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February 11, 1986
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 VILLAGE VOICE 11 February 1986 ulll~ r ~ ns uia 1MOST l~ttr TidiraT- o~roi!nm~Zo~i- ~rtiin~_ ast ooh orator, an a aged war _ w o~ie oo- ooention wi en alloweafimn to enter country -_ in r me a . ct u pct s ry wu supposed to re- main hidden; indeed, he felt ao secure that hie telephone number is listed under hie real name. Now, after nearly 40 years, hie secrete out. Last June, the General Accounting Of- fia~comp e a -year tnves- tt~aUon o e t ega-I postwar tmmtgra- Lion oTl a~an azt co rs n. a`n of~s~cret assistance ey ege~y re- - ce~ved from U.S. intelligence agencies. Tms senaitive~ er stu y was- oar erne by the House Judiciary Committee tb supplement a 1978 review of accusations that federal agencies obstructed the pros- ecution of alleged Nazi war criminals. After reviewing voluminous files and conducting many interviews, the GAO found "no evidence of any U.S. agency program to aid Nazis or Asia collabora- tors to immigrate to the United States." But among the 114 cases it reviewed- dealing with a small fraction of the sus- pected war criminal-the GAO did dis- cover five cases of Nazis or collaborator with undesirable or questionable back- grounds who received some individual es- sistaaa in their U.S. immigration." Al- urvu~u uaa +v-Naac rcwr~ sere ws,. watt I of them were already dead, it named no names, or even nationalities, and referred to the five only es Subjects A through E. Much of the information about them and their activities remains classified. In two u~ the assisted individual wen pro- tib~ their intelligence contact f~om- authorities seeking-to enforce _ immigra- tioti~ that prohibit the entry of war cnmi~e~ 4tbei ve1secafav~,~ __ . . The authors of the GAO report seem eager to justify the actions of the govern- ment. and regardless of bias, their effort hardly represents a comprehensive ex- amination of this historic pmblem. Yet des~its its shortco the reportu a lan~marTr-an officadmiiaion that Nazii an~Nazi collaboiatoesivere assist= ed in erite_ring the United Staten by the ~~- The {biee has learned that the colLbo- ntor discussed in the GAO report as "Subject D" is a prominent Uloraiman natiionalist. In 1934, he war imprisoned for attempting to assassinate the interior minister of Poland; ha ran the security fora of a UlQainiian fascist organization and has been acctrsed of ordering the murders of many of his countrymen: he attended a Gestapo training school where Jews were murdered for practice. He was considered an ertremely valuable intelli- gence asset by the CIA, which pmtected him from war-crimes roeecution by the_. ~ovtets, _ ro t.._ m to country- un- der an assumed name and concealed hia._ true paai from t~ _ Immigration and Nat- uralization Service. So important wes his case ttTia 1n~Attorney General James P. McGnnery, the director of Central Intelligence, General Walter Bedell Smith. and the commissioner of the IN3, Argyle R. Mac4ey, secretly mead to qis; mit his residence here. In 1957, he be- came a L'.S. citizen. His name is Mykola Lebed, and he lives in Yonkers. MYIIq,A LE,Ep is 7S 1fEARS OID, ADO IIAS resided in this country for nearly half his life. Several ~?ears ago he moved from Washington I-Ieighta, a largely Jewish neighborhood, to a modest two-family brick house on a pleasant Yonkets hill- side. Short, wiry, and bald, with alert blue eyes, the retired I.ebed spends moat of his days at home, where he is working on his memoirs. Hie recollections are likely to be cast in the heroic, patriotic light that illuminates most histories written by adherents and defenders of the Organization of Ukraini- an Nationaliata (OUN) that he one helped lead. All that can be seen in these accounts is a fiery commitment to an in- dependent Ukrainian state and the re- ~tiltieg rnn9iees?witb both German and Soviet oppressors. Obscured is the more complex story of OUN rnllabontion with Nazi wu crimes, and the OUN's own faa- ciat and racist ideology. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 -San itized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 ~~y ~ ~ ~ n 1 wl L6e V U LV naYf from - ounteri '. ill hi ( w of er m arc ve i mm intarviawa mentation oenbr at a - ei. is -' naraa nom sea iC file ~ Lobed obtained under the Fne- om otmatton et, were Baru ( t ss, ra y ors being n to ? o~u .'I5"lus~` Bezpeky, its repubdly mtrrderous sseuri- tera. _u ustio! `Dap~rtment policy, which ap. comment about U~iO?~y~ scorns wd ~ {~biee has learned~that the OS mamI taus parenlIy~held at the requ~pit~f ~ open fil oo Lobed, making (~ a "aao~t ar t aEeocy," sad an-. potsntW defendant in denattrraGzation othii - t 6aaT>ren~ ramowd from ~ ~~~~- ro rtamm~ to his p - Fat ' onaf~rc vas I ~ lam the ~ - ~ [ `~ the~of _ ~iir~i as a F~ ~~avrnL ~!~Y iDtetllige~ arisLtht_ of the war. the bi0oty-alfaacism in Bast- CIA were ~D?d ?~_ ~ the._QBI ~ ern Stirropa is oo academic matter. In summer. recent years, the U.B: government has ~ the OSI determines that Lobed finally bagm to prosecub indiviidual wu ought to be stripped of his citizenship criminals among the Nan oollaboratoes sad deported, the information in those who found refuge oa aq ahoew. Mat oI files may become public. Although much the 46 cases brought so fu bl- tM Justice ~ Lebed's h,i,s~to ,_remains mur rTy, con. Departmrnt's a of Special Iavestiga- ~ ~~st~-ctass~ie ovennment ca- tions (OBI), sat up is 1979 to find and ~~ arc u t e out t scat a depot immigrants who committed wu dlpGy would severely embarrass not - criimas. involve not German Naas but odY.?he OUN and its aupporters cat - ~ {~ otimr ate, U.S. government as well--especially the The East European bmigei oommum? CU-- . ties haw reacted with a ferocious cam- Under long-standing U.S. immigration paign to abolish OSI, though very few of ~~. strengthened in 1978, those guilty their members are threatened in nay way. of Persacutin8 other people on the basis (Ody in the Polish-American community of race, religion, national origin, or politi- has the crraads against OSI failed to gain ~ belief are barred from entering this significant support, perhap beawe so ~trY and are to be deported if they many Polish gtntiles were also victims o[ gain entry. Lobed escaped these eanc- Naasm.) Each raesc~ution of a Nan col- lions because bin sponsors mercifully laboator tram Europe discredits cited5ection 8 of the CIA Act of 1949. Aa the version o[ history upheld by some obscure Portion of the legislation that es- EmigrM: that ail the "anticommuaiste" of tabGabed e~IA,~eci~on 8 permits the Eastern Europe were noble and free of agenccyy to 6tinB 100 individuals a year to any guilt for the crimes of Nazism. the U.S or reasons of national securi- Ukrainian leaden haw outapokedy denounced the OSI, partly because the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists still esisL sad remains iafiuentW in the (Jkrainiaa communities ben and abroad. The OUN's founder an revered by Ukrainian publication and groups, while their collaboration with Hider l not dis- cussed. The 03I has made such evasion fu more di>!&vlt. According to Nasi 1~{rr Criminals in Morita, the authoritative handbook published last you by Charles 13. Allen Jr., about one-fourth of the 45 OSI deportation or denaturalization cases have been brought against Ultraini- ans; in at least two cases, the individual amrsed of participating is Naa persecu- tions sad murders were proven to be membsn o[ the OUN. ty-regar_dfese of their -past. Brooklyn District Attorney Elizabeth Holtzman, who issued a scathing critique of the GAO report, found this revelation about Subject D's immigration "extremely dis- turbing." As a ,member of Congress in 1978, ssid Holtzman, "the CIA ... aa- sured me in a meeting_ and in a Congres- sional >iearin~Tthat it Haver usedthe 100 numbers provwon to factT-state Abe entry o_f Nazu." - --- -~-- Patti Voh:, a spokeswoman for the CIA, declined to comment about Lobed or the G~40 report. "We don't get into detail," afie said "We don't confirm or deny that ._ someone has worked for us. We wouldn't hive- any comment on him." fiE'ORT9 FN,EO 1NIfl1 TIE Al1MY OOIM>tER intelligence Corps in the late '40e give various dates for the birth of Mykola Lobed, but his naturalizatSon papers say November 23, 1910. He was born in the western Ukrainian province of Galicia, an agricultural area controlled at various F~rw twsr a say::bfr faa/era 1N tM OIIN's sisrt-M/ anbnemers hadst stab. times by Poland, the Soviet Union, and Germany. From his euly school days in Lvov, the provincial capital, Lobed was involved in the right wing of the Ukraini- an nationalist movement, which from the early '30s to the present has been domi- nated by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The secretive, authoritarian OUN has constantly overshadowed Ukrainian poGtia, despite incessant fac- tional strife in its ranlra, both in the Ukraine and abroad. Polish rule in the Ukraine during the '20s bad been har~ah, and the OC,~'s younger members included a number, who, like Lobed, wen inclined to terror- ism. Among them was the OUN's eventu- al would-be ftihrer, Stefan Bandera, who in 1934 joined with Lobed and several others in plotting the assassination of Polish interior minister Bronislaw Pier- acki. U.S. Arm C~ounte_~rinte~~~~e re- ports sa~-3t -at ~tnitiall~ escaped from Warsaw but wee captured in Stet. iit~~ y~an~turned to~land by the German authorities. Convicted in a mass to e~'3~, $a~era, and several others were condemned to death, but their sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. The most sympathetic, xholarly ac- count of the LTIQainian nationalist period ie by John A. Armstrong, a strongly anti- Soviet and pro?Ukrainian historian who now teaches at the University of Wu~con- sin. His Ukrainian Nationalism 1939- 1945 notes that during the period Lobed and Randers wen imprisoned, the C;krai- niaa nationalist movement was solidify- ing its ties to the Nazi regime in Germa- ny. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 The Ukrainian targets of the OBI haw so fu been minor 6gure~-"poliamtn" in the service of the Nan iacupi?rs of tba Ukraine, who don't fiNn at individual in any of the histories of the Mast wartime leaden of the Ot1N an deid, sad thus safe from the variedse at justia meted out in U.S., Soviet, Polish, or L- raeli courts. Mykola Lobed is an ?:cope tics. Pbr years hs was the OUN'~ thied- in-command, and !k ran the Slushba Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 "For many years," wrote Armstrong, A former OUN member, now dead, duty of every member of the OUN to "the-OUN had been closely tied to Ger? wrote in 1958 a different and more de- show the Germans that his nerves are mesa policy. This alignment was fur- thered by the semi-Fascist nature of ib ideology, and in turn the dependence on Germany tended to intensify Fascist trends in the organiution." In fa~m_at historians regard the OUN as w~ h~u- cist~=and tied io(~ermaa intellitence-.. lion. It was t>,e Nasi inw- sion of Polan m September 1$~ that allowed I,ebed and ttl~tea ~atcosyictd lottsss to escape Exam Warww's 3wiety Prim shot ss:vrng Sw ywrs. . Thi xenophobic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic nationalism aI the OUN meshed wady with Nasiam. The pmpli- ment was not always eeturned, however Wlthin the Neu hierarchy, opinions about the Ukniniaos diverged. Powerful Nora 6gurw considered the LTkniniaas an inferior people, unfit to govern them- selves. Lsbed and the other OUN leaden hoped that they would be able to set up an autonomous fascist stars, w part of Hitler's "New Europi," undo a German protectorate. Such aspirations oongsaled into a mili- terry, political, and espionage alliance be- tween the OUN and the Nazi war ma- chine. Evan after 1940, when the OUN split into two feuding factions-the more estremist led by Bandon, Lobed, and Ysroslav Stetako-both sought an ac- commodation with the German occupi- ers. Later in the war, the Germans alter- nated between courting and repressing the Ukrainians, but many OUN members served oontiauously in Nazi formations, from the Waffen-SS to the local police forces, which murdered thousands of Jews. Poles, communists, and socialists. DU~NO flE MOlfflls FOtlOwNO TiE~ l1E- lease from prison, Lobed and the other OUN leaden chafed under the temporary constraints of the 1939 treaty between Hitler and Stalin. Aocording to Arm- strong, they eagerly abetted the secret Nazi preparations for war against the So- viers, sending their young adherents for German military training in mountain camps set up as early as 1939. Sources friend to Lobed-whore clanfi~ac-- counts may ours m memo 0 the Army Counterintelligence Corps be- tween 1947 and .1948-understandably pass ovei this ~ ceriod. Only hints of what Lobed was actually doing in 1910 and 1941 appear in the CIC file. A Se tembar 30, 1948, memo does mention that "For a short time, (Lobed) attempted to get an insight into the tac- tic of the German State Police and suc- ceeded in ... the GESTAPO school in ZAKO~ NE (District of Krakow), from which he ukimately Ekd." And a card in the CIC file identifies Lobed as "a graduate of the Zakopane, Poland crimi- nal police school." tailed eyewitness version of Lebed's so- just as tough u a German's and that the jottrn_ with the Gestapo: Retrieved fmm heart of any nationalist is as hard u declaration of Mykyta Kasakivs'kyy por- trays both Lobed and the OUN as eager pupil of the Gestapo. Kosakivs'kyy joined the OUN in 1933. and after sojourns in Czechoslovakia and Germany, returned to the Carpathian Ukraine late in 1939. He was amoog the older OUN o~oers present when the "Ukrainian 'paining Unit" was estab- lished at the Gestapo school in Zakopane that November. According to his declara- tion, the Ukaainian unit wu "organized by the OUN leadership and by permis- sion of the German Security Service." It included 120 specially selected trainees, under the guidance of a Gestapo officer named Walter Kruger and his assistant, Wilhelm Rosenbaum, both Germans. The Ukrainian commandant of the en- tire unit was Lieutenant V'tl'nyy," wrote Kosakivs'kyy, "whose real name was My. kola Lebid (another transliteration of Lobed)." The curriculum included driW, intelli~ence_ and counterintelligence trainu~, and interrogation techniques, but empTiasized "exercises in the harden- ing: of hearta.?`~ - - - - - - "At sundown," recalled Koeakivs'kyy, "Kruger, Rosenbaum, Lebid and a few students would go to Zakopane, enter some Jewish home on the way, grab a Jew, and bring him to the Unit. One eve- ning, late in November or early in De- cember 1939. thou returned with a young Jew. In the presence of Ukrainian se- niors, including myself, Kruger and Ro- senbaum, fortified with alcohol, proceed- ed with their demonstration of the proper methods of interrogation." Seeking to induce the innocent Jew to confess that he had raped an "Aryan" woman, the German officers beat and tortured film, using their fists, a sword, end iron bars. When he was bloody from head w toe, they applied salt and Name to his wounds. The broken man then con- fessed his fictional crimes, but that was not the end. 'Thereupon," KoBakivs'kyy continues. "he was taken to the corridor of the house and the 'co-ads' (three women members of the unit) were called in. In their presence, Rosenbaum beat the Jew again with an iroq pipe and Lebid too assisted manually in that `heroic action.' One of the senior Ukrainians and I with- drew from that spectacle to our rooms. We learned afterwards that the tortured man was stripped naked, stood-up in front of the school as `a sentry' and doused with water in heavy frost." Kosakivs'kyy and his friend protested to Lobed the nest day, but the rnmman- dent told them bluntly that "it was the s. steal." Such "practical a:ercisw" coatia- usd unabated, according to Koeakiv- s'kyy's testimony, and he fled Zakopane in early January 1940. Others equally sickened, he learned, left later, but Lobed remained until at least '.March of that year, when the unit moved from Zakopa- ne wthe nearby town of Rablu, where the Gestapo's depredations continued. When be finished his statement on De- cember 14, 1958, in Germany, the former OUN member already knew he was dying of heart diswse, according to the intro- ductory note written by the late Dr. Penes Fedenko, a Ukrainian liberal and implacable critic of the OUN. "I owe it to my conscience to make this declaration public, to report openly the facts Iwit- neeaed myself," Koeakivs'kyy concluded. "Mykola Lebid evidently believes that his infamous accomplishments in the Ukraine and elsewhere are forgotten and so are the multitudes of his innocent vic- tims, that every witness of his torture activities is either murdered or dead. Only Lebid is mistaken right there." Kosakivs'kyy'a angry testament must be read in come:t, as the product of one man's remorseful memory, and of Ukrai- nian 4migrE rivalries as well; obviously it was published to discredit Lobed and the OUN. Yet there is supporting evidence for his story in the historical record. Ttie Zakopane school ousted, according to Dr. Aharon Weiss of Yad Vashem, and was moved to the nearby town of Rabka in 1940. There was a Captain Kroger, men- boned above, who commanded a Gestapo unit in the area, and helped lead a~o~nc Nazi-OUN pogrom when the German army's Brandenburg regiment occupied the Galician capital of L'~?ov in ;ate .June :941. ?tnd there is also no question that 3 German officer named Wilhelm Ri~~rn- baum wen a commandant at Zakopane and Rabka during the training of L'kzai- nians. In 1964, that same.Roeenbeum was arrested in West C~mgpy and charged. among other crimes, an the murder of 200 Jews at Rabka between May 1942 and January 1943. According to Simon Wiesenthal's 1967 book T7te Murderer Among Us, the unit was a "training cen- ter for future cadres of 6S killers ... SS men at Rabka were ?bring hardened so they would not break after a few weeks of duty. They had to become insensitive to the sight of blood, to the agonized shouts of women and children. The job moat be done with a minimum of fuss and a mau- mum of efficiency. That was a Fllhrerbe- jeh!-rho Fuhrer's order." Rosenbaum wu convicted in Hamburg in 1968 and sentenced to hard labor for life. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 ~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4 I,ehed declined w be interviewed by the {~6ics about Zakopane or say of his wartime activities. But in a brief oonver- satioa oo the doorstep oI hu Yonkers home last month. ba conadd that >m .. had bean at the Gestapo school, although he belie+ed it had bean during the winter d 1940-41, sot 1939-40 as Kosakiw'kYy stated. "Oh yes," he said. "I leR after 8w weeks. I haw exactly the dabs. I quit." L~f 1MN10 R ?lAliiOIOIE. NOS E fER cursory. was soon escagnixd by low faders is OUN?B. whow acronym designabd it domination by the nation- alist Pohrsr Handers. When their split from the old leadership became irtevoca- ble in 1941, Bander commissioned the creation of a "security service," the Slushba Bezpeky, under Lebed's coin. mend- Historians of the OUN-B agree that he ran the SB not only during the wu, but to afbrward. Armstrong. who tterviewd~bed at length, stated the facts with characteristic discretion: "In Lobed-small in stature, quiet, yet detr- mined. lord-the SB found swell-quali? fled leader. but one who wu to acquire for himself and his oraanizetion an unen- viable nputatioa for ruthlsssasas." In an inte~iew last month Armat=oog was still sympathetic to Lobed, but more candid. He grew up 6ghtin` against the Poles,,' explained the historian, "sad be devel- oped a urrible terrorist complex. IIe killed other LJkraisians, rivals in the or- ganisation (OUN]." Yet Lobed told the Koice that he had never commanded the SB. He calmed that the SB had instead been run by someone named "Artanych ... Iie's dead now " Such reltictaaos to assume the SB's legacy is understandable. Even those Ukrainians who ignore the fascist brutal- ities against Jews and Poles are still trou- bled, and in some cases outraged. by the SB's infamow assault on Ukrainians who dissented from the OUN-B leader- ship. Lebsd's direct responsibility for crimes attributed to the OUN-B is di>Scult to establish. Perhaps the lowest point of the Banderites' alliance with Nasism was the occupation of Lvov m June sad July 1941, when Yaroslav Sbtko sad a Lugs contingent of OUN-B troops enbrsd that city olong with the Brandenburg regi- ment and other German detachment. Sewnl days of mass murder followed. L'vov's Jewish population was decimat- ed, but Polish usiwnity professor sad anyone who could be tied to the Commu- nists wen aLw killed. Survivor reported that the Ukrainians were even more bloodthirsty than their German patrons. According to German Rule in Ruuia, by historian AL3xander Dallis. "Hander's follower, includin6 those in the Nachti- gall regiment (a Ukrainian SS detach- ment), were displaying considerable ini- tiative. conducting purges and pogroms.,, Ironically, the alliance between the Na- zis and the OUN-B came apart that same week in Lvov, after Sbtako procWmed an independent Ukraine. Loyal to the Ftlhrsr, who was in their view creating a glorious new Europe, the Ukrainians still dreamed of their own abb. Bandon, the Ukrainian tlthrse. eamd 8btsko prime miaistss sad Lobed minsOsr of secvraty. But the new rsgiims didn't last long. By July 9 the Nasss would no longer put up with thu "independent" charade, and arrested Bander, Sbtsko, and other members of the leadership. Lwbd es? coped; the others were bald under "bows arrest" in Berlin but they wens not mis- treated. According to Armstrong, the OUN leaden "wen allowed to carry on their politicwl activities in Berlin; Sbtsko was even able to go to Cracow, when he consulted with Lobed, whom he had se- cretly delegated W take command of aU activities in the Llkrainiaa lands." Eves pro-OUN writer admit that the German repression of the lJlQainiaa nationalists was mild, and eoopention continued oa many lewL throughout the wu. There wen periods when some of the nationalist UkQainians, formed inW guer- riW groups, fought the Germans as well as the Soviet partisans, and then u evi- dence that Lebsd took pert in those ac- tions, specially after 1942. But by 1943, the Banderites wen cooperating in the formation of a new Ukrainian SS divi- sion, and in 1944 Handers himself- though he had been interned at Sachsea- hausen concentration camp-wee still aa- sisting the C,eranan wu effort against the Russians. Lobed, who had meanwhile adopted the nom de guerre Marym Kuban, tried to seize control of ell factions in the na- tionalist movement. Independent nation- alist bands wen carrying out guerrilla actions in Volhynia and the western Ukraine under the name of the Ukrainian Partisan Army (UPA). This was intoler- able to Lobed, who demanded that all the Ukrainian guerrillas come under his com- mand. The result was vicious internecine warfare among the nationalists, a period from which Lebed's reputation did not emerge unscathed. Leading figures of the non-OUN forces wen "liquidated." ac- cording to a 1948 CIC memo: "Asa re- sult, the Ukrainians nos have di2liculty forgetting the fact that Lebsd killed same Ukrainian partisans whs~ wets lighting for the same caws" Other writer, like the Ukrainians Pains Fedenko and 0. Shuliak, con- demned Lobed in harsh bans for these killings after the war. Shuliak carob in 1947 that Lebed's SB men carried out the murders of disssaten from the OUN line. "It is perfectly evident that neither sol- dier nor officer of the UPA had any- thing to do with these atrocities. The do- en wen the Security men under the order oI Lobed." Massacres and other acts of terror were also carried out against civiliaat, against Soviet prisoner of wu, a;ainst entire Polish villages in the Uitraiae, and against Jews Seeing from Nara persecution. In his own booklet on the history of the ~A, PubLshsd in 1946. Lobed aye it aim was "to clear the forest and the surrounding areas of foreign element." Fn'edman, this meant not ody Poles but Jews and Ruuian partisans as well. Friedman says that patwu OUN efforts to disclaim responsibility for anti-Jewish atrocities "cannot be taken seriously... LF>Ea'S CAS EMEpRE1Y AFTQ TIE war is difficult to tract. By then the OUN had established a new front-group, the Supreme Ukrainian Liberation Council- known by its transliterated initials, UHVR-of which Lobed became "For- eign Secretary." Several CIC documents report that his wife and daughter were held in Buchenwald conceatntion camp by the Germans for several months as hostages against Lebed's guerrilla activi- ties, but they wen released in 1944, well before the wu's end. After 1945 he mainly lived in Rome and Munich, seeking Allied support for the remnants of the UPA to fight against the victorious Soviets. A "political histo- ry" in the CIC file says that he traveled illegally wound Western Europe, orga- nizing the foreign offices of the L'HVR By the end of 1947, conditions in Rama wen growing uncomfortable for Lobed, who was afraid that the Soviets might attempt to seize him there. He sought and apparently teoei~ea-iiA help of U.S. intelligence to leave Rome safely. Lebed's file aLo shows that around the same time, he and other OUN leaders began to proclaim the evolution of their politics in a more democr tic direction. The motive behind such ~ecluatroaa is clew. In the cold wu that was already taking shape, only self-styled democrats rnuld partake of Uncle Sam's largesse. But whether Lobed actually converted to Western liberalism is uncleu from the CIC file. Several reports note that when the OUN-B split at a Munich conference in 1947, Lobed gave a speech berating the "weakening and democratization of the party line," which other members is turn deaouned ar redolent of fascism. Regardlew of his postwu political views, howevu, it is clear from the GAO report that Subject D was used e, an American agent soon afbr the wu'a end. (Handers, too, obtained a post with a Western intelligence agency-the West German BND, run by the former Nazi A6weh~ chief Reinhard Gabler, who re- ,cruited scores of e:-Nazis and collabora- tor for his network. In his memoirs, Gehlen identiSes Bander a. one of his men) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/10 :CIA-RDP90B01390R000200210001-4