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Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 America's Police............ 3 Islamic Justice ......................13 Foiling Terrorists ......... 8 Hong Kong Brew ............ 18 FRANCE: A Police State? .......... 9 C.J. INTERNATIONAL INDEX Vol. 2, No. 4 July-August 1986 ? International Terrorism America at the Barricades ............... ? News and Notes Chile, France, Iran, Malaysia, Puerto Rico .............. South Korea, Soviet Union ............. Turkey, U.S.-Chicago, Florida, Oregon, Virginia, Wash. D.C., Wisconsin ................ 6 ? United States Policing America: A National Perspective ............... 3 ? People ................ 7 ? Travel Foiling Terrorism ......... 8 ? France Is France a Police INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AMER THE BARB He is undoubtedly American, probably a marine, most likely attached to the Ameri- can embassy. He stands grazing out at the Nile, one foot up on the embankment. One hand rests on his knee; the other holds a bottle of beer. Hardly the vision of Ameri- can power in this corner of the world. He is only a block away from the embassy, where they are constructing high concrete walls and lining them with large cement "flower pots" to make it impossible to drive up alongside the wall. Every twenty or thirty yards an Egyptian soldier stands holding an outdated automatic weapon or rifle. The soldiers were there before the bombing of Libya, but there is no doubt that security has been increased dramatically since then. This is a scene repeated around the world as Americans on foreign soil fortify themselves, knowing they are targets, waiting for the worst. Interviews with intelligence and terro- rist experts lead to one conclusion: there will be more terrorism, and Americans will be the targets. There is disagreement about where the next terrorist acts will occur. I CAM CANES Some think there will be an outbreak of terrorism in the United States. Others, including one of Egypt's leading experts, State'? ................... 9 ? International Law Crimes and Penalties In Islamic Criminal Legislation ..... 13 ? Publications ......... 15 ? Books ................ 16 ? Dining Hong Kong Brew ........ 18 ? Meetings ............. 18 4 ` An Egyptian soldier guards the United States Embassy in Cario. think that Europe will be the battleground Continued on page 12 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 C.J. IN'FF.PNA"l lONAAl. CJ International (ISNN 0882-0252) is published six times a year in cooperation with the Center for Research in Law and Justice, the University of Illinois at Chi- cago. $15 yr. $25 2 yrs. International rates on request. Address all correspon- dance to CJ International, 1333 S. Wabash, Box 55, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Richard H. Ward, Editor: Harold Smith, Joseph Peterson, Jane Buckwal- ter, and Gordon Misner; Associate Edi- tors; Julie Smith and Tonya Matz, pro- duction managers; Ilene O'Connell, subscription manager; Dave Sorter, Advertising Manager. Permission is granted to copy and quote CJ International in connection with educational and training activities. All other rights reserved. INTERNATIONAL RATES Argentina (Austral) 1 yr 12.30 2 yr. 20.50 Australia (Dollar) 19.80 33.00 Austria (Schilling) 221.85 369.75 Belgium (Franc) 649.350 1,082.25 Brazil (Cruzerio) 205.50 342.50 Britain (Pound) 9.81 16.35 Canada (Dollar) 19.50 32.50 Colombia (Peso) 2,880.00 4,800.00 China (Yuan) 48.30 80.50 Denmark (Krone) 117.00 195.00 Finland (Marks) 73.05 121.75 France (Franc) 100.80 168.00 Greece (Drachma) 1,875.00 3,125.00 Hong Kong (Dollar) 110.25 183.75 India (Rupee) 184.20 307.00 Ireland (Pound) 10.35 17.25 Israel (Shekel) 19.35 32.25 Italy (Liza) 21,551.70 35,919.50 Japan (Yen) 2,369.55 3,949.25 Malta (Lira) 5,970.00 9,950.00 Mexico (Peso) 7,281.45 12,135.75 Netherlands (Guilder) 38.25 63.75 New Zealand (Dollar) 26.55 44.25 Norway (Krone) 107.55 188.50 Peru (Sol) 208.50 347.50 Portugal (Escudo) 2,026.95 3,378.25 Saudi Arabia (Riyal) 53.55 89.25 Singapore (Dollar) 33.15 55.25 South Korea (Won) 13,278.00 22,130.00 Spain (Peseta) 1,978.80 3,298.00 Sweden (Krona) 101.55 169.25 Switzerland (Franc) 26.25 43.75 raiwan (Dollar) 526.20 877.00 V.nezula (Bolivar) 262.65 437.75 W. Germany (Mark) 31.65 52.75 This publication is available i in microform } from University Microfilms International. Call toll-free 600-521.3044. In Michigan. Alaska and Hawaii call collect 313-761-4700. Or mad inquiry to University Microfilms Internatiomd, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor. Ml 46106. CHILE Santiago police reported recently that one man was seri- ously wounded by gunfire and a hundred people arrested in street skirmishes in the capital city. Bombs destroyed three utility towers, blacking out much of Chile after tank-backed troops crushed a planned protest march against the military government. Three electric power pylons south of Santiago were shattered by explosives, cutting off service for ninety minutes along a 1,457-mile zone of the central sec- tor, the army reported. The black- out was total in Santiago, Vina del Mar, and Concepcion. A Marxist guerilla group, the Manuel Rodrigues Patriotic Front, telephoned news agencies and said its members had set off the bombs. FRANCE According to the New York Times, a woman and a pistol- wielding associate flew a helicop- ter into the La Sante Prison in Paris, lowered a cable, and carried away a prisoner who had been serving an eighteen-year sentence for armed robbery. According to the Times, it was the thirty four- year-old prisoner's fourth escape in a long criminal career and "easily his most spectacular." This was only the second escape by helicop- ter from a French prison. The escapee, Michel Vaujour, appeared to have made a clean getaway. Witnesses and the police told Agence France-Presse that an Alouette II helicopter piloted by a woman appeared over the prison, hovered for several minutes, and a cable was lowered to Mr. Vaujour. A few minutes after the escape, the helicopter landed in an athletic field belonging to a student dor- mitory complex in the Porte d'Or- leans area of southern Paris. Stu- dents sunning themselves on the lawns of the complex said they saw two men and a woman run from the helicopter to a waiting car. GUATEMALA Guatemala will receive $16 million in foreign aid to equip and modernize its national police force, Interior Minister Juan Jose Rodil Peralta has announced. "We want to change from having a repressive police force to one that is dedicated to public safety and crime preven- tion," Mr. Rodil said at a news conference. Mr. Rodil recently visited Spain, Venezuela, and Mexico, and he said all three countries had agreed to provide police aid to his country. He has indicated that the fourth country he visited, West Germany, was considering his request for aid. Mr. Rodil said Venezuela will extend a $10 million credit to Guatemala to be used for police purposes to buy patrol cars, jeeps, motorcycles, and radios. In addi- tion, Venezuela will send advisers to Guatemala to instruct police officers and to draw up plans for a new administrative structure for the police. Spain will also provide vehicles, radios, and anti-riot equipment, including plastic shields, batons, and vehicles that carry water can- nons. The minister of the interior said that the restructuring of the police force would probably take about five years. INDIA "I've tortured people thousands of ways. Chillies stuffed into the rectum of a man. Or we tie him to the four corners of a rope bed and stretch him to limits that are unendurable. It leaves no marks or injuries." The words are those of a police superintendent described in a Middle East Times article as "well mannered, urbane, and a family man, with a taste for clas- sical literature." The author of the article, Rich- ard S. Erlich, notes that brutality is a common phemonenon in India. Women are sometimes raped, assaulted, or verbally abused while undergoing questioning or Continued on page 3 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 A, r'W- Continued from page 2 making a complaint, according to women's rights groups and court testimony. The idea is to break a man completely, says the superinten- dent, who also says there is some remorse if a man is later found innocent. "Then you feel very ambivalent. You give him money, or help him in some way. If it was really bad, you get his nephew a job or something." There are no national statistics on torture, according to Erlich, but he cites the police superintendent's figures; for every person caught, three or four people have to suffer. IRAN The Ayatallah Hossein Ali Montazeri of Teheran has issued wide-ranging pardons for "common criminals," The Ettelaat reported. The pardons, which become effective on August 16, 1986, offer releases and reductions of sen- tences by up to two-thirds. Excep- tions include rapists, large-scale embezzlers, and narcotics dealers. Other exceptions are all private cases, for which in Islamic law the plaintiffs consent must first be obtained before a pardon. The new pardons do not apply to political prisoners. MALAYSIA Two convicted drug traffickers and a man sentenced to death for illegal possession of firearms were hanged at Kuala Lumpur's Pudu jail, the Bernama News Agency reported. A prison spokesman said a truck driver and a car salesman were sent to the gallows for traf- ficking 22 pounds of raw opium, 14.7 ounces of heroin, and 2.6 pounds of morphine. A thirty nine-year old man convicted in 1984 for unlawful possession of four pistols and thirty rounds of ammunition also was hanged. PUERTO RICO A former police undercover agent, who eight years ago figured Continued on page 5 UNITED STATES Policing America: A National Perspective The casual foreign observer of polic- ing in the United States generally has two false impressions: (1) policing in the U.S. is "impossible," with no one really in charge, or (2) policing in the U.S. con- sists of thousands of large departments, with New York, Los Angeles, or Chicago being typical. Unfortunately, these false impressions are constantly reinforced by television syndication of a variety of "police shows" featuring the police departments of a small number of selected large cities: Miami, San Fran- cisco, Los Angeles, etc. Neither impression is correct. The purpose of this brief introduction is to give an accurate picture and broad over- view of policing in the U.S., placing it in an appropriate sociopolitical context. The first point to be made is that polic- ing reflects the complex federal charac- ter of government in the U.S. There is a from enacting anything except miscel- laneous statutes (ordinances) carrying simple misdemeanor sanctions. "Universal," mala in se, felonies such as murder, robbery, kidnapping, arson, etc. are the province of the national or state legislatures. In practice, the fed- eral government's criminal law is fur- ther restricted to those offenses commit- ted either on, or against, federal property, or against federal officers who are engaged in official duties. For exam- ple, the murder of a U.S. senator during a burglary of his residence in California would be classified as a felonious viola- tion of California law--not federal law. The murder of the same individual while engaged in the performance of official duties in Washington, D.C. would be a violation of federal law. A number of other federal felonies involve preventing threats to "national" The patrol officer represents the backbone of American law enforcement. The scope and diversity of this role varies significantly throughout the coun- try. division of power and authority in the United States, with many functions being delegated by the U.S. Constitution to individual states and to local govern- ments. In the criminal law sector, each unit of government is entitled to enact its own criminal law and regulations for the protection of the public. Technically, criminal laws are found on all three levels: national (federal), state, and local. Through the doctrine of pre-emp- tion, state governments have essentially monopolized the enactment of felony violations of the law; local units of gov- ernment have been, practically speak- ing, precluded in the criminal law field functions, for example, the protection of the monetary system, the conduct of for- eign relations, and the promotion of interstate and international commerce. Counterfeiting U.S. currency or securi- ties, exporting firearms without a U.S. license, or hijacking an airliner are rel- evant examples. Although all three levels of govern- ment have criminal law jurisdictions, the bulk of criminal law enforcement is performed by local police and prosecu- tors. More than 80 percent of all pros- ecutions in the United States take place in state or local courts. Therefore, in terms of sheer volume of activity, Continued on page 4 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 4 Continued from page 3 enforcement of the criminal law in the U.S. is predominantly a state and local responsibility. This brings us squarely to the issue of policing per se. The 1967 Report of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration exag- gerated the total number of policing agencies in the U.S. by stating that ter. It is on the local level--in cities and counties--that one finds the great majority of the police personnel paid for by public funds. With this large number of police agencies, what is representative of the typical police agency in the United States? The typical police employee works for an agency with less than fifty employees. In other words, Orland Park, Table 1 shows the number of employees--sworn and civilian--in the fifteen largest state and local police agencies in the U.S. (In the U.S., the term "sworn" is used to designate police employees who have full investigative and arrest powers.) In Table 2, data are given that show the number of police personnel employed in various sized cities, as well as the number of police employees per 1,000 population. These data show that the U.S. is a nation typified by small and medium-sized cities. The organization of police resources reflects this pattern of development. The data also show that although nationally there are 2.5 police employees per 1,000 population, this ratio varies according to the size of each governmental unit. Unlike many nations in the world, the United States does not have either a national or a "nationalized" police sys- tem. Nor are the police unified in any of the fifty state jurisdictions. Technically, police jurisdictions are independent of each other and responsible only to their own governmental units. There is no central coordinating authority, either nationally or in the individual states. Without mandatory centralization, how can the police operate effectively to protect the populace? In the absence of mandatory, legal requirements for coor- dination or the sharing of information, there are of course, instances of failure. These are relatively rare, however. Unlike many European and Asiatic Continued on page 5 Table 2: Police Employees, U.S. Cities (by city size and number of employees, 1983) Category of of City No. of No. of Average No. of Employees: (Population) Cities Employees Employees Popul. All (149. 6k) 9,020 380K 42.2 2.5 I (over 250K) 57 138K 2,424.5 3.3 II (100k-249K) 119 41K 342.5 2.3 III (50K-99K) 291 43K 146.8 2.1 IV (25K-49K) 625 44K 69.9 2.0 V (10K-24K) 1,606 51K 31.9 2.1 VI (under 10K) 6,322 65K 10.2 2.7 there were forty thousand such agencies. Twenty thousand is probably a more accurate figure - no one is actually cer- tain! Each unit of government--national, state, and local--has its own policing apparatus. Many, such as the federal government, have a number of different police agencies, each having a legisla- tively determined jurisdiction. The national federal government has a number of such agencies, the most famous being the following: the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Secret Ser- vice, the Drug Enforcement Adminis- tration; the Alcohol, Tobacco and Fire- arms Agency; the Customs Service; and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. It is estimated that the national government has slightly more than one hundred policing agencies. Each of the fifty states in the U.S. also has its own policing agency: some have only a single agency; while others have a number of such agencies. For example, each state has responsibility for enforcing laws on its highways. Therefore, each state has a "highway patrol," irrespective of the official title of that agency. An estimate of the number of different state police agencies is 350. Despite the fact that criminal law is essentially an individual state function in the U.S., the states have generally delegated the enforcement of those laws to local prosecutors and police forces. It is accurate, to say that policing in the United States is essentially a local mat- Illinois, is much more typical of U.S. policing than is the much better known Chicago Police Department, and, San Rafael, California, is more typical than either San Francisco or Los Angeles. Rank/Agency Employees Total Sworn 1. New York City P.D. 29,289 23,339 5,950 2. Chicago P.D. 15,611 12,353 3,258 3. Los Angeles P.D. 9,457 6,886 2,571 4. Los Angeles S.O. 8,124 6,129 1,929 5. Philadelphia P.D. 8,042 7,218 824 6. California H.P. 7,480 5,308 2,172 7. Houston P.D. 5,139 3,716 1,423 8. Pennsylvania S.P. 4,829 3,829 1,000 9. Texas D.P.S. 4,717 2,658 2,069 10. Detroit P.D. 4,432 3,808 624 11. District of Columbia P.D. 4,364 3,847 517 12. New York S.P. 4,090 3,522 568 13. Nassau County P.D. 3,813 3,261 552 14. Baltimore P.D. 3,586 3,056 530 15. New Jersey S.P. 3,252 2,298 934 (P.D. - Police Department; S.O. - Sheriffs Office; H.P. - Highway Patrol; D.P.S. - Department of Public Safety; and S.P. - State Police.) (Abstracted from U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1984) pp. 258-325.) Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Continued from page 4 nations, in the United State the police do not belong to a single, centralized per- sonnel system--on either the national or state level. Nor is there an inspector of constabulary such as is found in the United Kingdom. There are, of course, national laws relating to "racketeering," and there are national, constitutionally defined stan- dards of due process for the protection of human rights. Furthermore, both the national and state governments may prosecute police and other officials for corruption. There are also minimum personnel selection and training standards in all but four of the states. The primary political pressure for the adoption of these standards came from the police ranks, not from external political or social groups. The principal explanation for police effectiveness is rooted in the informal standards of professionalism adopted voluntarily by the police themselves. Over the years, reform has taken place incrementally both in local government generally and in police administration. The quality of police service in the United States, in spite of structural handicaps, is a tribute to police profes- sionalism. This is sustained now by continued interest on the part of national, state, and local police professional associa- tions, by the expectations of the public, by the media, and by university centers for research and study. In subsequent articles, individual police departments in the U.S. and spe- cific exemplary practices will be dis- cussed. Dr. Gordon Misner is the author of numer- ous hooks and articles on polic- ing. He is cur- rently head of the United States Scientific Section of the International Center of Sociologyical, Penal and Penitentiary Research and Studies in Italy. Continued from page 3 in the shooting deaths of two young radical advocates of Puerto Rican independence, was shot to death recently. A terrorist organi- zation, the Volunteer Organiza- tion for the Revolution said it was responsible. The former undercover agent, Alejandro Gonzalez Malave, was killed instantly by three shotgun blasts as he was entering the home of his mother. His mother was slightly injured. The Volunteer Organization for the Revolution said it would kill "one by one" all the policemen involved in the deaths of the two young advocates of independence. The FBI was called in because it had been investigating the group for some time. According to the FBI, the group was responsible for the attack on a navy bus on December 3, 1979, in which two navy men were killed and ten peo- ple injured. It was also responsible for the January 12, 1981, attack on the Puerto Rico Air National Guard base in which six jet fighter planes were blown up. The FBI has said that the group is one of the most dangerous terrorist organi- zations now operating in the United States. SOUTH KOREA Recently, students and police- men clashed with gasoline bombs, stones, and tear gas on at least four Seoul campuses in an intensi- fication of violence to mark the anniversary of an 1980 protest against martial law. At Yonsel University, hundreds of students chanted "Down with imperialism!"and other anti go- vernment slogans when five hun- dred riot police entered the cam- pus. At Korea University about four hundred students battled riot policemen at the campus gate for hours before withdrawing to a barricaded library. Similar clashes were reported at two other universities in Seoul and in another provincial univer- sity. More than ten thousand stu- dents took part in similar clashes and rallies on at least thirty three campuses, the English-language Korea Times reported. SOVIET UNION The Soviet Union has announced a major crackdown on corruption and black-marketeer- ing that calls for the death penalty for officials who accept bribes and two years in a labor camp for indi- viduals who feed baked bread to cattle. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the executive branch of government, announced the list of punishments for black-marke- teering, petty theft, bribery, and other corruption. The decree, which was tele- vised, becomes effective July 1, 1986, and sets punishments rang- ing from a fine for petty theft to execution for government officials convicted for a second time of tak- ing bribes or receiving "exceptionally large" bribes. The decree orders two years of "corrective labor" for repeated incidents of feeding cattle and poultry with baked bread, flour, and cereals rather than the more expensive government-produced feeds. The Soviet government sub- sidizes bread products and must import grain to meet bread demands. Baku, the capital of the Azerbayan Republic. ********** From 1931 to 1957 between five and seven million Latvian, Mol- davian, Estonian, Georgian, and other non-Russian slave laborers died mining for gold in Northern Siberia, according to a report by C. W. Cieslewicz, a Polish professor at the Colorado School of Mines. The camps were run by the Russian army and the secret police, and, as reported in a Middle East Times piece by John Lofton, the conditions were brutal. The men worked sixteen hours a day, receiving six-hundred to eight- hundred grams of bread and hot water for breakfast and watery soup at night. Most prisoners never survived the mines, usually not making it through the first two years. The mines, located in Kolyma, which means death in Russian, were viewed as the "final solution," according to Cieslewicz. Continued on page 6 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Continued from page 5 TURKEY The Turkish Parliament recently passed a bill to restrict the sale of publications found to be pornographic. Under the bill, a committee will decide whether a publication is fit for sale to those under 18 years of age, with condi- tions on the way it may be sold if it fails this test. The bill, which pro- vides for maximum fines of 10 million Turkish liars (about six- teen thousand U.S. dollars), has provoked strong media opposition as a form of censorship, reports the China Post. U.S.-CHICAGO The Chicago Police Department bomb and arson squad has enthu- siastically welcomed its newest member, Ro-veh Portable Robot Vehicle, a $34,000, 192-pound shotgun-toting, bomb-detecting machine that police officials say they hope will reduce the danger to policemen in dealing with bombs and hostage takers. Officials say that the robot, a squat, tough- looking little collection of technol- ogy with the no-nonsense features of a tiny tank, is a tool to make police work safer. The metallic robot is opera- tional on either tires or tracks and has a grip of steel. It is electrically powered and capable of climbing steep staircases. The robot is remote controlled on a 328-foot electrical cord tether, and it has .hooks to pick up bombs and tear them apart. It can carry a televi- sion camera and an X-ray machine and, if necessary, break windows. The bomb and arson unit is running a contest to choose a name for the rookie robot. U.S.-FLORIDA Wackenhut Corporation, one of the big American security compa- nies, is making plans to form an Anti-Terrorism Unit. Wackenhut, who did not go into business until 1954, said it plans to form an anti- terrorism and crisis management unit to assist corporations and perhaps government agencies. Mr. George Wackenhut said the anti- terrorism unit would be based in Florida or in Washington, D.C., and would probably start with about a half a dozen specialists working with the company's exist- ing executive protection division. Wackenhut further said that he feels there will be a great upsurge in private security against terror- ism in the coming months and years. "All the experts have opined that terrorism is going to reach the United States," he said. Wackenhut currently protects a number of U.S. embassies. It does business in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, as well as in the United States. U.S.-OREGON Chief Penny Harrington of Portland, the first woman to head a police department of a major American city, resigned on June 2, according to Crime Control Digest. Chief Harrington, 44, said she had submitted her written resignation on June 1 to Mayor Bud Clark, who appointed her in January 1985. She called the resignation a victory for the Portland Police Association, the union that has opposed her administration. A special-investigation com- mission's report characterized her administration as a failure. It said that Chief Harrington had shown "defects of leadership" that "cost her the confidence" of her com- mand. Chief Harrington declined to elaborate on the report other than to say that the panel had criticized her as lacking leadership and management ability. She indi- cated that the report was extremely critical of her and left her no choice but to resign. U.S.-VIRGINIA "Keeping pace and proving it" is the goal of five law enforcement agencies the United States as they seek accreditation from the Com- mission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. If the commission (the only nationwide law-enforcement-agency accredit- ing group) grants accreditation to the five, a total of twenty-eight agencies from across the country will have achieved the coveted recognition since the commission opened its doors two and one-half years ago. Accreditation is granted only after an intense agency self-eval- uation followed by an on-site assessment by a team of objective law enforcement professionals assembled by the commission. The process usually takes about two years from start to finish. The Commission on Accredita- tion for Law Enforcement Agen- cies, Inc. is a private, nonprofit corporation working to promote, recognize, and maintain excellence in law enforcement through accreditation. U.S.-WASH. D. C. The Bureau of Justice Statistics has reported that about 38 percent of United States families partici- pate in neighborhood-watch pro- grams where they are available. Almost one-fifth of all American families live in communities with such programs. Moreover, about one-third of all households reported taking one or more of the following crime prevention meas- ures - engraving valuables with an identification number, installing a burglar alarm, or joining a neigh- borhood-watch program - said the Bureau, which is a U.S. Depart- ment of Justice agency. This and additional information was gath- ered through a special poll of more than twenty thousand people as a supplement to the Bureau's ongo- ing National Crime Survey. U.S.-WISCONSIN The Milwaukee Police Depart- ment recently instituted a policy that virtually requires an arrest in an incident of domestic violence. After eleven days with the new policy, police had arrested more than two hundred people. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 The International Society of Crimi- nology has chosen Georges Picca, an attorney general of the French Supreme Court, to serve as general secretary of the society. Egypt's police service saw several administrative changes which resulted in the promotion of Dr. Adel el Karim Darwish to vice minister of the interior with responsibility and control over police services, including the Police Academy and the financial administra- tion of the National Force. General Far- ouk el-Heny was named vice minister for internal economic and social secur- ity, which includes the corrections and transportation divisions. Both served in the police service for more than forty years prior to their appointments by Darwish Salama President Hosni Mubarak. Dr. Abolfotoh H. Salama, who serves as chairman of the Police Research Center, an office of the Minis- try of the Interior, has also been pro- moted to the post of assistant minister. The new minister of the interior, General Daki Bader, a former police officer with more than thirty-five years service in policing, served as governor of Assoute in Upper Egypt prior to his appointment. Assistant Chief of Police Marie Tyse of the University of Illinois at Chi- cago Police Department recently returned from a training program at the Senior Police College at Brams- hill England. Named to the number two spot in the Central Intelligence Agency was Rob- ert Gates, 42, who held the post of dep- uty director for intelligence. He replaced John McFarlane, 56, who resigned after thirty-four years with the CIA. McFarlane had come under fire from conservatives who felt he was too critical of covert operations. Gates is expected to push heavily for increased use of data and has been known to criticize analysis by other agencies. He was critical of the Penta- gon's assessment of,Soviet military spending. He favors the use of outside experts to assist in analysis and in the development of special reports. The governor of Ohio, Richard F. Celeste, presented the state's highest honor, the Governor's Award, to Simon Dinitz in recognition of his many out- standing contributions to criminology. Chicago law enforcement officials met recently to hear a talk by Barry Pain on terrorism. They included: (Left to Right) Richard J. Elrod, Sheriff of Cook County, Chicago, Ill.: Edward Hegarty, Special Agent in Charge, F.B.I., Chi- cago, Ill.; Barry N. Pain, H.M.I.C. Commandant, The Police Staff College, Bramshill, England; Fred Rice, Superintendent, Chicago Police Department; Ralph Tricarico, Chief of Police, University of Illinois at Chicago; and Dennis Rowe, Assistant Vice Chancellor of Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago. The International Section of the American Society of Criminology has named Clayton Hartjen of Rutgers as chair for the coming year and Wes Sko- gan, Northwestern University, as sec- retary. Named to the Advisory Board were Gary LaFree, University of New Mexico; Maria Los, University of Ottawa; and Hal Pepinsky, Indiana University. Commissioner Benjamin Ward has named Richard Condon, former Commissioner of DCJS (Division of Criminal Justice Services) to First Deputy Commissioner of the New York City Police Department Gates Stephens The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) has selected Darrel Ste- phens, 39, former chief of the Newport News Police Department, as executive director. Stephens began his career in the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department, later serving as assistant chief in Lawrence, Kansas. He served as chief of police in Largo, Florida, and as a consultant to numerous police agencies. Stephens holds a master's degree from Central Missouri State University. A memorial fund has been established to honor Gary P. Hayes, former executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum. Hayes served in the post for almost ten years and played a significant role in sponsoring innovative police programs. Checks should be made payable to the "Gary Hayes Memorial Fund" and mailed to: Police Exe- cutive Research Forum, 2300 M Street, N.W., Suite 910, Washing- ton, D.C. 20037. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 8 Foiling Terrorism The odds of being the victim of terrorism in Europe aren't very high according to State Depart- ment statistics which indicate that, of the 6.4 million Americans who ventured to the continent, twelve were killed in terrorist attacks. The odds are a little higher in the middle east, but nowhere near the number of auto- mobile deaths on American high- ways, or the murder rate in large cities. If you're still bothered by the threat, there are some minimal precautions you can take, accord- ing to International Business Week. These include the use of "neutral" airlines, such as Swis- sair or SAS. Arrive at smaller sec- ondary airports, avoid public places, and stay in the security screened areas as much as possi- ble. Most CJ types recognize the need for a low profile, and may be cautious enough to keep an eye out for unattended briefcases and shopping bags, but keeping one's head down when the shooting starts may be difficult. Neverthe- less, perhaps the greatest danger to tourists is in their failure to "hit the deck" if an attack occurs. For the bold and the brave there are some strong financial rewards. Most carriers are offering reduced fares this summer, and there is the promise of continued savings in the Fall. For the professional looking to spend some time with colleagues on distant shores, consider attend- ing the Police Conference in Mes- sina, Italy in September (For details write to Denise Nykiel care of CJ International) 1333 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60605, or explore the sunny shores of Honolulu with the Police Manage- ment Association in November (write to Roberta Lesh, PMA, 1001 22nd Street, N.W, Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 20037). America at the Barricades Continued from page 1 It did not begin, nor will it end, with Libya.?'Libya became a focal point when America, with its air strikes, flexed its muscles while the world watched. Sitting next to Libya, Egypt, in the past a gateway to the Arab world, has had its problems with the reign of Moammar Qaddafi. Egypt is slowly rebuilding relationships with its Arab neighbors who condemned the country's recognition of Israel during the Carter administration. Interviews with police, government, political, and business leaders in Egypt reveal the most moder- ate Arab view of America's action and what they believe the future holds. Among the twenty or thirty individ- uals interviewed, alone and in groups, there is surprising consensus and a less than optimistic view of the future. With the exception of one or two, these people are not anti-American. Virtually all of them have attended American universi- ties and numerous conferences in the U.S. To a man, they view the air strikes as a mistake, though for different reasons. However, they all concur that this action gave Qaddafi more stature in the world. The American attack strengthened the position of extremist Moslems and fueled the fanaticism that simmers at the heart of those Arab countries facing a religious renaissance. It fostered feelings of hos- tility toward Israel and the United States, and it could well bring down many of the Arab countries that have been moving toward moderate and more democratic positions. Perhaps most important, all the leaders interviewed trace the root of ter- rorism in the Middle East to the Pales- tinian problem. All agree that a resolu- tion of the Palestinian problem will reduce terrorism, although not all agree that it will end the violence completely. A senior government official criti- cized the American decision to drop bombs without making any effort to ask for the advice of the Egyptian govern- ment. "We knew it was going to hap- pen," he said, "but from our own analy- sis, not because we were formally told." An Egyptian general, one of the few real experts on terrorism around the world, explained the futility of the air strike. "The problem with the Ameri- cans is that they do not understand the psychology of Qaddafi. To try and miss the target was to invite retaliation." A former senior police official, now a university professor, who worked in Libya for three years and who kn9ws Qaddafi personally, said, "Even if he goes now, he goes a martyr. He is a criminal, and was one from the day he was born." There is also the fact that Qaddafi and his government are not the only ones involved in terrorism. "It has become the new war of the weak," the terrorism expert concluded, pointing out that conventional measures to combat it will most likely fail. There is frustration with Israel's refusal to negotiate the fate of the Pal- estinians, but everyone spoke of the need for Israel to exist. A professor of criminal law likens Israel's treatment of the Pal- estinians to the U.S. treatment of the Indians. "You put them on a reservation, with no rights; you expect them to take it without protesting." For the Egyptians, who have only recently seen increasing terrorist acts on their soil, there is a feeling of frustra- tion. The move to open relations with Israel was designed to promote peace and closer ties with the United States. It may have the opposite effect if America does not begin to understand the Arab world. Egyptians are worried about the growing threat of the fanatic Moslems who use religion to advance their cause. "Religion is something people turn to when they are poor," said a professor of economics, "and it is not impossible to see the same thing here that happened in Iran." The average income in Egypt is less than $300 a year, lower than most countries in the free world, even lower than China. "The frustration and the inability of government to do anything makes the situation worse," he said. Another financial analyst with close ties to the United States noted that American aid to Israel amounts to more than $2,000 per person each year. "Israel, with four million people, gets more aid than Egypt, with close to fifty million people." Not far from the Nile, workmen stack concrete blocks and bricks around the embassies of the United States and England. Weary faces peer out from behind the iron grillwork of the grounds. Cairo is a peaceful city, with less crime than any large city in the United States. But, as America builds walls and tou- rists stay away, the need for more secur- ity increases because the threat of terro- rism has affected the American people who are there. Perhaps it is ironic, but on a hill just outside Cairo, workers also toil to com- plete work on the expanded intelligence base moved here when Iran fell. The Central Intelligence Agency's presence is well known, and senior officials, most of whom favor it, wonder cautiously and aloud if the events in Iran are possible in this peaceful country on the Nile. "The barricades didn't help in Iran," said a police colonel, "and they won't help here if the United States makes the same mistake and fails to understand the cul- ture and the people." Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 IS FRANCE A POLICE STATE? By Philip John Stead The words sounded strange that summer morning in Paris in 1956. We were sitting on a cafe terrace on the boulevard Saint-Germain, the French magistrate and I, and he had just said, "France is a police state." I was shocked: my notion of a police state at that time was firmly associated with Musso- lini, Stalin, and Hitler. It certainly did not seem to accord with the ramshackle parliamentary democracy of the Fourth Drawing from a French postcard. Republic. Yet here was a highly intelligent and high-princi- pled official of the Ministry of Justice making this astonish- ing statement. I have often reflected upon it. What is a "police state"? In our search for an answer to that question, I suppose we should begin by asking what was a police state? The term was first used to characterize Prus- sia at the end of the eighteenth century. The kind of govern- ment it implied, however, was very different from the twen- tieth century's abominable despotisms. The eighteenth century police state existed not only in Prussia but also in Austria, France, and Russia, all ruled by autocratic mon- archs who sought to better the condition of their kingdoms and their subjects by paternalistic regulation. In those coun- tries, as opposed to Britain, centralized government and its essential instrument, bureaucracy, were established, and the result was order at the expense of liberty. The term "police", as we all know, did not until the nine- teenth century cause one to think of the officers who enforce the criminal and other laws and maintain public order. Before then it denoted the internal administration of a coun- try-the design and execution of its domestic policy-and it was in this sense that the term police state was applicable to the rule of the "benevolent despots" of the Age of Enlightenment. The "Police State" of the Ancien Regime In the evolution of a "police state" in seventeenth century France, for example, we can see how an official who today would exercise functions mainly concerned with the mainte- nance of order and the enforcement of law was then deeply involved in a far wider range of responsibilities. During the latter part of that century, King Louis XIV and his ministers embarked upon a vast program of urban renewal in which his great police chief, Nicolas-Gabriel de La Reynie, had a key role. To him fell the multiple tasks of policing the security, public health, provisioning, and gen- eral good order of Paris's over half-million inhabitants. Backed by the high authority of the monarch, he reformed and strengthened the personnel of the police, provided sys- tems of street cleaning and garbage collection, made regula- tions for the paving of the streets and the passage of vehicles, augmented the water-supply, and took measures for the care of the sick and the poor and the repression of mendicity and vagabondage. While fine edifices were being built, gardens and avenues were being planted, and a new and lovelier Paris was emerg- ing from its medieval shell, La Reynie busied himself with the quality of life in the city, improving its civility by dealing forcefully with violence and crime no less than with dirt, fire, darkness, flood, and disease. When plague struck other cities in France in 1668-1669 he reacted by establishing a cordon ple from the infected areas. One young man, recently arrived, died of the dread disease. La Reynie's police traced everyone who had been in contact with him and placed them in quar- antine. (I seem to remember a good movie in which Richard Widmark did something of the same kind!) During the fam- ine that followed bad harvests in 1692-1694, he imported grain and distributed bread to the poor and also fought a stern battle with the merchants who sought to monopolize grain and raise prices. All this activity reflected the beneficence of Louis XIV's "police state"; more malignant, and too familiar in the twen- tieth-century experience, was the king's attempt to enforce orthodoxy upon his subjects. King Henri N's Edict of Nantes had for almost a century assured a measure of toleration to France's Protestants: in 1685, Louis XIV revoked it, and the burden of enforcing the new laws fell upon La Reynie. Who loyally carried out what must have been, to one of his intel- lectual and humane character, an uncongenial duty, entail- ing as it did the persecution and emigration of many of his country's most productive citizens. Another aspect of a state in which the ruler was above the law was the practice of imprisoning individuals without trial, simply on a warrant with the royal seal and signature, the lettre de cachet. Though the power was, as historians have demonstrated, used principally to discipline the nobility, it Continued on page 10 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 10 Continued from page 9 contrasted unfavorably with the safeguard of the habeas cor- pus writ enjoyed by people in Britain and America. In such aspects, we see a foreshadowing of the fearful abuse of police powers that has been such a tragic feature of our own cen- tury. NAPOLEON The monarchs of the Ancien Regime exercised a measure of police control in the provinces as well as in their capital city. Since the Middle Ages there had been a military police, the marechaussee, had developed in the eighteenth century into a well-organized and systematic police of the roads and rural communities. Moreover, thirty-four royal officials, called intendants of justice, police, and finance, had supervi- sory jurisdiction as the king's watchdogs in their respective territorial areas. With the Revolution of 1789 the office of intendant was abolished, with consequent relaxation of the government's hold on the provinces. The counterrevolution- ary movements which took advantage of this had to be repressed by sending representatives of the central govern- ment with plenipotentiary commissions to repress revolt and rebuilt and extended during the revolutionary and Napole- onic eras, functioned with changes more cosmetic than radi- cal under the two monarchies the next thirty years. After the revolution of 1848, another Bonaparte, the emperor's nephew, returned from exile to be elected president and lost little time in seizing power by coup d'etat from the Republic- ans and proclaiming himself Emperor Napoleon III. He developed even further the central government's grip on France during his reign, the Second Empire, between 1852 and 1870. The prefects, in particular, gained greater power over local administration and openly and effectively exerted influence in the political sphere. Napoleon III, himself a former conspirator, was deeply concerned with subversion, and the administrative resources of his regime were marshaled against people thought to be opposed to it. Signs of the times in the earlier part of his reign were imprisonment at home or deportation to imprisonment abroad, exile, prescription of residence, a close watch at points where his enemies might seek to leave or re-enter France, harassing regulation and manipulation of the press, and incessant efforts to get support for the government-itself an autocracy deriving its authority from popular approval HEADQUARTERS OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL OF THE POLICE NATIONALE OPERATIONAL CENTRAL DIRECTORATES General Criminal Urban Police Intelligence Investigation and Gambling inculcate revolutionary zeal-a task often performed by sheer governmental terrorism, as in Lyon in 1793 when so many people were sentenced to death that they had to be executed by artillery. Napoleon, seizing power in 1799, rapidly abolished the need for such ad hoc devices by restoring the principle of the intendants. In each of the ninety-eight territorial depart- ments into which France was now divided, he stationed a permanent representative of his government. These officials he called, in the Roman style in vogue in postrevolutionary France, "prefects" (a title apt enough to last until 1981, when President Mitterrand changed it to "commissaires of the Republic"). The France of Napoleon was far more a police state as we understand the term today than the France ruled by kings. A Ministry of Police had general political oversight as its most salient feature. A prefect of Police was appointed for Paris. The department prefects watched over their territories. In each sizeable urban center a government-appointed commis- saire commanded the mayoral police. At the ports and fron- tier towns commissaires-general of police watched for the comings and goings of enemy agents and native subversives. Throughout France's countryside and along her roads the military police, now the Gendarmerie patrolled, demanding identification of all and sundry and combining ordinary police work with political intelligence. There was more detention without trial, more censorship of the press, more interception of mail, more government propaganda than there had been in centuries of the Ancien Regime. Hand in hand with all this went a continuation and a vast increase in the powers exercised by the bureaucrats of the "police state" of the kings, powers to make regulations affecting people in all walks of life. The administrative machinery of the Ancien Regime, Republican Counter- Air and Security Espionage Frontier Companies Police based partly on bourgeois dread of a left-wing takeover, an attitude that the bureaucracy from the prefects down sedu- lously sought to cultivate. The Second Empire saw considerable change in the police system. The Gendarmerie was given a larger establishment. The Paris police developed a much closer uniformed patrol, somewhat on the London Metropolitan Police's beat model (the emperor, when exiled in England, had been an auxiliary policeman in 1848). Lyon, France's second largest city, had its municipal police force nationalized and placed under the departmental perfect. Additionally a political police branch was formed. A special surveillance of railways was estab- lished as a central service under the Ministry of the Interior, ostensibly for ordinary police intelligence. It is pertinent to note that Napoleon III only suceeded in his transition from president to emperor by a coup d'etat in which the police were his principal agents in locking up the parliamentry opposition. His phenomenal uncle, inciden- tally, came to power through a coup d'etat to which the police were no strangers. The two Napoleons' principal common feature was concern with the security of the regime; both maintained exceptional machinery for the collection of intel- ligence and large forces for the maintenance of order. During the nineteenth century, the centralization of gov- ernment control of the police continued at the Ministry of the Interior. There a national police headquarters grew up piecemeal under the name Surete Generale, with the object, if not the effect, of supervising and coordinating the work of the prefects, the national police force in Lyon, and the new spe- cialist police branches. The prefect of Police of Paris, how- ever, answered directly to the minister, not to the head of the Surete. At the end of the century the French police system was basically tripartite: The Surete Generale, controlling the civil police of the provinces and the specialists: The Prefec- ture of Police of Paris; and the Gendarmerie Nationale. The first two were under the Minister of the Interior, and the Continued on page 11 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Continued from page 10 third was under the Minister of War, their respective politi- cal masters. The Minister of Justice was political master of all police, whether civil or military, insofar as they were engaged in the investigation and proof of crime. His control was exercised through the magistracy in the form of the prosecutors and the juges d'instruction. Both the Napoleons fell in war, after massive military defeat, but the administrative structure of their regimes survived and constitutes the framework of the police system today. Twentieth Century: Centralization Continues During the twentieth century, the nationalization of the civil police continued. An important step was the formation of criminal investigation branches on a regional basis, with the mission of combating serious professional crime and under the overall control of the Surete Generale. Others were the nationalization in 1941 of the police forces of all urban centers with a population of over 10,000 and the establish- ment of a national police college to train the Surete's com- missaires. At the end of World War II a new police organization under the control of the Surete appeared-the Republican Security Companies, designed as a reserve to be deployed anywhere in the country in the event of serious public turbu- lence. The most radical of the measures to bring the whole of the civil police under a single head at the Ministry of the Interior was the consolidation of the personnel of the Prefecture of Police of Paris with the rest of the civil police. All now come under the Director-General of the Police Nationale, with the prefect of police answering administratively to him while retaining control of the operations of the force in Paris. This ushered in, from 1968 onwards, a more uniform system of recruitment, training, and promotion, and the national police headquarters in Paris established a firmer hold on the entire civil police. The Police Structure Today The political head of the civil police is the Minister of the Interior and of Decentralization (the appendage of Decen- tralization dates from President Mitterrand's reforms of 1981 and relates mainly to giving local political governments larger powers in their own affairs; it does not affect the min- ister's control of the police), aided by another political minis- ter, the secretary of state in charge of public security. The chief administrative executive is the Director-General of the Police Nationale, an official of prefectural rank, who answers to the tow ministers for the organization and conduct of the service. The headquarters (see illustration) indicates the dispersal and balance of civil police effort in France. The operational aspects are only partly paralleled in American police practice. General intelligence, the function of which is to provide the government with political, social, and economic intelligence, for instance, has no counterpart in the U.S. Domestic counterespionage, a major police function in France, is in the United States, the preserve of the FBI. Urban police and criminal investigation are easier to match, but localized as their functions inevitably are in France they are ultimately under national control. Federal investigative agencies have far less jurisdiction here than have the centrally directed police organisms in France. In the business of public order emergencies, I suppose the nearest counterpart to the Republican Security Companies is the National Guard. As the Guard is a part-time military force operating within the individual states, however valuable it may be in the hour of need, it cannot be compared with France's full-time, highly-trained, specialist riot police, available for deployment to any part of the country and again, under central direction. The Air and Frontier Police, are also centrally directed, not provided, as in the United Page 11 States, by local police agencies, though the Border Patrol has an obvious parallel. The Gendarmerie Nationale-first regiment of the French Army, and its members are fully trained for their dual func- tion as soldiers and police officers-has no parallel in the U.S. In territorial terms, the Gendarmerie has by far the largest jurisdiction, policing as it does the main roads, smaller towns, and countryside of France-which means 95 percent of the country. The gendarme, always in uniform, is the most visible and omnipresent of French police officers, and because most gendarmes operate in small units in the neigh- borhood of their quarters they are often the best qualified to know what is happening. The Gendarmerie (recently the subject of an excellent and detailed study in English by Mr. J. R. J . Jammes) is organ- ized under a Director-General responsible to the Minister of Defense. It has three main components: the Republican Guard, stationed permanently in Paris; the Departmental Gendarmerie, stationed permanently in one of the other of France's six defense zones (regions); and the Mobile Gen- darmerie, stationed in regions but liable to be moved when- ever necessary, often at very short notice. The Gendarmerie Mobile, unlike its civilian counterpart, the Republican Security Companies, has tanks, armored vehicles, and light aircraft. The relative strengths of the civil and military police (fig- ures for 1985) are 122,000 and 84,000 respectively, for a pop- ulation of some 52,000,000-a ratio of police to public consid- erably higher than in the United States. However, it should be taken into account that of the French police 15,678 officers are held in the riot reserve of the Republican Security Com- panies and 17,000 of the Gendarmerie are in the Gendarm- erie Mobile while 2,000 are on provost or specialist duties. Allowing also for the number of officers employed in general Napolean, architect of the French police system. intelligence and counterespionage duties, the numbers engaged in "ordinary" police work, it may well be found, are proportionately about the same in France and the United States. France thus cannot be said to possess the massive police resources one associates with a modern police state. Modernization The Gendarmerie Nationale, has for many years, been treated more generously than the civil police in the financial provision made for it by the government. Its buildings, Continued on page 12 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 12 Continued from page 11 equipment, and training are of markedly superior quality. This is in great measure due to the high regard this presti- gious regiment has enjoyed over the centuries and perhaps, to an even greater extent, to the fact that it has so long been under strong ministerial and administrative control. Not so the Police Nationale, the quite recent amalgam of multifari- ous local organizations over which full central control has only been effected for a little more than two decades. In the 1970s, however, the central government began to recognize the responsibilities it incurred by the legislation of 1966 that brought the Police Nationale into being. There began a thorough reorganization of the recruitment and training system. New facilities were opened, old ones were rejuvenated, and the induction and further-training estab- lishments were incorporated into a structure designed to make their contribution more relevant to the work the ser- vice has to do. But in many other respects, the civil police were sadly lacking in much that is essential for success in policing the modern world. This was acknowledged by the minister of interior and decentralization in the National Assembly (the French counterpart of the U.S. House of Representatives) on November 5, 1984. What has been undertaken in the light of the parliamentary debates that ensued is a striking example of what can be done when a central government has the will to do it. August 1985 saw the adoption of a grand project for the modernization of the civil police. At an extra cost of five bil- lion francs over the next five years, the budget for police has been augmented by no less than 50 percent. The money is to be spent, inter alia, on further improvements in training (for In our time "police state" has become synonymous with totalitar- ianism, it has been well accepted that the quality of personnel is the prime consideration); on providing greater mobility by replacing and increasing police automobile fleets; on com- puterization and information systems and communications; on scientific and technical services; on weapon training and weaponry (replacing the present issue of automatics with revolvers-the Manhurin 357 Magnum); on buildings; and on long-overdue improvements in the conditions under which police officers have to work. Such a massive renewal, on the national scale, is possible only when a central government accepts the task as the French government has accepted it. A Police State? I have sketched the evolution of France's police system from the Ancien Regime to the present day-the evolution of an increasingly centralized dual police organization from its beginnings as the public-tranquillity and law-enforcement mechanism of a typical monarchical "police state" through some two centuries of change. Does the existence of such a police system justify deeming France a police state today? In our time, police state has become synonymous with totalitarianism. What are the essential features of a totali- tarian regime? The late Brian Chapman recapitulated them from his (and my) friend Professor Ghita Ionescu's book, The Politics of the European Communist States (London: Weiden- feld and Nicolson, 1968): "a compulsory ideology, a mono- lithic party, a monopoly of communications, a monopoly of all means of armed combat, a centrally directed economy and a terrorist political police." However authoritarian French regimes have been since 1789, even under the First and Second Empires, they have never qualified as totalitarian according to lonescu's list. The answer to the question of whether France is a police state is partly to be divined from a statement made in the Final Report of the Royal Commission on the Police in Brit- ain in 1962. The issue of whether the British police should be nationalized was being considered. It had been contended that if the police were nationalized, "any future Government would have ready to hand the means of establishing a police state." This view the commissioners did not accept. They stated unequivocally that British liberty does not depend on any particular kind of police system but "on the supremacy of Parliament and on the rule of law." They remarked: "In the countries to which the term police state is applied opprobri- ously, police power is controlled by the government, but they are so called not because the police are nationally organized, but because the government acknowledges no accountability to a democratically elected parliament, and the citizen can- not rely on the courts to protect him." That, I think, would be accepted as good doctrine in the United States. The French government is the government of a unitary republic, democratically elected under the written constitu- tion of the Fifth Republic. The police are answerable to the electorate through the President and the three ministers (interior, defense, justice) of the day. The citizen has recourse to the courts for protection. The press has no mercy on official abuses; authors write what they will. Nowhere is politics discussed more fervently and freely. The French do not order things as we order them in the English-speaking world; the differing spirits of Roman law and common law divide us. But in each case the rule of law is there. The French government continues to seek to be well informed on the course of public opinion and the factors affecting the equilibrium of the nation. That it provides itself with the means of preserving and restoring public tranquillity, to an extent in each case which seems strange to people in America and Britain, can only be understood in the light of France's history-a history which has taken a different course from ours, when regimes have lost control and violent uprisings have dictated change. Twice in our own century, in 1934 and 1968, the governments of the Third and Fifth Republics escaped eclipse only because they were able to restore order in the streets of Paris. Let me end where I began, under the trees of the boule- vard Saint-Germain. Putting down my coffee cup, I said to the magistrate who told me that France is a police state, "I wouldn't have thought so." I still feel the same way. BIBLIOGRAPHY (English language only) Chapman, Brian: Police State. London: Pall Mall, 1970. Hayward, Jack: The One and Indivisible French Republic. Holtman, Robert B.: The Napoleonic Revolution. Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1967. Jammes, J.R.J.: Effective Policing: The French Gendarm- erie. Bradford, England: M.C.B. Publications, 1982. Payne, Howard C.: The Police State of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 1851-1860. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966. Stead, Philip John: The Police of France. New York and London: Macmillan, 1983. Williams, Alan: The Police of Paris 1718-1789. Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1979. About the Author Philip John Stead, a former Dean of Academic Studies of the Police Staff College, Bramshill, England, is presently Distin- guished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. His latest book is The Police of Britain, pub- lished in New York and London by Macmillan in 1985. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Islamic criminal legislation is based on the division of crimes into three categories according to the nature of the crime and whether it is committed against the rights of God, the rights of the individual, or both. In the first category are crimes against the divine, called Hudud crimes. These are crimes against God's rights because they harm one of the public interests of society, such as security, property, personal reputation, public religious order, psychological welfare, or the moral conduct of individuals. There are seven categories of Hudud crimes subject to fixed legal penalties set by God. These seven types of crimes are theft, slander, adultery, highway robbery, drinking alcohol, transgression, and apostasy. The penalties for such crimes are mentioned in the Koran or in the tradition of the prophet Mohammed, called the Sunna. Nobody has the authority to increase or reduce the penalties for these crimes, not even the victim. The victim has no authority to pardon or forgive such a crime because they are against the rights of God and the welfare of the society as a whole and the penalty must therefore be applied without any change. The victim must report the crime to the authority concerned. Everyone shares in the obligation to maintain peace in the society. Penalties for the seven types of Hudud crimes are, briefly, as follows: Theft The penalty for theft is to sever the right hand of the thief. A requirement for applying this punishment is that the thief intended to acquire the victim's property without his consent and the property was taken from its place. The thief must also have broken into a safe or other type of money container. Furthermore, the property stolen must be of value in Islam. Amputation of the hand is not applicable for stealing property which is not valued in Islam, such as alcohol or pork. Stolen property should reach the minimum, value which is called Nissab, in order to apply the penalty of amputation. If the value of the stolen property is less than the stated s11(1 I i()Q, IcatI,()IL minimum, the thief should be punished under another category of penalties, called Taazir. The hand should not be severed unless the stolen property is owned by others at the time of the theft. If it is proven that the property is owned by the offender, the penalty will not be imposed. "Islamic" jurists have mentioned several cases in which this penalty is avoided or does not apply, such as when there is doubt about the crime. In that case, if necessary, the thief will be punished under Taazir. Slander The penalty for slander, which in Islam is called Kathf, is flogging eighty times. Slander means falsely accusing someone of adultery or defamation of a married woman. Adultery The penalty for adultery, or Zeno as it is called in Islam, for an unmarried person is flogging a hundred times. The penalty for a married person is also fogging a hundred times as well as stoning. In order for the penalty to be applied, the crime must be witnessed by four eyewitnesses or one or the other of parties must make a confession. Highway Robbery The penalty for highway robbery, or Haraba as it is called in Islam, is execution or crucifixion, the amputation of opposite hands and feet, or exile from the land. These punishments are applied in accordance with the circumstances of each crime. Drinking Alcohol The penalty for drinking alcohol is flogging or whipping eighty times, as agreed upon by the majority of Islamic jurists. Transgression Transgression, which is called Baghi in Islam, means revolting against the legitimate leader, who is referred to in Islam as the Imam. The penalty for this crime is to fight transgressors with armed forces until they surrender or are defeated. If any one of them is killed in the fight, he will be considered as having received his legal penalty. Apostasy The penalty for apostasy, which is called Ridda in Islam, is death. Apostasy means renouncing Islam by word or deed; denying the existence of God, the prophets, and the angels; or renouncing any part of the Koran. Generally, the penalties of Hudud are only intended to deter those who have a tendency to commit crimes or those who are easily tempted to do so. In most cases, such people can only be restrained by severe penalties. God has explicitly forbidden adultery and established a severe penalty for it. However, God has permitted the Muslim man to marry two, three, or four wives on the condition that he treats each of them fairly and equally. To prevent robbery, God has required the establishment of a public treasury of money collected from zakah, which is the religious tax for Muslims, and the proceeds of natural resources to help the disabled, the sick, the old, and the poor. Such rights are not restricted only to Muslims, but apply to Christians and Jews, referred to in Islam as Ahl el-Zemma (people of the book), who live in Muslim countries and in return pay a capital tax to enjoy safety and protection. This tax is called Jizya. Islamic legislation does not sever the hand of the robber who has stolen because he is hungry or in need, because in those cases the blame would be attributed to the injustice of society or the ruler. In such instances, the violator would be punished by one of the Taazir penalties. An example of the effectiveness of the Hudud penalty against robbery is Saudi Arabia's, The Higas, which was one the worst places for violent crimes and robbery. When Saudi Arabia applied Hudud penalties for crimes against property and for highway robbery, and those crimes ceased and criminal gangs were disbanded. Saudi Arabia is now a country in which theft and highway robberies rarely occur. During the last twenty-five years there were only sixteen amputations. This is significant evidence that imprisonment may be an inadequate sanction. The only remedy may to be enforce the sentence of amputation ordained by God in the Koran. We can reach the same conclusion if we analyze the other penalties of Hudud crimes. Continued on page 14 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 14 Continued from page 13 QUESAS AND DIYYA CRIMES Quesas and Diyya crimes are against "the rights of the individual." The word Quesas means equality or equivalence. A person who commits a Quesas crime will be punished in the same way and by the same means that he used in harming other persons. The crimes calling for retribution, Quesas, and compensation, Diyya, involve homicide, bodily injury, or other forms of harm committed against the physical security of the individual. They are labeled as such because the punishment imposed is either a retributive penalty equal to the injury inflicted on the victim or takes the form of pecuniary compensation (ransom) for the victim's injuries. Compensation is imposed only if retribution is not executable or if the victim waives his right to demand it. Similar to crimes of Hudud, offenses of Quesas (retribution) and Diyya (compensation) are also prescribed by the Koran and the Sunna. They differ in that the victim or the political authority of the state may not grant pardon for crimes of Hudud however the victim or his legal guardians, on the other hand, may do so in cases of retribution and ransom. Penalties may not be mitigated, aggravated, or suspended; however, if the victim or his guardians waive the retribution or penalty ransom claim, the applicable verdict is left to the discretion of the court. These crimes are subject to a penalty that safeguards the rights of the individual victim. The penalty takes into consideration the harm and damage which the criminal inflicted upon the victim. Crimes of Quesas and Diyya are: ? Murder ? Voluntary killing ? Intentional physical injury or maiming ? Unintentional physical injury or maiming Quesas is imposed only for crimes of murder and intentional physical injury or maiming. For the other crimes mentioned compensation, Diyya is applied. Islamic legislation gives the victim a lot of liberty in dealing with this type of crime. It makes him a decision maker in assigning the penalty, since he can request its infliction, request a compensation, Diyya, or give a complete pardon. In the event the victim gives pardon, the ruler may still punish the criminal according to Taazir in order to uphold the rights of society. Generally, however, the crimes of Quesas and Diyya are punished by retribution or legal compensation. Crimes of this kind allow only the victim or his representatives the right to prosecute the criminal; the public authority has no power to intervene as it does in Western law. This method of punishment provides for both individual and general deterrence and reparation to the victim or his avenger who terminates the conflict between the criminal and the injured party. Voluntary homicide, with or without premeditation, is normally punished by retribution. However, with the consent of the victim's representatives, it may be punished by legal compensation, Diyya. Assault resulting in unintentional homicide i.e., blows and wounds inflicted voluntarily without the intention of causing death but having actually caused death, is punished by Diyya. The right given to the victim in crimes of intention whether, they are against person or body, is the right of Quesas. This right, as was previously mentioned, is based on equalizing the criminal act and the penalty to be inflicted. If the criminal is aware that his punishment will equal his crime, he should refrain from committing the crime. Although Quesas is the penalty for intentional crimes, the Islamic legislation gives the victim the right to change the penalty from Quesas to Diyya. In this event, the right of penalty is the responsibility of the society and the ruler can impose Taazir penalty upon the criminal in accordance with the crime committed. In unintentional crimes, whether against the person or his body, the right of the victim is compensation, Diyya. Islamic legislation also grants the victim the right to pardon the criminal completely. If the victim uses this right, the ruler or judge can punish the criminal by a Taazir penalty in accordance with the crime he has committed. Taazir Crimes Islamic legality is most flexible in the case of Taazir offenses, which are offenses left undetermined by religious law. In this category, the designation of acts as criminal and the assigning of penalties to be inflicted are left to the discretion of the judge or public authority. Taazir offenses are the necessary complement of Hudud and Quesas. Islamic legislation does not clearly identify the offenses of Taazir. However, it is obvious from various Islamic sources that for offenses of Hudud, the community is expected to penalize. According to El-Mawardi's definition, Taazir means inflicting penalties for errors which are unpunished by Hudud. Theoretically, crimes under this category are those acts which bring injury to the social order as a result of the trouble they cause. The divine notion of Taazir left the exact determination to the community and its representatives in order to allow for changes over time according to the need of the community and to enable their application in any society by any judge at any time or place. God and his messenger called upon all Muslims to lead a proper life and to forbid indecency, and they both trusted the Islamic community to understand this and constantly strive for better implementation. Taazir gives the community an important role by engaging its representatives in the elaboration and application of the principles of Islamic laws. The sovereign or public authority and the individual judge have the flexibility to determine a range of criminal acts and their penalties beyond those which the Divine God has specified. However, those representatives have to maintain the fundamental principles of legality in Islamic Law. Lt. Col Adel Mohammed el Fiky is assigned to the Tourist Police unit in Cairo, Egypt. He completed his undergraduate studies at the Police Academy in 1971 and holds a Ph.D. in comparative criminal law from the University of Ain Shams in Cairo. He attended the Fifth International Conference on Victimology in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, in 1985 and has participated in several regional conferences addressing issues of human rights in Islam. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Victimization in Ireland The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) of Dublin, Ireland, has announced the release of a monograph entitled Crime Victimization in the Republic of Ireland by Richard Breen and David B. Rottman. The paper reports the findings of the 1982/83 ESRI Crime Victimization Survey, the first such comprehensive survey carried out in the Republic of Ireland. Between October 1982, and October 1983, a national sample of 8,902 individuals was asked whether they had been the victim of any one or more of six specified crimes during the preceding twelve months. The report addresses such topics as "The Overall Level of Crime," "Comparisons with Other Countries," and "The Distri- bution of Victimization Risk." For infor- mation write: ESRI, Registered Office, Four (4) Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ire- land. Fear of Crime Report Available Fear of crime is a pressing social problem in many communities, even where the risks of crime are relatively low. Citizens withdraw into their homes, afraid to venture onto the street. Busi- nesses unwilling to invest in neighbor- hoods reduce job prospects for residents. But, perhaps most important, the social structure of neighborhoods suffers: resi- dents become suspicious of their neigh- bors and are unwilling to establish the social networks that are the best defense against crime. In many ways, fear of crime is as important a problem for the police as crime itself. In Baltimore County, since 1981, a special police unit--the Citizen Oriented Police Enforcement unit (COPE)--, has been successful in addressing the problem. A publication describing the COPE experience, Fighting Fear, is available from the Police Executive Research Foundation, 2300 M Street, NW, Suite 910, Washington, D.C. 20037. Prison Construction Faced with a critical shortage of space in jails and prisons for housing the nation's inmates, corrections officials and policymakers have recognized the need for expanding capacity. The National Institute of Justice is gather- ing information about new ways to build jails and prisons at reduced time and construction costs. New Construction Methods for Cor- rectional Facilities is the first in a new series of construction bulletins that addresses the growing problem of jail crowding. This bulletin focuses on the extent of jail and prison crowding and the excessive costs currently required to build new facilities. It provides case studies of how three states--Virginia, California, and Florida--are pioneering ways of dealing with the problem, and it outlines new methods of construction that have significantly reduced the time and cost associated with construction. To order the bulletin New Construc- tion Methods for Correctional Facilities (NCJ 100121) or to learn more about the institute's construction initiatives, write to: Tim Matthews, Corrections Special- ist, National Institute of Justice/Na- tional Criminal Justice Reference Ser- vice, Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20850. Mr. Matthews can be reached by tele- phone (301) 251-5500. International Summaries Available from NCJRS The latest three NCJRS International Summaries (each from a different European country) examine the workload of judges, the influence of computers on crime, and the reestab- lishment of sentence review. International Summaries are Eng- lish-language translations that summa- rize foreign criminal justice publica- tions. National Institute of Justice/NCJRS information specialists select the publications, and professional translators write succinct, four-page summaries that describe some of the most interesting criminal justice devel- opments worldwide. From West Germany... Urban Design and Crime: Explores how architecture and density seem to influ- ence life in a middle-sized city with a low crime rate; offers suggestions for reduc- ing crime still further. NCJ 101042 From Sweden... Computer Tech- nology and Crime: Examines evolving forms of computer crime and methods to reduce vulnerability to those crimes. NCJ 99853 From France... Penal Courts of Europe: Compares the sentence review courts of Portugal, Poland, and West Germany, and discusses the reestab- lishment of this equivalent of the U.S. parole board in France. NCJ 100523 International Summaries cost $4 each and are sent by first-class mail. To order, write to the National Criminal Justice Reference Center information service, Box 6000, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Zhou Enlai Biography The Foreign Languages Press, Beij- ing, has published a new book, Zhou Enlai: A Profile (1986) by Percy Jucheng Fang and Lucy Guinong J. Fang (Paper cover with jacket, 250 pp of text, 38 pp of photos). In English-not a translation-the book was written for Western readers. It offers many telling and human anecdotes and compares Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong-their dif- ferent backgrounds, their lasting part- nership, their particular strengths and achievements, and their respective weaknesses and failures. The book is available from the China International Book Trading Corp. (Guoji Shudian), Box 399, Beijing, China. ABA Announces CJ Magazine A new magazine, Criminal Justice, published by the American Bar Associ P. - tion (ABA), is written for criminal defense lawyers, prosecutors, judges, and others. It carries a wide spectrum of articles -- both practice-oriented, "how to" articles, and those exploring criminal law and justice system problems. It examines criminal law and justice policy developments, and news about the ABA Criminal Justice Section. The magazine carries special columns on ethics, juve- nile delinquency, federal and state leg- islation, and indigent criminal defense. It addresses white collar crime, as well as the handling of more routine or typi- cal criminal cases. For information write: ABA Order Fulfillment, 750 N. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60611. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 AMERICAN CORRECTIONS COPS: Their Lives In RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: by Todd Clear and George F. Cole, Their Own Words A Research Handbook Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, by Mark Baker Edited by Ann Wolbert Burgess Monterey CA. 1986. Pp. 556 New York: Simon and Schuster (1985) New York: Garland Reference Pp. 303 Library of Social Science (Vol. 203) (1985) Pp. 433 This introduc- tory text is organ- ized around the concept of correc- tions as an enter- prise in order to discuss the various aspects and context of corrections. Much more than the study of institutions and programs, corrections is the study of of the people immersed in the correctional enterprise. This book emphasizes the dynamic and human facets of the correctional enterprise, showing that it is a composite of large and small organizations administered by various levels of government seeking to achieve complex and sometimes com- peting goals through professional and nonprofessional employees who are put in contact with one another and in direct authority over offenders. The authors believe that this conceptualization will help readers understand this dynamic yet complex field both now as students and in the future as correctional researchers or practitioners and as members of the polity. Clear and Cole explain that correc- tions is more than a process of adminis- tering the criminal sanction, more than the practices used to punish offenders, and more than just a concern with the operations of jails and prisons. By look- ing at corrections as an enterprise, the authors use the contributions of several disciplines; i.e. history, political science, psychology and law to enhance and develop to theories and practices used in the field. The authors feel that students usu- ally get lost in their attempt to under- stand corrections because the field takes so many forms with such a large number of programs, facilities, and services. This book ties all these different areas together. Clear and Cole have also built into their book many pedagogical elements that not only clarify and reinforce con- cepts but involves the reader and bring the subject alive with biographical sketches of the major figures in correc- tions, boxed materials that include excerpts from the printed media, work perspectives that include correctional practitioners and offenders describing their roles and views, and an excellent glossary. Also each chapter begins with an Outline and concludes with a Sum- mary, Discussion Questions, and Sug- gestions for Further Reading. Ed Belles Mark Baker asks what is it like to be a cop; to risk your life at a job most people wouldn't take for triple the salary? For answers he went beyond crime statistics and sociological studies; beyond the flat cardboard characters of most fiction, behind the stone wall of "press releases police administrators pile between the public and the cops." He wanted to find out why cops become cops and how they do their jobs; whether our image of the police square with their reality; how do they see themselves?; and how do they see us? The author admits that his research is hardly the scientific approach. Statis- tics are not cited and there remain unresolved contradictions. Without try- ing to authenticate the stories told him he trusted his instincts and relied on the belief that the majority of people will not deliberately lie when they have so little at risk. Baker interviewed more than 100 police officers across the country, in big cities and small towns, white and black, female and male, rookie and vet- eran. He interviewed them at every con- ceivable setting. Baker was accepted by his subjects and did a good job at win- ning the confidence of his informants. There are tales of heroism, corrup- tion, and brutality. Here are idealism and selflessness, fear and anxiety, prej- udice and cynicism. The cops that Baker writes about take us into their private and personal worlds to tell us what it feels like to shoot someone or to be shot at. They describe the boredom and tedium of their jobs as well as those unforgettable few moments of horrify- ing, heart-stopping danger. They tell us what they think of themselves, their fel- low officers, criminals and the citizens they protect. The cops speak for them- selves. With blunt honesty and graphic details, the police officers in COPS tell their own stories in their own words. They reveal their fear, their frustrations and their occasional triumphs. Emotional and compelling, COPS gives us a portrait not only of the police but of American society. With the rich variety of police officers speaking in their own voices, it may offer us the truest picture of police life that we will probably ever have. This book repre- sents many per- spectives in the field of sexual violence. The authors have made substantial contributions. The book is divided into five sections, with a total of twenty-five papers. Part I includes two chapters that provide both the historical background and current efforts and products from federal initia- tives in the rape victimology field. Part II, "Victims," includes chapters on victims' needs, the impact of the rape, and the various population groups. This section presents research findings and raises questions for further study on the impact of victimization. Part III, "Family and Legal Response to the Victim," includes chapters on family response to rape and the response of the criminal justice system. It reviews the family impact to a victimized family member and the manner in which the legal systems (criminal justice and civil) have responded over the decade. Part IV is a discussion of "The Aggressor," and presents a wide range of research expertise not only in viewing the aggressor from many perspectives, but also in studying the treatment approaches and new investigative tech- niques for the apprehension of suspects. Part V, "Mass Media, Prevention, and the Future," includes four chapters that emphasize that the goal of most research in rape and sexual assault, whether explicit or implicit, is to stop sexual vio- lence. The book's editor, Dr. Ann Wolbert Burgess says that "the first decade of serious research in the field of rape vic- timology has provided some initial insights as to the victims, the aggressor and the nature and extent of the crime of rape and sexual assault within a cul- tural context. As we move toward the twenty-first century, one goal is to reduce the number of victims in an appreciable way. I hope that some of the research findings in this volume will assist in that goal." James Anglin Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 POLICE LEADERSHIP IN BREAKING WITH MOSCOW TERRORISM: How The West Can AMERICA: By Arkady Sheuehenko, New York: Win Crisis and Opportunity Knopf; (1985) Pp. 378 Alfred A Edited By Benjamin Netanyahu Edited by William A. Geller . (Indexed) Farrar, Straus and Giroux New York; Praeger (American Bar New York 1986 Pp. 254 Foundation), 1986, Pp 520. Police Leader- ship in America: Crisis and Oppor- tunity should not be overlooked. Every once in awhile a book of readings comes along which accomplishes its mission, to serve as In the Foreward, Dr. Shevchenko says, "(Dt is not my purpose in this memoir to instill feelings of hostility in Americans toward the Soviet EAM The author, a Deputy Ambassa- dor, and Israel's permanent repre- sentative to the United Nations, is no stranger to ter- rorism. He served as an officer in the elite Special Forces ^ a forum for argumentation and debate, and present the diversity of views on a particular subject. William Geller, the editor of this lengthy, but informative, treatise, brings together under one cover a veri- table who's who in law enforcement. The list of writers include practitioners, aca- demics, researchers, and critics. Indeed, the reader not familiar with at least 90 percent of the authors does not know much about the contemporary issues facing law enforcement. The book consists of eight parts, ranging from the chief as policymaker to the issue of professionalism. In between one wades into some fascinating essays on such subjects as the media, police discipline, the law and the lawyers, unions, crime control, and the chief and the community. It was impossible for this reviewer to pick out a "favorite" piece, for the range of material is fascinating. In some measure, it may be argued that many of the writers represent the "new school" of police management, as characterized by an interest in education, research, and professionalism. But, this new school is now over twenty years old, and in Police Leadership we find some of the pioneers as well as the current advocates. There are working chiefs, like Al Andrews, Lee Brown, Tony Bouza, Joe McNamara, George Napper, to name a few, as well as former practitioners like Patrick Mur- phy, Wayne Kerstetter, and Hubert Williams. For the police professional the book is mandatory, and any one interested in the world of policing shouldn't be with- out it. R. Hurley plicate in any way Shevch&ft efforts to promote peace. The world has enough madmen trying to do that. What I want is to share with the reader my experiences under the Soviet system; to tell the truth about it as I lived it; to inform the public of Soviet designs, and to warn of the dangers they present to the world. In so doing I hope also, in however small a way, to help the Soviet people eventually find their way to lib- erty." Breaking With Moscow is an extraordinary story of the inner work- ings of the Kremlin. The author is the highest ranking Soviet official ever to defect from the USSR (at the time he defected, he was Under Secretary Gen- eral of the United Nations, and former adviser to Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko). In April 1978 Arkady Shevchenko sought refuge in the United States, thus renouncing what had been a meteoric career in the foreign service of the Soviet Union. He tells of his inner turmoil which began years before his defection, doubts about the communist system that belied his reputation as a Soviet hard- liner and an ardent defender of his country's foreign policy. He also divulges how, for some years after he approached U.S. officials about asylum, he served as a source of information, as a "reluctant spy" (this is the title of the book's first chapter), transmitting the contents of Soviet diplomatic communications to American intelligence agencies. Shevchenko describes in absorbing detail the inner workings of the top lev- els of the Soviet regime. He offers com- pelling portraits of Gromyko, Dobrynin, Krushchev and Chernenko and other Soviet party leaders; accounts of ruth- less and malevolent officials of the KGB: a first-hand account of what takes place inside the Soviet diplomatic service and Coming.... Police Training in Shanghai unit in Israel, and lost. a brother, Lt. Col. Jonathan Netanyahu, in the raid on Entebbe to rescue hostages in 1976. The book is a compendium of essays and short "think" pieces on the subject of terrorism. If there is a central theme to the book it is that terrorism is a form of warfare pitting the "the forces of civilization and the forces of barbarism." It is a book written for a general audience, although there are numerous articles which will be of interest to the student of terrorism. Of particular interest are sections on "Terrorism and the Islamic World." "The International Network," and "The Legal Foundations for the War Against Terro- rism." The section on the media and terro- rism is not very new, especially given the events of the past year in which the issue has become a major topic of debate. Of more interest is the account of a sym- posium which appears as an appendix, largely because it offers a dialogue among the media and others, many of whom are contributers to the book, which is illustrative of the issues in this area. One of the best articles in the book is the one by Netanyahu on the subject of terrorists as freedom fighters; he aims directly at those who favor mediation and negotiation with known terrorists, be they countries or individuals. His view stresses courage and determination as a means of stopping terrorism. "For the Terrorist, there can be no hiding places." he notes. In the complexities of today's world much of the argument will be viewed as simplistic, but there is also the advan- tage of having placed on the table a position which can be subject to debate, criticism, and hopefully the development of rational policy. The book falls far short of being an operational plan for the defeat of terrorism, which its title implies, but it makes a significant con- tribution to helping understand a phe- nomenon which will be with us for some time to come. Dick Ward Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Page 18 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 M80:111 Hong Kong Brew You can eat well in Hong Kong, anything from multi-course Chi- nese banquets served in replicas of imperial palaces to the elegant veal at the New World Hotel's Promenade Restaurant. But when the food, the decor, and the calories become overwhelming, head for a pitcher of beer and a dish of Sin- gapore fried noodles at the White Stag. The White Stag is a Chinese pub. Dark and wonderfully cool on even the hottest August afternoon, it offers a moment of quiet and a meal or snack at almost any hour. Located near Kowloon Marco Polo Hotel and across from the Ocean Terminal shopping complex, it is almost hidden in the welter of small shops and craftsmen's premises that surround it. Once past the entrance, with its crude but appealing carved stag, you can decide whether to sit at the bar or in one of the booths lin- ing the wall. The White Stag's main claim to fame (such fame as it has) is an impressive array of beer, repre- senting most corners of the world. Try a San Miguel from the Philip- pines (much better than the San Miguel brewed anywhere else) or a full-bodied dark beer from Ger- many. Or, if you are hot and thirsty after a day of shopping, sightseeing, or international wheeling and dealing, order the draft beer that comes in tall cool pitchers. When you are ready to eat, you will be brought a short menu. Order the Singapore fried noodles. The White Stag doesn't serve desserts, but don't let that worry you. A perfectly acceptable ice cream cone can be picked up at the Seven-Eleven shop next door. D.B. PERF OFFERS MGT. INSTITUTE The Police Executive Research Forum has begun accepting appli- cations for the sixth Senior Man- agement Institute for Police. The Institute is designed to provide senior police managers with the type of education and training available at the nation's best graduate-level business and public administration schools using a faculty from the most prestigious of these schools. "We in police management have much to learn from the suc- cessful practices of the public and private sector administrator and this program makes available ele- ments of the best management education and training currently offered in these fields," said Neil Behan, Forum President and Chief of Baltimore County (MD) Police Department. "The Senior Management Institute for Police is a demanding three-week course taught by fac- ulty predominantly from Harvard University", said Peter White, the Forum's Acting Executive Direc- tor. "The success of the program over the last four years and the benefits it provided to both the participants and their depart- ments has convinced us that the program should be continued. Its business orientation is unique to police management training and fills an important void." Tuition for the three-week course is $3,000, which covers room and board, and all course materials. Transportation and incidental expenses must be borned by the participant or the agency. To apply, send for a pro- gram brochure and an a explana- tion of the application process. For more information, contact: John R. Stedman, Police Executive Research Forum; 2300 M Street, N.W., Suite 910; Washington, DC 20037, (202) 466-7820. MESSINA Police practitioners from coun- tries all over the globe will gather in Messina, Sicily, and Rome from September 30 to October 12, 1986. The theme of the program will be "Crime Prevention: National and International Aspects." The IX International Course for senior police officials is sponsored Carabinieri by the Italian government under the auspices of the International Centre of Sociological, Penal, and Penitentiary Research and Stud- ies. Attendance in by invitation. For information in the U.S., con- tact Denise Nykiel, (312) 996-9267. Continued on page 19 WORLDLY ADVICE CJ International is a bimonthly newsletter for the professional who has an interest in keeping up with world events in law enforce- ment. It's also a "lifestyle" publication which provides tips on travel, dining, books, and personal information geared to the practitioner. CJI keeps you up-to-date on people and organiza- tions operating on the international scene. For a free copy write to CJ International, 1333 South Wabash Ave., Box 55, Chicago, IL, 60605. We'll keep you in touch with the world. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Continued from page 18 Int'l Policewomen's Group Calls for Papers The International Conference of Police Women will be held November 2-7, 1986 in Ramat- Gan, Israel. Participants will assess the achievements of women in law enforcement and discuss directions for the future. Individuals interested in pre- senting a paper should send an abstract to Deputy Commander Meir Kaplan, Office of the Chief Scientist, Ministry of Police, International Conference of Police Women, Box 394, Tev Aviv 61003, Israel. APPA to Meet in Baltimore The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) will be hosting its Eleventh Annual Con- ference at the Omni International Hotel in Baltimore, Maryland, from Sunday, August 3, through Wednesday, August 6, 1986. The conference will offer div- erse training opportunities for probation and parole professionals and support staff. The conference will interest criminal justice pro- fessionals at all levels, not only practitioners in parole and proba- tion. For information call Don Atkinson (301) 764-4279. APCO Meeting in Milwaukee The world's largest gathering of public safety communications per- sonnel will take place August 18-21, 1986, in Milwaukee, Wis- consin when the Associated Pub- lic-Safety Communications Offi- cers has its Annual National Conference. Communications per- sonnel from police and fire depart- ments will be on hand for semi- nars, workshops, dispatcher training, technician testing, and certification. More than 220 exhibit booths will display the lat- est technology available for com- munications. For more informa- tion on the National Conference, contact: APCO National Office, P.O. Box 669, New Smyrna Beach, Florida 32070. Telephone (904) 427-3461. A joint conference on Interna- tional Terrorism and Organized Crime will be offered by the Office of International Criminal Justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and by the International Association for the Study of Organized Crime (IASOC). The six-day course will run from August 24 to August 30, 1986, in Chicago. A three-day program on inter- national terrorism will precede a three-day meeting on the subject of organized crime. Participants are invited to attend both meetings or one of the individual meetings. The conference on international terrorism will bring together practitioners, researchers, and educators who have an interest in the practical aspects of coping with international and domestic terro- rism. International speakers and course leaders will provide a div- erse set of experiences in dealing with various terrorist activities. The International Association for the Study of Organized Crime will bring together prominent researchers and law enforcement officials from the United States and Europe in a discussion of the final report of the President's Commission on Organized Crime. i For further information con- tact: Denise Nykiel, University of Illinois at Chicago (m/c 108), 715 S. Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612. Telephone: (312) 996-9267. The American Correctional Association will hold its 116th Congress of Correction August 10-14, 1986, in Las Vegas at the Las Vegas Hilton. A session on "The International Profile: Understanding Criminal Behav- ior" will be offered. Contact: Bar- bara Dodson, ACA, 4321 Hartwick Road., Suite L-208, College Park, Maryland 20740. Telephone (301) 699-7600. Police Planners Meeting in Washington The National Association of Police Planners (APPRO) Annual Conference will be held at the Everett Pacific Hotel, Everett, Washington, September 8-12, 1986. Co-hosting the event will be the Everett Police Department and the Pacific Northwest Chapter of APPRO. The 1986 theme is "Planning for Excellence in Policing." The purpose of the conference is to improve planning resources and communication and to provide a continuing forum for the exchange of strategies, programs, and projects. Conference costs are $195 for members, $215 for nonmem- bers, and include three luncheons, a banquet, and a salmon barbecue. For information contact: Lt. Dan Anderson (205) 259-8831. IACP The ninety-third Annual Con- ference of the International Asso- ciation of Chiefs of Police (IACP) will be held in Nashville, Tennes- see October 4-9, 1986. The tenta- tive conference schedule includes: general assemblies, committee meetings, annual business meet- ings, election of officers, educa- tional programs, a law enforce- ment exhibition, the annual banquet. The conference will feature exhibits, roundtable exchanges, and workshops. For registration and further information, contact Barbara Rothburn (301) 948-0922, IACP Headquarters, Thirteen (13) Firstfield Road, P.O. Box 6010 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878. Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 t i INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: THE DOMESTIC RESPONSE brings together a group of experts who represent the worlds of the practitioner, the researcher, the aca- demic, and the policymaker. The three-day symposium will provide an overview of international terrorism and its impact or potential impact on a country. By design, the symposium is broadly based, representing the first in a series of policy-making conferences aimed at sen- ior level practitioners and researchers who are facing these problems on a daily basis. It will be of value to senior govern- ment officials, elected officials, city man- agers, police and justice officials, and researchers who are in need of informa- tion from experts. The threat of terrorism has never been greater, and most officials are not familiar with the policy issues, the practical day- to-day decision making problems during an event, or the capabilities available to deal with a serious threat. The speakers selected to participate have been drawn from around the world, and represent people who are knowledge- able about the problems associated with the threat of or the impact of terrorism. Participants will receive printed material prior to the conference, and pro- ceedings will be published. The three-day symposium, which begins on Sunday evening, August 24, 1986, and ends at noon on Wednesday, August 27, 1986, is being offered in conjunction with a conference on organized crime -running from Wednesday afternoon, August 27, through Saturday, August 29. Persons wishing to attend both meetings will be eligible for a reduced fee. ORGANIZED CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES: A STATUS REPORT is a major conference bringing together experts from throughout the country to discuss the present and future of organized crime in the United States. Participants will review the work of the President's Commission on Organized Crime, and members of the Commission will discuss their findings. The conference will involve plenary sessions on major issues raised by the Commission as well as individual sessions on criminal organizations. The business of organized crime (gambling, drugs, extor- tion, labor and business racketeering) will be viewed from the perspective of investi- gating and prosecuting organized crime. This will include issues involving electric surveillance, use of informants, policy and legislation, and the RICO statute. There will also be a general discussion on the role of the media in the control of organized crime with journalists from throughout the United States. Formal and informal gatherings will provide participants with opportunities to interact and dialogue with others inter- ested in the field of organized crime. Conferences are being sponsored in part by the: Center for Research in Law and Justice The University of Illinois at Chicago The Chicago Police Department International Association for the Study of Organized Crime St. Xavier College International Centre for Sociological, Penal and Penitentiary Research & Studies Messina, Italy and CJ International For reservations or other information call Harold Smith or Denise Nykiel at (312) 996-9267 Among those who will participate in this unique conference are: Gen. Ahmed Galal Ezeldin Egypt's foremost expert on international terrorism Andres Bossard Former Secretaire General De I.O.I.P.C. INTERPOL Simon Crawshaw Deputy Assistant Commissioner in charge of the anti-terrorism squad Metropolitan Police, London Dr. Aldo Grassi Scientific Coordinator International Centre for Sociological, Penal, and Penitentiary Research & Studies, Messina, Italy James K. Stewart Director National Institute of Justice William E. Dyson Federal Bureau of Investigation Joseph F. King Supervisory Special Agent U.S. Customs Service Superintendent Fred Rice Chicago Police Department Deputy Superintendent Matt Rodriguez Chicago Police Department Dr. Abelfotoh H. Salama Assistant Minister of the Interior and Chairman of the Police Center Egypt Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 e Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9 THE UNIVERSITY dLll`IOIS CroCAGO Office of the Vice Chancellor for Administration (M/C 108) 715 South Wood Street Chicago, Illinois 60612 (312) 996-3200 November 14, 1986 George V. Lauder Director, Public Affairs Office Central Intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505 With reference to your letter of 2 September, 1986 concerning an error in CJ International in the identification of Mr. John McMahon, I am enclosing two copies of a recent issue of CJ International which includes a correction. I express our regrets that the error occurred, and thank you for bringing it to our attention. Richard H. Ward Editor CJ International RHW/wb Approved For Release 2011/03/16: CIA-RDP91-00587R000100710024-9