had been ruled for too long by violence. He also pleaded for the "moral support, "comprehension" and the prayers of the American people. "The United States has been told that the guerrillas are so strong that there is no solution," Duarte said. "I think that you here are thinking that if you go to El Salvador, that the moment you get off the plane you will find guerrillas and soldiers shooting at each other. It is not true." TIry to smear government More serious than sensation- alized press reports are the deliber- ate efforts by leftist guerrillas to make their violence appear to be the work of El Salvador's security forces, Duarte said. "We are fighting against terror- ist groups who are killing many peo- ple and in such a way as to blame the security forces;' he said. "Why else would they kill some- one and put their body in the street or cut off their heads and put them in the street? It's to attract photog- raphers who will send their pic- tures all around the world." Duarte pledged his "life and his honor" to introduce democracy to the beleaguered Central American nation, which, he emphasized, had been governed for too long by vio- lent groups on the left and the right who had decided that the law "applied only to the chicken thieves and not to them" Since 1977, conflicting forces iecided that "violence was the only solution." Now, "cultural violence" and "social disorder" prevail in El Salvador, Duarte said. "Then came Cuba, Libya, Viet- nam and all those other countries ready to give arms to train guerril- las," and the violence has acceler- ated. Duarte said his own son had been wounded by gunfire two weeks ago. Leftists' disruption typical When three leftists disrupted Duarte's speech with monotonic, chanted accusations, he com- mented: "You have an example of their methods" "I believe in democracy; I believe in everyone expressing their opinion," Duarte continued. "The only solution will come when every Salvadoran is free enough to make his own decision." Free elections will be held "as soon as possible;' and the political parties involved will decide the con- ditions for the election with no gov- ernment or military interference, he said. Asked if the Democratic Rev- olutionary Front (FDR) could par- ticipate in the elections, Duarte said the group could enter the campaign only " if they promise not to offer violent solutions." Duarte told Free Press Interna- tional that his private U.S. tour had been difficult thus far but that he was optimistic that the remainder of the trip would be more fruitful. He did not elaborate. "I came here first of all to ask comprehension," he said. In his 20- minute visit with President Reagan last week, Duarte said he asked for nothing and that "Reagan said he understood and would support a political democratic solution." Duarte concluded his remarks with an emotional plea for the prayersand the understanding of the American public. "Those who have truth do not need violence, and those who per- form violence will not find truth," he said. "I pledge my life for my peo- ple's objective of freedom and jus- tice." Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Most S. Koreans feel better about I.S. now, poll shows By Tim Elder FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL SEOUL - Nearly two-thirds of South Koreans feel better about the United States than they did one year ago, but most are pessimistic about the chances of reunifying their country within the next decade. These and other findings are the results of an extensive poll recently conducted by one of Seoul's major daily newspapers. According to the poll published last week, 63 percent of those ques- tioned reported that their feelings toward the United States had improved over the past year, while almost none said that their feelings had worsened. Commenting on this finding, Dr. Sung-hon Rhee, professor of politi- cal science at Kongook University in Seoul, said that in the closing months of the Carter administra- tion most Koreans were deeply con- cerned over the tensions that had built up between the United States and Korea, and were anxious to see these relations normalized. New appreciation in U.S. The general opinion of Koreans today, Rhee reported, is that the new administration has a greater appre- ciation for "the strategic impor- tance of the Korean peninsula" and for "the need to maintain stability within the nation" following the assassination of President Park Chung-hee in October 1979. In other findings, more than 80 percent of those questioned identi- fied themselves as members of the middle class, while- only a small minority placed themselves in the lower class bracket. Further, more than three-quarters expressed con- fidence that their livelihood will improve over the next five years. Dr. Yoo Hyuk Kim, a noted spe- cialist on social development and a professor at Dankook University in Seoul, commented that these fig- ures, particularly with respect to rural areas, demonstrate the suc- cess of South Korea's Saemaul (New Village) Movement. While cautioning that the defini- tion of what it means to be middle class might differ significantly between urban and rural areas, Kim reported that the Saemaul Move- ment has, by encouraging residents of rural villages to work together for their common welfare, lifted a vast portion of the population above what they themselves consider to be a lower class existence. Pessimism about reunification The results of the poll show Koreans to be generally pessimistic on the possibility of reunifying their country. More than three- quarters were doubtful that reunifi- cation could come about within the foreseeable future, and a signifi- cant number doubted whether it could ever be achieved. Other findings reflected the depth of the influence of Confucian morality. Two-thirds said it would be improper for an engaged couple to kiss before marriage. In fact, a quarter of the respondents said that such a couple should do no more than have conversations while sit- ting face to face. Only a very small number said they would approve of premarital sexual relations. Koreans are evenly divided on the question of divorce, according to the poll. Half said that divorce is permissible given a good reason, but the poll did not go into what these reasons might be. The- remaining half either disapproved of divorce on any grounds or had never even considered the issue. The Confucian emphasis on edu- cation was also reflected in the find- ings. Ninety percent of parents with children at home said they would want to send their sons to university, and nearly three-quarters said they would want to send their daughters to university. On the other hand, very few felt that a degree from the right school is the major factor in achieving suc- cess in society. More than a third said that hard work is the major fac- tor in success, while slightly less said that ability is what it takes to be successful. Asked to indicate three areas which should be of particular con- cern for the government, the over- whelming majority indicated the fight against inflation, slightly less than a quarter indicated the improvement of social welfare and almost the same number indicated expansion of educational opportu- nities. Only 11 percent felt that human rights problems should be anarea of particular concern for the government. This poll was conducted by Joon- gang Daily News between July 30 and Aug. 11. A sample group of 1,232 was chosen which was representa- tive of the general population according to age, sex, educational background, and urban-rural dis- tribution. The newspaper had expreienced pollsters interview 65.8 percent of the sample group and the remain- der completed questionnaires; 1,084 returned responses which could be used to tabulate results. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Soviet occupation of 4 islands still strains Moscow-Tokyo ties By David Hulme FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL TOKYO - When the Soviet Union grabbed four seemingly insignificant little islands off the coast of Hokkaido at the end of World War II, it handed Japan one of the extremely rare issues on which most Japanese can agree. Although the two countries rees- tablished diplomatic ties in 1956, the Kremlin's refusal to return the islands, known as Japan's Northern territories, remains a major barrier to improvement of an extremely dif- ficult relationship. The Northern Territories issue may have even hastened Japan's swing to the right of recent years, and the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has made considerable political capital out of it this year. A campaign aimed at high- lighting the problem began with the declaration of Feb. 7 as Northern Territories Day. This date marks the signing in 1855 of the Japan-Russia treaty of Shimoda, which recog- nized the disputed islands as Jap- anese territory. The highlight of the campaign, which has been regularly denounced by Moscow, came with the Sept. 10 visit of Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki to Hokkaido, where he "observed" the easily visible Soviet-occupied islands from a mili- tary helicopter flying above the Hokkaido coastline. He was the first Japanese prime minister to visit the area adjacent to the islands. Such a strong stand has certainly annoyed the Soviets. The govern- ment would rather avoid this, but has been pushed by persistent appeals from northern residents for a demonstration of concern on'Ibk- yo's part, by pressure from the right wing of the LDP and by rising pop- ular sentiment. A week before the Hokkaido visit, LDP hardliners felt betrayed when the prime minister changed his mind at short notice about attending a government-sponsored rally in'Ibkyo demanding the return of the islands. Suzuki still ambivalent Aboard the prime minister's plane on the way to Hokkaido, the chairman of the LDP Special Com- mittee on the Northern Territories Issue, Masaaki Nakayama, criticized Suzuki's apparent ambiv- alence. "If you are going to eat poison, you may as well eat the whole plate," he said in an interview. Nakayama is one of the many Japanese who regard the Soviet Union with almost total cynicism for unilaterally breaking a non- aggression pact and attacking Japan when it was on the brink of surrender, still reeling from the Hiroshima atomic blast three days earlier. He does not forget that Sta- lin attempted at the time to gain con- trol of large chunks of Japan. Nakayama also pointed out that in 1973, following a Japan-Soviet summit meeting in Moscow, a joint communique was issued that recog- nized the Northern Territories issue as one of the "yet unresolved prob- lems remaining since World War II" Since the improvement of rela- tions between Japan and the People's Republic of China, Moscow has simply pretended to ignore this statement and refuses to enter negotiations. The Japanese side, too, has hard- ened its attitude. In 1979, the Japanese were aghast to discover the Soviet Union actually constructing military bases on the disputed islands. The invasion of Afghanistan pro- vided another shock. Economic considerations At the same time, however, there are strong forces pulling the two countries together. It is a truism of Japanese foreign policy that rela- tions with such a large and powerful neighbor cannot be allowed to dete- riorate too far. In theory, the two economies are almost perfectly compatible. Japan needs access to the abundant raw materials of the Soviet eastern regions and the Soviet Union needs Japanese financing and technology to help develop these resources. For years the Soviets have been pressing the Japanese to get more involved in the development of Sibe- rian natural gas, oil, timber, mining and transportation projects. A few projects got under way, but LDP encouragement has been minimal. Moscow also presses Tokyo for a treaty of good neighborliness and cooperation and an agreement on long-term economic cooperation, but the Japanese are extremely wary of such proposals and insist that the territorial issue must be set- tled first. Why are the Japanese being so stubborn over a mere 5,000 square kilometers of not very productive land? It is true that Japan is rather short of space and that Soviet occu- pation of the islands has denied Jap- anese fishermen access to some of the world's richest fishing grounds. It is also plausible for campaigners to claim they are fighting for "jus- tice and international law." Continues postwar trauma However, according to Hiroshi Kimura, professor of political sci- ence at the Slavic Research Center of Hokkaido University, the deeper reason for the surprisingly tough Japanese stance is the powerfully ingrained concept of "inherent ter- ritories." For the Japanese, the Soviet occupation of the islands repre- sents a continuation of the painful "postwar era" in which the United States occupiedtheir territory. Kimura claims the Soviets are incapable of fully comprehending this island nation's viewpoint. "The Soviets and the Japanese have fundamentally different atti- tudes towards territory," he said in a recent interview. "Because the Soviet Union has no natural boundaries they have no concept of inalienable territories," he added. Inapaperon the subject, Kimura expanded this argument, boiling the Kremlin's logic down to a belief in the maxim of the German geopolitician Haushofer: "Boundaries are fighting places Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 rather than legal norms of deci- sion." Strategy vs economy Kimura also identified military strategic considerations as the overriding reason why the Kremlin could be expected to refuse to return the northern islands to Japan. "The northern islands are sit- uated at the very point which con- trols passage from the Pacific Ocean into the Sea of Okhots- k ....There are signs that the Brezhnev government has plans to construct a huge military- industrial complex in the near future along the Sea of Okhotsk, spanning Siberia, Sakhalin, Kam- chatka and the Kurile Islands, and that the project is progressing steadily.... Above anything else, it was with the aim of making the Sea of Okhotsk a sanctuary that the Soviet Union has deployed ground troops on three islands in the Northern Territories - Etorofu, Kunashiri and Shikotan," he explained. This analysis explains the Sovi- ets' disdain for Japanese demands to negotiate the issue, as the Krem- lin feels itself within reach of being able to thoroughly intimidate Japan with an overwhelming military presence in the north combined with the menace to sea lanes from newly acquired naval bases in Viet- nam. But this is not to say there are no alternatives. "The Soviets have very serious economic problems," said Noboyuki Fukuda, president of Tsukuba Uni- versity near Tbkyo, who recently visited Moscow and Siberia at the invitation of the Siberian branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Fukuda agreed that Moscow, faced with ponderous economic stagnation in its European regions, is attempting to shift the focus of the entire Soviet economy eastward. This involves a multiplicity of political, social and administrative as well as technical problems, each compounded by the difficulty of convincing qualified people to endure the utterly daunting bleak- ness of long Siberian winters. On top of this, Fukuda said, the Soviets are "terribly inefficient" Because of these problems, he said, the Soviets recognize far bet- ter results are likely from an infu- sion of Japanese high-power tecnhology and capitalistic enthusi- asm. "The only chance the Soviets have to save their economy is to syc- cessfully develop the eastern regions. This is extremely difficult to do. It certainly can't be done very well without cooperation from Japan, or perhaps the United States. But the Japanese are not going to get involved more until relations are better, and that means the Northern Territories issue must be resolved," Fukuda argued. From this point of view, it appears almost essential for Mos- cow to come to the negotiating table with Japan to discuss the disputed islands. On the other hand, if military expansion in the Far East is to con- tinue, the Sea of Okhotsk "sanctu- ary" is indispensable. It boils down to a choice for Moscow between outright militar- ism and economic recovery. Fukuda considered it inevitable that Soviet planners are divided on the ques- tion, for even militarism requires an economic base. "They can't have it both ways," he concluded. Therefore, how the Northern Urritories issue is handled by Mos- cow may be a clear indicator of the Kremlin's priorities in the Far East. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 With eye on North, South Korea seeks improved ties with China By David Hulme FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL SEOUL- The Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China have compelling reasons to improve relations, but both find North Korea and Thiwan are obstacles. For South Korea, rapidly emerging as a dynamic element in East Asian relations, there are two main reasons for wanting to get closer to Peking. "Fundamentally, we would like to reunify our country, and of course we have to survive;' said Dr. Kim Jun-yop, director of Korea Univer- sity's Asiatic Research Center, in an interview. Seoul's leaders perceive commu- nist China's new pragmatism and relations with the West as a chance to win at least a litle leverage with the North Koreans, perhaps even to draw them into meaningful negoti- ations. Korean President Chun Doo- hwan's offer to meet his Northern counterpart Kim 11-sung at any time and in any place without precondi- tions has so far met rebuffs, but the new South Korean administration continues to seek every possible way of encouraging the commu- nists out of isolation. Peking is perhaps the most plau- sible intermediary to help ease tension on the Korean peninsula. The first attempts to approach Peking began almost three years ago under the leadership of the late President Park Chung-hee. Jap- anese Foreign Minister Sunao Sonoda was asked by the South Koreans to indicate their interest in better relations to Chinese Senior Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping when he visited Tbkyo in late 1978, and during subsequent contacts. "We don't want to have another Korean War. In order to achieve this, China's influence on North Korea is very important;' said Kim. Trade relations The second reason South Korea wants better relations with China is related to trade. "China is very close to the Korean peninsula and has a lot of natural resources, such as oil and coal. Also we are looking for world markets for our products. China is so close to the Korean peninsula, so it should be very easy to trade with mainland China;' Kim explained. Some trade through third coun- tries, particularly Hong Kong, has already begun, with the total esti- mated to be approaching $1 billion annually. There are also sporadic reports of coal ships sailing directly between China and South Korea. The South Koreans are also hop- ing that Peking will follow the lead set by Moscow in allowing South Korean experts to attend some pro- fessional seminars in Moscow, and have already quietly hosted Chinese representatives in Seoul. A lawyer, Yuan Chuan-jing, from the Law Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Peking, traveled from the United States last July to attend a scientific workshop here. The first mainland Chinese to visit the southern half of the Korean peninsula since 1948, according to sources in Seoul, was an official from Peking who came secretly last year and was shown various indus- trial complexes including the Pohang integrated steel mill, which is a big user of Chinese coal. The Taiwan question In their rapprochement with Peking the Koreans have a similar problem to that of the United States -uneasiness on the part of Taiwan. Kim pointed out that the Taiwan question is important to South Korea and the Chinese Nationalists' enduring deep suspicion of Peking made it "difficult to advocate" closer ties with the communist regime. Opposition from Thiwan is a minor problem, however, compared to the pause North Korea gives to Peking in warming to South Korea. Peking must move very warily to avoid pushing the doctrinaire North Koreans completely into the Soviet camp. Chinese officials privately con- cede their North Korean allies are rather prickly to deal with. Pyong- yang has, despite Kim Il-sung's juche (independence) doctrine, demonstrated willingness to play one side against the other in finding a policy line between Peking and Moscow, and is even now thought to be leaning increasingly towards the latter. "Once North Korea is totally under the influence of the Soviet Union then Manchuria would be completely surrounded by Russian influence;' Kim said, explaining Peking's caution. The Taiwan question also 'becomes an obstacle from Peking's point of view, for full relations with South Korea would mean an official "two Koreas" policy, something the PRC avoids for fear of legitimizing the unacceptable "two Chinas" model, Kim pointed out. Ironically, perhaps, it is Nation- alist Chinese intelligence sources that reported recently an unpub- lished speech by mainland Chinese Foreign Minister Huang Hua, in which he described the PRC's rela- tions with the ROK as "a door which is closed, but not locked." Convergence of interests Notwithstanding considerable barriers, the South Korea-China relationship is certainly budding, if not blossoming. In the past year, the Chinese have shown remarkable willingness to have frank discus- sions with South Koreans in third countries. U.S. analysts note the increasing convergence of inter- ests between the two countries and Washington. Peking's official line is still to oppose the presence of U.S. troops onthe Korean peninsula, but there isa lack of enthusiasm for pushing it too hard. "The Chinese are intelligent enough to know what the conse- quences of following their advice [on the U.S. troop pullout] would be," Ambassador at Large Vernon Wal- ters stated here recently. The Chinese are also casting eagerly about for reliable models for development, having shown great interest in finding an alterna- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 tive to the Maoist commune system. So far 1 iwan has not responded to Peking's overtures, and greater interest is now developing in the South Korean Saemul (New Village) Movement. In addition, China needs a neighbor capable of supplying middle-level development technol- ogy. Enormous difficulty has accompanied attempts to absorb sophisticated Japanese and American technologies, whereas the South Korean exports could prove much more compatible with China's present needs. The most compelling aspect of PRC and ROK common interest, however, concerns North Korea. Both countries have an interest in contributing to the stabilization of the Korean peninsula, but as things stand only the Chinese can communicate very effectively with the North Koreans. Even when North Koreans vis- ited Seoul in 1972, under an exchange initiated by the late president Park, they were known to misreport their observations to Kim I1-sung. Kim's dictatorial and doctrinaire style militates against the possibil- ity of him getting "displeasing" information from advisers, and ana- lysts in Seoul worry deeply that he may in fact have a grossly distorted image of conditions in the South, prompting a miscalculated military adventure that would prove very costly to both sides. If China can make sufficient progress in its relations with Seoul, the North Koreans may well recog- nize at last that the southern part of the peninsula has something to offer them, too. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Israelis call on religious institute to adapt old laws to modem reality By Evans Johnson FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL JERUSALEM - The swing toward Orthodox observance that marks the administration of Prime Minister Menachem Begin has focused the spotlight on a little- known institute that combines reli- gion and science. "Our main purpose here is to facilitate the interaction and work- ing together of rabbis and scien- tists," Mrs. Esther Feuchtwanger, program director for the Institute for Science and Halacha, said in a recent interview. "Halacha" is the body of reli- gious law amassed by learned rab- bis down through the centuries that basically governs the everyday norms and behavior of observant Jewish life. "Halach is God-given and it has to be applicable to every possible situation;' Mrs. Feuchtwanger said. "Basic laws need to be applied to new situations. But now, technical- ities have become so involved that a rabbi has to find out from an expert. A rabbi must know how something works to be able to judge whether it is halachically sound, and there is an old tradition in Judaism of asking the expert." Asking the experts The institute's director, Rabbi Shneur Hoffman, and the "new things" expert, Rabbi Levi Itzhak Halperin, oversee research in two basic categories: technical ways of getting around halachic restrictions in emergencies and methods to enable Israeli firms to comply with state laws against working on the Sabbath. One of the most difficult bans observant Jews must live with is that forbidding the switching one or off of electricity on the Sabbath. "Making any electrical contact is essentially creating fire," Mrs. Feuchtwanger said. "The basic idea of the Sabbath is not that things not get done, but that a person should .not create. By not creating, we show that we believe that God created the world and then rested on that one day." Halacha recognizes that there are certain times when it must be violated. "lb save a life, anything can, be done on the Sabbath," she emphasized. But what, rabbis have argued, about a situation where a person's life is not in specific dan- ger but he may be very ill or in dan- ger of losing a limb or an organ? As an answer to these questions and as an aid to halachic medicine, the institute has developed several devices that do not technically vio- late halacha and can be used in emergencies on the Sabbath even though they appear forbidden. "The Gramma Switch" is the institute's most significant inven- tion. It is based on the ancient hala- chic term "causation," which Mrs. Feuchtwanger said means, "You're allowed to help in cases of danger by causing something to get done, but not by doing it yourself." "Consider the case of a danger- ous fire that breaks out on the Sab- bath. It doesn't necessarily threaten human life, but it may cause injury or financial ruin. You may not put it out, but you can ring the fire with earthern jugs filled with water. When the flames reach them, they crack from the heat and the water gushes out and douses the fire. "We've translated these ideas into electronics. We've been able to develop certain devices which work on the principle of causation." The Gramma Switch, at the heart of all these electrical systems, essentially allows a person to move a mechanical plate, thereby block- ing the path of an electric eye relay system. Technically, he has simply and mechanically prevented a cir- cuit breaker from functioning. Work that isn't work Its halachic basis lies in the axiom that "stopping something from being stopped is considered less a fault than doing something directly," according to Mrs. Feuchtwanger. Based on this principle, the insti- tute has produced a telephone, lighting system, emergency call system and water heaters that can be used on the Sabbath. Tb a non-Jew and even to many secular Jews, the whole idea may seem like splitting hairs, but to an observant Jew the Sabbath is every- thing. In fact, according to Orthodox belief, if all Jews refrain from violating two consecutive Sab- baths, the Messiah must come. "The people who ask us ques- tions are religious," Hoffman stressed. "Therefore, our answers, our inventions, are important to them. We can explain why our sys- tems are acceptable by using both halacha and physics." The Gramma Switch principle arose from the institute's involvement in planning Jerusa- lem's ultra-modern and Orthodox Sha'are Zekek Hospital. "Nothing was built without our checking it first," Mrs. Feuchtwanger said. The hospital board wanted their institution to conform as closely as possible to halacha. One main con- cern was for patients who would not switch on the nurses' call light on the Sabbath. If a physician told his patient he was dying, it would, of course, be all right for him to press the button if he needed help. However, the doctors could not tell their patients that because that would increase their danger if they lost their will to live. With a Gramma Switch installed near each bed, a patient can sum- mon a nurse in an emergency with- out violating the Sabbath. Beyond enabling institutions to operate in accordance with halacha, the institute is also a consultant to the government on the subject of labor on the Sabbath. Under Israeli law, labor on the Sabbath is proscribed except in cir- cumstances when not to work would bring the "danger of large eco- nomic loss to the country or an industry," institute engineer Charles Marcus said. "Permits are necessary to work on the Sabbath," his assistant, Mrs. Hasida Lerer, explained. "A firm approaches the Ministry of Labor for them, and the ministry may come to the institute for a solution. We work with the plant engineers to suit solutions to the plant in each case" Solutions for industry Institute engineers point out to industry planners and engineers different processes and procedures that could enable a firm to close for Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 the Sabbath from Friday dusk to Saturday evening. In many industries, Saturdays are set aside for maintenance. "One solution is to train the maintenance men in modern methods that avoid Sabbath work," Marcus explained. "We encourage and participate in courses that teach how to combine regular industrial production and maintenance, or how to schedule the work for Friday afternoons before sunset or Saturday nights before the crews report for work on Sunday morning." The institute also brings to Israel news of the latest advances in auto- mation in more developed nations. This, however, can pose a problem. "It could develop that if people are not needed on the Sabbath, then perhaps they're not needed on other days as well," Marcus said. "In that case, a worker would oppose auto- mation" and, by inference, become more attached to Sabbath work. "You have to be terribly careful how you give advice," Mrs. Lerer cautioned, "so as not to, God forbid, insult a firm's engineer. However, halachic improvements have also enabled industries to better their general functioning as a by- product. "There is a trend today towards the five-day work week in Israel and for more time off and better social benefits;" she said. "With these ten- dencies spreading, firms need to think ahead towards changing over their systems and they can do it according to halacha." Although many small firms have been able to alter their operations to fit the Sabbath, "The toughest prob- lem is industries where processes have to go on'round the clock," Mar- cus explained. "A cement kiln, for example, cannot be stopped except perhaps once a year for general mainten- ance. It works 24 hours a day, seven days a week, for up to three years without interruption" If the kiln were shut down over the Sabbath, it might crack from the strain of cooling and reheating so often. What holds for cement man- ufacturers also goes for Israel's mainstay, the phosphate industry, and for ceramic and chemical firms. But institute engineers are optimistic about automation breakthroughs and new kiln sys- tems now appearing in Europe. "Automation provides a steady heat balance in the oven, which improves the product and cuts energy consumption," Marcus said. However, given Israel's stormy labor relations and the increasing tensions between observant and secular Jews, it may take some time before the institute or the Ministry of Labor can convince one of the industrial giants to change over from labor-intensive to automated and halachically allowed produc- tion processes. One area in which automation is already dominant and in which the few people employed on the Sabbath are not a problem is the generation of electricity. Without electricity, how could hospitals function, how could an iron lung operate, how could a swel- tering heart attack victim be refreshed by an air conditioner? "Electricity production is essen- tial because it is necessary for the preservation of human life," Mar- cus stressed. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 W. German split on arms threatens ruling coalition By Jeremy Gaylard FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL BONN - As Oct. 10 draws near, West Germans are beginning to pre- pare for the inevitable injured policemen and property damage that accompany demonstrations of the so-called "peace movement" A massive rally has been orga- nized by a loose coalition of Marxist groups, environmentalists and church activists, with 100,000 peo- ple expected to march to Bonn's market square to protest nuclear armaments. Incomprehensible in the light of previous experience is the decision by three West German states to give schoolchildren the day off to attend the rally. A demonstration in West Berlin during the recent visit of Secretary of State Alexander Haig resulted in 128 policemen wounded, 10 of them seriously, and a rally to support squatters in that city last week accounted for the death of a young, masked protester. Placating the left West German observers see the willingness of the ruling Social Democratic Party (SPD) to accom- modate the "peace movement" as an attempt to placate the left wing of their own party, which is against nuclear modernization. Members of the "peace move- ment" were invited for a public debate with the SPD at party head- quarters in Bonn last month, most of which was televised nationally, and SPD spokesman Egon Bahr was unable to defend his party's position on nuclear arms convincingly. Headed by party chairman Willy Brandt, the pacifist wing of the SPD has become vocal against the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- tion) decision of December 1979 to deploy U.S. nuclear weapons in Western Europe by 1983 failing suc- cessful arms reductions talks with the Soviets. Chancellor Helmut Schmidt has staked his political future on the NATO decision, and the outcome of the U.S.-Soviet arms talks, planned for late November in Geneva, may determine whether he remains to complete his term of office. Meanwhile Brandt, who has made a political comeback as head of the Socialist International, is challenging Schmidt's commitment to the NATO decision and contesting West Germany's position within the Atlantic alliance. The release and pardon of Guen- ther Guillaume, the East German spy whose discovery in high office led to Brandt's resignation as chan- cellor in 1974, in a sense exonerates Brandt and elevates him within the SPD. A party conference in April may determine whether Schmidt remains in favor or whether the majority of the SPD prefers Brandt's brand of neutralism, aimed at reconciliation with East Germany at the expense of American friendship and protec- tion. A wave of anti-Americanism, accentuated by terrorist attacks on U.S. Army installations and persoQ- nel in recent weeks, has been blamed by opposition politicians on the anti-NATO sentiments expressed by SPD politicians such as Brandt and Bahr. Coalition's collapse seen Some local observers see the possibility of a collapse of the ruling coalition of the SPD and FDP (Free Democratic Party) as a result of SPD disunity, and a coalition between the FDP and the opposition Christian Democrats (CDU) taking over the reins of government. State elections in the state of Lower Saxony this week gave the conservative CDU an absolute majority of 50.2 percent against 36.9 percent for the SPD, and in West Berlin the SPD was ousted by the CDU in May after ruling the city for 26 years. A government headed by the CDU would clamp down on the efforts of the neutralists to drive a wedge between Western Europe and the United States and stifle the "peace movement," which repre- sents a small minority of the pop- ulation. However, the CDU would be inheriting a government plagued with a massive public debt and con- tradictory foreign policy, and unless they could pull things together quickly they could soon lose out to the SPD under extreme left-wing control. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Columnists HAROLD ROSENTHAL Harold Rosenthal doesn't recall dinosaurs grazing on his front lawn but does remember when it was within the NFL rules to play without a helmet and when a ball player (Babe Ruth) justified his higher salary than the president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), because "I had a better year, didn't I?" (He did). A newsman in various capacities for almost a half century with time out for service with the U.S. Air Force, he has covered the World Series since the late `40s, championship tennis when it was standard practice to slip a hundred dollars under the table-to the winners. He was a reporter and columnist for the New York Herald Tribune for more than three decades, served as a publicity man for both the American and National Football Leagues and has authored a dozen books, the latest of which, "The 50 Faces of Football," is due from Atheneum this fall. His personal list of superstars include Casey Stengel, Winston Churchill, Henry Armstrong and William Shakespeare, not necessarily in the order listed. LEV NAVROZOV Lev Navrozov emigrated in 1972 from the Soviet Union, where he wrote extensively for the underground press. In numerous magazine articles and books since then, Mr. Navrozov has pioneered a positive solution to the survival of Western democracy. He is bold, provocative, unequivocal-but never dull. His most recent work is a critical study of the New York Times, which will be published by Yale University Press. Ted Agres is aggressive. As investigative reporter for Free Press International, Agres goes behind the headlines in his hard-hitting weekly column on U.S. foreign policy. Among his journalistic coups: an expose of the radical-left Institute for Policy Studies in Washington and an exclusive report on illegal high-tech sales to the Soviet Union. Agres was also the first to report on the KGB's role in the 1979 Tehran embassy takeover. Based in Washington, Agres also provides expert commentary on Reagan administration programs and policies. No topic is too big or too small for Hal McKenzie's thoughtful analysis. A specialist in international affairs, he is equally at home discussing the theory of evolution. Going beyond conventional wisdom and pat answers, his columns shed light on a wide range of complex political and social issues. Larry Moffit is not only a prize-winning columnist. His other hats include those of editor, poet, filmmaker, and comedian. No matter how abstract the topic, his columns-thoughtful, provocative and often humorous- are always down to earth. Journalist-playwright-businessman, Matthew Conroy is 'that rare breed of individual who lives in two world simultaneously-business and creative writing-and is successful in both. As creative writer, he is a playwright with two produced ..plays to his credit. As a journalist, he was formerly an editor of a Ima wire service in Canada. 'As a businessman, he has been owner-president of his own company, which has for the past 20 years dealt in national and international financial transactions and acted as a consultant to industry. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL NEWS SERVICE Sept. 29 - Oct. 5 COLUMNISTS The super-crime of the century After a 35-year silence, Lev Navrozov confesses to the super-crime of the cen- tury: how he voted against Josef Stalin. In those days, to vote against Stalin was to vote against the universe, God, nature, the past, present and future. Not to say risk almost certain punishment by the Soviet secret police. Whitey Herzog and the Toyota affair Whitey Herzog stirred a hornet's nest a while ago when he plugged Toyota cars on TV in his uniform. The United Auto Workers didn't like the idea of Whitey taking the bread out of the mouths of American workers. But there are larger issues at stake. By Harold Rosenthal. Fidel's friends on Capitol Hill Despite the hostile relations existing between Washington and Havana, Fidel Castro still has some friends on Capitol Hill. A recent symposium in Washing- ton on U.S.-Cuba relations drew together a motley assortment of aging Marx- ists, trendy lefties, reporters, curiosity-seekers and seven U.S. congressmen. By Ted Agres in Washington. Differing views on U.S. policy to 3d World What is the Reagan administration's policy toward the Third World. You'd never know by reading The New York Times. Hal McKenzie takes the Times to task for its negative analysis of Secretary of State Alexander Haig's recent policy address at the United Nations. The speech called for a new era of economic growth based on open trade and increased cooperation between nations. A realistic foreign policy gathering An academic conference with a realistic political orientation is a refreshing change, especially in Washington. Matthew Conroy attended such a gathering recently on the theme of "U.S. Foreign Policy in the '80s." Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 How I committed the super-crime of the century in Stalinist Russia LEV NAVROZOV There I was, 18 years old and voting for the first time, and as it happened, for Stalin. It was 1946, Moscow. Last year I voted in the United States. My first impression of the two events is quite similar - men and women sit at a desk and check your name. There is one difference, though. In the United States, you go inside a booth and vote, secretly. In Stalin's Russia, there was a similar "booth for secret voting," but the question is, why go inside at all? From one of those men and women at a desk you received your voting paper, which displayed the name of Stalin. Then you could go into a booth, strike out the name of Stalin in total secrecy and write in the name of your candidate, also in total secrecy. But surely you did not want to strike out the name of Stalin, so you did not go inside the booth, but walked to a ballot box in general view and dropped your voting paper into it. Those who beamed Only one kind of people would go into a booth. They took their voting papers and beamed. Then they would ask, beaming, "May I go into a booth?" "Of course," a man or a woman at the desk would answer, smiling. And the beaming voters would go in and soon emerge, beaming. Everybody knew: They were the kind of people who could not just drop in their voting papers - they had to write something on them in addition like, "Long live our beloved leader, teacher and friend Stalin!" Or, "Thank you, Comrade Stalin, for our happy life!" Except for the beaming kind, no one went into a booth, and if you had done so without this obvious beam- ing purpose, you could have been followed by plainclothesmen to your home. Having been thus identified, you could have further risked having your fingerprints compared with those left on a voting paper where the name of Stalin was struck out in total secrecy. Thus, it would be established that you voted against Stalin. Tb vote against Stalin was to vote against the universe, God, nature, man, the past, present and future. It was not a crime. It was the super- crime of the century, something unspeakable, and indeed impossi- ble, like blowing up the Earth along with all mankind. The secret police would never believe that any Soviet inhabitant could do it on his own, so they would have investigated you until you con- fessed that you were a Gestapo- trained master agent of a vast powerful CIA-based organization (say, the All-Russian Union of Struggle for the Liberation of Rus- sia, or ARUSLR). Then you would have been duly shot, though by that time you would be in such a state that it would probably be a relief. But could I abstain from voting and stay home? Absurd. Insane. Mortally dangerous. Not to wish to vote for Stalin? So I had to. And since I had to, I decided to vote - against Stalin. Super-crime of the century So here I am, 18, and I am plan- ning the super-crime of the century. Tb read Pravda, all mankind con- siders Stalin the greatest man that ever lived or will live. Why, even Sir Winston Churchill, the inveterate enemy of the Soviet regime who wanted to destroy it by war way back in 1918, paid glowing tribute to Stalin's greatness. This may be, but then I disagree with all mankind, including Sir Win- ston. I cannot vote for Stalin, even though everyone knows that this voting is an inane empty convention to which no one, except those beam- ing fools, pays any attention and which makes no difference whatso- ever, for Stalin would not budge an inch from his absolute power even if 100 percent of the population struck out his name and inscribed someone else's. I put on gloves (no fingerprints, please), cut a card out of thick, stiff paper about half the size of the voting paper, and wrote on it in bldck letters: "I hereby vote against Stalin and his network of thugs, gangsters and murderers enmeshing my country." I added several more sen- tences in the same spirit, but I do not remember them word for word. Ironically, this was not my style. I loved Russian and French poetry, I wanted to be a painter, and I despised "politics" and "political language" of any kind. But I signed: "All-Russian Union of Struggle for the Liberation of Russia. Moscow Section." The last addition was to create the impression that this vast power- ful organization had spread far and wide, almost ready to overthrow Stalin's regime, and I voted on behalf of its Moscow section. This wasalso uncharacteristic of me. I did not see anything odd about my apparently being in the minority of one against all mankind, includ- ing Winston Churchill. I was a loner, spiritually. But since I had stepped onto a political path, I felt that an organization was needed, if only on paper. I left a glove on my left hand and put the card (and my left hand) into the left pocket of my coat. I was ready to commit the super-crime of the century - and try to escape scot-free! Scene of the super-crime Here is another difference between voting in Moscow and in New York. When my wife and I went to vote last year in New York, we couldn't find the polling place very easily until we stumbled on a building that looked like an aban- doned high school. In contrast, our polling station in Moscow was located in the mansion of Prince Yusupoff, with beautiful 18th-century French tapestries on the walls and cast-iron fireplaces. The loudspeakers outside blared forth music for the entire election district to hear, voters strolled toward and around the building as on a promenade, and the building itself was decorated like a Christmas tree. What a lark to vote for Stalin. With my gloved left hand in my Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Keep it home, if you please That fuss stirred up the past week by Whitey Herzog's picking up a few extra bucks plugging Toyota cars ignored the broader aspects of the problem. The editorial arm of the United Auto Workers deplored Whitey's taking the bread out of the mouths of the American workers by urging them to buy the imports; nowhere did it examine the issue of WHY the public preferred the items from far-off places, tariff and all, against the home-made product. Maybe the story about an empty Coke can being found inside the door panel of one of the Detroit jobs got around to a lot of places, true or false. Misguided or not, Whitey shouldn't have done it in uniform. His boss, (he's G.M. of the Cards as well as field manager, but even G.M.'s have bosses) told him so publicly. So the next time we see Whitey's honest features suggesting we do some- thing that we will profit from, finan- cially, socially or spiritually, he'll be wearing a neat business suit. Double-breasted. Herzog's been sporting a major-league baywindow for several seasons, as befits a fellow given to spurts of nervous eating. When Whitey was a chubby tod- dler there was an "in-uniform" inci- dent in sports-a different one from baseball-that provided prose- makers and after-dinner speakers with a line they long cherished. It concerned Joe Gould, a New York character who managed fighters for a living. In the depths of the Depres- sion he had picked up an honest Irishman who could take a punch. He worked sporadically as a long- shoreman on the Jersey docks over in Hoboken. The $50 or $100 he picked up for an evening's fistic work frequently was all that came between his sizeable family and brutal starvation. Social programs were a little up the road. James J. Braddock and Joe Gould made a perfect team, and one day there was Braddock in a position to challenge for the world heavyweight title held by Max Baer. He was a 10-1 underdog, Braddock was, and of course he out-gamed the awe- some-physiqued Baer in 15 rounds. So for trivia devotees it was Braddock who was the champ who came between Baer and Joe Louis. Later Louis flattened Braddock and when the war came Braddock and Gould had pretty much passed from the picture. Braddock was passed over in the draft because of his considerable family, and so there was the odd picture of a fighter being deferred and his manager taken. Well, hardly "taken." Joe Gould went in as a cap- tain in the Quartermaster Corps and had his pals assign him to the Brooklyn Port of Embarkation. In those days it was a five-dollar cab ride from the center of Manhattan. The war eventually ended but before it did it gave the boxing fra- ternity a choice item to discuss for a long time. There was a group stealing from Army shipments by the freight-car load. Among those grabbed and tossed into the can without too much discussion was Joe Gould, former manager of a world heavyweight champion. Boxing has always put up with a lot of aberrant conduct but in Gould's case he was castigated by virtually every member of the fistic community."He should'na done it in uniform," was the universal assessment. Have you seen Uncle Harry? Any mention of three-times Stanford all-American, Bobby Grayson, must inevitably be followed by a reference to his uncle, Harry. That salty ex-Marine, Harry Grayson, moved along to the sports- writers' Valhalla a decade ago. Bobby Grayson, a tremendous player in the '30s when fullbacks rarely topped 200, and routinely played 60 minutes, died of a heart ailment in the state of Washington, his native area, last week. He had come down from Oregon at the start of the '30s to play on three successive Rose Bowl teams at Stanford, a record. The Indians almost set another record of another dimension; they lost two of three. Harry Grayson was sports editor of NEA (Newspaper Enterprise Association, an adjunct of the Scripps-Howard chain,) and was known for his ability to break up a press conference, important or triv- ial, in record time. He could clear a room in the middle of something like an earth-shaking announcement that Louis would be fighting a second bout with Schmeling by interjecting, "Lemme tell yuh somethin' " He had a drill-sergeant's voice. Insults merely bounced off his fine head of wavy hair like spaldeens. When Bobby Grayson decided to go to Stanford (every college in the country was after him) Harry immediately became his nephew's one-man publicity organization. And he had plenty to talk about. Grayson was right up there with a lot of Stanford All-Americas like Monk Moscrip, Bob Reynolds (who late co-owned the Angels with Gene Autry), and Bones Hamilton. You had to admit these were names that could roll off a tongue easily. Espe- cially Harry's. Stanford lost to Columbia in what was probably the biggest Rose Bowl upset ever (The Light Blue was the last Ivy League rep in what was then the biggest post-season football attraction in the country). Then they lost to Alabama, where Frank Thomas (yes, there have been 'Bama coaches other than Bear Bryant) had such performers as Don Hutson, one of the greatest ends in history; Bill Lee and Millard (Dixie) Howell. Fellow by the name of Bear Bryant played the other end. He was working his way through college and wooing the governor's daughter. He accomplished both. In Grayson's last Rose Bowl appearance Stanford beat Southern Methodist, 7-0. That was the end for Grayson. He never played pro, not for a salary like $5,000 for the sea- son. He was an academic all- America as well as a fine football player and there were things to be done as the country was pulling out of the Great Depression. About Uncle Harry. They told a million stories about him and his attitude toward life (Jimmy Breslin was once his office boy and may have picked up a few pointers.) One of the best was when he was sen- tenced to working in Cleveland, NEA's home office. Harry was a big-city guy and didn't care for any part of Cleveland, including the raging snowstorms that blew in from Lake Erie in mid- January. He was struggling up Euclid Ave- nue, which at the moment resem- bles the main drag in Irkutsk. A lone motorist pulled up alongside, lowered his snow-encrusted window, and called, "How do I get out of town?" He was lost. Harry wasn't of much help. "How the hell do I know?" he snarled through lips blue with the cold. "If I knew, do you think I'd be doing this?" Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Fidel's friends on Capitol Hid Foreign Policy Report By Ted Agres FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL WASHINGTON - "Fidel Castro saw me, ran over and shook my hand. He said, 'You must be George Crockett. My friend Ron Dellums said you'd be coming...' " Thus did Rep. George Crockett Jr., D-Mich., a newcomer to the Con- gress, recount the marvelous time he had in Havana, hobnobbing with the exalted leader of the "non- aligned" nations and puppet of the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro. Crockett was one of seven con- gressmen who last week also par- ticipated in a controversial symposium on Capitol Hill titled "The U.S. and Cuba: Prospects for the '80s." But if the conference can be any judge, prospects for sympathyfrom the Reagan admin- istration appear slight indeed. The State Department, just days before the event, cancelled visas for officials from Cuba to attend the seminar. Cuba's enthusiastic sup- port for Marxist insurrection and guerrilla armies in Central Amer- ica and elsewhere were officially cited as reasons. But Castro's bel- licose denouncement of the United States during an international gath- ering in Havana the previous week was the real straw that broke the camel's back. In any event, Castro's good friends in Congress weren't deterred by any of this. Crockett had gone to Havana just a week before, along with Rep. Theodore Weiss, D-N.Y., and a few other legis- lators, to attend a meeting of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU). It was at this meeting that Castro erupted into choice rhetoric. U.S. lawmakers came back and dutifully reported on their experiences for the congressional Cuba conference. Audience of aged Marxists The mostly appreciative audi- ence was comprised mainly of aged Marxists, who seemingly had embraced communism in the 1930s when it was still considered chic and who have since not let reality interfere with their concepts. Also to be seen were a few trendy lefties of the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) mold and an assortment of reporters and curiosity seekers. Crockett told the audience at the outset of the symposium that "[Rep.] Mickey Leland is very well known in Cuba. He is a good friend of Castro.... He is almost our unoffi- cial ambassador to Cuba. He said, 'I'll let my good friend Fidel know you're coming down,' " Crockett said. "Ron Dellums also said, 'I'll let my friend Fidel know you're coming down, " Crockett told the pleased audience. The combined notifications apparently had the desired effect, for Crockett was dutifully impressed by the treatment he received in Havana. Leland, D-Texas, assured the audience that the Reagan adminis- tration is embarked on "a danger- ously misguided policy ... Cuba is high on our international hit list." He warned that war is inevitable unless the United States halts its "militar- ism and confrontation" and bows to Cuba's desires. Crockett added that he thought "the State Department and the gov- ernment is characterized by racis- m ...[and] to me, fascism is another way of saying'racist' " Castro, in his tirade at the IPU conference, called the United States "fascist; "`genocidal" and "covered with blood'' Crockett, seemingly puzzled, lamented that the rest of the U.S. delegation in Havana had declined to discuss these sensitive issues with the Cuban dictator. The congressional symposium was sponsored by the Center for Cuban Studies, a non-profit organi- zation based in New York whose members are largely pro-Castro Marxists. The center, according to one participant, had contacted Johns Hopkins University and American University to co-sponsor the symposium and to send the intel- lectuals. They complied. Dr. Riordan Roett, professor and director of Latin American Studies, Johns Hopkins School forAdvanced International Studies, was the chairman for the event. "We want different positions expressed;" he said. "This is not an anti-Reagan rally, and we will not endorse any particu- lar point of view," Roett stated with apparent naivete. A look at some of the people orga- nizing the conference would have illustrated the inherent bias toward Cuba and away from the Reagan administration. In addition to the congressmen mentioned pre- viously, other far left sponsors included: Rep. Mervyn Dymally, D- Calif.; William Gray, D-Pa.; Stephen Solarz, D-N.Y.; District of Columbia delegate Walter Fauntroy; and Sen. Lowell Weicker, R-Conn. Research for the economic anal- yses of U.S.-Cuba relations was attributed to David Williams, a staffer at the pro-Marxist Council on Hemispheric Affairs. The Cubans who were denied visas instead sent videotapes of themselves, which were displayed on a wide-screen video player. These included Alberto Betancourt Roa, of Cuba's Ministry of Foreign Trade, and Marcello Fernandez Font, chief adviser to the Cuban Central Planning Board. The head of Cuba's interests section in Wash- ington, Ramon Sanchez Parodi, appeared in person and was warmly welcomed. Other participants included: Victor Rabinowitz; George Pills- bury, state senator from Minnesota and director of the Pillsbury Co.; Irving Louis Horowitz, of Rutgers University; and Robert Pastor, the radical IPS-linked fellow who served on Jimmy Carter's National Security Council. A buffet lunch for the sympo- sium participants was held at the home of Stewart Mott, millionaire sugardaddy of leftist and radical causes and an heir to the General Motors fortune. Anti U.S. propaganda from Cas- tro has been filling the eardrums of U.S. officials for too long. Last week the Reagan administration Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 announced it was moving ahead to construct a radio transmitter to beam news, commentary, and other programs to Cuba in Spanish. Castro has "lied" to the Cuban people for 20 years, U.S. officials said, about the causes of economic disaster and domestic problems on the island. Castro has blamed the United States for virtually all its ills. "We'd like to answer Castro on his own ground," a senior administra- tion official explained. "We just think an informed citi- zenry can exercise, in time, influence over its government. That's the way government should run, not the other way around," he said. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 New YorTimes vs. Haig: New turning truth upside down The New York Times' front-page headline read "Haig Rebuffs Poor Nations' Program for More Aid." The main element in Bernard Nossiter's piece on Secretary of State Alexander Haig's speech at the U.N. General Assembly was negativity. Haig was depicted as cruelly turning down poor nations' requests for more aid, asking Third World countries to instead "rely for development on free markets, pri- vate initiative and foreign capital." The wording implies that Haig is kicking mendicant nations away from the West's door and requiring them to fall back on their own resources with no help from the West. The actual thrust of Haig's speech was far from being cruel or negative toward Third World needs. Haig, in fact, called for a new era of world economic growth based on open trade, increased cooperation in food and energy production and an emphasis on private enterprise. Key point missed Nossiter totally ignored Haig's key point - that the world faces a "crucial choice" between growth and development through increasing international com- merce, or stagnation and decline due to government protectionism, socialism and political instability spread by Soviet-backed commu- nist subversion. Nor did he mention Haig's refer- ence to the World Bank's ominious prediction that "the difference between the two cases [free trade and protectionism] amounts to some 220 million more absolutely poor people" But,of course, Nos- siter doesn't want to show Haig as trying to solve poverty, but as turn- ing his back on it. What many of these nations are asking for is a socialistic "new eco- nomic order" consisting of "a large increase in resources flowing from rich nations to poor," as Nossiter said. However, the universal exper- ience of this planet - not only of the United States - is that income dis- tribution schemes, taking from the rich to give to the poor, simply do not work. Such schemes manage to stifle initiative, destroy incentives, strangle business in government red tape and, in general, lead to a shrinking economic pie with less for all. It was a Chinese sage who said some thousands of years ago that "If you give a man a fish, he will be fed for one day. Teach a man to fish, and he will be fed for the rest of his life" That is what Haig wants to do for the Third World - give them the opportunity and know-how to acquire the prosperity that has evolved in the industrialized nations instead of being permanent charity cases. Haig did not, therefore, "rebuff" anybody. The poor nations want to get out of their poverty situation, as of course they should. Here is how they can do it, Haig said. The fact that his plan differs from the "new economic order" being pushed by many Third World nations - most of whom are allied with the Soviet bloc- is not by any means a refusal to recognize their real needs. Nossiter employed the usual dodge of reporters trying to get their own preconceived ideas across - quoting anonymous sources to depict Third World del- egates as deeply pained by Haig's speech. He quoted "several Third World delegates, who declined to be named:' as being "distressed by what they saw as a rejection of their proposal for what they call a new international economic order." Unwilling to name sources Frankly, there is something shady about diplomats, whose job is to be spokesmen for their countries in a public forum, being so shy to be identified with a certain position. If these anonymous delegates' point of view is as widespread in the United Nations as Nossiter would have us believe, then why are they so ashamed of being publicly associ- ated with it? If there are so many Third World delegates at the United Nations who are opposed to Haig's position, couldn't Nossiter have found any that were willing to be named? Reading between the lines, it is obvious why Nossiter would not identify his sources. They probably came from Marxist or socialistic regimes which are so tied to the Soviet bloc that their opinions would be totally discredited by the readers if they knew where they were coming from. The last thing Nossiter wants to do is clearly identify opinions that conform with his own as originating from communist sources; it might blow his reportorial cover and reveal him as an apologist for leftist causes. While dwelling at great length on Haig's "rebuff" to the Third World, Nossiter devotes one paragraph to the positive aspects of Haig's speech, just to show that he is being "objective" The effect of this is, of course, to make Haig look even more niggardly. He writes that "Mr. Haig did make what appeared to be one important gesture toward the Third World. The very poorest nations like Mali and Bangladesh do 'require long-term and generous conces- sional aid,' he said. But he added that help should come from developing as well as industrialized nations." A humane appeal In fact, Haig's entire speech was an "important gesture" towards the Third World. Haig was making an eminently practical, rational and humane appeal for an end to the bar- riers - many of them self-imposed - that have kept the developing world in poverty. Haig was also call- ing for a "new world economic order"- one which would multiply prosperity instead of sharing scar- city, as is the rule in socialist regimes. Is it any wonder that more and more conservatives are calling for "an alternative to The New York Times"? A publication that sup- presses so much of the truth in its reporting does not deserve the pres- tige and the influence that the Times enjoys. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 `U.S. Foreign Policy in the '80s'. a realistic view of global affairs MATTHEW CONROY THE PEPPER MILL Although Washington is a one- industry city of politics, another major activity other than govern- ment business is the holding of con- ferences every day, seven days a week. Confronted with more confer- ences than can possibly be attended, the working journalist must choose carefully and wisely in allocating his time. One of the more interesting Wash- ington conferences took place a few weeks ago. The theme was "U.S. For- eign Policy in the '80s," and the sponsor was the Professors World Peace Academy, a division of the International Cultural Foundation, Inc. Tbo often, conferences involving academics lean toward the unreal- istic. College professors tend to see the world not as it is but as they would like it to be. Probably the most outstanding example of this kind of myopia was provided by Henry Kissinger during his years of gov- ernment service, when he applied unworkable academic views to the real world. Happily, most of the dais speakers in the PWPA conference were realists. Perceptive comments The major address at the PWPA conference was delivered by the conference chairman, Professor Morton A. Kaplan of the University of Chicago. Dr. Kaplan paid the usual lip service to the need for "reason- able agreements" with the Soviets and Chinese, but was realistic enough to call for maintenance of U.S. mili- tary strength at a high enough level to ensure our power credibility. A few more comments by Dr. Kaplan called for greater support for the Afghan people battling their Soviet invaders, a stronger West European defense force to deter a Soviet attack, and an admirably real- istic approach to Cuba. I quote from Dr. Kaplan's report: "We should have gone into an air and naval blockade of Cuba imme- diately after the Russians moved in force into Afghanistan. Although it would be a mistake to attempt to bring the [Cuban] regime down directly with American force, its activities may in the future provide us with a reason for isolating it. .,It is a vicious, terroristic regime which never would have come into power except upon an American decision to allow it to happen in the expectation that constitutional and democratic government would be restored.... There is no American incentive to come to terms with a Cuba that is repressive, terroristic, and our enemy." Dr. Kaplan's comments on the problems of the developing world also reflect a gratifying realism. "Development is not primarily a matter of external assistance," he writes. "Investment certainly is necessary, but South Korea, Thiwan, Hong Kong, and.Singapore give ample proof that capital funds are available if they can be employed profitably.... "These countries have found the route to national independence, or at least to as much of it as is pos- sible for a small nation in the modern world. And this will permit the res- toration of national pride... .Good government, sound economic poli- cies, good education systems, rela- tively honest and efficient local entrepreneurs, and achievement orientations are required." Dr. Kaplan was rebutting the "myths" of the Brandt report and the policies of Robert McNamara as head of the World Bank that called for ever-increasing aid to the devel- oping countries. If we subscribe to that approach, he said, "we will finance local elites at the expense of their nations, proliferate the number of large hidden Swiss bank accounts, destroy capital, and pro- duce explosive frustrated expecta- tions" More clandestine work The major topics chosen for dis- cussion by the PWPA conference related to Central America, the Middle East, intelligence, religion and public policy, and Japan's role in Northeast Asia. The speaker on "The Role and Capabilities of U.S. Intelligence Operations in the 1980s," Dr. Ray Cline of Georgetown's Center for Strategic and Interna- tional Studies, forcefully empha- sized the U.S. need for clandestine services to support friendly groups and frustrate hostile revolutionary forces abroad. High-quality research and analysis services are an abso- lute must if we are to understand international events and purposes, he said. An academic conference with a realistic political orientation is a refreshing welcome. For too long the American people have been overly exposed to reports, ads and statements by leftist elements of the academic world organized and manipulated by those who look to totalitarian-type solutions to long- standing economic and political problems. 'b the argument that at least total- itarian states solve the problem of hunger, Dr. Kaplan reminds us that people are not cattle to be contented. It was John Stuart Mill who affirmed that he would rather be an unhappy human than a happy pig. One looks forward to the next PWPA conference. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 W011LD BOXING RATINGS The Junior Middleweights 1. Sugar Ray Leonard-Ray had to give up his WBA junior middleweight title when he beat Hearns, but he's still the best in the division. 2. Wilfred Benitez-Has good punching power at 154 pounds. Wilfred must get the desire for training to keep his title. 3. Thomas Hearns-Hearns should concentrate on this division. He's too tall to be fooling around at 147 pounds. This could be his ideal weight. 4. Ayub Kalule-Fought his heart out against Leonard, but didn't have enough firepower to win. He could get his title back against a lesser opponent. S. Roberto Duran-"The No Mas Kid" is saying ridiculous things about beating up both Leonard and Hearns. Can you remember one time in his career when Duran was far behind in a fight and battled back to victory? I can't. 6. Ibny Ayala Jr.-A surefie future champ. Ayala can punch with the best of them. His one punch 1st round KO of Jose Baquedano was super. 7. Nino Gonzalez-Lost close disputed decision to Duran. Carl Duva is handling his future. Brother Lou nixed a Tony Ayala- Nino Gonzalez fight, according to Garden matchmaker Harold Weston. 8. Rocky Fratto-Undefeated youngster from upstate New York might be better than people think. . He is fighting Tidashi Mihara (who?) for the WBA title left vacant by Leonard. 9. Maurice Hope-Hope seemed to be all washed out when he lost the title to Benitez. He's strictly an opponent now. 10. Charlie Weir-Good right hand puncher from South Africa can bang with the best of them. Chin not the best. The Junior Welterweights 1. Saoul Mamby-Sweet Seoul is one of a kind. Could go down as one of the most underrated champs of all time. 2. Aaron Pryor-Pryor is looking for a shot at Leonard's welter crown. Fat chance of winning. 3. Miguel Mntilla-Lost in two title bids, but still hanging in there. 4. Lennox Blackmore-Twice KO'd new lightweight champ Claude Noel, but was blitzed out in two by Pryor. S. Du Juan Johnson-Kronk stable mate of Hearns won a disputed nod over Montilla in Detroit. 6. Jo Kimpuani-Lost a tough 15 round decision to Mamby. Not through yet. 7. Johnny Bumphus-"Bump City" needs more polishing. Punching power-average. 8. Billy Costello-Needs TV exposure to get deserved recog- nition. Best left hooker in the division. 9. Domingo Ayala-KO'd by Montilla and by welterweight Resto. Chin-horrible, yet he can bang. 10. Monroe Brooks-Past prime. Good opponent. The Junior Lightweights 1. Sammy Serrano-Best of a shaky lot. Division could change champs quickly. 2. Rolando Navarett-Beat Boza-Edwards for the title. Also shaky crown. 3. Cornelius Boza-Edwards- Might never recover from the beating he got from Navarete. He just takes too many punches. 4. Edwin Rosario-My pick is for Rosario to beat Serrano for the title in December. S. Johnny Verderosa-"The Heat" from Staten Island needs work on his defense. A big banger could reach his chin. 6. Tony Santana-Santana might move down to Featherweight. He shutout tough Alberto Colazzo in his last fight. 7. Thtsutsuen Uehara-Won title from Serrano on "Hail Mary" right hand but gave it back early this year. 8. Bazooka Limon-Dirtiest fighter around, but lot of heart. 9. Ildefonso Bethelmy-Lost to Limon on 15 round KO. 10. Hector "Macho" Camacho- Youngster from the Bronx looked impressive in stopping veteran Robert Mullins at the Garden. -Joe Bruno Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Free Press International INTERNATIONAL REPORT Sept. 16,1981 A Background Briefing On Strategic Events Moscow's Secretary of State Alexander Haig's recent charge that the Soviet Union is using deadly biological poisons in Indochina caps an intensive four-year investigation into persistent reports of a "yellow rain" causing agonizing deaths among Lao, Cambodian and Afghan tribespeople. Number 37 ellow rain' U.S. officials said the investigation had been stymied until recently when "fresh" samples of contaminated water, vegetation, blood and urine were shipped to Washington from Cambodia enabling researchers to identify the lethal agent involved. However, there is another factor behind the timing of Haig's announcement which U.S. officials may have been too embarrassed to mention. That is a book due to be pub- lished in New York next month, written by a lone investigator utilizing his own resources who managed to identify the deadly agent and its Soviet source months ahead of the U.S. government. The book is "Yellow Rain" by Ster- ling Seagraves (M. Evans publisher). An advance review of the hook appeared in the Far Eastern Economic Review, Aug. 21-27, written by Wash- ington correspondent Richard Nations. (continued on page 2) INSIDE Backgrounder........... P3 North-South violence flares again in Korea ... P4 Sick Cambodian refugees wait for medical checks at a temporary camp inside the Thai border. The U.S. has uncovered evidence that deadly biological poisons have been used to kill Lao, Cambodian and Afghan tribespeople. Mitterrand v. Reagan: the policy gap widens The recent French foray into the troubled affairs of El Salvador is likely to severely strain relations between Paris and Washington. Although President Ronald Reagan and Socialist President Francois Mitterrand reached a surprising agreement on some political and eco- nomic issues at the recent Ottawa sum- mit in July, their vast ideological differences will almost certainly lead to a widening gap between the two nations. The French-Mexican initiative in recognizing the guerrilla opposition in El Salvador was the first step in Mit- terand's global strategy of pursuing a (continued on page 2) Cambodians seek to form new regime ...... P4 Egyptians explode KGB plot - again ...... P5 Allies abstain as U.N. slaps South Africa ..... P6 Solidarity's `bill of rights' irks Moscow .... P7 Haig bolsters NATO morale in speech ...... P7 Pinochet shuts down Marxist opposition .... P8 the International Report is published n cr, too peeks b, tree Press International. Inc. 401 Fifth .\se.. Ne,, llork Cit 10116. I elephone 12121532-83(41. fetes No. 2372541 NFl1 S l RI. the contents are for the information of subscriber% and ma, not he reprinted. quoted or reproduced oithout permission. annual subscription rates: $311 (U.S. and Cauadal $41) Io,erseasl. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 2 MOSCOW FROM PAGE 1 Seagraves' book names the killing agent which proved so elusive to U.S. investigators as tricothecene, or T-2, a deadly compound including poisons originally developed in the Soviet Union 25 years ago. The toxin caused agonizing, convulsive deaths among Hmong hill tribesmen following aerial bombardments of a mysterious yellow powder, the "yellow rain" of the book's title. Seagraves links the bizarre hemor- rhaging deaths seen in Laos with the same symptoms reported in Afghanistan and Yemen, two other countries where chemical warfare against tribespeople has been widely reported during attempts by Soviet- backed communist governments to suppress opposition in remote moun- tain or desert areas, far from the pry- ing eyes of the Western press. U.S. lacked `proof' Suspicions that the Soviet Union was engaged in biological warfare - in direct violation of international agreements - had been heightened by reports of an accident that killed thou- sands in the city of Sverdlovsk in April 1979. Eyewitnesses quoted in Samizdat (underground) reports indicate that more than 1,000 people died in the Sibe- rian city from a deadly virus or germ that escaped from a super-secret germ warfare laboratory. But the U.S. government, in its extensive investigations to identify the killing agent in Laos, said it had not established what it called "analytical proof" that T-2 was responsible until they received the samples from Cam- bodia earlier this year. From all indications, the delay in completing the investigation was due more to the Carter administration's reluctance to embarrass the Soviets while trying to establish "detente" than any mysteries concerning the deadly chemical. The CIA certainly had access to the same Lao and Cambodian refugees as Seagraves. It also is supposed to peruse Soviet technical literature for evi- dence of new advances in Soviet mili- tary capability. The fact that U.S. intelligence could not establish the obvious link between tricothecene toxin symptoms and the manufacture of the same toxin in the Soviet Union doesn't say much for U.S. intelligence capability. It also points to the politicization of the U.S. intelligence agencies dating from the Carter administration which has hampered their ability to provide this country with full and rapid evaluations of the Soviet threat. U.S. officials told Nations that "research in this country had been hampered, both by the clinically poor samples brought out of the Lao high- lands and by the inherent difficulties of formulating complicated tests without a plausible hypothesis to guide the search." The same sources concede that Seagraves had provided that hypothesis for the investigation. Hamstrung by `detente' One might ask what prevented the U.S. investigators from arriving at the same hypothesis. The answer appears to be that Seagraves was not ham- strung as the U.S. probers were by the political implications of pointing the finger at the Soviet Union while the Carter administration was playing footsie with the Kremlin. "Officials in the State Department and the Pentagon say privately that their search was not encouraged while the administration of former president Jimmy Carter was preoccupied with pursuing detente with the Soviet Union," Nations writes. Seagraves arrived at his hypothesis in two stages, first by comparing accounts of poison gassing episodes in Laos, Afghanistan and Yemen, and then isolating violent internal hemor- rhaging as the unique symptom hith- erto overlooked that is both common in most reported cases and the one phe- nomenon not accounted for by the known poison gases of the two world wars. Raised by missionary parents in northern Burma among hill tribes similar to the Hmong in Laos, Seag- raves travelled to Laos, Afghanistan and the Middle East for three years gathering material for his book. He then proceeded to identify the biotoxin tricothecene as the agent causing the mysterious bleeding symptomatic of the "yellow rain" deaths in Laos. U.S. target of germ bombs In publicizing Soviet involvement in illegal chemical warfare, the Reagan administration has acted none too soon. In his book, Seagraves presents evidence that bombs carrying the super toxin may be aimed at the United States from 90 miles away in Cuba. A recent column by Jack Anderson, which mentions the Seagraves book, refers to the death of a Cuban in Havana last year from symptoms dis- tinctly those of tricothecene toxin. Anderson also quotes his own CIA sources as saying that the toxin as well as other germ and chemical warfare agents are stored in Cuba for future use against the United States, based on the testimony of a defected Cuban officer who had trained in a chemical warfare battalion. FRANCE FROM PAGE I more active role in the Third World. That policy, according to analysts, con- trasts sharply with that of the Reagan administration. Of greatest concern to Washington is France's intervention into Latin American affairs. Mitterrand has a long history of supporting guerrilla movements in the region, and has appointed as his chief adviser on Third World affairs a former guerrilla - Regis Debray - who fought alongside Che Gueverra in Bolivia. Mitterrand has also been highly critical of U.S. policy in Central Amer- ica, including Reagan's cutoff of aid to Nicaragua and the U.S. trade embargo on Cuba. In an interview with Le Monde on July 2, he was quoted as saying: "I have serious reservations, not to say more, about U.S. policy in Central America. It is not a matter of Commu- nist subversion, but a refusal to see the misery and degradation." Mitterrand's election was hailed by Sandinista Commander Bayardo Arce, who referred to the French Socialist as "a militant of the Sandinista cause." Junta leader Daniel Ortega added his congratulations, saying "Your triumph is our triumph." In addition, Mitterrand's wife, Danielle, is a Socialist activist with a special interest in Latin America. She is a strong supporter of the political opposition in El Salvador and a mem- ber of the Salvadoran Solidarity Orga- nization. But the Socialist government's first big splash into international waters was not exactly a complete success. Officials at the French External Affairs Ministry, headed by veteran diplomat Claude Cheysson, said they were prepared for a hostile U.S. response to the French-Mexican decla- ration but were surprised by the force of Latin American reaction. Nine coun- tries, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Guate- mala, Honduras, Paraguay and Ven- ezuela, issued a joint statement protesting French and Mexican inter- vention into El Salvador's internal affairs. Until now, the French government has focused its attention on domestic issues - nationalizing industries and revamping its social welfare system. But with the recent initiative on El Sal- vador, the Mitterrand government is beginning to exercise its foreign policy options. This could mean trouble for the Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 3 United States, especially in matters involving the Third World. A recent Heritage Foundation study states that " Most of Mitterrand's and his Socialist Party's principles ... are diametrically opposed to those of the Reagan admin- istration" As a consequence, France could "play a critical role in undermin- ing American foreign policy." In some issues - such the nuclear modernization in Europe, Afghanistan, Poland and disarmament negotiations - Mitterrand's policies appear to coincide with Reagan's. For example, Mitterrand is the first French president to tentatively sup- port the deployment of NATO missiles in Europe. But these policies are primarilly defensive measures. According to the Heritage study, France continues to view the Atlantic Alliance as a "dis- tasteful necessity." In addition, analysts say, Mit- terand's denunciation of the invasion of Afghanistan along with other anti- Soviet rumblings are more an expres- sion of a independence from the two superpowers than a tough anti-Moscow line. Other problems are likely to crop up in the Middle East, where France main- tains strong economic ties to the Arab world. Despite Mitterrand's personal support of Israel and the Camp David accords, economic pressure and oppo- sition from his own Cabinet memem- bers is likely to influence French policy in the region. At the heart of the problem is a dif- fering perception of Western responsi- bilities and relations to the so-called 'T'hird World. French Foreign Minister Cheysson has warned that the Reagan administration could provoke "major difficulty" with its European allies and with France in particular if it fails to improve relations between the indus- trialized nations of the "North" and the developing nations of the "South" Washington has placed great emphasis upon the developing world - Reagan himself plans to attend the upcoming North-South talks in Can- cun, Mexico - but tends to view devel- opment issues within the context of East-West relations and the threat posed by Soviet expansionism. BA CKGROUNDER Despite the fact that Ronald Reagan, during last year's presidential campaign, suggested that an appropri- ate U.S. response to a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan might be to blockade Cuba, his administration now has ruled out that option should the Russians invade Poland. Reagan's get-tough response to Soviet military aggression drew fire and even ridicule from some members of former President Carter's adminis- tration. But Reagan's advisers recog- nized that the Soviets would respect such "linkage" and would understand that there is a price to be paid for their empire-building activities. The policy of "linkage" continues to play a major role in the administra- tion's approach to the Soviet Union in such areas as strategic arms control. Secretary of State Alexander Haig has stated that Soviet military behavior will be tied to U.S. involvement in future SALT negotiations, for example. But linkage is apparently limited in the scope of its application. The State Department, National Security Council, U.S. intelligence and other agencies have been preparing policy options for the president should Poland be invaded. Some of the sug- gested responses include: suspension of grain sales, halting of trade, censure by the United Nations and other diplo- matic actions taken in concert with U.S. allies, and beefed-up broadcasting of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty to Eastern Europe. Other suggestions are more out of the ordinary, such as positioning a U.S. warship in international waters off the coast of Poland to rescue "boat people" fleeing that country. But the Cuba quarantine has been ruled out by the administration insofar as Poland is concerned. "A naval blockade would be an inconclusive measure and of dubious relevance," said one informed source. "'Ib attack Cuba, while the Russians are attacking Poland, would be to tell the world that the two superpowers are symmetrical - each attacks a weak country," he said, adding that such an action would be counter-productive. Cuba, however, could be blockaded by the United States if Fidel Castro steps up his drive to subvert neighboring Latin American coun- tries, and intelligence agencies have concluded that Soviet ruler Leonid Brezhnev would not jump to the aid of a beleaguered Cuba. North Korean arms shipments to Iran have escalated, but are now com- ing by sea rather than being transported by Iranian 747s as they were shortly after the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war. Why is Kim 11-sung con- tinuing to supply light arms and artil- lery to a nation at war with Pyongyang's non-aligned comrades in Iraq? Perhaps his tactics were coordi- nated with Moscow. Or, as some ana- lysts suggest, Kim may like Khomeini's strident anti-Western rhetoric and the hard currency he has to offer. During his visit last month to Aden, South Yemen, Libya's Moammar Qad- dafi signed a friendship treaty with the leaders of South Yemen and Ethiopia in which they vowed to cooperate in opposing U.S. designs in the region. Qaddafi also talked to representatives of such Arab organizations as the Sudanese communists, the Gulf Liber- ation Front, the Oman Popular Liber- ation Front, Lebanon's communist party, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). Qaddafi continued to call publicly for peace between the pro-Soviet regime in South Yemen and North Yemen, which is backed by Saudi Ara- bia and, increasingly,by Iraq. But his money is likely to continue to support Aden's guerrilla activities to the North. Some North Yemenis are bitter that the West is not supporting their struggle. . One villager, who had moved to the capital with his family, told our corre- spondent: "It is ultimately Russia which is supplying the front with weap- ons through the rulers of South Yemen. But who is helping us? The West and America are just looking on" An intense educational program on civil defense is stirring uneasiness among the East Germans, many of whom recall similar feelings just before the beginning of the Second World War. According to reports from East Berlin, students throughout that district are learning how to build air raid shelters during compulsory seven-day courses in civil defense. And government publications on the sub- ject are increasing in number. "Every citizen has to participate in the strengthening of the national defense with greater personal effort," stressed Col. Werner Huebner in the party magazine, Einheit (Unity). Huebner, who is the director of the Central Committee for Socialist Defense Education, said that "if peace is at stake, we cannot tolerate egoism and laziness." Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 4 North-South violence flares again in Korea North and South Korean soldiers fought a 10-minute machine-gun battle across the tense Demilitarized Zone shortly after a Japanese government delegation recently visited the truce village of Panmunjom. There was no indication that the two events were connected, but the shooting seemed to underline the lin- gering threat of renewed conflict in the Korean peninsula more than 30 years after North Korea started the Korean War. The South Korean government has asked Japan for economic aid which would help Seoul to boost its defenses against the military threat from the North. On the day of the fighting, however, talks between the visiting Japanese delegation, led by Foreign Minister Suaao Sonoda, and South Korean offi- cials in Seoul ended in disagreement on the aid issue. Sonoda reiterated his government's position that Tokyo was unwilling to help fund South Korea's defense because it would conflict with Japan's "peace" constitution. A first round of Japanese-South Korean talks held in Tokyo barely three weeks ear- lier had stumbled on the same problem (See International Report No. 36). Sonoda and five other Japanese offi- cials briefly visited Panmunjom, about 90 miles to the west of where the shooting occurred minutes later. In its account of the incident, the Seoul Defense Ministry reported no South Korean casualties. It was not known whether anyone was hit on the North Korean side, whose guards at one of the DMZ border posts had started the firefight. A South Korean spokesman blasted the North Koreans for their "stepped- up provocation." The last similar inci- dent had been reported in April, when North Korean forces fired across the DMZ in a vain attempt to prevent one of their soldiers from defecting to the South. The Seoul talks failed to produce a customary joint communique, but the two sides agreed that a meeting should be arranged between South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan and Jap- anese Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki. No date was set. Tokyo has been unwilling to accept the South Korean contention that the Japanese should contribute to Seoul's defenses because they have an impor- tant stake in preventing a possible com- munist invasion or takeover of South Korea which would also pose a threat to Japan. But South Korean efforts to obtain increased economic aid from Japan got a boost in early September when formerPrime Minister Kakuei Thnaka, one of Tokyo's most powerful political figures, backed the idea. He was quoted as saying, "It is unnatural that there should be such a big fuss about $5 billion or $6 billion needed (by South Korea) for economic assistance." Japan's second-largest opposition group, the centrist Komeito Party, also recently threw its support behind Seoul's request for more aid. In another development, seven U.S. Air Force advanced F-16 jet fighters arrived at the South Korean air base of Kunsan recently. A total of 48 F- 16s are expected to be deployed in the country by next March, replacing the aging USAF F-4 Phantom jets. Chinese labor camp A unique hand-written 196-page account of life in a Chinese communist prison camp was reportedly smuggled out recently. The document, penne1 by 38-year-old dissident Liu Qing records instances of prison brutality, including severe beatings, and bitterly criticizes Peking's political and legal system. Many thousands of Chinese unde- sirables are said to live in communist penal camps where they undergo "edu- cation through labor." Knowledgeable Chinese sources said they believed Liu's report was genuine. Liu had reportedly sold transcripts of the trial of China's well-known dissi- dent Wei Jingsheng and was arrested in Peking in November 1979. Wei was imprisoned for 15 years on subversion charges. Western correspondents in Peking obtained Liu's document at a time when Peking officials have launched a renewed effort to clamp down on what they call a Western-influenced "bour- geois liberalist tendency" among Chi- nese writers and artists. The Peking campaign mainly involves attacks by high-level party functionaries, including the top lead- ership, in the state media against "ultra-individualistic" artists who "want absolute liberty." Strong and repeated official criticism was espe- cially leveled against 61-year-old screen writer Bai Hua for his film script "Bitter Love," in which he por- trayed the late Mao Tse-tung as a "god who failed" and raised questions about China's future under communism. Attacks on Bai Hua are widely seen as a warning to the public against expressing similar thoughts. In another development in Peking recently, the standing committee of the National People's Congress rubber- stamped a relatively minor cabinet shuffle among several trade and indus- try ministry posts. It also said that an NPC session in November will discuss a report on the national economy by Premier Zhao Ziyang. Among the announced changes in the cabinet was the replacement of Foreign Trade Minister Li Qiang by Zheng Thubin. Cambodians seek to formn exile government Leaders of the three main Cambo- dian resistance groups met in Singa- pore during the first half of September and agreed in principle to form a coali- tion government-in-exile. Although many important details still have to be worked out in future negotiations, the three factions want to present the out- line of their consensus before the cur- rent session of the United Nations General Assembly. The U.N. still recognizes the ousted Marxist Khmer Rouge regime led by Khieu Samphan and Pol Pot as the legitimate government of Cambodia under the name of "Democratic Kam- puchea" Aside from Khieu, the other leaders at the Singapore talks were former Prime Minister Son Sann and Prince Norodom Sihanouk. Further talks are to be held in Bangkok. Some officials of the five-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) - which organized the meeting - were quoted as saying the Khmer Rouge appeared to he intransigent. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 5 Analysts believe the group's Peking backers have encouraged them to take an aggressive stance by providing them with ample supplies of weapons and funds and by spreading massive pro-Khmer Rouge propaganda. This propaganda is believed to be responsi- ble for a widespread belief that the Khmer Rouge are the only effective anti-Vietnamese resistance group in Cambodia. Some media reports, attributed mostly to statements by Thai officials, have recently suggested that Son Sann was intransigent in demanding that Khmer Rouge leaders leave Cambodia following a possible withdrawal of Vietnam's 200,000 occupation troops and that military leadership should go to his Khmer People's National Liber- ation Front (KPNLF). But analysts sup- port Son Sann's contention that the Cambodian people would prefer con- tinued Vietnamese control over a return to power of the genocidal Khmer Rouge. The analysts believe many reports of Khmer Rouge victories in fighting Vietnamese-led government troops inside Cambodia are being deliber- ately exaggerated in order to boost their credibility as a resistance force. But they concede that well-trained Khmer Rouge guerrillas could prob- ably overwhelm the smaller and rel- atively ill-equipped KPNLF army and Sihanouk's tiny Moulinaka group if the Vietnamese left Cambodia. Son Sann's aides have explained that this is the main reason for his reluctance to com- promise on some political and military issues, saying most Cambodians could not support him if he opened the way fora possible Khmer Rouge comeback. Intense pressure from the Thai gov- ernment - which wants to please Peking because it sees China as its only potential protector against Vietnam- ese aggression - led Son Sann to weaken his strong stand against Khmer Rouge participation in a future Cambodian administration. But observers believe the KPNLF leader hopes to get political and mate- rial support from Western countries - especially the United States which has so far done practically nothing to strengthen Son Sann's position vis-a- vis the Khmer Rouge - in return for his readiness to deal with the Pol Pot group. Vietnam, meanwhile, reportedly made a lame attempt to improve the prospects for ASEAN recognition of its puppet regime in Phnom Penh by sug- gesting to Indonesian officials that it was willing to replace President Heng Samrin with Communist Party chief Pen Sovan. Diplomats in Jakarta apparently spread the rumor that such a suggestion - which some observers termed ridiculous - was made by Hanoi officials in talks with visiting Indonesian military intelligence chief Benny Murdani recently. Within ASEAN, Indonesia is prob- ably the staunchest opponent of Peking's policies toward the region. It is also generally more receptive to Vietnam's repeatedly stated concerns about a Chinese threat than some of the other ASEAN governments. Afghan rebels on offensive The Hizbe Islami Afghan guerrilla group claimed recently to have wiped out up to 1,000 Soviet troops and destroyed 200 tanks at the important Baghlan province army base of Qalagi, about 90 miles north of Kabul. The insurgents said their attack, in late August, was the most devastating operation they have carried out since the 1979 Soviet invasion. Western diplomats have confirmed recent major guerrilla successes in repelling Soviet offensives, but the Hizbe group's figure for Soviet casual- ties in the Qalagi raid was probably inflated. Inanother development, diplomatic sources said in early September that Moslem insurgents have thwarted attempts by Soviet-led Afghan govern- ment forces to seize strategic Panjshir Valley, some 60 miles north of the capi- tal. The sources also said that guerril- las had regained control of the town of Paghman near Kabul. Kabul authorities, meanwhile, have limited a recent call-up order for for- mer soldiers under age 35 following widespread demonstrations against the move. Police reportedly killed two stu- dents at a Kabul girls' school in trying to forcefully disperse demonstrators protesting the call-up, which was announced at the beginning of this month. Many other public protest moves were reported for several days, including a one-day strike by shop- keepers. An undetermined number of people were injured in confrontations with government forces. The authorities later issued a modi- fied version of the original announcement, exempting teachers, lecturers, students and government- employed drivers from the call-up. The Kabul regime is desperately trying to bolster the ranks of its army, which have been depleted by mass desertions. Egyptians explode KGB operation... again Egyptian intelligence officers capped a three-year investigation of KGB activity in Egypt on Sept. 15 with the expulsion of the Soviet ambassador and six other diplomats. In a long operation dubbed "Apple 19" involving the use of electronically monitored contacts between the KGB members and Egyptian opposition fig- ures, the Egyptians discovered that Soviet intelligence agents mas- querading as diplomats in Cairo had engaged in anti-state activities and were responsible for much of the sec- tarian strife in Egypt during the last year. The development confirmed the fears of many experts who have warned that Egypt, because of its closeness to the United States, has been one of the foremost targets of Soviet subversion. The case seemed a textbook exam- ple of KGB activity in foreign coun- tries. The Soviets booted from Egypt included Ambassador Vladimir Pol- yakov, six of his embassy staff, two Soviet journalists - one for the Soviet news agency Thss and the other for the magazine Trud - and a Hungarian spy working as a diplomat. They were accused of working - in coordination with intelligence ser- vices and embassies of ther Eastern bloc countries and local communists - to overthrow the government of President Anwar Sadat and fomenting sectarian strife. The Egyptian government also can- celed the contracts of all Soviet techni- cians working in Egypt - frequently sent by Moscow to Third World coun- tries equipped with special training in indoctrination and disinformation techniques - and gave them a week to leave. Western sources say about 1,000 Soviet experts remained in Egypt this week - mostly working at the Soviet- built Aswan dam and working in steel and aluminum plants and other pro- jects. In addition, the Egyptian govern- ment ordered the Soviet military bureau in Cairo closed and shut down its own military office in Moscow. Cairo charged that the Soviets recruited Egyptians to spy on "politi- cal, religious, economic and military conditions touching on state security" and played "an outstanding role insti- gating and escalating Moslem- Christian strife." Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 The Soviet Embassy was also ordered to reduce its staff. Moscow will be able to post no more diplomats to Cairo than Egypt has posted in the Kremlin. The 1981 diplomatic direc- tory lists 40 Soviet diplomats in Cairo, nearly twice the number of Egyptian envoys in Moscow. Cairo gave the embassy one week to reduce its staff. The expulsions come two days after the public announcement of the Soviet plot. According to the official Egyptian newspaper Mayo, two Soviet diplomats were the link between the local plotters and Moscow. The paper said the plot, code-named "The Swamp;' involved, in addition to KGB agents, a former Egyptian deputy prime minister, Mohammed Zayyat - said to have been the local head of the operation - as well as former minis- ters, university lecturers and journal- ists. Other prominent Egyptians accused of taking part in the plot were the deputy chairman of the leading opposition Socialist Labor Party, Mohammed Murad, a prominent fig- ure representing the Moscow-oriented National Unionist Progressive rally. The eight Egyptians involved were among the more than 1,500 people arrested on Sept. 5 during a govern- ment crackdown on Moslem and Christian extremists and political radicals. There was no reaction from the Kremlin to the Cairo crackdown, although Moscow Radio dismissed as "absurd" the charges by Sadat of Soviet involvement in plots. Relations between the Soviet Union and Egypt have been strained since Sadat unceremoniously expelled 17,000 Soviet military personnel in 1972. Four years later, he unilaterally abrogated a friendship treaty with the Soviets because of their opposition to his Middle East peace policies and rap- prochement with the United States. In January 1980, Sadat ordered a more than 50 percent reduction in Soviet embassy staff to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Experts say that one of the Soviet Union's aims in Egypt was to arrange communication links between Egyp- tian leftists and the hard-line Arab rejectionist front. The front consists of Algeria, Syria, Libya, South Yemen and the Palestine Liberation Organization - all closely tied to Soviet Mideast policy. All the countries involved have severed diplo- matic ties with Egypt and have been violently hostile to Sadat's Mideast peace policies. The hard-liners gathered in Libya on the day of the expulsion to discuss the new U.S.-Israeli strategic cooper- ation agreement. Iran was invited to join their organization and partici- pated in the meeting. The immediate purpose of the Libya gathering was to devise a plan to coun- ter the Reagan administration's plan for a strategic alliance of pro-West nations in the Middle East. Last week, Prime Minister Menachem Begin met with President Reagan in Washington where they agreed to forge a strategic cooperation agreement to oppose Soviet expansion in the region. Defense Secretary Caspar Wein- berger and Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon will meet in November to work out the overall plan. Western allies abstain as U.N. slaps S. Africa. The major Western powers and Japan rejected a harsh and polemical condemnation of South Africa by the United Nations in mid-September. In a 117-0 vote, the U.N. General Assembly voted to "impose compre- hensive sanctions" to punish South Africa for its recent raid into Angola to wipe out terrorist strongholds and for its reluctance to grant indepdendence to Namibia on U.N. terms. Ignoring Third World rhetoric, the U.S., Britain, France, Japan, Canada and West Germany along with 19 other nations abstained from voting on the U.N. resolution. In terms of its actual repurcussions, the U.N. vote against the South Afri- cans is virtually meaningless. The U.N. wants to supervise elec- tions in Namibia but insists on maintaining its long-standing recogni- tion of the Soviet-backed South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) as the "sole legitimate representative of the Namibian people." There are several major political parties in the territory which, unlike SWAPO, do not promote violent "class struggle." But the U.N. has consistently refused to recognize them. This, pri- marily, has led South Africa to block the road toward Namibian indepen- dence, which, in return, has resulted in additional condemnation from the U.N. Mutinies plague Chad Beginning in early September, a series of army mutinies erupted in Christian-dominated southern Chad, creating suspicions of Libyan involvement, according to Vice President Abelkader Wadal Kamougue. Not surprisingly, however, there were no public accusations against Libya, which is believed to maintain more than 5,000 troops and advisers in Chad to bolster the regime of President Goukouni Oueddei. The immediate cause of the riots appear to be the government's inability to pay its army. This created a situation on Sept. 9 in which troops took over the town of Sarh, Chad's third largest. Gov- ernment officials and army officers were seized, along with government money. Reports have been circulating of alleged embezzlement of public funds by the government of the southern zone. Kamougue is a southerner himself and he may represent a faction in the government which has come to resent Libya's attempts to promote its ide- ology of Islamic socialism and pro- Sovietism throughout Africa. The northern parts of Chad are dominated by Semitic Muslim peoples whereas the southern population is mostly black and Christian. More Uganda terror Ugandan government troops in mid-September murdered 18 civilians, including children, in the village of Wakio during a three-day rampage, according to residents. This was the latest of several major looting and killing incidents involving Uganda's undisciplined army. On Sept. 1, police and troops battled in Kampala after soldiers reportedly robbed civil- ians. Government officials denied that anti-government insurgents were involved. Socialist President Milton Obote has vowed a complete investiga- tion. Other wanton killings by Ugandan forces have been reported in north- western Uganda. More than 100,000 refugees have escaped into neighboring Zaire as of early Septem- ber, according to missionaries and relief officials. Libya-Sudan war of words Sudanese officials quickly denied a recent statement by the Libyan news agency JANA that a state of emer- gency had been declared in Sudan and that disaffected army officers had been arrested there. Terming the report sheer propa- ganda deriving from the political ten- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 7 sion between the two countries, officials in Khartoum denounced the Libyan regime's allegations. Tripoli has been trying to foment rebellion in Sudan through guerrilla groups and other Sudanese opponents of Khar- toum's pro-Egypt and anti-Soviet stance. Sudanese army and security forces have been conducting exercises recently, according to the Khartoum officials who note their troops were "testing military efficiency." It was not known if the exercises were related to recent published reports of a Libyan- hacked buildup of guerrilla forces close to the Sudanese border in neighboring Chad. Solidarity s `bill of rights' threatens Moscow Solidarity's first-ever national con- gress this month was much more than simply a meeting of trade union del- egates. It was more like a political con- vention, and a final resolution drafted by union members read like a bill of rights for Eastern Europe. Speeches given by the delegates showed that Solidarity was far more interested in politics than mundane trade union matters. Resolutions adopted by the 892 delegates called for free elections to the national parlia- ment, a national referendum on the scope of self-mangement, and reforms that would grant workers significant power in running businesses and fac- tories. They also demanded "social control" over mass media and changes in educational textbooks, as well as freedom for political prisoners. All this was heady stuff for a nation very much under the dominion of the Soviet Union. Tb no one's surprise, the Kremlin reacted harshly to the Soli- darity congress, calling it an "anti- socialist, anti-Soviet orgy." According to Western diplomats, the fury of Soviet attacks on Solidarity has shown that the Kremlin's "patience" with developments in Poland is beginning to wear very thin. This week, the Soviet Union accused Solidarity of spreading an anti-Soviet and anti-socialist "psycho- sis" in preparation for overthrowing the government. Of particular concern to Moscow has been Solidarity's demand for access to the mass media. Solidarity leader Lech Walesa was quoted recently as saying his union would build its own television transmitter if the communist authorities continued to restrict the union's access to the mass media. But the head of state television, Stanislaw Loranc, retorted by vowing that the authorities would oppose all attempts to break the state broadcasting monopoly. Three commentaries published by the official Soviet media left no doubt that Moscow was not only enraged by the resolutions passed at Solidarity's Gdansk congress but also regarded them as a direct challenge. Gone were previous careful attempts to direct all criticism of the 10-million member union towards an unspecified group of "extremists" in the leadership. Instead, Solidarity as a whole was condemned as a counter- revolutionary group ready to "make a grab at power." Absentalso wereany expressions of confidence or support for the hard- pressed communist leadership in War- saw. A particularly sharp attack was reserved for the union's declaration of support for the creation of indepen- dent trade unions elsewhere in the Soviet bloc, branded by the commen- tary as "openly provocative and impu- dent toward the socialist countries." Diplomats said this showed that in M'hscow's eyes Solidarity had gone too far, that it was now challenging not only the leadership in Warsaw but Commu- nist authority in the whole Soviet bloc. There has been little sign that other governments need fear the birth of a rebellious labor movement. But the Kremlin might consider that the sheer "insolence" of the union toward Mos- cow could undermine its authority in Eastern Europe. But other diplomats said Moscow will bide its time and hope the growing shortages of food and fuel in Poland would solve the problem by them- selves. The Kremlin may be hoping hard- ships of the coming winter will destroy Solidarity's credibility. If violence broke out, an intervention to restore law and order could be presented to the rest of the world as an act of mercy. Haig bolsters NATO morale in anti-Soviet talk Secretary of State Alexander Haig has accused Moscow of jeopardizing peace in Europe through its rapid expansion of nuclear weaponry in the region. The accusations were contained in a recent speech in West Berlin designed to boost the morale of NATO allies and halt the drift toward neutralism in Europe. Washington has been con- cerned by the reluctance of some Euro- pean allies to either boost their defense spending or agree to a NATO plan to deploy medium-range nuclear mis- siles on their soil. "It is Soviet tanks, not NATO's defense against those tanks that threaten the peace of Europe," Haig said, charging the Soviets with a "rapid expansion of nuclear weaponry" in Europe. In the speech, Haig also accused the Soviet Union of using poisonous chemicals in Afghanistan and Indo- china in violation of international agreements. The speech took place before a backdrop of violent anti-U.S. demonos- trations in West Berlin. Sixty police were injured and 128 arrests reported during a demonstration of up to 50,000 protesters. The official sponsors of the demon- stration were the youth organizations of the SocialDemocrats and of Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher's Free Democrats. Also participating in the demonstrations were the Commu- nist Party, pacifist, religious-liberal and anarchist groups. But radical left- ists were known to have played an instrumental role in organizing the rioting. Rally organizers played heav- ily on fears of war and opposition to the NATO plan to deploy U.S. medium- range missiles in Europe. Two days after the demonstration, the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Army in Europe was slightly injured in an ambush by terrorists firing guns and anti-tank grenades. It was the fourth terrorist attack on Americans in West Germany in two weeks. A spate of anti-American protests, including arson attacks, followed the bombing last month of the U.S. Ram- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6 8 stein Air Force base in which 20 people were injured. The extreme leftwing Red Army Faction claimed responsi- bility. Norway votes right A conservative-led coalition com- mitted to strong NATO ties has defeated Norway's Labor Party gov- ernment under Gro Harlem Brund- tland, the Nordic country's first woman prime minister. Although the Labor Party emerged with the largest bloc of seats, Conservative Party leader Kaare Willoch was expected to become the next prime minister by forming a coalition with two smaller conservative groups. The Conservatives promised a period of economic austerity, firm adherence to the NATO alliance and an end to Mrs. Brundtland's often tempes- tuous, aggressive style of government. Willoch, who describes himself as "not extremely liberal in economic policy, but anti-socialist," strongly favors more defense spending. While Labor was legislating NATO's 3 per- cent annual defense increase last year. Willoch was urging a 4 percent increase. Qaddafi tied to British left Libyan strongman Moammar Qad- dafi has reportedly been making reg- ular contributions in packages sometimes as large as $100,000 to left- ist supporters in Britain. According the the Sunday 't'ele- graph newspaper, much of the money was donated to the Workers Rev- olutionary Party-whose most famous member reportedly is actress Vanessa Redgrave-to finance leftist activities and subsidize its party journal, News Line. The WRP is active in several unions and in inner city areas such as the Lon- don slum of Brixton, where race riots erupted last spring and during the summer resulting in hundreds of arrests. The newspaper, quoting Libyan exiles living in London, said'Tripoli had made regular donations as high as $100,000 once or twice a year over the past several years to leftist groups in Britain. Pinochet shuts down his Marxist opposition Gen. Augusto Pinochet's military government marked its eighth anni- versary in power earlier this month with a renewed pledge to crack down on communist advances in Chile. Despite a recent upsurge of guer- rilla violence attributed to the out- lawed Movement of the Revolutionary Left, President Pinochet retains a firm grip on the nation. The Chilean leader, who led the 1973 military coup against Marxist Salvador Allende, has banned political activity and rendered the for- merly heavily politicized trade unions powerless in what is officially described as a transition to democracy. Last year, 67 percent of Chilean voters voted in favor of a new constitution extending military rule for at least eight more years, a term which ends in 1989 with presidential elections. During the anniversary celebra- tion, Pinochet said Chile's interna- tional relations were improving despite "an active anti-Chilean cam- paign being conducted from Moscow." He announced in his speech that the government would elaborate a new law to define terrorist crimes and to penal- ties to be imposed so that "this evil which threatens all Chileans can he eradicated." Referring to relations with the United States, he said positive results had been obtained since President Reagan came to office. Reagan has moved to end a U.S. embargo on arms exports to Chile imposed by President Carter's admin- istration in protest over Chile's human rights record. Pinochet cited the official visit to Chile last October by President Joao Figueiredo of Brazil as contributing to "promising expectations" and added that Chilean views coincided with many of those held by Uruguay and Paraguay - which both have military- dominated governments. **** New crackdown in Managua Nicaragua's leftist rulers have declared an economic state of emer- gency with a sweeping decree that bans strikes and court injunctions against government decrees for one year. The wide-ranging decree also pro- hibits "false" news reports that trigger changes in prices, salaries, rents or currency exchange rates. The "false" news report provision carries a maximum thi cc-year sen- tence as do provisions declaring it illegal to destroy raw materials or to halt the nation's mass transit system. Also outlawed are mass land takeovers and incitement of foreign governments or credit institutions to withhold or suspend economic aid to Nicaragua. The right to strike was suspended and individuals were banned from scei., .g cu;i: t injunctions to block gov- ernment administrative decisions. Junta leader Daniel Ortega also said unofficial currency exchanges, which buy U.S. dollars for more than twice the official rate of exchange, have been temporarily shut down. The govern- ment also is imposing a hiring freeze, trimming the current budget by five percent and slashing private sector subsidies by 10 percent in a move that should save the Nicaraguan treasury $43.gmillion this year, Ortega said. Caribbean aid on schedule A multinational plan to develop the Caribbean basin is expected to be com- pleted by next year. The economic plan, mapped out in a conference earlier this year, involves cooperation between the United States, Venezuela, Mexico and Canada, among other countries. A top State Department official, Thomas Enders, has emphasized the program will not be a "mini-Marshall" plan made in America, but instead an economic partnership among the more affluent nations in the Hesmisphere. "We can contemplate no aid to Cuba," Enders said. "So we agreed to disagree, and went on to emphasize what we do have in common - a com- mitment to helping the area. We believe we have established a firm partnership for preceeding," he said. Enders is undersecretary of state on inter-American affairs. He said that the foreign ministers of the United States, Canada, Venezuela and Mexico will meet later this year, and he added that contacts will be extended to inter- ested countries outside the Caribbean later in the fall. "We are not looking for quick fixes. There are none - and we know it," he said. This confidential report is a publication of FREE PRESS INTERNATIONAL Research Center in New York. Further information about items included in the INTERNATIONAL REPORT will be made available to subscribers upon request. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/06/16: CIA-RDP90-00845R000100320006-6