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February 11, 1986
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 VILLAGE VOICE 11 February 1986 TO H A NA . CATC ZI MM r a 111 lAIR. MOST RCEIALY e rnmen e- a a certain high-ra g as: co o en Agency allows hnn to enter this country 1949 and later become-a-V.b. citi n. n u ject s history was supposed to re- main hidden; indeed, he felt so secure that his telephone number is listed under his real name. Now, after nearly 40 years, his secret is out. Last June, the General Accounting Of- fice completed a M-m- mves- t!pt 4on the postwar immigra- Ug& Nazia and Nazi co ra rs, of the secret assistance they eg re- cetyed from U.S. intelligence agencies. This sensitive federal study was o by the House Judiciary Committee to supplement a 1978 review of accusations that federal agencies obstructed the pros- ecution of alleged Nazi war criminals. After reviewing voluminous files and conducting many interviews, the GAO found "no evidence of any U.S. agency program to aid Nazis or Axis collabora- tors to immigrate to the United States." But among the 114 cases it reviewed- dealing with a small fraction of the sus- pected war criminals-the GAO did dis- cover five cases of Nazis or collaborators "with undesirable or questionable back- grounds who received some individual as- sistance in their U.S. immigrations." Al- though the 40-page report said that three of them were already dead, it named no names, or even nationalities, and referred to the five only as Subjects A through l',:. Much of the information about them and their activities remains classified. In two saes the assisted individuals were pro- authorities seeking to enforce immigra- tion laws that prohibit the entry of war usecutors. The authors of the GAO report seem eager to justify the actions of the govern- ment, and regardless of bias, their effort hardly represents a comprehensive ex- amination of this historic problem. Yet des ite its shortco the report i a lan mar -an official admission that Nazis and Nazi collaborators were assit- e in entering a United Ali tlsa The Voice has learned that the collabo- rator discussed in the GAO report as "Subject D" is a prominent Ukrainian nationalist. In 1934, he was imprisoned for attempting to assassinate the interior minister of Poland; he ran the security force of a Ukrainian fascist organization and has been accused of ordering the murders of many of his countrymen; he attended a Gestapo training school where Jews were murdered for practice. He was considered an extremely valuable i- genc~t by _._e. w protected him from war-crimes prosecution by the vi no et , brought him to der an assumed name and concealed his true past from the tion and Nat- urali tion Service. So important was his case that in Attorney General James P. McGranery, the director of Central Intelligence, General Walter Bedell Smith. And the commissioner of the INlAt Argyle R. Maciley, seer tly mead to i mit his residence here. In 1957, he be- came a U.S. citizen. His name is Mykola Lebed, and he lives in Yonkers. MYKOLA USED IS 75 YEARS OLD, AND OAS resided in this country for nearly half his life. Several years ago he moved from Washington Heights, a largely Jewish neighborhood, to a modest two-family brick house on a pleasant Yonkers hill- side. Short, wiry, and bald, with alert blue eyes, the retired Lebed spends most of his days at home, where he is working on his memoirs. His recollections are likely to be cast in the heroic, patriotic light that illuminates most histories written by adherents and defenders of the Organization of Ukraini. an Nationalists (OUN) that he once helped lead. All that can be seen in these accounts is a fiery commitment to an in- dependent Ukrainian state and the re- iulting conflisb.witl! both German tend Soviet oppressors. Obscured is the more complex story of OUN collaboration with Nazi war crimes, and the OUN's own fas- cist and racist ideology. coo Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 Details bf Mykola Lebed's involvement with the OUN have been pieced to?thej The Ukrainian targets of the OSI have from Army Counterintelli eo far been minor figures-"policemen" (I) files, other military archives, and in the service of the Nazi occupiers of the immigration records: from interviews Ukraine, who don't figure as individuals with Ukrainians: and from histories of in any of the histories of the period. Most the period, including an eyewitness ac- count in the files of the ocaust docu- mentation center at Ya Vashem in Isra- el a pons of pages fro_ m_t_h_e CIC file on Lebed, obtained under the Free- and thus safe from the varieties of justice meted out in U.S., Soviet, Polish, or Is- raeli courts. Mykola Lebed is an excep- tion. For years he was the OUN's third- dom of ormation Act, were "sanitized" in-conun nd, and he ran the Sluzhba 5 -at is obliterated) the Army ore Bezpeky, its reputedly murderous securi- being re to the once. lus a h' force. withhold rut o certain a e Justice Department policy, which cited ap- FOIA exemptions pertaining to pro- plies to the OSI, strictly prohibits any tection of ?intelligence sources" an3"na- comment about pending cases. But the tional security." One cl__ _was_Rp- Voice has learned that the OSI maintain. parent y withheld -at the "another government agency," and an- other document had -been removed from the National Archives b t~LIA - 1Tour dea3a after the terrib a events of the war, the h>mdsrT *fascism in East- ern Europe is no academic matter. In recent years, the U.S. government has finally begun to prosecute individual war criminals among the Nazi collaborators who found refuge on ou' shore.. Most of the 45 cases brought so far by the Justice Department's Office of Special Investiga- tions (OSI), set up in 1979 to find and deport immigrants who committed war crimes, involve not German Nazis but collaborators from other nations. The East European emigre communi- ties have reacted with a ferocious cam- paign to abolish OSI, though very few of their members are threatened in any way. (Only in the Polish-American community has the crusade against OSI failed to gain significant support, perhaps because so many Polish gentiles were also victims of Nazism.) Each prosecution of a Nazi col- laborator from Eastern Europe discredits the version of history upheld by some emigres: that all the "anticommunists" of Eastern Europe were noble and free of any guilt for the crimes of Nazism. Ukrainian leaders have outspokenly denounced the OSI, partly because the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists still exists and remains influential in the Ukrainian communities here and abroad. The OUN's founders are revered by Ukrainian publications and groups, while their collaboration with Hitler is not dis- cussed. The OSI has made such evasion far more difficult. According to Nazi War Criminals in America, the authoritative handbook published last year by Charles R. Allen Jr., about one-fourth of the 45 OSI deportation or denaturalization cases have been brought against Ukraini- ans; in at least two cases, the individuals accused of participating in Nazi persecu- tions and murders were proven to be members of the OUN. an open file on Lebed, making him a potential defendant in denaturalization proceedings. Materials pertaining. to his case from-the GAOprobe gleaned f , rom the files of military- intellige a and tJe_ CIA, were turned _over to the _OSI- last sum_mer. If the OSI determines that Lebed ought to be stripped of his citizenship and deported, the information in those files may become public. Although much of Lebed's history remains murTry- ,--con- cea7e3in still-clammed goverment vernmentt ar- chives, there is 'ttle doubt that such a display would severely embarrass not only the OUN and its supporters ut e U.S. government as well --especially the CIA. Under long-standing U.S. immigration laws, strengthened in 1978, those guilty of persecuting other people on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or politi cal belief are barred from entering this country and are to be deported if they gain entry. Lebed escaped these sanc- tions because his sponsors mercifully citedS-ection 8 of the CIA Act of 1949. An obscure portion of the legislation that es- tablished-the CIAO Section 8 permits the agency to bring-100 individuals a year to the U.S. for reasons of national securi- ty-regardless of their past. Brooklyn District Attorney Elizabeth Holtzman. who issued a scathing critique of the GAO report, found this revelation about Subject D's immigration "extremely dis- turbing." As a member of Congress in 1978, said Holtzman, "the CIA ... as- sured me in a meeting and in a Congres- sional hearing that it never used-the 100 numbers provision. to facilitate thee-n-fir-y- of Nazis." Patti Volz, a spokeswoman for the CIA, declined to comment about Lebed or the GAO report. "We don't get into details," sfie-said. "We don't confirm or deny that someone has worked for us. We wouldn't have any comment on him." REPORTS FILED WITH THE ARMY COUNTER intelligence Corps in the late '40s give various dates for the birth of Mykola Lebed, but his naturalization papers say November 23, 1910. He was born in the western Ukrainian province of Galicia, an agricultural area controlled at various Fsfler for a day: States ltasdera led the OUN's short-lived astseoooss fasdst state. times by Poland, the Soviet Union, and Germany. From his early school days in L'vov, the provincial capital, Lebed was involved in the right wing of the Ukraini- an nationalist movement, which from the early '30s to the present has been domi- nated by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The secretive, authoritarian OUN has constantly overshadowed Ukrainian politics, despite incessant fac- tional strife in its ranks, both in the Ukraine and abroad. Polish rule in the Ukraine during the '209 had been harsh, and the OUN's younger members included a number, who, like Lebed, were inclined to terror- ism. Among them was the OUN's eventu- al would-be fahrer, Stefan Bandera, who in 1934 joined with Lebed and several others in plotting the assassination of Polish interior minister Bronislaw Pier- acki. U.S. Arm Counterinte ence re- pgrts .say-- hat .-U se. Inge y escaped from Warsaw but was captured in stet - CinSaaiiv returned to Plant by the German authorities. Convicted in a mass tri e-b , Banera, and several others were condemned to death, but their sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. The most sympathetic, scholarly ac- count of the Ukrainian nationalist period is by .John A. Armstrong, a strongly anti- Soviet and pro-Ukrainian historian who now teaches at the University of Wiscon- sin. His Ukrainian Nationalism 1939- 1945 notes that during the period Lebed and Bandera were imprisoned, the Ukrai- nian nationalist movement was solidify- ing its ties to the Nazi regime in Germa- ny. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 "For many years," wrote Armstrong, A former OUN member, now dead, duty of every member of the OUN to "the OUN had been closely tied to Ger- wrote in 1958 a different and more de- show the Germans that his nerves are man policy. This alignment was fur- tailed eyewitness version of Lebed's so- just as tough as a German's and that the thered by the semi-Fascist nature of its journ with the Gestapo. Retrieved from heart of any nationalist is as hard as ideology, and in turn the dependence on the files of Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, the steel." Such "practical exercises" contin- Germany tended to intensify Fascist declaration of Mykyta Kosakivs'kyy por- ued unabated, according to Kosakiv- trends in the organization." In fact, most trays both Lebed and the OUN as eager s'kyy's testimony, and he fled Zakopane historians regard the OUN as wholl fas Y pupils of the Gestapo. in early January 1940. Others equally cist-and tied to German intelligence- Kosakivs'kyy joined the OUN in 1933, sickened, he learned, left later, but Lebed from its inception. It was the Nazi inva- and after sojourns in Czechoslovakia and remained until at least March of that sion of Poland in September 1939 that Germany, returned to the Carpathian year, when the unit moved from Zakopa allowed Lebed and the o-r a cted Ukraine late in 1939. He was among the ne to the nearby town of Rabka, where plotters to escape from Warsaw's Swiety older OUN officers present when the the Gestapo's depredations continued. Kroyc prison after serving five years. "Ukrainian 'Raining Unit" was estab- When he finished his statement on De- The xenophobic, antidemocratic, and lished at the Gestapo school in Zakopane cember 14, 1958, in German g anti-Semitic nationalism of the OUN that November. According to his declara- y, the former meshed easily with Nazism. The qompli- tion, the Ukrainian unit was "organized of OUN heart member disease, according knew he was dying meat was not always returned, however. by the OUN leadership and by perm's- note according to the intro. ductory Within the Nazi hierarchy, opinions sion of the German Security Service." It Panes noFedenko, a a Ukrainian tthe liberal l and Panes d about the Ukrainians diverged. Powerful included 120 specially selected trainees, implacable critic of the OUN. "I owe it to Nazi figures considered the Ukrainians under the guidance of a Gestapo officer an inferior people, unfit to govern them- named Walter Kruger and his assistant, public, to conscience report t openmakely the this facts I wit- selves. selves. Lebed and the other OUN leaders Wilhelm Rosenbaum, both Germans. - ? nested o d myself," Kosakivs'kyy concluded. hoped that they would be able to set up The Ukrainian commandant of the en- ,Mykola Lebid evidently believes that an autonomous fascist state, as part of tire unit was Lieutenant Viil'nyy," wrote his infamous accomplishments in the Hitler's "New Europe," under a German Kosakivs'kyy, "whose real name was My- Ukraine and elsewhere are forgotten and protectorate. kola Lebid [another transliteration of so are the multitudes of his innocent vic- Such aspirations congealed into a mili- Lebed]." The curriculum included drills, tims, that every witness of his torture tary, political, and espionage alliance be- intelligence and counterintelligence activities is either murdered or dead. tween the OUN and the Nazi war ma- train ing, and interrogation techniques, Only Lebid is mistaken right there." chine. Even after 1940, when the OUN but em hasized "exercises in the harden- Kosakivs'kyy's angry testament must split into two feuding factions-the more ing of _ earts." be read in context, as the product of one extremist led by Bandera, Lebed, and "At sundown," recalled Kosakivs'kyy, man's remorseful memory, and of Ukrai- Yaroslav Stetako-both sought an ac- "Kruger, Rosenbaum, Lebid and a few nian emigre rivalries as well; obviously it commodation with the German occupi- students would go to Zakopane, enter was published to discredit Lebed and the cowar, urting Germans alter- some Jewish home on the way, grab a OUN. Yet there is supporting evidence ers. Later between in the g and repressing Jew, and bring him to the Unit. One eve- for his story in the historical record. The the Ukrainians, but many OUN members ning, late in November or early in De- Zakopane school existed, according to Dr. served continuously in Nazi formations, cember 1939. they returned with a young Aharon Weiss of Yad Vashem, and was from the Waffen-SS to the local police Jew. In the presence of Ukrainian se- moved to the nearby town of Rabka in forces, which murdered thousands of niors, including myself, Kruger and Ro- 1940. There was a Captain Kruger, men- .Jews, Poles, communists, and socialists. senbaum, fortified with alcohol, proceed- tioned above, who commanded a Gestapo ed with their demonstration of the proper unit in the area, and helped lead a joint DURING THE MONTHS FOLLOWING THEIR RE- methods of interrogation." Nazi-OUN pogrom when the German lease from prison, Lebed and the other Seeking to induce the innocent Jew to Army's Brandenburg regiment occupied OUN leaders chafed under the temporary confess that he had raped an "Aryan" the Galician capital of L'vov in late June constraints of the 1939 treaty between woman, the German officers beat and 1941. Hitler and Stalin. According to Arm- tortured him, using their fists, a sword, And there is also no question that a strong, they eagerly abetted the secret and iron bars. When he was bloody from German officer named Wilhelm Rosen- Nazi preparations for war against the So- head to toe, they applied salt and flame baum was? a commandant at Zakopane viets, sending their young adherents for to his wounds. The broken man then con- and Rabka during the training of Ukrai- German military training in mountain fessed his fictional crimes, but that was nians. In 1964, that same,Rosenbaum was camps set up as early as 1939. Sources not the end. arrested in West Germ and charged, Apy friendly to Lebed-whose slantF -ac- "Thereupon," Kosakivs'kyy continues, among other crimes, with the murder of counts may be oun m memoran a of "he was taken to the corridor of the 200 Jews at Rabka between May 1942 the Army Counterintelligence Corps be- house and the 'co-eds' (three women and January 1943. According to Simon tween 1947 and ,1948-understandably members of the unit) were called in. In Wiesenthal's 1967 book The Murderers pass_over this period; their presence, Rosenbaum beat the Jew Among Us, the unit was a "train' Only hints of what Lebed was actually ng cen doing in 1940 and 1941 appear in tCIC again with an iron pipe and Lebid too ter for future cadres of lSS killers ... SS S file. A Se940 nr 30, a1948, memo ppear in the h does assisted manually in that `heroic action.' men at Rabka were -being hardened so mention that For a short time, [Led One of the senior Ukrainians and I with- they would not break after a few weeks of me meemoed get r insight into the tan drew from that spectacle to our rooms. duty. They had to become insensitive to We learned afterwards that the tortured the sight of blood, to the agonized shouts tics of the German State Police and suc- man was stripped naked, stood-up in of women and children. The job must be ceeded in joining the GESTAPO school front of the school as 'a sentry' and done with a minimum of fuss and a maxi- in ZAKOPANE (District of Krakow), doused with water in heavy frost." mum of efficiency. That was a Fahrerbe- from which he ultimately fled." And a Kosakivs'kyy and his friend protested fehl-the Fuhrer's order." Rosenbaum card in the CIC file identifies Lebed as "a to Lebed the next day, but the comman- was convicted in Hamburg in 1968 and graduate of the Zakopane, Poland crimi- dant told them bluntly that "it was the sentenced to hard labor for life. nal police school." Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 i#. Lebed declined to be interviewed by the Voice about Zakopane or any of his wartime activities. But in a brief conver- sation on the doorstep of his Yonkers home last month, he conceded that he had been at the Gestapo school, although he believed it had been during the winter of 1940-41, not 1939-40 as Koeakivs'kyy stated. "Oh yes," he said. "I left after five weeks. I have exactly the dates. I quit." LEBED'S TRAMN' Q ZAKOPIIIE, HOWEVER cursory, was soon recognized by his fel- low leaders in OUN-B, whose acronym designated its domination by the nation- alist ft hrer Bandera. When their split from the old leadership became irrevoca- ble in 1941, Bandera commissioned the creation of a "security service," the Sluzhba Bezpeky, under Lebed's com- mand. Historians of the OUN-B agree that he ran the SB not only during the war, but long afterward. Armstrong, who interviewed Lebed at length, stated the facts with characteristic discretion: "In Lebed-small in stature, quiet, yet deter- mined, hard-the SB found a well-quali- fied leader, but one who was to acquire for himself and his or?aniration an unen- viable reputation for ruthlessness." In an interview last month Armstrong was still sympathetic to Lobed, but more candid. "He grew up fighting against the Poles," explained the historian, "and he devel- oped a terrible terrorist complex. He killed other Ukrainians, rivals in the or- ganization [OUN]." Yet Lebed told the Voice that he had never commanded the SB. He claimed that the SB had instead been run by someone named "Artanych ... He's dead now.,, Such reluctance to assume the SB's legacy is understandable. Even those Ukrainians who ignore the fascist brutal- ities against Jews and Poles are still trou- bled, and in some cases outraged, by the SB's infamous assaults on Ukrainians who dissented from the OUN-B leader- ship. Lebed's direct responsibility for crimes attributed to the OUN-B is difficult to establish. Perhaps the lowest point of the Banderites' alliance with Nazism was the occupation of L'vov in June and July 1941, when Yaroslav Stetako and a large contingent of OUN-B troops entered that city along with the Brandenburg regi- ment and other German detachments. Several days of mass murder followed. L'vov's Jewish population was decimat- ed, but Polish university professors and anyone who could be tied to the Commu- nists were also killed. Survivors reported that the Ukrainians were even more bloodthirsty than their German patrons. According to German Rule in Russia, by historian Alexander Dallin, "Bandera's followers, including those in the Nachti- gall regiment (a Ukrainian SS detach- ment), were displaying considerable ini- tiative, conducting purges and pogroms." Ironically, the alliance between the Na- zis and the OUN-B came apart that same week in L'vov, after Stetako proclaimed an independent Ukraine. Loyal to the Ft firer, who was in their view creating a glorious new Europe, the Ukrainians still dreamed of their own state. Bandera, the Ukrainian ftlhrer, named Stetako prime minister and Lobed minister of security. But the new regime didn't last long. By July 9 the Nazis would no longer put up with this "independent" charade, and arrested Bandera. Stetako, and other members of the leadership. Lebed es- caped; the others were held under "house arrest" in Berlin but they were not mis- treated. According to Armstrong, the OUN leaders "were allowed to carry on their political activities in Berlin; Stetako was even able to go to Cracow, where he consulted with Lebed, whom he had se- cretly delegated to take command of all activities in the Ukrainian lands." Even pro-OUN writers admit that the German repression of the Ukrainian nationalists was mild, and cooperation continued on many levels throughout the war. There were periods when some of the nationalist Ukrainians, formed into guer- rilla groups, fought the Germans as well as the Soviet partisans, and there is evi- dence that Lebed took part in those ac- tions, especially after 1942. But by 1943, the Banderites were cooperating in the formation of a new Ukrainian SS divi- sion, and in 1944 Bandera himself- though he had been interned at Sachsen- hausen concentration camp-was still as- sisting the German war effort against the Russians. Lebed, who had meanwhile adopted the nom de guerre Maxym Ruban, tried to seize control of all factions in the na- tionalist movement. Independent nation- alist bands were carrying out guerrilla actions in Volhynia and the western Ukraine under the name of the Ukrainian Partisan Army (UPA). This was intoler- able to Lebed, who demanded that all the Ukrainian guerrillas come under his com- mand. The result was vicious internecine warfare among the nationalists, a period from which Lebed's reputation did not emerge unscathed. Leading figures of the non-OUN forces were "liquidated," ac- cording to a 1948 CIC memo: "As a re- sult, the Ukrainians now have difficulty forgetting the fact that Lebed killed some Ukrainian partisans who- were fighting for the same cause." Other writers, like the Ukrainians Panes Fedenko and 0. Shuliak, con- demned Lebed in harsh terms for these killings after the war. Shuliak wrote in 1947 that Lebed's SB men carried out the murders of dissenters from the OUN line. "It is perfectly evident that neither sol- diers nor officers of the UPA had any- thing to do with these atrocities. The do- ers were the Security men under the orders of Lebed." Massacres and other acts of terror were also carried out against civilians, against Soviet prisoners of war, against entire Polish villages in the Ukraine, and against Jews fleeing from Nazi persecution. In his own booklet on the history of the UPA, published in 1946, Lebed says its aim was "to clear the forests and the surrounding areas of foreign elements." According to the late historian Philip Friedman, this meant not only Poles but Jews and Russian partisans as well. Friedman says that postwar OUN efforts to disclaim responsibility for anti-Jewish atrocities "cannot be taken seriously." war L disc to trace. By then the 0~ had established a new front-group, the Supreme Ukrainian Liberation Council- known by its transliterated initials, UHVR-of which Lebed became "For- eign Secretary." Several CIC documents report that his wife and daughter were held in Buchenwald concentration camp by the Germans for several months as hostages against Lebed's guerrilla activi- ties, but they were released in 1944, well before the war's end. After 1945 he mainly lived in Rome and Munich, seeking Allied support for the remnants of the UPA to fight against the victorious Soviets. A "political histo- ry" in the CIC file says that he traveled illegally around Western Europe, orga. nizing the foreign offices of the UHVR. By the end of 1947, conditions in Rome were growing uncomfortable for Lebed, who was afraid that the Soviets might attempt to seize him there. He sought and apparently recei ed4be. help of U.S. intelligence to leave Rome safely. Lebed's file also shows that around the same time, he and other OUN leaders began to proclaim the evolution of their politics in a more democr tic direction. The motive behind such declarations is clear. In the cold war that was already taking shape, only self-styled democrats could partake of Uncle Sam's largesse. But whether Lebed actually converted to Western liberalism is unclear from the CIC file. Several reports note that when the OUN-B split at a Munich conference in 1947, Lebed gave a speech berating the "weakening and democratization of the party line," which other members in turn denounced as redolent of fascism. Regardless of his postwar political views, however, it is clear from the GAO report that Subject D was used as an American agent soon after the war's end. (Bandera, too, obtained a poet with a Western intelligence agency-the West German BND, run by the former Nazi Abwehr chief Reinhard Gehlen, who re- cruited scores of ex-Nazis and collabora- tors for his network. In his memoirs, Gehlen identifies Bandera as one of his men.) 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6 zines on Soviet and u uamian affairs. Ukrein;wn~ familiar with the workings of Prop say at~t it could not have sus- s tain i o a oin es o eta pu fi= - cations-many o w c r Iv n were sm g ed into t e oviet -ruled TJ1s sine-and that it probably received rom a overnmen agen mentioned the CIA. 1lnytzkyji said he d 1 a ew years, it a imwessi le to let i ms t now whether ro og had received o~, ~ use of "fear for his rsonal any such subsidies. "They keep some safety and his ' 'tywith ,S. ~t1_ things hidden," he said: But he believes Lebed "has some connections with the Ii nce o rations" Once be knew th e . 24 &= 'a secrets, viets ou t r- - American authorities. What kind of con- cT the to capture -so was ldt th U S smugge inoe.. Lebed became a citizen on March 18, 1957. His application listed an address in Washington Heights as his home, and "journalist" as his profession. He had two witnesses: Bohdan Czajkowakyj, also a writer and a longtime friend of Lebed; and Alexander S. Alexander, who listed his job as "government employee." The new citizen was entitled to call himself a journalist because of his posi- tion as president of the Prolog Research and Publishing Association, Inc. Found- ed as a nonprofit publisher in the early '50s, it has always specialized in Ukrainian-language books and maga- zines, many of them with anti-Commu- nist political themes. Prolog's certificate of incorporation filed in New York in 1956 lists Lebed as a director and gives as its Purposes "investigation of the history, economics, politics and culture of the Ukraine," and "exposing to the public opinion of the world the true nature of communist dictatorship and the threat of international communism to freedom everywhere." Roman Ilnytzkyji, a longtime Lebed associate who worked for Prolog, says that Lebed was "completely absorbed" in his work at the Ukrainian publishing company's tiny, cramped offices in mid- town Manhattan, although he was never an editor. Aside- from keeping Prolog afloat, Lebed's vocation until he. retired in 1980 was to promote the views of the UHVR,. the faction of the Orpniaatiazif at Ukranian Nationalists which he headed. "Because of fear for his personal safety Prolog was, in fact, at least partly a front The confidentiality of the OSI's opera- and TusIi Rri ] with U.S. m for the former Banderites grouped tions is so strict that if the case is operations," the section in the GAO re- around the UHVR and Lebed. dropped the public will probably never port on Subject e: lain "the CIA The sources of its funding are mysteri- know why. Mykola Lebed is, and has brought him to the United States under ous. Prolog's current officers insist that it been for 29 years, a citizen with constitu- an assumed name." His na eIization has always been financially self-suffi- tional rights. All we know for now is that papers, in anuary 1957, show that _ cient, with adequate support "from the the file on Subject D is still open. ^ Lebed arrived in New York harbor on Ukrainian community." Although the Octo r 4, 1949. The truth about his market for its books and magazines is Research assistance by Ellen McGa- t- identity and history was concealed from tiny, Prolog is now a for-profit corpora- hen, Leslie Yenkin, and Kevin Coogan. the s ion and Naturalization r- lion. It has at various times maintained vice. but two years later, the INS earned offices in Munich, London, and Cairo as who Lebed was an opened an mveat a- well as New York. During the '70s Prolog lion t t, the CIA was informed. mjg t published eight to 10 volumes annually, lead to his dep2rtation. "According to the plus two or three small-circulation maga- CIA e, says the report "INS learned that the subject's conviction had been for involvement in an assassination d that allegation of terrorism exis against him." 'Ib protect Igbed the agen- cy invoked Section 8 of the CIA Act. this because, according to the GAOL "The su ject was considered extremely value ebl by U..S-intelligence. after I Lebed had been employed by the CIA for nections, or whether they included finan- cial help, I don't know." None of the other Ukrainians who discussed Prolog and its financing would let their name be used. As one put it, "People simply don't talk about these things." VERY LITRE ABOUT SUBJECT D'S PAST AP pears in the GAO report, although clues were present in the records available to government investigators; three years of research are boiled down to three vague paragraphs. Because it omits nearly all the significant acts, tie rrt-su$er from the same moral obtuseness that tainted the CIA's re at-onsh with Lebed. - - Eli R senbaum, a former OSI prosecu- tor and now general counsel to the World Jewish Congress, recently examined the declassified CIC files and other docu- ments on Mykola Lebed. "I'm particular- ly dismayed," he said, "by the absence of even the slightest indication that any of the government agencies cared to ascer- tain the truth of the damning and very specific charges against Lebed contained in these files. It's as though they assumed the charges to be true, and proceeded to bring him here anyway." After 40 years, a government agency- the Office of Special Investigations-is finally examining the evidence against Lebed. But difficult legal and historical questions must be answered before the OSI can consider denaturalization pro- ceedings against Lebed: Did the 1949 CIA Act which permitted hcs en r ow him toT come a citizen, superseding of - er immigration laws which wo or it? Uan the allegations a ut past be proved in court? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/01/17: CIA-RDP90-00965R000201220002-6