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August 27, 1977
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t# pla6 ed R ~e~as~ 1/08/01: CIA-RDP91nnan 5001 NEFISDAY E 444,407 344,627 AUG 2 71917 The listing in the current Manhattan tele- phone book seems innocuous enough: "Society foie the Investigation of-Human Ecology Inc.;-71 56. Austin St.,. Forest. Hills, BO 8-4500." The,,.?society, knowledgeable congressional sources now say,: was one of the Central Intelli Bence' Ageney's, major "fronts" that funneled mil-. lions,of dollars to university'scientists for mind- '_ control.'experiments, some. on unknowing sub- jects, during the .1950s and 1960s. Operating out of apartment 207 in a four-sto- ry walkup near the West Side Tennis Club, the society was one of two or three top CIA conduits directing behavior-control and. brainwashing re- search '.using LSD and other drugs under the -j code name MK-ULTRA, the sources said. The -'mind-control.l experiments and. the CIA. cover agencies that ran them are now the subject of a. congressional investigation,' as well as,the con-, cern,of a number of the nation's most prestigious i I . universities such as Harvard, Columbia, Prince-* ton, i4IIT, Stanford, Ohio State,:-Pennsylvania;' Penn.:: State, : Maryland.-,- Georgetown, George Washington and Rutgers,:. where the CIA -has said some of -the research'was: conducted.. name- supposedly. was - disbanded -:in -1965, =-the..sourcess-said, after changing its name to the Hu -man Ecology Fund and moving first to Manhat- tan and=then?.ta Nashingtan~ -Butwhy does an organization that is-,no long er supposed to exist have a current listing in the white-pages of the Manhattan directory? That's a mystery. to everybody including some of the- people formerly -associated;: with" the society 'It"'comes- as a great shock, I didn't., know that, said Dr : =LawrenceB. `Hinkle Jr..-of New Canaan, Conn., who said last night that he and'; Center had' helped to found the society "in 1953- officials of the federal government" to study le In an interview yesterday;Hinkle said that" toward: the end of the Korean. War,. the-late CU `director'Allen W._Oulles,had become-concerned; that' the_..Chinese and Russians ' had :discovered: highly-developed brainwashing techniques:: Dul les asked a friend at Cornell,' the late Dr. Harold:` "No drug experiments were, everdone at Cor- nell or New York Hospital, Hinkle said. "We had no pant in the whole drug business. Dr. III Wolff, . who died ; in 1962, was the senior man. .The society was. a corporation organized at the request of Mr- Dulles and his people in order to protect their. identity. The CLA, started it. This corporation belonged to the federal government ;from the very -beginning. Harold Wolff and I al- . , ready had a- human. ecology program at New, .York Hospital, and we were going to get this ex- tra money. So I told him why not have a Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology? That is why it got its name. If I had known that Rachel Carson was going to write 'Silent Spring' [which popularized the. word ecology and triggered the environmental movement] I"would have thought of a different term-" In 1956, Hinkle said-, he and = his colleagues finished their brainwashing stud-- ies and they were. published in the Congressional Record. "As far as we were concerned our job was done.". Then; Hinkle said, an Air Force colo- nel, James L. Monroe, "came aboard as executive director about the. time of the Hungarian Revo- lution. When the proposal was made to send Jim Monroe up and organize this thing in a different way, there was very serious objection on our part at .Cornell because it cast all sorts of doubts on very serious- research,- It -was suggested to. us-- .,that -it would: be a desirable 'thing if this mecha-. nism that had been set up [the society]'would be used to mobilize other scientific resources in sup-. ,-port of the .CIA. %At'this point I and, others de- murred.: These' people were involved .in sorts of things, so .we "just quietly'.. resigned: all ,`Now, Harold Wolff had a commitment to this, a' [Dulles],. and be remained:' They moved to Forest Hills, and I remember vis icing there,, and:: T-knewJim Monroe and these One of the people he remembers secing-there- is Estelle Brodsky, who. still lives in an apart- '-, merit at-.71-50 Austin St. in Forest-Hills close to - , where.-. the 'society -was located at 71=58. -The :;buildings are owned by the same company, ac cording to the superintendent-of both' buildings. _~''I was about 18 at the time,'-' Mrs; Brodsky said,' "and at $75:;,a week, who were, they;gong, to g DP91-00901 R00050011'0028-4 assort th es; inclunkie; to aoiiduct researci~: on-b Awashing Approved For Release 2001/08/01 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500110028-4 THE WASHINGTON STAR (GREEN LINE) 24 August 1977 0.11! P11 6"T., . Reception, the b j e is . e the and Spies, Sun and. urge Betty Beale At. Alejandro Orfila's reception. last evening, a former high CIA official was ex- plaining why the agency got involved in mind-control tests on human beings. When American prisoners in Korea and captured agents in Russia made anti-U.S. statements, he said, Allen Dulles, then CIA director, "told the boys to go and find out how human beings could be manipulated or forced to confess to things they hadn't done. Were they being hypnotized, drugged or-~ what? What training could we give to pro- tect our men against such experimenting? "As far as I know, nobody has turned up in any of these cases yet who Was not briefed fully on the consequences and { voluntarily accepted participation," he sai. Approved For Release 2001/08/01 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500110028-4 Approved For Release 2001/08/01 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500110028-4 WASHINGTON POST hi By Bill Richards and John Jacobs SS's;hi!u: oa Pont Stab writers The Central Intelligence Agency used the University of Maryland and George Washington University for some of its top secret IIKUL- TRA experiments in behavior con- trol in the 1950s and 1900s, tlic agency has informed both univer?? sities. The CIA also officially informed Georgetown University that it had sheltered some of the MKULTRA ex- periments. Georgetown's part in the project had been previously reported but not officially confirmed. The three local universities were among 80 private and public institu- tions told in the past few days they had played parts-some wittingly, some not-in the IIKULTR 1 tests. In a related development, the CIA yesterday made public under the Freedom of Information Act an addi- tional 1,760 pages of documents per- taining to MIKULTRA behavior con- trol experiments. These documents show that many high-ranidng agency officials knew and approved at least the Georgetown part of- the mind control program, in- cluding then-CIA Director Allen Dulles and senior aides Richard M. Bissell Jr., C. P. Cabell, Lyman Kirk- patrick, Lawrence Houston and Rich- ard Heltns. helms later became CIA director. The documents show that anion,' things tested at Georgetown were sub-. stances to promote "Illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited .in public," and substances to promote and prevent "the intoxicating effect of alcohol." Another reference in the documents The agency was also interested in "a knockout pill which can surrepti- tiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol," to pro- vide a "maximum of amnesia,". and a substance, also to be administered surreptitiously, that would make it "Impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatsoever." The documents also referred to tests of a "knockout" drug on termi- nally ill cancer patients at George- town. The documents say the uni\"crsity administration was to be '*totally un- witting" of CIA sponsorship of the as- sorted mind control experiments. A CIA spokesman said yesterday that the agency had located all but sb: of the 80 institutions and companies involved in MKULTRA. "The -others no longer exist," said the spokesman, who declined to give the names of any of the institutions or firms involved. None of the three Washington-area! universities notified could theniselvesl supply details of the types of i\IKUL- TI:A experiments in which they wereI involved. However, spokesmen for all' three said they. would take advantage of a CIA offer to supply - dditional de- tails on .request. In its letter to University of Mary- land President WiLon' H.- Elkins; which arrived ' last Friday, the CIA. said: "While we recognize this may be unwelcome news we believe we have an obligation to advise you of this fact' [MKULTRA participation] so that you may initiate such action as you deem necessary- to protect the interests of -z-our university." :-1n thelet.ters of notification, the C1A noted that in some cases the' . 'KULTRA institutions were aware of reached y spokesma dent, the at the sch of the uri for coma' The do say one research and them rogation ; It has the CIA toward a cal wing use for i was funn Fund fo- front nar chick-ter, thologist taught at A Gco; terday ti found no the CIA ducted t1 has beer chickter, tact him. 18 August 1977 STATINTL poenaecl to .e~uQ' OciL. / "U: VI ' a Senate subcommittee investigating the MKULTRA program. A long description of the proposed Georgetown facility suggested that - "human patients - and voluatcers" would be available for experimental purposes. It said the agency could "recruit new scientific -personnel" at the medical center, because agents t corking under cover there v,ould-be' in daily contact with "tile' graduate school." The identity of the school was censored in the documents. To further its interest in producing stress throu.h chemical means, the CIA also proposed studying chemical agents on "advanced cancer patients." These means included a "K" or knock. out drug, which one memo-writer de- scribed as a "good Mickey Finn." their participation in the program and Another MK-ULTRA project sought had been while the experiments were to understand "toxic delirium, uremic .taking place.- coma and cerebral toxicity from poi- Elkins, who' has headed itilaryland soning." Toward that "end, chemical since 1954, declined to comment yes- .compounds were acln:inistered to can- terday on whether he 'knew of the; ter. patients and to at least four diabe- is to "sttbstanecs which will prorluca ..MKULTRA experiments. Lloyd H: El-; tic patients, with plans for more tests 'pure' euphoria with no subsequent let- liott, who has headed George Wash- 1, to "study the effect on mental font- clown,' a type of permanent high. ngton since 1965 ? could not be. Approved For Release 2001/08/01 : CIA-RUP91=0090 00 -4 STATINTL i'2PqFO10'Iy ()ffP$PP'nN*'300050 U7 A a ,~ 7 7 ASHINGTON There seemed to be nothing the Central intelligence, Agency drugs,. hypnosis, mental telepathy, depriva -: lights. The agency even consulted magicians and employed ; ostitutesii- But_ nothing gave. the agency the formula it sought for creating its own Manchurian candidate. And. last week, under attack again -for having violated ethical norms in their psychological experiments," agency` officals maintained that "they'were through tampering with the human mind. They hastened to add, however, that they' had not aban- doned the aspect of their 25-year exploration 'into the world of psychiatry that was perhaps the most benign and may have been the only blossom in a rank garden:. The construc= tion of elaborate personality profiles of employees in sensi- tive jobs, potential. agents and international military and political figures. "The work we're doing iiow does not involve attempts' to modify behavior,",Admiral Stansfield Turner, the director of the agency, told a Senate hearing last week. "It involves studying it." He said that "the kind of thing we're interested in is what will motivate a man to become an agent of the United States. is a very difficult' situation: We have to be familiar with the attitudes and responses of people we approach to become our spies." Intelligence 'officials call these psychological studies "personality assessment." Potential spies are indeed as- sessed, but the sweep of_ the program is much greater than the admiral suggested. The agency has developed "personality assessments" of Fidel Castro and the late Che Guevara, Mao Tse-tung and his successors, the leaders of the Kremlin -and the chiefs of state of most of the nations regarded as allies of the United States. "You do it on friends and enemies alike," said one intelligence specialist, "because you can never know when someone's going to switch." When the President of the United States goes to meetings abroad, he is armed with assessments of the officials he will confront, as were members of the United States negoti- ating team at the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty talks. At times the assessment program has overstepped the bounds of the agency's charter, which forbids operations directed against Americans inside the United States. The agency ordered a personality study of Daniel Ellsberg when he was awaiting trial for allegedly having given the Penta- gon Papers to The New York Times. An assessment was done also of Mr. Ellsberg's lawyer, Leonard Boudin. E. How- ard Hunt, a former intelligence agent who was jailed for `. A personality assessment Is simply a guide to an indi- vidual's behavior. It describes his weaknesses and strengths, :predicts" actions and reactions,- and suggests how he can be influenced. The psychologist preparing an assessment for the agency asks: What are the person's principles? His habits? Is he a drinker, a woman-chaser, a reader, a jogger, " a hockey fan, a chess player, a chain-smoker, a'dog lover, a Sunday morning gardener? Who are his friends?.Where is he from? Who was his father? Usually the psychologist is unable to interview the subject.,So he works with photographs and reports provided by agents and other Government employees and informants, ...published materials, and official records. Whenever possible the psychologist likes to have a tape-recording of his sub- ject's voice to analyze. Personality assessment in one form or another is as old as the intelligence profession. But it received increased emphasis in the early _1950's from Allen W. Dulles, then the director of the agency..Mr. Dulles had sought neurologi- cal treatment for his son, who had been . seriously injured in Korea. He went "to see Dr. Harold G. Wolfe, a New York neurologist.- Mr. Dulles became interested in research Dr. Wolfe was 'doing on indoctrination by the Chinese of American pilots captured during the Korean War. Before long, Dr. Wolfe, at the behest of the agency, had set up the Society" for the Investigation of Human Ecology at the Cornell Medical Center in New York. The society became ,an important mechanism for funding a number of agency studies manipulating human behavior. } The Department of Sociology at Rutgers University was 1 paid to conduct a study of Hungarian refugees. Dr. D. Ewen Cameron of McGill University in Montreal got a grant to explore "the effects of repeated verbal signals upon human behavior." There was an LSD experiment conducted by a team of social and medical scientists at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center in Boston. The Educational Testing Service of Princeton, N.J., which conducts the National Col- lege Board and Graduate Record Examinations, received funds to investigate the relationship between two broad theories of personality. When the society was disbanded in 1965, Col. James L. Monroe, a psychologist who had been a senior intelligence official, and several others joined another agency-backed organization called "Psychological Assessments Inc." After Psychological Assessments closed its doors a few years ago, Colonel Monroe moved to Texas and set up a firm that prepared studies for business and industry. The colonel said recently that he hoped the agency had benefited from some of his research. "If they're going to make judgments about foreign powers," he said, "thr:y've got to know about how people function." Joseph B. Treaster is a reporter-for The New York Times. his part in the Watergate break-in, burglarized the files S f,,-,j i 4aC4L ZvvcA-**1 csi of Mr. Ellsberg's psychiatrist to get material for the assess- C~"Iy, U I FS' 'J ~+4 1 U. V y -vt s U N 901 100 'F'F`b~413~?"4~ Z`~s'F%~j Sala vc e Approved For Release 2001/08/04-s 1?~ It-A, Ci*4(_aY z.,>zuJ~~.s4- e,~.. '` 2 1 ` J -I.r: L'i_*" J1 1 VL11\ 111;{iJ 7 A' '~or Release 2001/08101~v. 4RmPI)-00901ROOMORI' 28-4 PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS USED IN C1LL EFPORT TO CONTROL BEHAVIOR 25-YEAR, $25 MILLION PROGRAM: Ne'rr.-'Information'::About Funding and { Operatians ,:Disclosed by oc iniprl s an'd:in etview investigative reporting.; teaht consist= ing of John M:. Crawdson, Nicholas M::` Horrock,. Boyce Rensberger, Jo Thomas and Joseph B. Treastei It was written:- b Mr. I'-'orrock. ? .1 - r1a to The New York Tlmei WASHI GTON, : Aug..:1 Several prominent medical .research. institutions and Government hospitals in the United States and Canada were involved in a secret, 25-year, $25-million effort by the .Central Intelligence Agency to learn how to control the human.mind. The existence-of-the agency's lnvestiga- jtions into behavior? and thought control was- previously known., But through acr tens to 2,000 C.LA. documents and -wide- rariging interviews; a group of New York Times reporters-has developed new infor- lmation''about the;:' cost of the program,: the range of its penetration into presti ous research centers; :the identities of some lnst4Eutions,1 the secret funding con- about ,the- program expressed by some; Z' ciantists. r The original research`.was spurred by the conviction-later: proved unfounded -that:: the Russiartv'and Chinese had-de- veloped brainwashing .and mind-control devices. But the C.I.A: quickly- turned to seeking an offensive use for behavior con- trol..;it sought to. crack the mental de- fenses of enemy agents-to be able to program them and its own operatives to ainst their mission even a n t g a y, carry ou will and "against such- fundamental laws of nature as self-preservation." It: channe vale medica of these, th Medical Re: is still acti the Investig; was disbar, in : one repc Foundation; Bowers, din there was I conduit for I The C.Li under the ; other..Govee, cess to mill control, exi By the eat uncoinforta' 1957"::repor noted`- that added 'diffit ices'--and fi experiment considered' and in som gal,",the re .The agen that the ri contracted Moreove have fount and the 44 that' -it ha( tions using What ei vievgs wit) gene offi, ethers wat sional mis medical re to assembi governor en apparently inns itution., ated;= Among ducted by and-:the ii c7Dr. Ct now; assoc center in I perirlients the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta- and the Bordentown Reformatory in New Jer- sey between 1955 and 1964. He was paid $25,000 a year through the Geschikter Foundation, he said in a telephoned inter` view 41The Geschikter Foundation'contribut ed t'o the construction of a .$3 million building at Georgetown University Medi cal School iii Washington, D.C. Newly di covered records indicate that the,- C.LA wanted to "establish at an appropri ate university" a forensic. medicine depart- ment ' so the project,"and allied agency needs could thus be served with complete received that only: a fragmentary picture emerged of the extent to which the agen- ny was engaged 'in behavior cant.rol re- t; weeks ago that seven cases of records containing some 5,000 pages of docu- meets pertaining to these projects had. been' discovered in the agency's archives-. newly discovered records before a joint hearing of the Senate Select Committee control, le ai perarmance, ana apprupn-; a n e and the Senate Subcom- Approved For Release ~@0$ sp R?r1GOO9Ol I b05 E i Q alt1, on Wednesday. He is said - that' the university was reviewing expected to disclose that the C.I.A. paid its records on the construction but,thatl for tests of a "knockout" drug on unwit- there i was no indication the, money had i ling terminal cancer patients. elease 2001108101r fyI I Df KOgq@x'4 00050011 G ~ Pi.&G6 / C~ 2 Au gl.t:n t 1977 Mind-Control Studies Had 2 of Min dsze ty 8a.ehl to The New York Tlrrtei WASHINGTON, Aug. 1-In the summer of 1977, it may be difficult for Americans to comprehend the frame of mind of the men who nearly 30 years earlier started the Central. Intelligence Agency's effort to manipulate human behavior. ,As some of the former high-ranking C.I.A. men recall-now, they had looked into the vacant eyes of Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty at his treason trial in Buda- pest in 1949 and had been horrified. They had been convinced that his con- 'fession had been wrung from him while he was either under the influence of some mysterious mind-bending drug or that he was standing before the dock in a post- hypnotic trance. The sight touched off memories of earlier "show trials'' in the Soviet Union. The C.I.A. leaders were certain the Communists had. embarked on a cam- paign to control men's minds and they were determined to find a defense, setting out in earnest the next year---190--with Project Bluebird, which evolved into Project Artichoke, then became MK- ULTRA-MK-DELTA. With each code name change, they broadened their sweep, until there remained virtually no avenue of human behavior control they were not exploring. Fears Seemingly Confirmed director, Allen W. Dulles, and a handful of operatives and high-ranking aides. "Precautions must be taken," one agen- cy official wrote in an internal memo,"- not only to protect the operation from exposure: to enemy forces, but. also to, conceal these activities from the Ameri- can public in general," adding that this information "would have serious repe.r- cessions in political and diplomatic cir- a v free: of "tec equi a p; _?r ties and would be detrimental to the ac- jacket," they tried out sinsli com lishment [of the a enc 's] i i " a i u a l In attempts to develop ways to admin- i ter i t^a' and ;Hind-ait.ri drug: ur- i rptitiousi through clothi:'g as thic;, as p g y m ss on. I pr y g ns nd pencil- ike injectors. Fragmentary accounts of the C.I.A.'s efforts to control men's minds have been published in the past. But a far more comprehensive. picture has emerged from a study of more than 2,000 pages of fresh- ly released agency documents and an in- vestigation bya_team of New York Times reporters. _ The behavior control, undertaken by amen who presumably saw themselves as sincere and patriotic, takes on in retro- spect the appearance of a bizarre grope into the world of science fiction. The C.I.A. investigators let their imaginations run: Was there a way to dissolve the Berlin Wall? What about a knockout drug that could incapacitate an entire building full of people? A pill that would make a drunk man sober; a way to manufacture food that looked and tasted normal but, when eaten, would create "confusion- anxiety-fear.." Rubber From Mushrooms? Subsequent developments seemed to confirm their fears: The arrest in Germa- ny of two Soviet agents armed with iden- tical plastic cylinders containing hypoder- mic needles, said to cause a victim "to become amenable to the will of his cap- tor." Then, the startling confessions of downed American airmen to false charges of carrying out germ warfare against ..North Korea. A short time later, however, in 1953, a high level military study group deter- mined that events had not been what ;they seemed. Neither the Russians nor anyone else had devised a means of turn- ing men into robots and there was "little threat, if any, to national security." The intelligence community rational-' ized: They would go ahead anyway,. against the chance that the Communists might some day live up to their dread. Furthermore, they saw great potential in developing these tools For their. awn of- fensive use. . There was an "urgent need;" the C.I:A. and other intelligence- agencies `argued,.. to develop "effective and practical tech- niques" to "render an individual subservi- ent to an imposed wilt or control." The-C.I.A. men, who led the way, en- listing the support of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Departments of Age- cult-ore, Health, . Education and. Welfare and several other. agencies, acknowledged among therriselves that much of what they vrere.setting do.was.."unethL cal," borderrt'01MQINlW l be repugnant to the'American people. So they. made,certain that these activities were tightly held, known only, to the One long discussion focused on whether rubber could be produced from mush- rooms. Another on whether water witch- ing could locate an enemy submarine. They worked on ways to achieve the "controlled production" of headaches and They wanted to reduce a man to a be- earaches; twitches, jerks and staggers. wildered, self-doubting mass to "subvert his principles," a C.I.A. document said. They wanted to direct him in ways that .,may vary from rationalizing a disloyal act to the construction of a new person." One of their longest running goals was to develop a way to induce amnesia. They wanted to be able to interrogate enemy espionage agents in such a way that nei then the agents nor their superiors would know they had.been compromised, and they - wanted to be - able- to wipe clean the memories of their own agents after certain missions' and, especially, when. they were going into retirement. "- . They were interested in simple destruc- tion, too, As with the other business that glade-amnesia, so attractive; they wanted to be able to get away with murder with- out? leaving a trace,: An Expert's Suggestions One apparent medical- or Scientific ex- pert, whose- identity has been, deleted from the documents, suggested- that- the Qd ri t M ght =aRD9* Or 9! in a small, air-tight room with a chunk of dry ice,. giving off suffocating carbon dioxide gas. He- also proposed reducing They conducted interviews with scien- tists and doctors and members of other intelligence agencies around the world. .They studied the writing of the psycholo- gist who worked with Adolf Hitler, won- dered about the use of the "occult" and of "black psychiatry," and of, course pored over their own stream of intelli- gence- data. There was on agent's report of a "con- fession gang" that had Shang- hai, and, without the use of "old-fash- ioned torture or drugs," could- obtain .,any confession they desire." In one case, the report from China went, "the prisoner was not allowed to close his eyes for 26 days-" i+fost of the ideas the C.I.A. considered never got off the drawing board. For a few years in the early 1950's, though, the agency had one or two "special inter- rogation'' teams that went on operational missions in Europe and Asia. A team was supposed to consist of a psychiatrist, a hypnotist and an interrogator and was to elicit information through the. use of drugs and hypnotism. In actual practice, the size of the teams and the procedure they followed varied. In one series of interrogations in Europe, for example, they employed neither hyp- notism nor a combination of drugs and hypnotism-the very essence "of special interrogation" at the time--because the psychiatrist was in a hurry to resume an interrupted vacation-and no hypnotist was available. 11 Days or Questioning police in. civilian clothes, the team ques- tioned three European espionage agentsI who had been working for the C.I.A. "be- I hind the Iron Curtain" and whose loyalty had become suspect. . - Over-1 1 ? days, - the three, agents were individually given intravenous injections of an unidentified drug-possibly sodium pentathal--then engaged by the interro- gator and the psychiatrist in fantasies. . The -team decided that all three agents had responded to? questions truthfully and should be continued in operational use: But they reported in the document that one of the agents who had resisted the effects of the drugs-and later disappoint- ED011ieGZ"tors by making reference to the "solution" that was injected, thus giving_ no indication of "amnesia," `~:rf